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Sample records for active meta ii

  1. The metacompiler system META-II/X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneis, W.

    1975-03-01

    It is the objective of this work to demonstrate by the properties of the META-II/X system and concrete compiler implementation for IML that a simple and universally applicable symbol processor allows to develop in a very easy manner precompilers for problem oriented languages. The main feature consists in the fact that no auxiliary routines coded manually had to be added for special implementation. The translation of IML is exclusively defined by the compiler description written in the META language. As a whole, META-II/X proves to be a system which is relatively convenient to handle in automating the translation of explicit languages. The decisive point is the choise of an assembler language as target language allowing to transfer to the assembler level references not completely resolved. Implementation includes the possibility of an uncomplicated transfer of the whole system inclusive of the internal compiler representations. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  3. Ruthenium(II)-catalysed remote C-H alkylations as a versatile platform to meta-decorated arenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Korvorapun, Korkit; de Sarkar, Suman; Rogge, Torben; Burns, David J.; Warratz, Svenja; Ackermann, Lutz

    2017-06-01

    The full control of positional selectivity is of prime importance in C-H activation technology. Chelation assistance served as the stimulus for the development of a plethora of ortho-selective arene functionalizations. In sharp contrast, meta-selective C-H functionalizations continue to be scarce, with all ruthenium-catalysed transformations currently requiring difficult to remove or modify nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Herein, we describe a unifying concept to access a wealth of meta-decorated arenes by a unique arene ligand effect in proximity-induced ruthenium(II) C-H activation catalysis. The transformative nature of our strategy is mirrored by providing a step-economical entry to a range of meta-substituted arenes, including ketones, acids, amines and phenols--key structural motifs in crop protection, material sciences, medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. Method: We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Results: Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. Conclusion: The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental

  5. Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rui; Kim, Bobae V.; van Wely, Madelon; Johnson, Neil P.; Costello, Michael F.; Zhang, Hanwang; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Legro, Richard S.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Robert J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials

  6. A meta-analysis of changes in brain activity in clinical depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Mary Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insights into neurobiological mechanisms of depression are increasingly being sought via brain imaging studies. Our aim was to quantitatively summarize overlap and divergence in regions of altered brain activation associated with depression under emotionally-valenced compared to cognitively-demanding task conditions, with reference to intrinsic functional connectivity. We hypothesized differences reflective of task demands. A coordinate-based meta-analysis technique, Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE, was used to analyze relevant imaging literature. These studies compared brain activity in depressed adults relative to healthy controls during three conditions: (i emotionally-valenced (cognitively easy tasks (n=29; (ii cognitively-demanding tasks (n=15; and (iii resting conditions (n=21.The meta-analyses identified 5, 8 and 7 significant clusters of altered brain activity under emotion, cognition and resting conditions respectively in depressed individuals compared to healthy controls. Regions of overlap and divergence between pairs of the three separate meta-analyses were quantified. There were no significant regions of overlap between emotion and cognition meta-analyses, but several divergent clusters were found. Cognitively-demanding conditions were associated with greater activation of right medial frontal and insula regions while bilateral amygdala was more significantly altered during emotion (cognitively-undemanding conditions; consistent with task demands.Overlap was present in left amygdala and right subcallosal cingulate between emotion and resting meta-analyses, with no significant divergence.Our meta-analyses highlight alteration of common brain regions, during cognitively-undemanding emotional tasks and resting conditions but divergence of regions between emotional and cognitively-demanding tasks. Regions altered reflect current biological and system-level models of depression and highlight the relationship with task condition and

  7. Pd(II)-catalysed meta-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangda; Cai, Lei; Ji, Huafang; Yang, Long; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acids are highly important structural motifs in drug molecules and natural products. Selective C–H bond functionalization of benzoic acids will provide synthetically useful tools for step-economical organic synthesis. Although direct ortho-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acids or their derivatives have been intensely studied, the ability to activate meta-C–H bond of benzoic acids or their derivatives in a general manner via transition-metal catalysis has been largely unsuccessful. Although chelation-assisted meta-C–H functionalization of electron-rich arenes was reported, chelation-assisted meta-C–H activation of electron-poor arenes such as benzoic acid derivatives remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a general protocol for meta-C–H olefination of benzoic acid derivatives using a nitrile-based sulfonamide template. A broad range of benzoic acid derivatives are meta-selectively olefinated using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The meta-C–H acetoxylation, product of which is further transformed at the meta-position, is also reported. PMID:26813919

  8. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  9. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…

  10. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  11. Determination of activities of human carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the activities of new curcumin analogs as carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibitor. Methods: Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibition was determined by each ligand capability to inhibit the esterase activity of CA-II using 4-NPA as a substrate in 96-well plates. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used to dissolve each ...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR.A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated.Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI, 19%-25%]. The main factors consistently associated with type II endoleaks included age [pooled odds ratio (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31-0.43; P<0.001], smoking (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92; P<0.001, patent inferior mesenteric artery (pooled OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06-3.71; P = 0.012, maximum aneurysm diameter (pooled OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17-0.30; P<0.001, and number of patent lumbar arteries (pooled OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.81-3.33; P<0.001. Sex, diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, hyperlipidemia, chronic renal insufficiency, types of graft material, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD did not show any association with the onset of type II endoleaks.Clinicians can use the identified risk factors to detect and manage patients at risk of developing type II endoleaks after EVAR. However, further studies are needed to analyze a number of potential risk factors.

  13. Estimation of silver in Ag-meta kaolinite by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, E.A.; Rao, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The present work is based on the neutron activation of Ag-meta kaolinite for the determination of its silver content from the β-activity of the compound using standard tables which showed the percentage of silver in mixtures of silver nitrate and meta kaolinite of known composition against β-activity of the mixture activated under identical conditions. (author)

  14. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  15. Meta-analysis of workplace physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam R; Cooper, Pamela S; Brown, Lori M; Lusk, Sally L

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity levels. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from such programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21); fitness (0.57); lipids (0.13); anthropometric measures (0.08); work attendance (0.19); and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is less robust given small sample sizes. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on VO2max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, -0.2 on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein; and for diabetes risk, -12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity.

  16. A meta-analysis of active video games on health outcomes among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z; Chen, S; Pasco, D; Pope, Z

    2015-09-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes current literature concerning the effects of active video games (AVGs) on children/adolescents' health-related outcomes. A total of 512 published studies on AVGs were located, and 35 articles were included based on the following criteria: (i) data-based research articles published in English between 1985 and 2015; (ii) studied some types of AVGs and related outcomes among children/adolescents and (iii) had at least one comparison within each study. Data were extracted to conduct comparisons for outcome measures in three separate categories: AVGs and sedentary behaviours, AVGs and laboratory-based exercise, and AVGs and field-based physical activity. Effect size for each entry was calculated with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software in 2015. Mean effect size (Hedge's g) and standard deviation were calculated for each comparison. Compared with sedentary behaviours, AVGs had a large effect on health outcomes. The effect sizes for physiological outcomes were marginal when comparing AVGs with laboratory-based exercises. The comparison between AVGs and field-based physical activity had null to moderate effect sizes. AVGs could yield equivalent health benefits to children/adolescents as laboratory-based exercise or field-based physical activity. Therefore, AVGs can be a good alternative for sedentary behaviour and addition to traditional physical activity and sports in children/adolescents. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Lauren A J; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  19. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  20. Trend study electricity 2022. Meta studies analysis and activity recommendations. dena report; Trendstudie Strom 2022. Metastudienanalyse und Handlungsempfehlungen. dena-Berichtsteil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Sebastian; Teichmann, Mario; Voelker, Jakob; Weber, Andreas

    2013-03-07

    The dena report concerning the trend study electricity 2022 covers the following issues: (I) aim of the project - methodology; (II) qualitative analysis of studies on the development of the energy system in Germany (meta analysis); (III) comparison of results and activity recommendations: energy demand and energy efficiency, renewable energies, conventional energies, grids, energy storage, electricity market design, European aspects; roadmap.

  1. DIAGNOSTICS OF META-INSTABLE STATE OF SEISMICALLY ACTIVE FAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bornyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a laboratory simulation of the seismic fault reactivation by “stick-slip” process, it was shown that the system of two blocks just before an impulse offset goes through the meta-instable dynamic state, with early and late stages of meta-instability [Ma et al., 2012]. In the first stage the offset begins in slow stationary mode with slow stresses relaxation on contact between blocks. In the second stage of the “accelerated synergies” strain rate increases and, subsequently, the deformation process through a process of self-organization came to dynamic impulse offset. The experimental results were used for interpretation of the results of spectral analysis of the deformation monitoring data. The data were held within the southern part ofLakeBaikal, where Kultuk earthquake (27.08.2008, Ms=6.1. took place. Its epicenter was located in the South end zone of the main Sayan fault. Monitoring of deformations of rocks was carried out from April to November2008 in tunnel, located at30 km from the epicenter of the earthquake. The time series data was divided into month periods and then the periods were processed by the method of spectral analysis. The results showed that before the earthquake has ordered view spectrogram, whereas in other time intervals, both before and after the earthquake such orderliness in spectrograms is missing. An ordered view spectrograms for deformation monitoring data can be interpreted as a consequence of the self-organiza­tion of deformation process in the transition of seismically active fault into meta-unstable before the Kultuk earthquake.

  2. Physical Activity and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William M; Davis, Nicholas; Sands, Stephen A; Whittington, Robert A; Sun, Lena S

    2016-10-01

    Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target. To estimate the effect of a structured regular exercise program on neuropsychological domains of executive function in children ages 7 to 12. We performed a systematic review of English and non-English articles using Cochrane Library, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PSYCInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Science, including all years allowed by each individual search engine. The search string used was "(exercise OR phys*) AND (cognit* OR executive) AND (child* OR preadolesc*)." The authors of the studies selected for review were contacted for any unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials, which enrolled children between the ages of 7 and 12, with randomization to either normal activity or a structured physical activity intervention consisting of scheduled aerobic exercise, at least once per week, for a period of at least 1 month. Eligible studies must have included a neuropsychological battery of tests that measured at least 1 executive function both before and after the intervention was completed. Two independent reviewers examined the screened studies in detail for potential inclusion. The results of the individual examinations were compared; if any discrepancies were present, a third party analyzed the study to determine if it should be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies were identified by abstract as candidates for

  3. Crime, perceived safety, and physical activity: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Gay, Jennifer L

    2018-06-01

    Perceived safety from crime and objectively-measured crime rates may be associated with physical inactivity. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to estimate the odds of accumulating high levels of physical activity (PA) when the perception of safety from crime is high and when objectively-measured crime is high. Peer-reviewed studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Criminal Justice, and ScienceDirect from earliest record through 2016. Included studies measured total PA, leisure-time PA, or walking in addition to perceived safety from crime or objective measures of crime. Mean odds ratios were aggregated with random effects models, and meta-regression was used to examine effects of potential moderators: country, age, and crime/PA measure. Sixteen cross-sectional studies yielded sixteen effects for perceived safety from crime and four effects for objective crime. Those reporting feeling safe from crime had a 27% greater odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=1.27 [1.08, 1.49]), and those living in areas with higher objectively-measured crime had a 28% reduced odds of achieving higher levels of physical activity (OR=0.72 [0.61, 0.83]). Effects of perceived safety were highly heterogeneous (I 2 =94.09%), but explored moderators were not statistically significant, likely because of the small sample size. Despite the limited number of effects suitable for aggregation, the mean association between perceived safety and PA was significant. As it seems likely that perceived lack of safety from crime constrains PA behaviors, future research exploring moderators of this association may help guide public health recommendations and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  5. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Coffeng, J.; Mechelen, W. van; Proper, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to

  6. Stellar activity with LAMOST - II. Chromospheric activity in open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Song; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Bharat Kumar, Yerra

    2018-05-01

    We use the LAMOST spectra of member stars in Pleiades, M34, Praesepe, and Hyades to study how chromospheric activity varies as a function of mass and rotation at different age. We measured excess equivalent widths of H α, H β, and Ca II K based on estimated chromospheric contributions from old and inactive field dwarfs, and excess luminosities are obtained by normalizing bolometric luminosity, for more than 700 late-type stars in these open clusters. Results indicate two activity sequences in cool spot coverage and H α excess emission among GK dwarfs in Pleiades and M dwarfs in Praesepe and Hyades, paralleling with well-known rotation sequences. A weak dependence of chromospheric emission on rotation exists among ultrafast rotators in saturated regime with Rossby number Ro ≲ 0.1. In the unsaturated regime, chromospheric and coronal emission show similar dependence on Ro, but with a shift towards larger Ro, indicating chromospheric emission gets easily saturated than coronal emission, and/or convective turnover time-scales based on X-ray data do not work well with chromospheric emission. More interestingly, our analysis shows fully convective slow rotators obey the rotation-chromospheric activity relation similar to hotter stars, confirming the previous finding. We found correlations among H α, H β, and Ca II K emissions, in which H α losses are more important than Ca II K for cooler and more active stars. In addition, a weak correlation is seen between chromospheric emission and photospheric activity that shows dependence on stellar spectral type and activity level, which provides some clues on how spot configuration varies as a function of mass and activity level.

  7. Sex differences in emotional perception: Meta analysis of divergent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2017-02-15

    Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  9. Palladium-catalyzed meta-selective C-H bond activation with a nitrile-containing template: computational study on mechanism and origins of selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Fang; Cheng, Gui-Juan; Liu, Peng; Leow, Dasheng; Sun, Tian-Yu; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Xinhao; Yu, Jin-Quan; Wu, Yun-Dong; Houk, K N

    2014-01-08

    Density functional theory investigations have elucidated the mechanism and origins of meta-regioselectivity of Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H olefinations of toluene derivatives that employ a nitrile-containing template. The reaction proceeds through four major steps: C-H activation, alkene insertion, β-hydride elimination, and reductive elimination. The C-H activation step, which proceeds via a concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) pathway, is found to be the rate- and regioselectivity-determining step. For the crucial C-H activation, four possible active catalytic species-monomeric Pd(OAc)2, dimeric Pd2(OAc)4, heterodimeric PdAg(OAc)3, and trimeric Pd3(OAc)6-have been investigated. The computations indicated that the C-H activation with the nitrile-containing template occurs via a Pd-Ag heterodimeric transition state. The nitrile directing group coordinates with Ag while the Pd is placed adjacent to the meta-C-H bond in the transition state, leading to the observed high meta-selectivity. The Pd2(OAc)4 dimeric mechanism also leads to the meta-C-H activation product but with higher activation energies than the Pd-Ag heterodimeric mechanism. The Pd monomeric and trimeric mechanisms require much higher activation free energies and are predicted to give ortho products. Structural and distortion energy analysis of the transition states revealed significant effects of distortions of the template on mechanism and regioselectivity, which provided hints for further developments of new templates.

  10. The Relationship between physical activity and risk of atrial fibrillation-A systematic review and meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Erik Rokkedal; Wachtell, K; Abdulla, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-Analyses was to explore the relationship between physical activity and risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) or flutter (AFlu).Results: The search revealed 10 published studies that were eligible for three different meta-Analyses. A meta...

  11. Physical activity in type II Diabetes Mellitus, an effective therapeutic element: review of the clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iván Arias-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted in databases (PubMed, PEDro of type studies clinical trial, cohort study, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines based on evidence they have studied the benefits of physical activity in the prevention , treatment and decreased risk of complications and death in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Realization regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus; likewise was associated with decrease in glycated hemoglobin percentage A1C values. Diabetic patients undergoing high levels of physical activity had decreased risk of complications and death from cardiovascular disease and all causes. At present the scientific evidence on the impact of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus is solid, so it must be emphasized promoting physical activity as a fundamental part of the therapeutic regimens for this disease.

  12. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cruz-Tapias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53 was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05 influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42 is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics.

  13. Development and integration of high straightness flexure guiding mechanisms dedicated to the METAS watt balance Mark II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosandier, F.; Eichenberger, A.; Baumann, H.; Jeckelmann, B.; Bonny, M.; Chatagny, V.; Clavel, R.

    2014-04-01

    There is a firm will in the metrology community to redefine the kilogram in the International System of units by linking it to a fundamental physical constant. The watt balance is a promising way to link the mass unit to the Planck constant h. At the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS a second watt balance experiment is under development. A decisive part of the METAS Mark II watt balance is the mechanical linear guiding system. The present paper discusses the development and the metrological characteristics of two guiding systems that were conceived by the Laboratoire de Systèmes Robotiques of EPFL and built using flexure mechanical elements. Integration in the new setup is also described.

  14. Antibacterial, antimalarial and leishmanicidal activities of Cu (II) and nickel (II) complexes of diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, F.U.; Khan, M.F.; Khan, G.M.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.U.

    2010-01-01

    Metal complexes are famous for a wide array of chemotherapeutic effects. The current study was designed to synthesize and evaluate unexplored chemotherapeutic effects of Cu (II) and Nickel (II) complexes of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Nickel complex exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against Lieshmania major, while the copper complex was found to possess low activity against the same pathogen. Both of the complexes revealed low antibacterial activities and were interestingly failed to produce any considerable antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Selective leishmanicidal activities of Nickel (II) complex of diclofenac needs further improvement to be developed as potential new metal-based leishmanicidal agent.(author)

  15. Antibacterial, antimalarial and leishmanicidal activities of Cu (II) and nickel (II) complexes of diclofenac sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, F U; Khan, M F; Khan, G M; Khan, H [Gomal University, D.I. Khan (Pakistan). Dept. of Faculty of Pharmacy; Khan, I U [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Faculty of Pharmacy

    2010-08-15

    Metal complexes are famous for a wide array of chemotherapeutic effects. The current study was designed to synthesize and evaluate unexplored chemotherapeutic effects of Cu (II) and Nickel (II) complexes of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Nickel complex exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against Lieshmania major, while the copper complex was found to possess low activity against the same pathogen. Both of the complexes revealed low antibacterial activities and were interestingly failed to produce any considerable antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Selective leishmanicidal activities of Nickel (II) complex of diclofenac needs further improvement to be developed as potential new metal-based leishmanicidal agent.(author)

  16. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and ... in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame ... KEY WORDS: Copper(II), Solid phase extraction, Activated carbon, Flame ...

  17. Foundations of Meta-Pyramids: Languages vs. Metamodels -- Episode II: Story of Thotus the Baboon1

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent interest for Model Driven Engineering approaches, the so-called four-layers metamodelling architecture is subject to a lot of debate. The relationship that exists between a model and a metamodel is often called instanceOf, but this terminology, which comes directly from the object oriented technology, is not appropriate for the modelling of similar meta-pyramids in other domains. The goal of this paper is to study which are the foundations of the meta-pyra...

  18. Survival Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Masaoka Stage II to IV Thymomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yu Jin; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Hak Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Yan, Jinchun; Liu, Qin; Patel, Shilpen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in stage II to IV thymomas, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and Materials: A database search was conducted with EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Ovid from inception to August 2015. Thymic carcinomas were excluded, and studies comparing overall survival (OS) with and without PORT in thymomas were included. The hazard ratios (HRs) of OS were extracted, and a random-effects model was used in the pooled analysis. Results: Seven retrospective series with a total of 1724 patients were included and analyzed. Almost all of the patients underwent macroscopically complete resection, and thymoma histology was confirmed by the World Health Organization criteria. In the overall analysis of stage II to IV thymomas, OS was not altered with the receipt of PORT (HR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-1.08). Although PORT was not associated with survival difference in Masaoka stage II disease (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.83-2.55), improved OS was observed with the addition of PORT in the discrete pooled analysis of stage III to IV (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99). Significant heterogeneity and publication bias were not found in the analyses. Conclusions: From the present meta-analysis of sole primary thymomas, we suggest the potential OS benefit of PORT in locally advanced tumors with macroscopically complete resection, but not in stage II disease. Further investigations with sufficient survival data are needed to establish detailed treatment indications.

  19. Survival Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Masaoka Stage II to IV Thymomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yu Jin; Kim, Eunji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae, E-mail: khjae@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong-Gyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yan, Jinchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Liu, Qin [The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Patel, Shilpen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in stage II to IV thymomas, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and Materials: A database search was conducted with EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Ovid from inception to August 2015. Thymic carcinomas were excluded, and studies comparing overall survival (OS) with and without PORT in thymomas were included. The hazard ratios (HRs) of OS were extracted, and a random-effects model was used in the pooled analysis. Results: Seven retrospective series with a total of 1724 patients were included and analyzed. Almost all of the patients underwent macroscopically complete resection, and thymoma histology was confirmed by the World Health Organization criteria. In the overall analysis of stage II to IV thymomas, OS was not altered with the receipt of PORT (HR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-1.08). Although PORT was not associated with survival difference in Masaoka stage II disease (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.83-2.55), improved OS was observed with the addition of PORT in the discrete pooled analysis of stage III to IV (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99). Significant heterogeneity and publication bias were not found in the analyses. Conclusions: From the present meta-analysis of sole primary thymomas, we suggest the potential OS benefit of PORT in locally advanced tumors with macroscopically complete resection, but not in stage II disease. Further investigations with sufficient survival data are needed to establish detailed treatment indications.

  20. Anterior approach versus posterior approach for Pipkin I and II femoral head fractures: A systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-guang; Li, Yao-min; Zhang, Hua-feng; Li, Hui; Li, Zhi-jun

    2016-03-01

    We performed a meta-analysis, pooling the results from controlled clinical trials to compare the efficiency of anterior and posterior surgical approaches to Pipkin I and II fractures of the femoral head. Potential academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, Medline (1966-2015.5), PubMed (1966-2015.5), Embase (1980-2015.5) and ScienceDirect (1966-2015.5) databases. Gray studies were identified from the references of the included literature. Pooling of the data was performed and analyzed by RevMan software, version 5.1. Five case-control trials (CCTs) met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in the incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) between the approaches, but no significant differences were found between the two groups regarding functional outcomes of the hip, general postoperative complications, osteonecrosis of the femoral head or post-traumatic arthritis. The present meta-analysis indicated that the posterior approach decreased the risk of heterotopic ossification compared with the anterior approach for the treatment of Pipkin I and II femoral head fractures. No other complications were related to anterior and posterior approaches. Future high-quality randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to determine the optimal surgical approach and to predict other postoperative complications. III. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Ortho- or Meta-C–H Olefination of Phenol Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Xiong; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Stepan, Antonia F.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of weakly coordinating auxiliaries and ligand acceleration allows for the development of both ortho- and meta-selective C–H olefination of phenol derivatives. These reactions demonstrate the feasibility of directing C–H functionalizations when functional groups are distal to target C–H bonds. The meta-C–H functionalization of electron-rich phenol derivatives is unprecedented and orthogonal to previous electrophilic substitution of phenols in terms of regioselectivity. These methods are also applied to functionalize α-phenoxyacetic acids, a fibrate class of drug scaffolds. PMID:23614807

  2. Social cognitive theory and physical activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M D; Plotnikoff, R C; Collins, C E; Callister, R; Morgan, P J

    2014-12-01

    This review investigated three research questions (i) What is the utility of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain physical activity (PA)?; (ii) Is the effectiveness of SCT moderated by sample or methodological characteristics? and (iii) What is the frequency of significant associations between the core SCT constructs and PA? Ten electronic databases were searched with no date or sample restrictions. Forty-four studies were retrieved containing 55 SCT models of PA. Methodological quality was assessed using a standardized tool. A random-effects meta-analysis revealed that SCT accounted for 31% of the variance in PA. However, methodological quality was mostly poor for these models. Methodological quality and sample age moderated the PA effect size, with increases in both associated with greater variance explained. Although self-efficacy and goals were consistently associated with PA, outcome expectations and socio-structural factors were not. This review determined that SCT is a useful framework to explain PA behaviour. Higher quality models explained more PA variance, but overall methodological quality was poor. As such, high-quality studies examining the utility of SCT to explain PA are warranted. © 2014 World Obesity.

  3. Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) is a novel, potent inhibitor of complement activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekowski, R; Collard, C D; Reenstra, W R; Stahl, G L

    2001-02-01

    Complement is an important mediator of vascular injury following oxidative stress. We recently demonstrated that complement activation following endothelial oxidative stress is mediated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and activation of the lectin complement pathway. Here, we investigated whether nine plant lectins which have a binding profile similar to that of MBL competitively inhibit MBL deposition and subsequent complement activation following human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) oxidative stress. HUVEC oxidative stress (1% O(2), 24 hr) significantly increased Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) binding by 72 +/- 9% compared to normoxic cells. UEA-II inhibited MBL binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress. Further, MBL inhibited UEA-II binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress, suggesting a common ligand. UEA-II (< or = 100 micromol/L) did not attenuate the hemolytic activity, nor did it inhibit C3a des Arg formation from alternative or classical complement pathway-specific hemolytic assays. C3 deposition (measured by ELISA) following HUVEC oxidative stress was inhibited by UEA-II in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 10 pmol/L). UEA-II inhibited C3 and MBL co-localization (confocal microscopy) in a concentration-dependent manner on HUVEC following oxidative stress (IC(50) approximately 1 pmol/L). Finally, UEA-II significantly inhibited complement-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis, but failed to inhibit fMLP-mediated chemotaxis, following endothelial oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that UEA-II is a novel, potent inhibitor of human MBL deposition and complement activation following human endothelial oxidative stress.

  4. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soosaraei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species, Allium sativum, Achilleamille folium, Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris. The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti-Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  5. Using NLP meta, Milton, metaphor models, for improving the activity of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian IOSIF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the improving of the three methods from the neuro- linguistic programming – metaphor, Milton model and the meta-model, so by using this in daily activities by an organization to improve the activities witch, are performed and to have a more efficient allocation of the available resources.

  6. Synthesis and phosphatase activity of a Cobalt(II) phenanthroline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAMONI GARAI

    2017-09-19

    Sep 19, 2017 ... Synthesis and phosphatase activity of a Cobalt(II) phenanthroline complex. MAMONI GARAIa ... tion, cobalt complexes have gained importance because of their application as ... 2.3 Physical measurements. Infrared spectrum ...

  7. A Meta-Analysis Summarizing the Effects of Pornography II: Aggression after Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines by meta-analysis the effect that exposure to pornography produces on aggressive behavior under laboratory conditions considering a variety of possible moderating conditions. Demonstrates a homogeneous set of results showing that pictorial nudity reduces subsequent violent behavior, but that depictions of nonviolent sexual behavior and…

  8. Meta II: Multi-Model Language Suite for Cyber Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AVM META) projects have developed tools for designing cyber physical (or Mechatronic ) Systems . These systems are increasingly complex, take much...projects have developed tools for designing cyber physical (CPS) (or Mechatronic ) systems . Exemplified by modern amphibious and ground military...and parametric interface of Simulink models and defines associations with CyPhy components and component interfaces. 2. Embedded Systems Modeling

  9. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  10. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  11. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valachis, Antonis; Nearchou, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity

  12. High versus low radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valachis, Antonis [Dept. of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala,, (Sweden)], e-mail: Valachis@hotmail.com, Antonis.Valachis@akademiska.uu.se; Nearchou, Andreas [Dept, of Oncology, Maelarsjukhuset., Eskilstuna (Sweden); Univ. of Uppsala., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Background: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness and toxicity of low activity radioiodine ablation versus high activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by including all randomized trials of low activity versus high activity radioiodine ablation after thyroidectomy. Standard meta-analytic procedures were used to analyze the study outcomes. Results: Ten trials were considered eligible and were further analyzed. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of having a successful ablation for an activity of 1100 MBq versus 3700 MBq (seven trials, 1772 patients) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 - 1.04, p-value 0.21). The RR for successful ablation when only thyroid hormone withdrawal was used (five trials, 1116 patients) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72 - 1.06, p-value 0.17) and it was comparable to RR when only recombinant-human TSH (rec-hTSH) (two trials, 812 patients) was used (1.00, 95% CI 0.93 - 1.07, p-value 0.92). Salivary dysfunction, nausea, and neck pain were significantly more frequent among patients with higher dose for ablation. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis provides some evidence from randomized trials that a lower activity of radioiodine ablation is as effective as higher dose after surgery in patients with DTC with lower toxicity.

  13. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children's independent active free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L

    2015-01-24

    To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.

  14. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  15. Orthodontic camouflage versus orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment in class II malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, R; Peleteiro, B; Paço, M; Pinho, T

    2018-04-01

    This systematic review was performed to compare dental, skeletal, and aesthetic outcomes between orthodontic camouflage and surgical-orthodontic treatment, in patients with a skeletal class II malocclusion and a retrognathic mandible who have already finished their growth period. A literature search was conducted, and a modified Downs and Black checklist was used to assess methodological quality. The meta-analysis was conducted using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects method to obtain summary estimates of the standardized mean differences and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Nine articles were included in the qualitative synthesis and seven in the meta-analysis. The difference between treatments was not statistically significant regarding SNA angle, linear measurement of the lower lip to Ricketts' aesthetic line, convexity of the skeletal profile, or the soft tissue profile excluding the nose. In contrast, surgical-orthodontic treatment was more effective with regard to ANB, SNB, and ML/NSL angles and the soft tissue profile including the nose. Different treatment effects on overjet and overbite were found according to the severity of the initial values. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the limited number of studies included and because they were non-randomized clinical trials. Further studies with larger sample sizes and similar pre-treatment conditions are needed. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fall-Risk-Increasing Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: II. Psychotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala, Lotta J; Wermelink, Anne M A T; de Vries, Max; Ploegmakers, Kimberley J; van de Glind, Esther M M; Daams, Joost G; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2018-04-01

    Falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Earlier studies showed that psychotropic medication use increases the risk of falls. The aim of this study is to update the current knowledge by providing a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on psychotropic medication use and falls in older adults. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase. Key search concepts were "falls," "aged," "medication," and "causality." Studies were included that investigated psychotropics (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics) as risk factors for falls in participants ≥60 years of age or participants with a mean age of ≥70 years. Meta-analyses were performed using generic inverse variance method pooling unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates separately. In total, 248 studies met the inclusion criteria for qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses using adjusted data showed the following pooled ORs: antipsychotics 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-1.85], antidepressants 1.57 (95% Cl 1.43-1.74), tricyclic antidepressants 1.41 (95% CI 1.07-1.86), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 2.02 (95% CI 1.85-2.20), benzodiazepines 1.42 (95%, CI 1.22-1.65), long-acting benzodiazepines 1.81 (95%, CI 1.05-3.16), and short-acting benzodiazepines 1.27 (95%, CI 1.04-1.56) Most of the meta-analyses resulted in substantial heterogeneity that did not disappear after stratification for population and healthcare setting. Antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines are consistently associated with a higher risk of falls. It is unclear whether specific subgroups such as short-acting benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are safer in terms of fall risk. Prescription bias could not be accounted for. Future studies need to address pharmacologic subgroups as fall risk may differ depending on specific medication properties. Precise and uniform

  17. Physical activity and stroke: a meta-analysis of observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background Based on studies published so far, the protective effect of physical activity on stroke remains controversial. Specifically, there is a lack of insight into the sources of heterogeneity between studies. Methods Meta-analysis of observational studies was used to quantify the relationship

  18. The effect of activated charcoal on drug exposure in healthy volunteers: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, G; Hoegberg, L C Groth; Graudal, N A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of activated charcoal (AC) administered during the first 6 h after drug intake and the effect of drug properties on drug exposure. Sixty-four controlled studies were integrated in a meta-analysis. AC administered 0-5 min after administration...

  19. The effects of active videogames on BMI among young people: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Alblas, E.E.; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Lu, A.S.; Novák, D.; Tulu, B.; Brendryen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to quantify the effectiveness of active videogames (AVGs) as obesity prevention interventions aimed at children and adolescents. The method is studies were included that focused on children or adolescents (=18

  20. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Wiangkham

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD II.Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12.PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies.RCTs evaluating acute (10 days interventions, there were no statistically significant differences in all outcome measures between interventions at any time.Conservative and active interventions may be useful for pain reduction in patients with acute WADII. Additionally, cervical horizontal mobility could be improved by conservative intervention. The employment of a behavioural intervention (e.g. act-as-usual, education and self-care including regularly exercise could have benefits for pain reduction and improvement in cervical movement in the coronal and horizontal planes. The evidence was evaluated as low/very low level according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.

  1. Altered Brain Activity in Unipolar Depression Revisited: Meta-analyses of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Veronika I; Cieslik, Edna C; Serbanescu, Ilinca; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous neuroimaging experiments have investigated aberrant brain activation during cognitive and emotional processing in patients with unipolar depression (UD). The results of those investigations, however, vary considerably; moreover, previous meta-analyses also yielded inconsistent findings. To readdress aberrant brain activation in UD as evidenced by neuroimaging experiments on cognitive and/or emotional processing. Neuroimaging experiments published from January 1, 1997, to October 1, 2015, were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using different combinations of the terms fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), neural, major depression, depression, major depressive disorder, unipolar depression, dysthymia, emotion, emotional, affective, cognitive, task, memory, working memory, inhibition, control, n-back, and Stroop. Neuroimaging experiments (using fMRI or PET) reporting whole-brain results of group comparisons between adults with UD and healthy control individuals as coordinates in a standard anatomic reference space and using an emotional or/and cognitive challenging task were selected. Coordinates reported to show significant activation differences between UD and healthy controls during emotional or cognitive processing were extracted. By using the revised activation likelihood estimation algorithm, different meta-analyses were calculated. Meta-analyses tested for brain regions consistently found to show aberrant brain activation in UD compared with controls. Analyses were calculated across all emotional processing experiments, all cognitive processing experiments, positive emotion processing, negative emotion processing, experiments using emotional face stimuli, experiments with a sex discrimination task, and memory processing. All meta-analyses were calculated across experiments independent of reporting an increase or decrease of activity in

  2. Physical activity and body image among men and boys: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; McEwan, Desmond; Kamarhie, Aria

    2017-09-01

    Three meta-analytic reviews have concluded that physical activity is positively related to body image. Historically, research regarding physical activity and body image has been disproportionately focused on female samples. For example, the most recent meta-analysis (2009) extracted 56 effect sizes for women and only 12 for men. The current paper provides an update to the literature regarding the relationship between physical activity and body image among men and boys across 84 individual effect sizes. The analysis also provides insight regarding moderator variables including participant age, and physical activity type and intensity. Overall, physical activity was positively related to body image among men and boys with various moderator variables warranting further investigation. Pragmatic implications are discussed as well as the limitations within existing research and need for additional research to further understand moderator and mediator variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of physical activity interventions in post-natal populations: systematic review, meta-analysis and content coding of behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, Alyssa Sara; Dale, Hannah; Robinson, Clare; Hughes, Adrienne R; McInnes, Rhona; Lavallee, David

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis reports the efficacy of post-natal physical activity change interventions with content coding of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO) were searched for interventions published from January 1980 to July 2013. Inclusion criteria were: (i) interventions including ≥1 BCT designed to change physical activity behaviour, (ii) studies reporting ≥1 physical activity outcome, (iii) interventions commencing later than four weeks after childbirth and (iv) studies including participants who had given birth within the last year. Controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Interventions were coded using the 40-item Coventry, Aberdeen & London - Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy of BCTs and study quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane criteria. Twenty studies were included in the review (meta-analysis: n = 14). Seven were interventions conducted with healthy inactive post-natal women. Nine were post-natal weight management studies. Two studies included women with post-natal depression. Two studies focused on improving general well-being. Studies in healthy populations but not for weight management successfully changed physical activity. Interventions increased frequency but not volume of physical activity or walking behaviour. Efficacious interventions always included the BCTs 'goal setting (behaviour)' and 'prompt self-monitoring of behaviour'.

  4. Nucleons II: cryopreservation and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R; Flores-Alonso, J C; Rodríguez-Hernández, H M; Merchant-Larios, H M; Delgado, N M

    2001-01-01

    The establishment of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) as a routine procedure in assisted fertilization has been used in the treatment of male infertility. The major technical problem that has arisen with the use of immotile sperm for ICSI has been differentiating between live and dead cells. Nucleons from human, pig, hamster, mouse, rat, and bull have been able to induce their chromatin decondensation by the action of heparin/GSH. Cryopreservation is deleterious to sperm function, killing more than 50% of the spermatozoa during the process. Nucleon cryostorage was performed at 5 and -5 degrees C and analyzed for total area (mu2), perimeter (mu), width (mu), and length (mu), using Metamorph Imaging System software. On the other hand, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) is hydrolyzed by intracellular estereases to produce fluorescein, which exhibits green fluorescence when excited by blue light. This fact is a striking result since the presence of this metabolic activity opens the possibility to select the nucleons for ICSI. In the present study, the authors decided to search for a suitable metabolic test, which might reflect the metabolism and viability of these chromatin structures. This is a simple cryostorage technique that after months of cryopreservation, allow the use of nucleons for ICSI with suitable fertilization and pregnancies rates.

  5. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  6. dbCAN2: a meta server for automated carbohydrate-active enzyme annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Han; Yohe, Tanner; Huang, Le

    2018-01-01

    of plant and plant-associated microbial genomes and metagenomes being sequenced, there is an urgent need of automatic tools for genomic data mining of CAZymes. We developed the dbCAN web server in 2012 to provide a public service for automated CAZyme annotation for newly sequenced genomes. Here, dbCAN2...... (http://cys.bios.niu.edu/dbCAN2) is presented as an updated meta server, which integrates three state-of-the-art tools for CAZome (all CAZymes of a genome) annotation: (i) HMMER search against the dbCAN HMM (hidden Markov model) database; (ii) DIAMOND search against the CAZy pre-annotated CAZyme...

  7. The Rho kinases I and II regulate different aspects of myosin II activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    The homologous mammalian rho kinases (ROCK I and II) are assumed to be functionally redundant, based largely on kinase construct overexpression. As downstream effectors of Rho GTPases, their major substrates are myosin light chain and myosin phosphatase. Both kinases are implicated in microfilament...... bundle assembly and smooth muscle contractility. Here, analysis of fibroblast adhesion to fibronectin revealed that although ROCK II was more abundant, its activity was always lower than ROCK I. Specific reduction of ROCK I by siRNA resulted in loss of stress fibers and focal adhesions, despite...

  8. Angiotensin II regulation of neuromodulation: downstream signaling mechanism from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1996-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine transporter genes in brain neurons; however, the signal-transduction mechanism is not clearly defined. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway in Ang II stimulation of these genes. MAP kinase was localized in the perinuclear region of the neuronal soma. Ang II caused activation of MAP kinase and its subsequent translocation from the cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, both effects being mediated by AT1 receptor subtype. Ang II also stimulated SRE- and AP1-binding activities and fos gene expression and its translocation in a MAP kinase-dependent process. These observations are the first demonstration of a downstream signaling pathway involving MAP kinase in Ang II-mediated neuromodulation in noradrenergic neurons.

  9. Determination of activities of human carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the esterase activity of CA-II using 4-NPA as a substrate in 96-well plates. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used ... intensive search for novel drugs is ongoing, through synthesis of new ..... License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/. 4.0) and the ...

  10. Physical activity and risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Schmid, Daniela; Keimling, Marlen; Ricci, Cristian; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity may prevent pancreatic cancer by regulating body weight and decreasing insulin resistance, DNA damage, and chronic inflammation. Previous meta-analyses found inconsistent evidence for a protective effect of physical activity on pancreatic cancer but those studies did not investigate whether the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer varies by smoking status, body mass index (BMI), or level of consistency of physical activity over time. To address these issues, we conducted an updated meta-analysis following the PRISMA guidelines among 30 distinct studies with a total of 10,501 pancreatic cancer cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies revealed a weak, statistically significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk for high versus low levels of physical activity (relative risk (RR) 0.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.98). By comparison, case-control studies yielded a stronger, statistically significant risk reduction (RR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.94; p-difference by study design = 0.07). When focusing on cohort studies, physical activity summary risk estimates appeared to be more pronounced for consistent physical activity over time (RR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.76-0.97) than for recent past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.90-1.01) or distant past physical activity (RR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.79-1.15, p-difference by timing in life of physical activity = 0.36). Physical activity summary risk estimates did not differ by smoking status or BMI. In conclusion, physical activity is not strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk, and the relation is not modified by smoking status or BMI level. While overall findings were weak, we did find some suggestion of potential pancreatic cancer risk reduction with consistent physical activity over time.

  11. DNA topoisomerase II enzyme activity appears in mouse sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm suspensions of 4 male mice (A, B, C and D), having an initial motility grade of 3.5 were used to examine the presence of DNA topoisomerase II (top 2) activity in sperm heads. The initial percentage motile of male A was 75%, male B was 80%, male C was 70% and male D was 60%. Top 2 activity was examined by ...

  12. Stuttering, induced fluency, and natural fluency: a hierarchical series of activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Kristin S; Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T

    2014-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder most likely due to a heritable form of developmental dysmyelination impairing the function of the speech-motor system. Speech-induced brain-activation patterns in persons who stutter (PWS) are anomalous in various ways; the consistency of these aberrant patterns is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we present a hierarchical series of coordinate-based meta-analyses addressing this issue. Two tiers of meta-analyses were performed on a 17-paper dataset (202 PWS; 167 fluent controls). Four large-scale (top-tier) meta-analyses were performed, two for each subject group (PWS and controls). These analyses robustly confirmed the regional effects previously postulated as "neural signatures of stuttering" (Brown, Ingham, Ingham, Laird, & Fox, 2005) and extended this designation to additional regions. Two smaller-scale (lower-tier) meta-analyses refined the interpretation of the large-scale analyses: (1) a between-group contrast targeting differences between PWS and controls (stuttering trait); and (2) a within-group contrast (PWS only) of stuttering with induced fluency (stuttering state). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of meta-analysis to combine candidate gene association studies: application to study the relationship between the ESR PvuII polymorphism and sow litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Leopoldo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the application of meta-analysis on livestock candidate gene effects. The PvuII polymorphism of the ESR gene is used as an example. The association among ESR PvuII alleles with the number of piglets born alive and total born in the first (NBA1, TNB1 and later parities (NBA, TNB is reviewed by conducting a meta-analysis of 15 published studies including 9329 sows. Under a fixed effects model, litter size values were significantly lower in the "AA" genotype groups when compared with "AB" and "BB" homozygotes. Under the random effects model, the results were similar although differences between "AA" and "AB" genotype groups were not clearly significant for NBA and TNB. Nevertheless, the most noticeable result was the high and significant heterogeneity estimated among studies. This heterogeneity could be assigned to error sampling, genotype by environment interaction, linkage or epistasis, as referred to in the literature, but also to the hypothesis of population admixture/stratification. It is concluded that meta-analysis can be considered as a helpful analytical tool to synthesise and discuss livestock candidate gene effects. The main difficulty found was the insufficient information on the standard errors of the estimated genotype effects in several publications. Consequently, the convenience of publishing the standard errors or the concrete P-values instead of the test significance level should be recommended to guarantee the quality of candidate gene effect meta-analyses.

  14. Leisure-time physical activity and sciatica: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, R; Falah-Hassani, K; Viikari-Juntura, E; Coggon, D

    2016-11-01

    The role of leisure-time physical activity in sciatica is uncertain. This study aimed to assess the association of leisure-time physical activity with lumbar radicular pain and sciatica. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases from 1964 through August 2015. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and heterogeneity and small-study bias were assessed. Ten cohort (N = 82,024 participants), four case-control (N = 9350) and four cross-sectional (N = 10,046) studies qualified for meta-analysis. In comparison with no regular physical activity, high level of physical activity (≥4 times/week) was inversely associated with new onset of lumbar radicular pain or sciatica in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies [risk ratio (RR) = 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99, I 2  = 0%, 7 studies, N = 78,065]. The association for moderate level of physical activity (1-3 times/week) was weaker (RR = 0.93, CI 0.82-1.05, I 2  = 0%, 6 studies, N = 69,049), and there was no association with physical activity for at least once/week (RR = 0.99, CI 0.86-1.13, 9 studies, N = 73,008). In contrast, a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed a higher prevalence of lumbar radicular pain or sciatica in participants who exercised at least once/week [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29, CI 1.09-1.53, I 2  = 0%, 4 studies, N = 10,046], or 1-3 times/week (PR = 1.34, CI 1.02-1.77, I 2  = 0%, N = 7631) than among inactive participants. There was no evidence of small-study bias. This meta-analysis suggests that moderate to high level of leisure physical activity may have a moderate protective effect against development of lumbar radicular pain. However, a large reduction in risk (>30%) seems unlikely. Leisure-time physical activity may reduce the risk of developing lumbar radicular pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  15. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II and Palladium (II Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Imadul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of square planar Ni(II and Pd(II complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coordination of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC takes place through the two sulphur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that complexes have higher activity than the free ligand.

  17. Conformation-induced remote meta-C-H activation of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ri-Yuan; Li, Gang; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-03-01

    Achieving site selectivity in carbon-hydrogen (C-H) functionalization reactions is a long-standing challenge in organic chemistry. The small differences in intrinsic reactivity of C-H bonds in any given organic molecule can lead to the activation of undesired C-H bonds by a non-selective catalyst. One solution to this problem is to distinguish C-H bonds on the basis of their location in the molecule relative to a specific functional group. In this context, the activation of C-H bonds five or six bonds away from a functional group by cyclometallation has been extensively studied. However, the directed activation of C-H bonds that are distal to (more than six bonds away) functional groups has remained challenging, especially when the target C-H bond is geometrically inaccessible to directed metallation owing to the ring strain encountered in cyclometallation. Here we report a recyclable template that directs the olefination and acetoxylation of distal meta-C-H bonds--as far as 11 bonds away--of anilines and benzylic amines. This template is able to direct the meta-selective C-H functionalization of bicyclic heterocycles via a highly strained, tricyclic-cyclophane-like palladated intermediate. X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the conformational biases induced by a single fluorine substitution in the template can be enhanced by using a ligand to switch from ortho- to meta-selectivity.

  18. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Torrance J; Middleton, Kathryn R; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions.

  19. Meta-analysis reveals association between most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R C; Jacobsson, L T; Knowler, W C; del Puente, A; Kostyu, D; McAuley, J E; Bennett, P H; Pettitt, D J

    1995-01-01

    The association of RA with the alleles at the HLA system was tested among Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) of the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Serologic class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) alleles were typed in 51 individuals with RA and in 302 without RA. Serologic class II (HLA-DR, DQ; DR52 DR53) alleles were typed in a subset of 47 with RA and 147 without RA. Molecular subtypes of DR3X6, DRB1*1402, and *1406 were determined in 29 individuals, 16 with RA and 13 without RA. Among the cases with RA, 46 of 47 had the serologic antigen HLA-DR3X6, as did 140 of 147 of those without the disease. However, this association was not statistically significant because of the high prevalence of the antigen in the controls. Data from Pimans were analyzed with similar results from the Tlingit and Yakima Indians. A meta-analysis employing the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, stratified by tribe, revealed a statistically significant association between the most common haplotype, DRB1*1402 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 DRB3*0101, and RA (summary odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 6.46). There was also a statistically significant difference in the genotype distributions of one class I locus, HLA-C, between those with and without RA (chi 2 = 12.4, 5 df; p = 0.03). It is concluded that the association with the most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans might help explain their high prevalence of RA.

  20. Conformation-Induced Remote meta-C–H Activation of Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ri-Yuan; Li, Gang; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Achieving site selectivity in C–H functionalization is a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis. The small differences in intrinsic reactivity of C–H bonds in a given organic molecule often lead to poor discrimination by a catalyst. One solution to this problem is to distinguish C–H bonds based on their location with respect to a particular functional group. In this context, the activation of C–H bonds 5 or 6 bonds away from a functional group via cyclometalation has been extensively studied.1-13 However, directed activation of C–H bonds that are distal (>6 bonds away) from functional groups has remained difficult, especially when the target C–H bonds are geometrically inaccessible through directed metalation due to the ring strain encountered in cyclometalation.14,15 Herein we report a recyclable template that directs the olefination and acetoxyation of distal meta-C–H bonds (as far as 11 bonds away) of anilines and benzylic amines. Remarkably, this template is able to direct the meta-selective C–H functionalization of bicyclic heterocycles via highly strained tricyclic cyclophane-like palladated intermediates. X-ray and NMR studies reveal that the conformational biases induced by a single fluorine substitution in the template can be enhanced by a ligand to switch from ortho- to meta-selectivity. PMID:24622200

  1. Mitotic Transcriptional Activation: Clearance of Actively Engaged Pol II via Transcriptional Elongation Control in Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaiwei; Woodfin, Ashley R; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Box, Andrew C; Rickels, Ryan A; Gao, Xin; Haug, Jeffrey S; Jaspersen, Sue L; Shilatifard, Ali

    2015-11-05

    Although it is established that some general transcription factors are inactivated at mitosis, many details of mitotic transcription inhibition (MTI) and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We have identified mitotic transcriptional activation (MTA) as a key regulatory step to control transcription in mitosis for genes with transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to activate and transcribe until the end of the gene to clear Pol II from mitotic chromatin, followed by global impairment of transcription reinitiation through MTI. Global nascent RNA sequencing and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrate the existence of transcriptionally engaged Pol II in early mitosis. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of P-TEFb in mitosis lead to delays in the progression of cell division. Together, our study reveals a mechanism for MTA and MTI whereby transcriptionally engaged Pol II can progress into productive elongation and finish transcription to allow proper cellular division. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, Tobias; Behrens, Gundula; Schmid, Daniela; Schlecht, Inga; Fischer, Beate; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-10-13

    Whether adiposity and lack of physical activity affect the risk for developing meningioma and glioma is poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize these associations in detail. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of adiposity and physical activity in relation to meningioma and glioma using cohort and case-control studies published through February 2015. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We identified 12 eligible studies of body mass index (BMI) and 6 studies of physical activity, comprising up to 2,982 meningioma cases and 3,057 glioma cases. Using normal weight as the reference group, overweight (summary relative risk [RR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.43) and obesity (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.79) were associated with increased risk of meningioma. In contrast, overweight (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.94-1.20) and obesity (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.98-1.27) were unrelated to glioma. Similarly, dose-response meta-analyses revealed a statistically significant positive association of BMI with meningioma, but not glioma. High vs low physical activity levels showed a modest inverse relation to meningioma (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.88) and a weak inverse association with glioma (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97). Relations persisted when the data were restricted to prospective studies, except for the association between physical activity and glioma, which was rendered statistically nonsignificant (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77-1.07). Adiposity is related to enhanced risk for meningioma but is unassociated with risk for glioma. Based on a limited body of evidence, physical activity is related to decreased risk of meningioma but shows little association with risk of glioma. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Mark J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lonsdale, Chris; White, Rhiannon L; Lubans, David R

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that physical self-concept is associated with physical activity in children and adolescents, but no systematic review of this literature has been conducted. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the strength of associations between physical activity and physical self-concept (general and sub-domains) in children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to examine potential moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept. A systematic search of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, Web of Science and Scopus) with no date restrictions was conducted. Random effects meta-analyses with correction for measurement were employed. The associations between physical activity and general physical self-concept and sub-domains were explored. A risk of bias assessment was conducted by two reviewers. The search identified 64 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Thirty-three studies addressed multiple outcomes of general physical self-concept: 28 studies examined general physical self-concept, 59 examined perceived competence, 25 examined perceived fitness, and 55 examined perceived appearance. Perceived competence was most strongly associated with physical activity (r = 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.35, p self-concept (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p self-concept (p self-concept and its various sub-domains in children and adolescents. Age and sex are key moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept.

  4. Executive functioning deficits among adults with Bipolar Disorder (types I and II): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Tania; Becerra, Rodrigo; Coombes, Jacqui

    2017-08-15

    Executive functioning (EF) deficits contribute to a significant proportion of the burden of disease associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Yet, there is still debate in the literature regarding the exact profile of executive functioning in BD. The purpose of the present project was to assess whether EF deficits exist among adults suffering BD, and whether these deficits (if apparent) differ by BD subtype. A systematic search identified relevant literature. Randomised controlled trials that used neuropsychological assessment to investigate EF among adults 16-65 years) with a remitted DSM diagnosis of BD (type I or II) were included. Studies were published between 1994 and 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken. For individual studies, standardised mean differences (Cohen's d) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and represented in forest plots to illustrate differences in executive performance between groups. Summary effects were produced and tests of heterogeneity employed to assess the dispersion and generalisability of results. Thirty-six studies met criteria for inclusion. Six domains of EF were identified: Set-shifting (SS), inhibition (INH), planning (PLA), verbal fluency (VF), working memory (WM), and attention (ATT). BD1s performed worse than HCs in all domains. BD2s demonstrated impairment in VF, WM, SS, and ATT. The results were mixed for comparisons between BD1s and BD2s, but revealed that BD2s can experience similar (or sometimes greater) EF impairment. Only a limited number of studies that included BD2 samples were available for inclusion in the current study. Subgroup analysis to elucidate potential moderators of within-study variance was not undertaken. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to have compared the EF of remitted BD1s, BD2s, and HCs. The results provided useful insight into the EF profile of patients with BD, and offered commentary as to some of the contradictory results reported in the

  5. Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; De Rossi, Pietro; Angeletti, Gloria; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs). We searched the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases; we included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional neuroimaging and hypnosis-modulated pain perception. The ALE meta-analysis encompassed data from 75 healthy volunteers reported in 8 functional neuroimaging studies. HASs during experimentally-induced pain compared to control conditions correlated with significant activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area [BA] 32), left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right insula, and deactivation of right midline nuclei of the thalamus. HASs during experimental pain impact both cortical and subcortical brain activity. The anterior cingulate, left superior frontal, and right insular cortices activation increases could induce a thalamic deactivation (top-down inhibition), which may correlate with reductions in pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis on admission by urinary trypsinogen activation peptide: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Altaf, Kiran; Jin, Tao; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Wen, Li; Javed, Muhammad A; Johnstone, Marianne; Xue, Ping; Halloran, Christopher M; Xia, Qing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To undertake a meta-analysis on the value of urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (uTAP) in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis on admission. METHODS: Major databases including Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all relevant studies from January 1990 to January 2013. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) with 95%CI were calculated for each study and were compared to other systems/biomarkers if mentioned within the same study. Summary receiver-operating curves were conducted and the area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated. RESULTS: In total, six studies of uTAP with a cut-off value of 35 nmol/L were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of uTAP for predicting severity of acute pancreatitis, at time of admission, was 71% and 75%, respectively (AUC = 0.83, DOR = 8.67, 95%CI: 3.70-20.33). When uTAP was compared with plasma C-reactive protein, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR were 0.64 vs 0.67, 0.77 vs 0.75, 0.82 vs 0.79 and 6.27 vs 6.32, respectively. Similarly, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR of uTAP vs Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II within the first 48 h of admission were found to be 0.64 vs 0.69, 0.77 vs 0.61, 0.82 vs 0.73 and 6.27 vs 4.61, respectively. CONCLUSION: uTAP has the potential to act as a stratification marker on admission for differentiating disease severity of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23901239

  7. Individual patient data meta-analysis of organ failure in acute pancreatitis: protocol of the PANCREA II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Stephanie L M; Papachristou, George I; De Campos, Tercio; Panek, Jozefa; Poves Prim, Ignasi; Serrablo, Alejandro; Parks, Rowan W; Uomo, Generoso; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2013-09-10

    Organ failure is a major determinant of mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. These patients usually require admission to high dependency or intensive care units and consume considerable health care resources. Given a low incidence rate of organ failure and a lack of large non-interventional studies in the field of acute pancreatitis, the characteristics of organ failure that influence outcomes of patients with acute pancreatitis remain largely unknown. Therefore, the Pancreatitis Across Nations Clinical Research and Education Alliance (PANCREA) aims to conduct a meta-analysis of individual patient data from prospective non-interventional studies to determine the influence of timing, duration, sequence, and combination of different organ failures on mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreatologists currently active with acute pancreatitis clinical research will be invited to contribute. To be eligible for inclusion patients will have to meet the criteria of acute pancreatitis, develop at least one organ failure during the first week of hospitalization, and not be enrolled into an intervention study. Raw data will then be collated and checked. Individual patient data analysis based on a logistic regression model with adjustment for confounding variables will be done. For all analyses, corresponding 95% confidence intervals and P values will be reported. This collaborative individual patient data meta-analysis will answer important clinical questions regarding patients with acute pancreatitis that develop organ failure. Information derived from this study will be used to optimize routine clinical management and improve care strategies. It can also help validate outcome definitions, allow comparability of results and form a more accurate basis for patient allocation in further clinical studies.

  8. Performances on nuclear activation analysis by TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Rosada, A.

    1986-01-01

    Progresses in methodological research and connected applications in the field of activation analysis are introduced. Some peculiar characteristics on the TRIGA MARK II reactor have enabled the possibility of obtaining interesting results. The particular, the rotating radiation device Lazy Susan, with a capability of 40 positionings, permits homogeneity in neutron flux and energy spectrum stability within 15%. High level of precision and accuracy are obtained in analytic. Applications of major interest have been: - reference material certification; - forensic applications; - electrolytic cell productivity evaluation. The TRIGA MARK II reactor is equipped with a thermal column throughout a D 2 O diaphragm with a thickness of 70 cm. The available neutron flux has no fast and epithermal components. Via this facility a method has been tested for the instrumental determination of Al in Si metal of solar and electronic degree. (author)

  9. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizi, T.; Childs, R.A.; Hakomori, S.-I.; Powell, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  10. Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2014-09-01

    To determine effects of physical activity on depressive symptoms (primary objective), symptoms of schizophrenia, anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (secondary objectives) in people with mental illness and explore between-study heterogeneity. MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched from earliest record to 2013. Randomized controlled trials of adults with a DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, or clinician-confirmed diagnosis of a mental illness other than dysthymia or eating disorders were selected. Interventions included exercise programs, exercise counseling, lifestyle interventions, tai chi, or physical yoga. Study methodological quality and intervention compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines were also assessed. Two investigators extracted data. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible trials were identified. The primary meta-analysis found a large effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (n = 20; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.80). The effect size in trial interventions that met ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise did not differ significantly from those that did not meet these guidelines. The effect for trials with higher methodological quality was smaller than that observed for trials with lower methodological quality (SMD = 0.39 vs 1.35); however, the difference was not statistically significant. A large effect was found for schizophrenia symptoms (SMD = 1.0), a small effect was found for anthropometry (SMD = 0.24), and moderate effects were found for aerobic capacity (SMD = 0.63) and quality of life (SMD = 0.64). Physical activity reduced depressive symptoms in people with mental illness. Larger effects were seen in studies of poorer methodological quality. Physical activity reduced symptoms of

  11. Abnormal Brain Activation During Theory of Mind Tasks in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbichler, Lisa; Tschernegg, Melanie; Martin, Anna Isabel; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin

    2017-10-21

    Social cognition abilities are severely impaired in schizophrenia (SZ). The current meta-analysis used foci of 21 individual studies on functional abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain in order to identify regions that reveal convergent under- or over-activation during theory of mind (TOM) tasks. Studies were included in the analyses when contrasting tasks that require the processing of mental states with tasks which did not. Only studies that investigated patients with an ICD or DSM diagnosis were included. Quantitative voxel-based meta-analyses were done using Seed-based d Mapping software. Common TOM regions like medial-prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction revealed abnormal activation in schizophrenic patients: Under-activation was identified in the medial prefrontal cortex, left orbito-frontal cortex, and in a small section of the left posterior temporo-parietal junction. Remarkably, robust over-activation was identified in a more dorsal, bilateral section of the temporo-parietal junction. Further abnormal activation was identified in medial occipito-parietal cortex, right premotor areas, left cingulate gyrus, and lingual gyrus. The findings of this study suggest that SZ patients simultaneously show over- and under-activation in TOM-related regions. Especially interesting, temporo-parietal junction reveals diverging activation patterns with an under-activating left posterior and an over-activating bilateral dorsal section. In conclusion, SZ patients show less specialized brain activation in regions linked to TOM and increased activation in attention-related networks suggesting compensatory effects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  12. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Motoi; Fotoohi, Babak; Amamo, Yoshimasa; Mercier, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  13. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Motoi; Fotoohi, Babak; Amamo, Yoshimasa; Mercier, Louis

    2012-07-01

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  14. DNA binding and biological activity of mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II with quinolones and N donor ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M M Akram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractMixed ligand complexes of  Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II have been synthesized by using levofloxacin and bipyridyl and characterized using spectral and analytical techniques. The binding behavior of the Ni(II and Cu(II complexes with herring sperm DNA(Hs-DNA were determined using electronic absorption titration, viscometric measurements and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The binding constant calculated  for Cu(II and Ni(II complexes are 2.0 x 104 and 4.0 x 104 M-1 respectively. Detailed analysis reveals that these metal complexes interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. The nuclease activity of  Cu(II and Ni(II complexes with ct-DNA was carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The antioxidant activities for the synthesized complexes have been tested and the antibacterial activity for Ni(II complex was also checked.Key words: Intercalation, hypochromism, red shift and  peak potential.

  15. Salt mine Asse II. Status of the retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    The booklet on the status of retrieval activities in the salt mine Asse II includes information on the background of medium-level radioactive waste disposal during 1967 to 1978 on behalf of the Federal government. Since 2009 the former mine is operated by the BfS with the assignment of decommissioning. The potential risk for stability and safety due to problems of water ingress were known before beginning of the disposals. The retrieval of the radioactive waste will require many decades; the costs are financed by tax money. The planning of the retrieval is currently on the way, details of the concept are described.

  16. Activity report 1990-1992 and proceedings. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Rosa, D.; Waniek, L.; Suhadolc, P.

    1993-01-01

    A report of the European Seismological Commission (ESC) on 1990-1992 activities and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the ESC are presented in two volumes. Volume II covers the following topics: study of seismic sound, seismotectonic analysis, deep seismic sounding, the three-dimensional structure of the European lithosphere-asthenosphere system, complexity in earthquake occurrence, earthquake hazard, strong and weak earthquake ground motions, macroseismology, microzonation, and applications in earthquake engineering. One paper dealing with the connection between seismicity and the CO 2 - 222 Rn content in spring water has been inputted to INIS. (Z.S.)

  17. Performance of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II: a meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 145,592 cardiac surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Pietro; Mastro, Florinda; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Whitlock, Richard; Paparella, Domenico

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE) II performance for prediction of operative mortality after cardiac surgery has not been performed. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies based on the predictive accuracy of the euroSCORE II. We searched the Embase and PubMed databases for all English-only articles reporting performance characteristics of the euroSCORE II. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the observed/expected mortality ratio, and observed-expected mortality difference with their 95% confidence intervals were analyzed. Twenty-two articles were selected, including 145,592 procedures. Operative mortality occurred in 4293 (2.95%), whereas the expected events according to euroSCORE II were 4802 (3.30%). Meta-analysis of these studies provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.792 (95% confidence interval, 0.773-0.811), an estimated observed/expected ratio of 1.019 (95% confidence interval, 0.899-1.139), and observed-expected difference of 0.125 (95% confidence interval, -0.269 to 0.519). Statistical heterogeneity was detected among retrospective studies including less recent procedures. Subgroups analysis confirmed the robustness of combined estimates for isolated valve procedures and those combined with revascularization surgery. A significant overestimation of the euroSCORE II with an observed/expected ratio of 0.829 (95% confidence interval, 0.677-0.982) was observed in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and a slight underestimation of predictions in high-risk patients (observed/expected ratio 1.253 and observed-expected difference 1.859). Despite the heterogeneity, the results from this meta-analysis show a good overall performance of the euroSCORE II in terms of discrimination and accuracy of model predictions for operative mortality. Validation of the euroSCORE II in prospective populations needs to be further studied for a continuous

  18. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaraei, Masoud; Fakhar, Mahdi; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Banimostafavi, Elham Sadat

    2017-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti- Leishmania activity which used in Iran. Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant family, extraction method, concentrations of extracts, animal models and parasite strains. A total of 68 articles including 188 experiments (140 in vitro and 48 in vivo) between 1999 and 2015, met our eligibility criteria. Thoroughly, 98 types of plants were examined against three genera of Leishmania spp. For the heterogeneity study conducted, it was showed that there was a great deal of variation among studies. Based on random effect, meta-analysis pooled mean of IC50 was obtained 456.64 (95% CI: 396.15, 517.12). The most Iranian plants used as anti-leishmanial activity were Artemisia species , Allium sativum , Achilleamille folium , Peganum harmala and Thymus vulgaris . The present systematic and meta-analysis review provide valuable information about natural products with anti- Leishmania activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.

  19. Angiotensin II Regulates Th1 T Cell Differentiation Through Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-PKA-Mediated Activation of Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Yun-Long; Chi, Ya-Fei; Yan, Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Jun; Li, Hui-Hua; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Naive CD4+ T cells differentiate into T helper cells (Th1 and Th2) that play an essential role in the cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism by which angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes Th1 differentiation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation regulated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Jurkat cells were treated with Ang II (100 nM) in the presence or absence of different inhibitors. The gene mRNA levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The protein levels were measured by ELISA assay or Western blot analysis, respectively. Ang II treatment significantly induced a shift from Th0 to Th1 cell differentiation, which was markedly blocked by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor Losartan (LST). Moreover, Ang II significantly increased the activities and the expression of proteasome catalytic subunits (β1, β1i, β2i and β5i) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Ang II-induced proteasome activities were remarkably abrogated by LST and PKA inhibitor H-89. Mechanistically, Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation was at least in part through proteasome-mediated degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB. This study for the first time demonstrates that Ang II activates AT1R-PKA-proteasome pathway, which promotes degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB thereby leading to Th1 differentiation. Thus, inhibition of proteasome activation might be a potential therapeutic target for Th1-mediated diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. KNK-II knowledge preservation and related activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.; Wehmann, U.; Stanculescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Many of the scenarios describing possible energy futures, e.g., the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), foresee a role for nuclear power in meeting a growing world energy demand through 2050. While some scenarios explore the impact of a nuclear phase out, others envision a major growth in nuclear technology's share of the world energy mix. Given the forecasted growth in world population and in economic development, the environmental advantages of nuclear power, and concerns over climate change and the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, it is not unreasonable to expect an increased interest in nuclear power in the coming decades. Loss of nuclear knowledge is a serious concern, in particular with regard to areas where, for various reasons, nuclear technology development and innovation has been slowed down. Knowledge can be preserved by archival techniques and by passing it on to new generations. In the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, in spite of the lack of funding and political support, both avenues are followed. Data retrieval and preservation by archiving activities for the German experimental fast reactor KNK-II were undertaken within the framework of IAEA's initiative on Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation. The paper will shortly introduce the IAEA initiative (scope, objectives, status, and outlook). The general approach to nuclear knowledge preservation in Germany will be presented, and the concrete archiving activities undertaken for KNK-II will be summarized. (author)

  1. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian Numelin

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies....... Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity...... postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased...

  2. The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with dementia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.; Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Raijmakers, P.G.H.M.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Scheltens, P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Ossenkoppele, R.

    2016-01-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies, such as physical activity interventions, are an appealing alternative or add-on to current pharmacological treatment of cognitive symptoms in patients with dementia. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive

  3. Is playing exergames really exercising? A meta-analysis of energy expenditure in active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Lin, Jih-Hsuan; Crouse, Julia

    2011-11-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of energy expenditure (EE) of playing active video games (AVGs). In particular, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), and EE were assessed and three moderators for the effects of AVGs--types of AVG, player age, and player weight status--were analyzed. The results show that playing AVGs significantly increased HR, VO2, and EE from resting. The effect sizes of playing AVGs on HR, VO2, and EE were similar to traditional physical activities. AVG type and player age were significant moderators for the effects of AVGs. The finding suggests that AVGs are effective technologies that may facilitate light- to moderate-intensity physical activity promotion.

  4. Pain anticipation: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Sara; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Costa, Tommaso; Amanzio, Martina

    2015-05-01

    The anticipation of pain has been investigated in a variety of brain imaging studies. Importantly, today there is no clear overall picture of the areas that are involved in different studies and the exact role of these regions in pain expectation remains especially unexploited. To address this issue, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to analyze pain anticipation in several neuroimaging studies. A total of 19 functional magnetic resonance imaging were included in the analysis to search for the cortical areas involved in pain anticipation in human experimental models. During anticipation, activated foci were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal, midcingulate and anterior insula cortices, medial and inferior frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, middle and superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, and caudate. Deactivated foci were found in the anterior cingulate, superior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and in the claustrum. The results of the meta-analytic connectivity analysis provide an overall view of the brain responses triggered by the anticipation of a noxious stimulus. Such a highly distributed perceptual set of self-regulation may prime brain regions to process information where emotion, action and perception as well as their related subcategories play a central role. Not only do these findings provide important information on the neural events when anticipating pain, but also they may give a perspective into nocebo responses, whereby negative expectations may lead to pain worsening. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Cu(II, Co(II and Ni(II Complexes with O, N, and S Donor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyavati Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of the type ML2 [where M = Cu(II, Co(II, and Ni(II] L = 1-phenyl-1-ene-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl-prop-2-ene with 3- substituted-5-mercapto-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles. Schiff base ligands have been prepared by reacting 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one and 3-phenyl/pyridyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles in an alcoholic medium. The complexes are non-electrolytes in DMF. The resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic measurements, conductivity measurements and spectral studies. The Schiff base acts as a tridentate dibasic and coordinating through the deprotonated oxygen, thioenolic sulphur and azomethine nitrogen atoms. It is found that Cu(II, Co(II, and Ni(II complexes exhibited octahedral geometry. The antimicrobial activities of ligands and its complexes were screened by cup plate method.

  6. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, L M; Coffeng, J; van Mechelen, W; Proper, K I

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to determine the level of evidence for each pooled outcome measure. Results show moderate quality of evidence that workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions significantly reduce body weight (nine studies; mean difference [MD]-1.19 kg [95% CI -1.64 to -0.74]), body mass index (BMI) (11 studies; MD -0.34 kg m⁻² [95% CI -0.46 to -0.22]) and body fat percentage calculated from sum of skin-folds (three studies; MD -1.12% [95% CI -1.86 to -0.38]). There is low quality of evidence that workplace physical activity interventions significantly reduce body weight and BMI. Effects on percentage body fat calculated from bioelectrical impedance or hydrostatic weighing, waist circumference, sum of skin-folds and waist-hip ratio could not be investigated properly because of a lack of studies. Subgroup analyses showed a greater reduction in body weight of physical activity and diet interventions containing an environmental component. As the clinical relevance of the pooled effects may be substantial on a population level, we recommend workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions, including an environment component, in order to prevent weight gain. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Effects of nickel(II) addition on the activity of activated sludge microorganisms and activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Soon-An; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hirata, Makoto; Hano, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Ni(II) in a synthetic wastewater on the activity of activated sludge microorganisms and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment process were investigated. Two parallel lab-scale SBR systems were operated. One was used as a control unit, while the other received Ni(II) concentrations equal to 5 and 10 mg/l. The SBR systems were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE modes in the time ratio of 0.5:3.5:1.0:0.75:0.25 for a cycle time of 6 h. The addition of Ni(II) into SBR system caused drastically dropped in TOC removal rate (k) and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) by activated sludge microorganisms due to the inhibitory effects of Ni(II) on the bioactivity of microorganisms. The addition of 5 mg/l Ni(II) caused a slight reduction in TOC removal efficiency, whereas 10 mg/l Ni(II) addition significantly affected the SBR performance in terms of suspended solids and TOC removal efficiency. Termination of Ni(II) addition led to almost full recovery of the bioactivity in microorganisms as shown in the increase of specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and SBR treatment performance

  8. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Mohd F., E-mail: faisalt@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S. [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Shuib, Anis Suhaila, E-mail: anisuha@petronas.com.my; Borhan, Azry [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m{sup 2}/g and 0.17 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  9. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Cu(II AND Zn(II COMPLEX COMPOUNDS WITH BIGUANIDES AROMATIC DERIVATIVES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.

  11. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  12. Promoting physical activity in the workplace: A systematic meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirathananuwat, Areeya; Pongpirul, Krit

    2017-09-28

    Physically active (PA) people have a lower risk of various diseases, compared to those with sedentary lifestyles. Evidence on the effects of PA promoting programs in the workplace is large, and several systematic reviews (SR) and/or meta-analyses (MA) have been published. However, they have failed to consider factors that could influence interventions. This paper aimed to classify and describe interventions to promote PA in the workplace based on evidence from SR/MA. A literature search for SR/MA was done using PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct (January 2006-February 2015). Quality assessment of SR/MA was performed using AMSTAR. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model was used for classifying the interventions into predisposing, enabling, reinforcing, environment, and policy domains of focus. Eleven SR/MA included 220 primary studies, of which 139 (63%) were randomized controlled trials. Of 48 interventions identified, 22 (46%) and 17 (35%) focused on predisposing or enabling employees to have more PA, respectively. Of the 22 predisposing factors, 6 were information delivery, 5 were self-motivation, and 11 were program training. The enabling approaches were 12 instrument resources and 5 health service facilities. The reinforcing approaches were 4 incentive and 3 social support. The remaining interventions focused on the environmental development and policy regulation. This systematic meta-review classified interventions using appropriate framework and described the intervention pattern.

  13. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Michal; Bohannon, Richard W; Sontakova, Lenka; Tufano, James J; Shiells, Kate; Holmerova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO host , and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.55). The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia.

  14. Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Hesketh, John E.; Sinclair, Bruce R.; Koolaard, John P.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. PMID:25268836

  15. Impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth – A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compute the overall effect size concerning the impact of insurance sector activity on economic growth. The connection of insurance activity and economic growth has been a widely investigated topic due to numerous papers and research attempts performed so far. The results, however, often differ among individual studies. Therefore a comprehensive analysis of the significance of causality from insurance activity, measured by insurance premium, to business cycle fluctuation, is well-required. Using 10 published and unpublished studies, we conduct a meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of insurance activity on economic growth. Insurance premium is taken as the measure of insurance activity. The combined significance test of individual t-statistics is employed. The calculation of the effect size allows understand the true effect relying on synthesis of so far published research with significantly higher amount of observations and better precision. Our results confirm positive effect of insurance activity on economic growth and are particularly important for policy makers who set the policy towards subjects in the insurance market.

  16. Speech perception in autism spectrum disorder: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfon, Ana; Foster, Nicholas E V; Sharda, Megha; Hyde, Krista L

    2018-02-15

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often characterized by atypical language profiles and auditory and speech processing. These can contribute to aberrant language and social communication skills in ASD. The study of the neural basis of speech perception in ASD can serve as a potential neurobiological marker of ASD early on, but mixed results across studies renders it difficult to find a reliable neural characterization of speech processing in ASD. To this aim, the present study examined the functional neural basis of speech perception in ASD versus typical development (TD) using an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 18 qualifying studies. The present study included separate analyses for TD and ASD, which allowed us to examine patterns of within-group brain activation as well as both common and distinct patterns of brain activation across the ASD and TD groups. Overall, ASD and TD showed mostly common brain activation of speech processing in bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, the results revealed trends for some distinct activation in the TD group showing additional activation in higher-order brain areas including left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left medial frontal gyrus (MFG), and right IFG. These results provide a more reliable neural characterization of speech processing in ASD relative to previous single neuroimaging studies and motivate future work to investigate how these brain signatures relate to behavioral measures of speech processing in ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Neural Bases of Difficult Speech Comprehension and Speech Production: Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti

    2012-01-01

    The role of speech production mechanisms in difficult speech comprehension is the subject of on-going debate in speech science. Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analyses were conducted on neuroimaging studies investigating difficult speech comprehension or speech production. Meta-analysis 1 included 10 studies contrasting comprehension…

  18. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Scott, Robert A; Justice, Anne E; Young, Kristin L; Feitosa, Mary F; Barata, Llilda; Winkler, Thomas W; Chu, Audrey Y; Mahajan, Anubha; Hadley, David; Xue, Luting; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; den Hoed, Marcel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Qi, Qibin; Ngwa, Julius S; Renström, Frida; Quaye, Lydia; Eicher, John D; Hayes, James E; Cornelis, Marilyn; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lim, Elise; Luan, Jian'an; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Wei; Griffin, Paula J; Haller, Toomas; Ahmad, Shafqat; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Bien, Stephanie; Yengo, Loic; Teumer, Alexander; Smith, Albert Vernon; Kumari, Meena; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Kleber, Marcus E; Hollensted, Mette; Lohman, Kurt; Rivera, Natalia V; Whitfield, John B; Zhao, Jing Hua; Stringham, Heather M; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Huppertz, Charlotte; Willemsen, Gonneke; Peyrot, Wouter J; Wu, Ying; Kristiansson, Kati; Demirkan, Ayse; Fornage, Myriam; Hassinen, Maija; Bielak, Lawrence F; Cadby, Gemma; Tanaka, Toshiko; Mägi, Reedik; van der Most, Peter J; Jackson, Anne U; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Vitart, Veronique; Marten, Jonathan; Navarro, Pau; Bellis, Claire; Pasko, Dorota; Johansson, Åsa; Snitker, Søren; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Eriksson, Joel; Lim, Unhee; Aadahl, Mette; Adair, Linda S; Amin, Najaf; Balkau, Beverley; Auvinen, Juha; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Bertoni, Alain G; Blangero, John; Bonnefond, Amélie; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borja, Judith B; Brage, Søren; Busonero, Fabio; Buyske, Steve; Campbell, Harry; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Corre, Tanguy; Smith, George Davey; Delgado, Graciela E; Dueker, Nicole; Dörr, Marcus; Ebeling, Tapani; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Esko, Tõnu; Faul, Jessica D; Fu, Mao; Færch, Kristine; Gieger, Christian; Gläser, Sven; Gong, Jian; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Grarup, Niels; van Grootheest, Gerard; Harald, Kennet; Hastie, Nicholas D; Havulinna, Aki S; Hernandez, Dena G; Hindorff, Lucia; Hocking, Lynne J; Holmens, Oddgeir L; Holzapfel, Christina; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Tao; Hui, Jennie; Huth, Cornelia; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; James, Alan L; Jansson, John-Olov; Jhun, Min A; Juonala, Markus; Kinnunen, Leena; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kolcic, Ivana; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Kähönen, Mika; Lakka, Timo A; Launer, Lenore J; Lehne, Benjamin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Marre, Michel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Monda, Keri L; Montgomery, Grant W; De Moor, Marleen H M; Mulas, Antonella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, A.W.; Männikkö, Reija; Männistö, Satu; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Nolte, Ilja M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Olden, Matthias; Ong, Ken K; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perez, Jeremiah; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Peters, Ulrike; Peyser, Patricia A; Prokopenko, Inga; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rawal, Rajesh; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Rudan, Igor; Sarti, Cinzia; Sarzynski, Mark A; Savonen, Kai; Scott, William R; Sanna, Serena; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sidney, Steve; Silbernagel, Günther; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Sternfeld, Barbara; Swift, Amy J; Tammelin, Tuija; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Thuillier, Dorothée; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vestergaard, Henrik; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wild, Sarah; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zillikens, M Carola; Zubair, Niha; Haiman, Christopher A; Lemarchand, Loic; Gyllensten, Ulf; Ohlsson, Claes; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Pérusse, Louis; Wilson, James F; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Cucca, Francesco; Hveem, Kristian; Hartman, Catharina A; Tönjes, Anke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Palmer, Lyle J; Kardia, Sharon L R; Rauramaa, Rainer; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mangino, Massimo; Laakso, Markku; Bouchard, Claude; Martin, Nicholas G; Kuh, Diana; Liu, YongMei; Linneberg, Allan; März, Winfried; Strauch, Konstantin; Kivimäki, Mika; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Völzke, Henry; Qi, Lu; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Froguel, Philippe; Kooperberg, Charles; Vollenweider, Peter; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Metspalu, Andres; Wareham, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Weir, David R; Porteous, David J; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chasman, Daniel I; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Barroso, Inês; McCarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boehnke, Michael; Heid, Iris M; Mohlke, Karen L; Strachan, David P; Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Ching-Ti; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Klein, Robert J; Johnson, Andrew D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; North, Kari E; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O

    Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults

  19. How effective are active videogames among the young and the old? Adding meta-analyses to two recent systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Lu, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods:

  20. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity ― A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Scott, Robert A.; Justice, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adu...

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II Complexes of N-Thiophenoyl-N′-Phenylthiocarbohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II complex of N-thiophenoyl -N′-phenylthiocarbohydrazide (H2 TPTH have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, NMR, electronic, and ESR spectral studies. The complexes were found to have compositions [Mn(H TPTH2], [Co(TPTH (H2O2], [Ni(TPTH (H2O2], [Cu(TPTH], [Zn(H TPTH], [Cd(H TPTH2], and [Fe(H TPTH2(EtOH]. The magnetic and electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for [Cu(TPTH], tetrahedral geometry for [Zn(TPTH] and [Cd(H TPTH2], and octahedral geometry for rest of the complexes. The infrared spectral studies of the 1 : 1 deprotonated complexes suggest bonding through enolic oxygen, thiolato sulfur, and both the hydrazinic nitrogens. Thus, H2TPTH acts as a binegative tetradentate ligand. H2 TPTH and its metal complexes have been screened against several bacteria and fungi.

  2. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  3. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among young girls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Braithwaite, Rock; Pearson, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    Pre-adolescent girls are an important target population for physical activity behaviour change as it may enhance tracking into the crucial period of adolescence. The quantification of intervention effectiveness for this age group of girls has not been previously reported. Studies published in English up to and including August 2013 were located from computerised (MedLine, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Web of Science, EPPI centre databases, and Cochrane Library database) and manual searches. Intervention studies aimed at promoting physical activity, which included pre-adolescent girls aged 5-11 years, and a non-physical activity control/comparison group were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. The average treatment effect for pre-adolescent girls involved in physical activity interventions was significant but small (g=0.314, p<.001). Moderator analyses showed larger effects for interventions that catered for girls only and used educational and multicomponent strategies. Interventions to increase physical activity in pre-adolescent girls show small but significant effects, suggesting that behaviour change may be challenging, but results suggest some strategies that could be successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffl M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Michal Steffl,1 Richard W Bohannon,2 Lenka Sontakova,1 James J Tufano,1 Kate Shiells,3 Iva Holmerova3 1Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA; 3Faculty of Humanities, Centre of Gerontology, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Physical activity (PA has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–0.55. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia. Keywords: aging, sarcopenia, physical activity 

  5. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  6. Abnormal brain activation during threatening face processing in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Debo; Wang, Yulin; Jia, Xiaoyan; Li, Yingjia; Chang, Xuebin; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-11-15

    Impairment of face perception in schizophrenia is a core aspect of social cognitive dysfunction. This impairment is particularly marked in threatening face processing. Identifying reliable neural correlates of the impairment of threatening face processing is crucial for targeting more effective treatments. However, neuroimaging studies have not yet obtained robust conclusions. Through comprehensive literature search, twenty-one whole brain datasets were included in this meta-analysis. Using seed-based d-Mapping, in this voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed to: 1) establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions related to threating face processing in schizophrenia; 2) address task-type heterogeneity in this impairment; 3) explore the effect of potential demographic or clinical moderator variables on this impairment. Main meta-analysis indicated that patients with chronic schizophrenia demonstrated attenuated activations in limbic emotional system along with compensatory over-activation in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during threatening faces processing. Sub-task analyses revealed under-activations in right amygdala and left fusiform gyrus in both implicit and explicit tasks. The remaining clusters were found to be differently involved in different types of tasks. Moreover, meta-regression analyses showed brain abnormalities in schizophrenia were partly modulated by age, gender, medication and severity of symptoms. Our results highlighted breakdowns in limbic-MPFC circuit in schizophrenia, suggesting general inability to coordinate and contextualize salient threat stimuli. These findings provide potential targets for neurotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cultural differences in human brain activity: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2014-10-01

    Psychologists have been trying to understand differences in cognition and behavior between East Asian and Western cultures within a single cognitive framework such as holistic versus analytic or interdependent versus independent processes. However, it remains unclear whether cultural differences in multiple psychological processes correspond to the same or different neural networks. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of 35 functional MRI studies to examine cultural differences in brain activity engaged in social and non-social processes. We showed that social cognitive processes are characterized by stronger activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, lateral frontal cortex and temporoparietal junction in East Asians but stronger activity in the anterior cingulate, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral insula in Westerners. Social affective processes are associated with stronger activity in the right dorsal lateral frontal cortex in East Asians but greater activity in the left insula and right temporal pole in Westerners. Non-social processes induce stronger activity in the left inferior parietal cortex, left middle occipital and left superior parietal cortex in East Asians but greater activations in the right lingual gyrus, right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus in Westerners. The results suggest that cultural differences in social and non-social processes are mediated by distinct neural networks. Moreover, East Asian cultures are associated with increased neural activity in the brain regions related to inference of others' mind and emotion regulation whereas Western cultures are associated with enhanced neural activity in the brain areas related to self-relevance encoding and emotional responses during social cognitive/affective processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fe (III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of schiff bases based-on glycine and phenylalanine: Synthesis, magnetic/thermal properties and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgi, Fatih; Bagkesici, Ugur; Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri; Guler, Ersin

    2018-02-01

    Zinc (II), copper (II), nickel (II), cobalt (II) and iron (III) complexes of Schiff bases (LG, LP) derived from 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with glycine and phenylalanine were reported and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses, melting point, FT-IR, magnetic susceptibility and thermal analyses (TGA). TGA data show that iron and cobalt include to the coordinated water and metal:ligand ratio is 1:2 while the complex stoichiometry for Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes is 1:1. As expected, Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes are diamagnetic; Cu (II), Co (II) and Fe (III) complexes are paramagnetic character due to a strong ligand of LG and LP. The LG, LP and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activities against five Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one fungi (Candida albicans) by using broth microdilution techniques. The activity data show that ligands and their metal complexes exhibited moderate to good activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

  9. Sorption of Lead (II Ions on Activated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Jahangard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions. Methods: In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution. Results: Optimum conditions for Pb (II removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. Conclusion: It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.

  10. Food activities and identity maintenance in old age: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Nicola Ann; Atwal, Anita; Gilhooly, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Services provided to older people should be developed based on active ageing policies. Nutrition is one aspect of active ageing, but little is known about how food activities contribute to psychological well-being in later life. This is a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research that answers the question 'What is known about the relationship between food activities and the maintenance of identities in old age?'. We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines and used quality assessment parameters to complete a systematic review and narrative synthesis. Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, and PsycINFO databases were searched. We initially identified 8016 articles, of which 167 full-text articles were screened for inclusion. Twenty-two articles were included in the review. There was moderate evidence from nine qualitative and two quantitative studies, of variable quality, that food activities contribute to the maintenance of women's gendered identities, the ethnic identities of men and women, and community identities. There was moderate evidence from 10 qualitative studies, of variable quality, that a change in food choice and deteriorating health changed food activity participation. These changes threatened identities. Most studies included both younger adults and older adults. In later life, there are many life experiences leading to change. Further research is needed to develop understanding of how identity and mental well-being are maintained, despite changes in everyday activities like cooking and eating. This may enable health care professionals to meet psychological needs alongside biological needs during nutritional interventions.

  11. Drawing and writing: An ALE meta-analysis of sensorimotor activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Brown, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Drawing and writing are the two major means of creating what are referred to as "images", namely visual patterns on flat surfaces. They share many sensorimotor processes related to visual guidance of hand movement, resulting in the formation of visual shapes associated with pictures and words. However, while the human capacity to draw is tens of thousands of years old, the capacity for writing is only a few thousand years old, and widespread literacy is quite recent. In order to compare the neural activations for drawing and writing, we conducted two activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses for these two bodies of neuroimaging literature. The results showed strong overlap in the activation profiles, especially in motor areas (motor cortex, frontal eye fields, supplementary motor area, cerebellum, putamen) and several parts of the posterior parietal cortex. A distinction was found in the left posterior parietal cortex, with drawing showing a preference for a ventral region and writing a dorsal region. These results demonstrate that drawing and writing employ the same basic sensorimotor networks but that some differences exist in parietal areas involved in spatial processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing a multi-product closed-loop supply chain using NSGA-II, MOSA, and MOPSO meta-heuristic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaveisi, Vahid; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Safaei, Abdul Sattar

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to discuss the solution methodology for a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network that includes the collection of used products as well as distribution of the new products. This supply chain is presented on behalf of the problems that can be solved by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithms. A mathematical model is designed for a CLSC that involves three objective functions of maximizing the profit, minimizing the total risk and shortages of products. Since three objective functions are considered, a multi-objective solution methodology can be advantageous. Therefore, several approaches have been studied and an NSGA-II algorithm is first utilized, and then the results are validated using an MOSA and MOPSO algorithms. Priority-based encoding, which is used in all the algorithms, is the core of the solution computations. To compare the performance of the meta-heuristics, random numerical instances are evaluated by four criteria involving mean ideal distance, spread of non-dominance solution, the number of Pareto solutions, and CPU time. In order to enhance the performance of the algorithms, Taguchi method is used for parameter tuning. Finally, sensitivity analyses are performed and the computational results are presented based on the sensitivity analyses in parameter tuning.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the safety, feasibility and effect of exercise in women with stage II+ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ben; Spence, Rosalind R; Steele, Megan L; Sandler, Carolina X; Peake, Jonathan M; Hayes, Sandra C

    2018-05-03

    To systematically evaluate the safety, feasibility and effect of exercise among women with stage II+ breast cancer. CINAHL, Cochrane, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Pubmed, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Science Direct and SPORTDiscus were searched for articles published prior to March 1, 2017. Randomised, controlled, exercise trials involving at least 50% of women diagnosed with stage II+ breast cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed and adverse event severity was classified using the Common Terminology Criteria. Feasibility was evaluated by computing median (range) recruitment, withdrawal and adherence rates. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate exercise safety and effects on health outcomes only. The influence of intervention characteristics (mode, supervision, duration and timing) on exercise outcomes were also explored. There were no differences in adverse events between exercise and usual care (risk difference: feasibility outcomes were similar, irrespective of exercise mode, supervision, duration, or timing. Effects of exercise for quality of life, fitness, fatigue, strength, anxiety, depression, body mass index and waist circumference compared with usual care were significant (standardised mean difference range: 0.17-0.77, pfeasibility and effects of exercise for those with stage II+ breast cancer, suggesting that national and international exercise guidelines appear generalizable to women with local, regional and distant breast cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Coordination behavior of tetraaza [N4] ligand towards Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I) and Pd(II) complexes: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.

    2012-11-01

    Novel eight Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I) and Pd(II) complexes with [N4] ligand (L) i.e. 2-amino-N-{2-[(2-aminobenzoyl)amino]ethyl}benzamide have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal (TG/DTG), magnetic, and molar conductivity measurements. On the basis of IR, mass, electronic and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for Co(II), Ni(II) complexes and Cu(II) chloride complex, square-pyramidal for Cu(I) bromide complex. For Cu(II) nitrate complex (6), Pd(II) complex (8) square planar geometry was proposed. The EPR data of Cu(II) complexes in powdered form indicate dx2-y2 ground state of Cu(II) ion. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some selected metal complexes has been studied. The palladium(II) complex (8) was found to display cytotoxicity (IC50 = 25.6 and 41 μM) against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human hepatocarcinoma HEPG2 cell line.

  15. Adsorption of aqueous Cd(II) and Pb(II) on activated carbon nanopores prepared by chemical activation of doum palm shell

    OpenAIRE

    Gaya, Umar Ibrahim; Otene, Emmanuel; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniformly sized activated carbons were derived from doum palm shell, a new precursor, by carbonization in air and activation using KOH, NaOH and ZnCl2. The activated carbon fibres were characterised by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and evaluated for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. The 40–50 nm size, less graphitic, mesoporous NaOH activated carbon yielded high adsorption efficiency, pointing largely to the influence surface ar...

  16. A review and meta-analysis of affective judgments and physical activity in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Fiala, Bonnie; Conner, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Popular theories of health behavior have often been criticized for neglecting an affective component to behavioral engagement. This study reviewed affective judgment (AJ) constructs employed in physical activity research to assess the relationship with behavior. Studies were eligible if they included: (a) a measure of physical activity; (b) a distinct measure of AJ (e.g., affective attitude, enjoyment, intrinsic motivation); and (c) involved participants with a mean age of 18 years or older. Literature searches were concluded in September, 2009 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 10,631 potentially relevant records; of these, 102 passed the eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling and measurement bias were employed in the analysis. Articles were published between 1989 and 2009, with sample sizes ranging from 15 to 6,739. Of the studies included, 82 were correlational and 20 were experimental, yielding 114 independent samples. The majority of the correlational samples reported a significant positive correlation between AJ and physical activity (83 out of 85), with a summary r of 0.42 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.46) that was invariant across the measures employed, study quality, population sampled and cultural variables. Experimental studies demonstrated that persuasive, information-based, and self-regulatory interventions failed to change AJ; by contrast, environmental and experiential interventions showed promise in their capability to influence AJ. The results point to a medium-effect size relationship between AJ and physical activity. Interventions that change AJ are scarce despite their potential for changing physical activity. Future experimental work designed to evaluate the causal impact ofAJ on physical activity is required.

  17. How we think they see us? Valence and difficulty of retrieval as moderators of the effect of meta-stereotype activation on intergroup orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Alexandra; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Dovidio, John F; Gómez, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    Previous research indicates that meta-stereotypes are predominantly negative. However, the valence of the meta-stereotypes may not be the only factor accounting for the detrimental effects associated with their activation. In addition to valence, we propose that the subjective difficulty of retrieving the meta-stereotype might critically determine whether its activation deteriorates intergroup orientations. An experimental study showed that the effect of the meta-stereotype activation on the desire to interact with outgroup members was moderated by the interaction between the valence of the meta-stereotype and its difficulty of retrieval. In particular, the activation of a positive meta-stereotype deteriorated intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was high as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was low. In sharp contrast, the activation of a negative meta-stereotype worsened intergroup orientations when the difficulty of retrieval was low as compared with a condition in which the difficulty of retrieval was high. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on activated carbon by complexation with surface functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella; Alberti, Giancarla; Conti, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on an activated carbon (Filtrasorb 300, Chemviron) was characterized assuming that it takes place by formation of complexes with functional groups, present in the activated carbon. Their concentration and conditional adsorption coefficients were determined for each metal by titration of the carbon in suspension in aqueous phase, at constant acidity, with the metal itself. For each titration point, the concentration of the metal in the solution phase after equilibration was determined, and the data were processed by the Ruzic linearization method, to obtain the concentration of the active sites involved in the sorption, and the conditional constant. The effect of the pH was also examined, in the range 4-6, obtaining that the adsorption increases at increasing pH. The protonation and adsorption constants were determined from the conditional adsorption coefficients obtained at the different acidities. The concentration of the active sites is 0.023 and 0.042 mmol g -1 , and the protonation constants are 1.0x10 6 and 4.6x10 4 M -1 for Pb(II) and Cu(II). The corresponding adsorption constants are respectively 1.4x10 5 and 6.3x10 3 M -1 . All the parameters are affected by a large uncertainty, probably due to the heterogeneity of the active groups in the activated carbon. Even if so, these parameters make it possible a good prediction of the adsorption in a wide range of conditions. Other sorption mechanism can be set up at different conditions, in particular at different pH, as it has been demonstrated in the case of copper(II)

  19. Adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on activated carbon by complexation with surface functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella; Alberti, Giancarla; Conti, Fabio

    2003-03-17

    The adsorption of lead(II) and copper(II) on an activated carbon (Filtrasorb 300, Chemviron) was characterized assuming that it takes place by formation of complexes with functional groups, present in the activated carbon. Their concentration and conditional adsorption coefficients were determined for each metal by titration of the carbon in suspension in aqueous phase, at constant acidity, with the metal itself. For each titration point, the concentration of the metal in the solution phase after equilibration was determined, and the data were processed by the Ruzic linearization method, to obtain the concentration of the active sites involved in the sorption, and the conditional constant. The effect of the pH was also examined, in the range 4-6, obtaining that the adsorption increases at increasing pH. The protonation and adsorption constants were determined from the conditional adsorption coefficients obtained at the different acidities. The concentration of the active sites is 0.023 and 0.042 mmol g{sup -1}, and the protonation constants are 1.0x10{sup 6} and 4.6x10{sup 4} M{sup -1} for Pb(II) and Cu(II). The corresponding adsorption constants are respectively 1.4x10{sup 5} and 6.3x10{sup 3} M{sup -1}. All the parameters are affected by a large uncertainty, probably due to the heterogeneity of the active groups in the activated carbon. Even if so, these parameters make it possible a good prediction of the adsorption in a wide range of conditions. Other sorption mechanism can be set up at different conditions, in particular at different pH, as it has been demonstrated in the case of copper(II)

  20. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Hong, Mo-Na [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Chen, Qi-Zhi [Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Han, Wei-Qing, E-mail: whan020@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Gao, Ping-Jin, E-mail: gaopingjin@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-29

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  1. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hong, Mo-Na; Chen, Qi-Zhi; Han, Wei-Qing; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  2. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1010] Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical... certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs...

  3. ABERRANT RESTING-STATE BRAIN ACTIVITY IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A META-ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Saskia B J; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    About 10% of trauma-exposed individuals develop PTSD. Although a growing number of studies have investigated resting-state abnormalities in PTSD, inconsistent results suggest a need for a meta-analysis and a systematic review. We conducted a systematic literature search in four online databases using keywords for PTSD, functional neuroimaging, and resting-state. In total, 23 studies matched our eligibility criteria. For the meta-analysis, we included 14 whole-brain resting-state studies, reporting data on 663 participants (298 PTSD patients and 365 controls). We used the activation likelihood estimation approach to identify concurrence of whole-brain hypo- and hyperactivations in PTSD patients during rest. Seed-based studies could not be included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Therefore, a separate qualitative systematic review was conducted on nine seed-based functional connectivity studies. The meta-analysis showed consistent hyperactivity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the parahippocampus/amygdala, but hypoactivity in the (posterior) insula, cerebellar pyramis and middle frontal gyrus in PTSD patients, compared to healthy controls. Partly concordant with these findings, the systematic review on seed-based functional connectivity studies showed enhanced salience network (SN) connectivity, but decreased default mode network (DMN) connectivity in PTSD. Combined, these altered resting-state connectivity and activity patterns could represent neurobiological correlates of increased salience processing and hypervigilance (SN), at the cost of awareness of internal thoughts and autobiographical memory (DMN) in PTSD. However, several discrepancies between findings of the meta-analysis and systematic review were observed, stressing the need for future studies on resting-state abnormalities in PTSD patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Danaei, Goodarz

    2013-08-02

    Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a 'social norm' seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome risk: a meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Mei-Guo; Jiang, Rong; Ding, Rui; Che, Zhen; Chen, Yan-Yan; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Cao, Ji-Yu

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have reported that excessive amounts of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) might increase the incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), but so far the published results were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association between PAI-1 gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to PCOS by performing a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was conducted on google scholar, PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 11.0 software and the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Ten case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 2,079 cases and 1,556 controls. The results showed that PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may increase the risk of PCOS, especially among Asian populations. However, there was no statistically significant association between the polymorphism and PCOS risk in Caucasians. Our meta-analysis suggests that PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may contribute to increasing susceptibility to PCOS in Asians. Detection of the PAI-1 gene polymorphism might be a promising biomarker for the susceptibility of PCOS.

  6. Physical activity, hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizot, Cécile; Boniol, Mathieu; Mullie, Patrick; Koechlin, Alice; Boniol, Magali; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Lower risk of breast cancer has been reported among physically active women, but the risk in women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) appears to be higher. We quantified the association between physical activity and breast cancer, and we examined the influence that HRT use and other risk factors had on this association. After a systematic literature search, prospective studies were meta-analysed using random-effect models applied on highest versus lowest level of physical activity. Dose-response analyses were conducted with studies reporting physical activity either in hours per week or in hours of metabolic equivalent per week (MET-h/week). The literature search identified 38 independent prospective studies published between 1987 and 2014 that included 116,304 breast cancer cases. Compared to the lowest level of physical activity, the highest level was associated with a summary relative risk (SRR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85, 0.90) for all breast cancer, 0.89 (95% CI 0.83, 0.95) for ER+/PR+ breast cancer and 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.92) for ER-/PR- breast cancer. Risk reductions were not influenced by the type of physical activity (occupational or non-occupational), adiposity, and menopausal status. Risk reductions increased with increasing amounts of physical activity without threshold effect. In six studies, the SRR was 0.78 (95% CI 0.70, 0.87) in women who never used HRT and 0.97 (95% CI 0.88, 1.07) in women who ever used HRT, without heterogeneity in results. Findings indicate that a physically inactive women engaging in at least 150 min per week of vigorous physical activity would reduce their lifetime risk of breast cancer by 9%, a reduction that might be two times greater in women who never used HRT. Increasing physical activity is associated with meaningful reductions in the risk of breast cancer, but in women who ever used HRT, the preventative effect of physical activity seems to be cancelled out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Antimicrobial and mutagenic activity of some carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands and their copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, A; Carcelli, M; Pelagatti, P; Pelizzi, C; Pelizzi, G; Zani, F

    1999-06-15

    Several mono- and bis- carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands have been synthesised and characterised; the X-ray diffraction analysis of bis(phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone is reported. The coordinating properties of the ligands have been studied towards Cu(II), Fe(II), and Zn(II) salts. The ligands and the metal complexes were tested in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. In general, the bisthiocarbonohydrazones possess the best antimicrobial properties and Gram positive bacteria are the most sensitive microorganisms. Bis(ethyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone, bis(butyl 2-pyridyl ketone)thiocarbonohydrazone and Cu(H2nft)Cl2 (H2nft, bis(5-nitrofuraldehyde)thiocarbonohydrazone) reveal a strong activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.7 microgram ml-1 against Bacillus subtilis and of 3 micrograms ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus. Cu(II) complexes are more effective than Fe(II) and Zn(II) ones. All bisthiocarbono- and carbonohydrazones are devoid of mutagenic properties, with the exception of the compounds derived from 5-nitrofuraldehyde. On the contrary a weak mutagenicity, that disappears in the copper complexes, is exhibited by monosubstituted thiocarbonohydrazones.

  8. Tartrazine modified activated carbon for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monser, Lotfi; Adhoum, Nafaâ

    2009-01-15

    A two in one attempt for the removal of tartrazine and metal ions on activated carbon has been developed. The method was based on the modification of activated carbon with tartrazine then its application for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions at different pH values. Tartrazine adsorption data were modelled using both Langmuir and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities qm were 121.3, 67 and 56.7mgg(-1) at initial pH values of 1.0, 6.0 and 10, respectively. The adsorption of tartrazine onto activated carbon followed second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium time was found to be 240min at pH 1.0 and 120min at pH 10 for 500mgL(-1) tartrazine concentration. A maximum removal of 85% was obtained after 1h of contact time. The presence of tartrazine as modifier enhances attractive electrostatic interactions between metal ions and carbon surface. The adsorption capacity for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions has been improved with respect to non-modified carbon reaching a maximum of 140%. The adsorption capacity was found to be a pH dependent for both modified and non-modified carbon with a greater adsorption at higher pH values except for Cr(III). The enhancement percent of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) at different pH values was varied from 28% to 140% with respect to non-modified carbon. The amount of metal ions adsorbed using static regime was 11-40% higher than that with dynamic mode. The difference between adsorption capacities could be attributed to the applied flow rate.

  9. A network meta-analysis for efficacy and safety of seven regimens in the treatment of type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Qin; Hua, Wei-Chang; Li, Chang-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of seven regimens based on metformin (placebo plus metformin, dapagliflozin plus metformin, vildagliptin plus metformin, saxagliptin plus metformin, empagliflozin plus metformin, exenatide plus metformin and sitagliptin plus metformin) on type 2 diabetes (T2D) were compared based on network meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were applied in the computer-based retrieval process. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which were related with the above seven regimens based on metformin in the treatment of T2D were included in this study. Network meta-analysis merged the direct and indirect comparison evidence for the estimation of the weighted mean difference (WMD), odd ratios (ORs) and surface under the cumulative sequencing ranking curve (SUCRA) values. Eight eligible RCTs were applied in this network meta-analysis. The results demonstrated that: in terms of efficacy, the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of T2D patients receiving vildagliptin plus metformin were relatively lower when compared with placebo plus metformin (WMD=-1.95, 95%CI=-3.70--0.23); in comparison with exenatide plus metformin, the triglyceride level in T2D patients taking vildagliptin plus metformin remained relatively lower (WMD=-1.36, 95%CI=-2.64--0.01). In terms of safety, the rate of adverse events in patients with T2D who received empagliflozin plus metformin was relatively lower when compared with saxagliptin plus metformin (OR=0.37, 95%CI=0.14-0.98). Furthermore, the SUCRA value of vildagliptin plus metformin was comparatively higher in efficacy, and that the SUCRA value of saxagliptin plus metformin was relatively lower in safety. The efficacy of vildagliptin plus metformin in patients with T2D is relatively better, while the safety of saxagliptin plus metformin in patients with T2D is relatively poorer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical recovery of Cr (VI), Mo (VI), Ti (IV) and Co (II) by N-phenyl-meta-nitro-benzohydroxamic and N-P-tolyl-meta-nitro-benzohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Abdul Aziz Malik Mohamed

    2000-05-01

    Two hydroxamic acids were prepared; N-phenyl-m-nitro-benzohydroxamic and N-p-tolyl-m-nitro-benzo hydroxamic acids. N-phenyl-m-nitro-benzohydroxamic was prepared by coupling the β-phenyl hydroxylamine with m-nitro-benzoyl chloride in ratio 1:1 in alkaline medium at zero degree centigrade. It recrystallized from a mixture of benzene and petroleum ether (2:1) with the yield of 67%. The product was characterized by: A-nitrogen content which was found to be 10.7% (lit. 10.9%). B-infra-red spectroscopy. C-the molecular weight which was determined by titration, was found to be 257.7 gram (lit. 257 gram). D-the molecular weight which was determined by elevation of the boiling point, was found to be 253.7 gram (lit. 257 gram). E-characteristic violet color reaction with vanadium and blood-red reaction with ferric chloride solutions. F-melting point 117 degree centigrade. N-p-tolyl-m-nitro benzo hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling the p-tolyl-hydroxylamine with m-nitro benzoyl chloride using the same procedure. It was recrystallized from a mixture of benzene and petroleum ether (2:1) with the yield of 63%. The product was characterized by: A-nitrogen content which was found to be 10.1% (lit. 10.3). B-infra-red spectroscopy. C-the molecular weight which was determined by titration, was found to be 271.6 gram (lit. 272). D-the molecular weight which was determined by elevation of the boiling point, was found to be 269.9 gram (lit. 272 gram). E.characteristic violet color reaction with vanadium and blood-red color with ferric chloride solutions. F-melting point which was found to be 105 degree centigrade (lit. 106 degree c). the two hydroxamic acids were used as analytical reagents for extraction of metal ions Ti (IV), Cr (VI), Mo (VI) and Co (II). With an equal volume of the organic and aqueous phase, and only one extraction, N-phenyl-m-nitro-benzohydroxamic acid was found to have a maximum extraction of 30.18% for Ti (IV) at pH 2.0, of 97.06% for Cr (VI) at 3MH 2 SO 4

  11. Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Weight Loss and Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Mateo, Gemma; Granado-Font, Esther; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Montaña-Carreras, Xavier

    2015-11-10

    To our knowledge, no meta-analysis to date has assessed the efficacy of mobile phone apps to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to compare the efficacy of mobile phone apps compared with other approaches to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified by a search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus from their inception through to August 2015. Two members of the study team (EG-F, GF-M) independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. We included all controlled studies that assessed a mobile phone app intervention with weight-related health measures (ie, body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) or physical activity outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across studies using random-effects models. We included 12 articles in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, use of a mobile phone app was associated with significant changes in body weight (kg) and body mass index (kg/m(2)) of -1.04 kg (95% CI -1.75 to -0.34; I2 = 41%) and -0.43 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.74 to -0.13; I2 = 50%), respectively. Moreover, a nonsignificant difference in physical activity was observed between the two groups (standardized mean difference 0.40, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.87; I2 = 93%). These findings were remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was shown. Evidence from this study shows that mobile phone app-based interventions may be useful tools for weight loss.

  12. The barriers, benefits and facilitators of leisure time physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a meta-synthesis of qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Toni Louise; Smith, Brett; Papathomas, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) can have a positive impact upon health and well-being for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite these benefits, people with SCI are within the most physically inactive segment of society that comprises disabled people. This original meta-synthesis of qualitative research was undertaken to explore the barriers, benefits and facilitators of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among people with SCI. Articles published since 2000 were identified through a rigorous search of electronic databases, supported with a hand search of relevant journals and papers. In total, 64 papers were read in full, and based on inclusion criteria, 18 were relevant for review. The key themes constructed from the data were summarised, compared and synthesised. Eight interrelated concepts were identified as barriers, benefits and/or facilitators of LTPA: (i) well-being (WB); (ii) environment; (iii) physical body; (iv) body-self relationship; (v) physically active identity; (vi) knowledge; (vii) restitution narrative; (viii) perceived absences. Based on the synthesised evidence, healthcare professionals need to appreciate the relationships between the barriers, benefits and facilitators of LTPA in order to successfully promote a physically active lifestyle. Equally, a more critical attitude to PA promotion is called for in terms of possible adverse consequences.

  13. Association between the polymorphisms of urokinase plasminogen activation system and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Z

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Xu,1,* Li-Li Meng,2,* Jizong Lin,3 Yunbiao Ling,3 Shu-xian Chen,3 Nan Lin31Department of Infectious Diseases, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this studyPurpose: The present study aimed to investigate the potential association between the urokinase plasminogen activation (uPA system polymorphisms (rs4065, rs2227564, and rs344781 and cancer risk.Methods: An extensive search was performed to identify published case–control studies on the association between the uPA system polymorphisms and cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate the relationship between the uPA system polymorphisms and cancer risk.Results: A total of 20 studies comprising 7,037 cancer cases and 10,094 controls were identified and included in the present meta-analysis. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was associated with the uPA polymorphism rs4065 (T vs C: OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.19–1.89; TT vs CC: OR 4.63, 95% CI: 3.10–6.91; dominant model: OR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.60–2.33; recessive model: OR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.26–7.25 and the uPA receptor polymorphism rs344781 (T vs C: OR 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.23; TC vs CC: OR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06–1.49; TT vs CC: OR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13–1.63; dominant model: OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10–1.52. No significant association was found between the uPA polymorphism rs2227564 and cancer risk. Subgroup analysis suggests that the T allele of the rs4065 (T allele vs C allele: OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.19–1.89 and rs344781 polymorphisms (T allele vs C allele: OR 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04–1.23 was associated with increased cancer risk in Asians.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the uPA polymorphism rs4065 and the uPA receptor polymorphism rs344781

  14. Event based neutron activation spectroscopy and analysis algorithm using MLE and meta-heuristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, B.

    2014-01-01

    Techniques used in neutron activation analysis are often dependent on the experimental setup. In the context of developing a portable and high efficiency detection array, good energy resolution and half-life discrimination are difficult to obtain with traditional methods given the logistic and financial constraints. An approach different from that of spectrum addition and standard spectroscopy analysis was needed. The use of multiple detectors prompts the need for a flexible storage of acquisition data to enable sophisticated post processing of information. Analogously to what is done in heavy ion physics, gamma detection counts are stored as two-dimensional events. This enables post-selection of energies and time frames without the need to modify the experimental setup. This method of storage also permits the use of more complex analysis tools. Given the nature of the problem at hand, a light and efficient analysis code had to be devised. A thorough understanding of the physical and statistical processes involved was used to create a statistical model. Maximum likelihood estimation was combined with meta-heuristics to produce a sophisticated curve-fitting algorithm. Simulated and experimental data were fed into the analysis code prompting positive results in terms of half-life discrimination, peak identification and noise reduction. The code was also adapted to other fields of research such as heavy ion identification of the quasi-target (QT) and quasi-particle (QP). The approach used seems to be able to translate well into other fields of research. (author)

  15. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War II...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II Complexes with Salicylidene Thiosemicarbazones: Antibacterial, Antifungal and in Vitro Antileukemia Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Rosu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two new Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes (1–32 with salicylidene thiosemicarbazones (H2L1–H2L10 were synthesized. Salicylidene thiosemicarbazones, of general formula (XN-NH-C(S-NH(Y, were prepared through the condensation reaction of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and its derivatives (X with thiosemicarbazide or 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide (Y = H, C6H5. The characterization of the new formed compounds was done by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetochemical, thermoanalytical and molar conductance measurements. In addition, the structure of the complex 5 has been determined by X-ray diffraction method. All ligands and metal complexes were tested as inhibitors of human leukemia (HL-60 cells growth and antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  17. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although angiotensin II (Ang II was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  18. Self-monitoring to increase physical activity in patients with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanejima, Yuji; Kitamura, Masahiro; Izawa, Kazuhiro P

    2018-04-30

    It is important to encourage physical activity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and self-monitoring is considered to contribute to increased physical activity. However, the effects of self-monitoring on CVD patients remain to be established. In this study, we examined the influence of self-monitoring on physical activity of patients with CVD via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Screening of randomized controlled trials only was undertaken twice on PubMed (date of appraisal: August 29, 2017). The inclusion criteria included outpatients with CVD, interventions for them, daily step counts as physical activity included in the outcome, and self-monitoring included in the intervention. Assessments of the risk of bias and meta-analysis in relation to the mean change of daily step counts were conducted to verify the effects of self-monitoring. From 205 studies retrieved on PubMed, six studies were included, with the oldest study published in 2005. Participants included 693 patients of whom 541 patients completed each study program. Their mean age was 60.8 years, and the ratio of men was 79.6%. From these 6 studies, a meta-analysis was conducted with 269 patients of 4 studies including only RCTs with step counts in the intervention group and the control group, and self-monitoring significantly increased physical activity (95% confidence interval, 1916-3090 steps per day, p monitoring combined with other behavior change techniques. The results suggest that self-monitoring of physical activity by patients with CVD has a significantly positive effect on their improvement. Moreover, the trend toward self-monitoring combined with setting counseling and activity goals, and increased intervention via the internet, may lead to the future development and spread of self-monitoring for CVD patients.

  19. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mark II containment program load evaluation and acceptance criteria; Generic Technical Activity A-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.J.

    1981-08-01

    The report provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark II pressure-suppression containment design. This report concludes NRC Generic Technical Activity A-8, 'Mark II Containment Pool Dynamic Loads,' which has been designated an 'Unresolved Safety Issue' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974

  1. Targeted radiotherapy of multicell neuroblastoma spheroids with high specific activity [125I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Wilson H.Y.; Miller, Gerald G.; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; McQuarrie, Steve A.; Tse, Jeanie; Wu, Jonn; Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Iodine-125 induces cell death by a mechanism similar to that of high linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of high-specific-activity [ 125 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ( 125 I-mIBG) in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells grown as three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. Materials and Methods: Spheroids were incubated with high-specific-activity 125 I-mIBG (6 mCi/μg, 1000 times that of the conventional specific activity used for autoradiography). Cytotoxicity was assessed by fluorescence viability markers and confocal microscopy for intact spheroids, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and clonogenic assay, and clonogenic assays for dispersed whole spheroids. Distribution of radioactive mIBG was determined by quantitative light-microscope autoradiography of spheroid cryostat sections. Dose estimation was based on temporal knowledge of the retained radioactivity inside spheroids, and of the radiolabel's emission characteristics. Findings were compared with those of spheroids treated under the same conditions with 131 I-mIBG, cold mIBG, and free iodine-125. Results: 125 I-mIBG exerted significant cell killing. Complete spheroids were eradicated when they were treated with 500 μCi of 125 I-mIBG, while those treated with 500 μCi or 1000 μCi of 131 I-mIBG were not. The observed difference in cytotoxicity between treatments with 125 I- and 131 I-mIBG could not be accounted for by the absorbed dose of spheroid alone. The peripheral, proliferating cell layer of the spheroids remained viable at the moderate radioactivity of 100 μCi for both isotopes. Cytotoxicity induced by 125 I-mIBG was quantitatively comparable by the peripheral rim thickness to that of 131 I-mIBG at the dose of 100 μCi. The peripheral rim thickness decreased most significantly in the first 17 hours after initial treatment. There was no statistical decrease in the rim thickness identified afterwards for the second, third, and fourth days of

  2. Gender similarities and differences in brain activation strategies: Voxel-based meta-analysis on fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen

    2017-01-01

    Gender similarities and differences have long been a matter of debate in almost all human research, especially upon reaching the discussion about brain functions. This large scale meta-analysis was performed on functional MRI studies. It included more than 700 active brain foci from more than 70 different experiments to study gender related similarities and differences in brain activation strategies for three of the main brain functions: Visual-spatial cognition, memory, and emotion. Areas that are significantly activated by both genders (i.e. core areas) for the tested brain function are mentioned, whereas those areas significantly activated exclusively in one gender are the gender specific areas. During visual-spatial cognition task, and in addition to the core areas, males significantly activated their left superior frontal gyrus, compared with left superior parietal lobule in females. For memory tasks, several different brain areas activated by each gender, but females significantly activated two areas from the limbic system during memory retrieval tasks. For emotional task, males tend to recruit their bilateral prefrontal regions, whereas females tend to recruit their bilateral amygdalae. This meta-analysis provides an overview based on functional MRI studies on how males and females use their brain.

  3. Nickel(II) and palladium(II) triphenylphosphine complexes incorporating tridentate Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ashraf, Ahmad Raza; Ismail, Hammad; Habib, Anum; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-12-01

    Nickel(II) and palladium(II) triphenylphosphine complexes incorporating tridentate Schiff bases have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR & NMR). The synthesized compounds were assessed to check their potential biocidal activity by using different biological assays (brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor and drug-DNA interaction). Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed that ligand molecules are more bioactive than metal complexes with LD50 as low as 12.4 μg/mL. The prominent antitumor activity was shown by nickel complexes while the palladium complexes exhibited moderate activity. The synthesized compounds have shown high propensity for DNA binding either through intercalation or groove binding which represents the mechanism of antitumor effect of these compounds. Additionally, ligand molecules and nickel metal complexes showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values as low as 3.1 μg/mL and 18.9 μg/mL respectively while palladium complexes exhibited moderate activity. Moreover, in antimicrobial assays H2L1, Ni(L1)PPh3 and H2L3 showed dual inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains while for the rest of the compounds varying degree of activity was recorded against different strains. Overall comparison of results suggests that the synthesized compounds can be promising candidate for drug formulation and development.

  4. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, M.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission

  5. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  6. How Effective Are Active Videogames Among the Young and the Old? Adding Meta-analyses to Two Recent Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan; Crutzen, Rik; Lu, Amy Shirong

    2014-10-01

    Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. All reviewed studies were considered for inclusion in the meta-analyses, but only studies were included that investigated the effectiveness of active videogames, used an experimental design, and used actual health outcomes as the outcome measures (body mass index for children/adolescents [k=5] and functional balance for the elderly [k=6]). The average effect of active videogames in children and adolescents was small and nonsignificant: Hedges' g=0.20 (95 percent confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.48). Limited heterogeneity was observed, and no moderator analyses were performed. For the effect of active videogames on functional balance in the elderly, the analyses revealed a medium-sized and significant effect of g=0.68 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.13-1.24). For the elderly studies, substantial heterogeneity was observed. Moderator analyses showed that there were no significant effects of using a no-treatment control group versus an alternative treatment control group or of using games that were especially created for health-promotion purposes versus off-the-shelf games. Also, intervention duration and frequency, sample size, study quality, and dropout did not significantly moderate the effect of active videogames. The results of these meta-analyses provide preliminary evidence that active videogames can have positive effects on relevant outcome measures in children/adolescents and elderly individuals.

  7. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  8. Contact angle study on the activation mechanisms of sphalerite with Cu(II) and Pb(II); Estudio de los mecanismos de activacion de la esfalerita con Cu(II) y Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Pulido, G. I.; Uribe Salas, A.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents results of an experimental study on the sphalerite activation with Cu(II) and Pb(II), whose main objective was to investigate the activation mechanisms and to evaluate the magnitude of the hydrophobization achieved with both chemical species. The hydrophobicity acquired by the mineral due to the interaction with the activator and collector (sodium isopropyl xanthate) is characterized making use of the contact angle technique. The results show that Cu(II) replaces the Zn of the external layers of the mineral, promoting the sulfide (S{sup 2}-) oxidation to produce a mixture of CuS, Cu{sub 2}S and S{sup o}, of hydrophobic nature. The subsequent interaction with xanthate increases the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface. In turn, Pb(II) activation of sphalerite is due to the formation of a PbS layer that reacts with xanthate to produce hydrophobic species (e.g., PbX{sub 2}). It is also observed that the hydrophobicity of sphalerite activated with Pb(II) is favored under air atmospheres, as compared to that obtained under nitrogen atmospheres. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity achieved by lead activation may be of the same order of magnitude to that deliverately induced by copper activation. (Author) 11 refs.

  9. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. l. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenc-Kubis, I.; Morawiecka, B.

    1973-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) was extracted from 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction II-b (acid phosphatase II). The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward ..beta..-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards ..beta..-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/ and fluoride, but activated by Mg/sup 2 +/. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme. 12 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Mobile health: a synopsis and comment on "Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Winter; Hoffman, Sara; Thornton, Louise

    2014-03-01

    We offer a synopsis and commentary on J. Fanning and colleagues' article "Increasing Physical Activity with Mobile Devices: A Meta-Analysis" published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research. Although regular physical activity has a range of benefits, very few adults in the USA meet recommended guidelines for daily physical activity. The meta-analysis of Fanning et al. (2012) aimed to synthesize the results of research using mobile devices to increase physical activity. Their review identified 11 studies that used mobile technologies, including short message service (SMS), apps, or personal digital assistant (PDA) to improve physical activity behaviors among participants. Fanning et al. conclude that while literature in this area is limited to date, there is initial support for the efficacy of mobile-based interventions for improving physical activity. Included studies varied greatly, and the majority used only SMS to influence physical behaviors, meaning generalization of results to other forms of mobile technologies may be premature. This review does, however, provide a foundation for understanding how mobile-based interventions may be used efficaciously for the development of future interventions to improve health behaviors.

  11. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  13. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by activated carbon obtained from furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardim, M F; Budinova, T; Ekinci, E; Petrov, N; Razvigorova, M; Minkova, V

    2003-08-01

    The adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution at 293 K by activated carbon obtained from furfural is studied. The carbon is prepared by polymerization of furfural following carbonization and activation of the obtained polymer material with water vapor at 800 degrees C. Adsorption studies of Hg(II) are carried out varying some conditions: treatment time, metal ion concentration, adsorbent amount and pH. It is determined that Hg(II) adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of the carbon is 174 mg/g. It is determined that Hg(II) uptake increases with increasing pH. Desorption studies are performed with hot water. The percent recovery of Hg(II) is 6%.

  14. Modifiable Psychosocial Constructs Associated With Physical Activity Participation in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Blathin; Coote, Susan; Shirazipour, Celina; Hannigan, Ailish; Motl, Robert; Martin Ginis, Kathleen; Latimer-Cheung, Amy

    2017-07-01

    To synthesize current knowledge of the modifiable psychosocial constructs associated with physical activity (PA) participation in people with multiple sclerosis. A search was conducted through October 2015 in 8 electronic databases: CINAHL, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PsycINFO. Cohort and intervention studies were included if they (1) included an objective or subjective measure of PA; (2) measured at least 1 modifiable psychosocial construct; and (3) reported bivariate correlations (or these could be extracted) between the PA and psychosocial construct measures. A total of 13,867 articles were screened for inclusion, and 26 were included in the final analysis. Meta-analyses of correlations were conducted using the Hedges-Olkin method. Where a meta-analysis was not possible, results were reported descriptively. Meta-analyses indicated a pooled correlation coefficient between (1) objective PA and self-efficacy (n=7) of r=.30 (Pgoal-setting (n=5) of r=.44 (Pgoal-setting. However, there is a need to explore the associations between other constructs outside those reported in this review. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Meta-analysis of the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejiao; Liu, Yukun; Zhang, Rui; Tan, Jianping; Chen, Libin; Liu, Yinglin

    2015-04-11

    The association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) risk is still contradictory. We thus performed a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched for in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and RPL risk. A total of 22 studies with 4306 cases and 3076 controls were included in this meta-analysis. We found that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.34-2.67; P=0.0003). In the subgroup analysis by race, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RPL risk in Caucasians (OR=2.23; 95% CI 1.44-3.46; P=0.0003). However, no significant association was observed in Asians (OR=1.47; 95% CI 0.84-2.59; P=0.18). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be associated with RPL development in Caucasians.

  16. Meta-analysis reveals an association between signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Kuihua; Liu, Chuanmiao; Chen, Jiasheng

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play a multitude of important functions in liver pathophysiology. Recent studies have indicated associations of rs7574865 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the STAT4 gene with various autoimmune diseases. The association between STAT4 polymorphism and the risk of HCC has been analyzed in several studies, but results remain inconsistent. This study used a meta-analysis approach to comprehensively investigate the correlation between STAT4 polymorphism and HCC risk based on previously published reports. Studies were searched from the databases of PubMed, EMBase, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure up to 31 December 2015. The meta-analysis was carried out based on the statement of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Eight published studies, consisting of 7503 HCC patients (cases) and 13 831 individuals without HCC (controls), were included in the present study. Meta-analysis of the included studies revealed that STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism contributed to the risk of HCC under all four genetic models, consisting of the allelic model (G vs. T: odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.30), the dominant effect model (GG + GT vs. TT: OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.26-1.84), the recessive effect model (GG vs. GT + TT: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.21-1.50), and the co-dominant effect model (GG vs.. TT: OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.42-2.10) comparisons. No publication bias was indicated from either visualization of the funnel plot or Egger's test. A significantly increased risk of HCC associated with the rs7574865 G was found. The rs7574865 polymorphism might be used as one risk factor for HCC. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. Recording Delphi off-line production activity in a meta-database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, L.I.; Souza, M.J. de

    1990-01-01

    The Delphi experiment is expected to produce event data at a maximum rate of 50 cartridges per day of 200 Mbytes each. The resulting 'raw' data pass by several off-line processing steps, generating additional volume of data of different kinds. Moreover, movement and copies of data volumes manipulated by the researchers working in their home laboratories must be controlled. The (meta) data describing those real events as well as the large volume of simulated Monte Carlo data, constitute a meta-database, object of our work

  18. Catalase-like activity studies of the manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćiçek, Ekrem; Dede, Bülent

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of manganese(II) adsorbed on zeolite 3A, 4A, 5A. AW-300, ammonium Y zeolite, organophilic, molecular sieve and catalase-like enzyme activity of manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites are reported herein. Firstly zeolites are activated at 873 K for two hours before contact manganese(II) ions. In order to observe amount of adsorption, filtration process applied for the solution. The pure zeolites and manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites were analysed by FT-IR. As a result according to the FT-IR spectra, the incorporation of manganese(II) cation into the zeolite structure causes changes in the spectra. These changes are expected particularly in the pseudolattice bands connected with the presence of alumino and silicooxygen tetrahedral rings in the zeolite structure. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated in the presence of imidazole. The Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites display efficiency in the disproportion reactions of hydrogen peroxide, producing water and dioxygen in catalase-like activity.

  19. Antiviral activity of platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Allaf, T.; Rashan, L

    1996-01-01

    The antiviral activity of complexes cis-[Pt(DMSO) 2 CI 2 ] and trans-[Pd(DMSO) 2 CI 2 ] against the reverse transcriptase enzyme, herpes and influenza viruses have been studied in vitro. Both complexes demonstrated some activity against the reverse transcriptase enzyme in which the inhibition concentration (IC 5 0) of the cis-Pt and the trans-Pd complexes were shown to be 37.6 and 35.5 μ g/ml respectively. This activity was compared with that of the standard reference; the phosphonoformate (PFA). On the other hand, both complexes have no antiviral activity against herpes and influenza viruses No cytotoxic effects on the three cell lines, Raji, K562 and Mrc-5 were demonstrated by these complexes at the concentrations studied in vitro. (authors). 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. Interventions with children and parents to improve physical activity and body mass index: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellert, Jane Cerruti; Johnson, Portia

    2014-01-01

    Examine the effect of interventions with parents and children on children's physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Computerized searches for intervention studies published between 1990 and 2011 used multiple ProQuest databases, including unpublished dissertations and theses to minimize publication bias. English-language, intervention-testing studies of children, parents, or families with outcomes of physical activity or BMI were retrieved from peer-reviewed journals, dissertations, and theses. Eliminated studies had no control or comparison group; had no continuous outcome variable; had no physical activity/exercise and/or BMI as outcomes; or had incomplete statistics necessary for meta-analysis (means, standard deviations, or confidence intervals). Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Quality criteria were control group, objective outcome variable measure, clarity of variable definitions, and number and reason for subject withdrawal. Meta-analysis on the raw difference of means estimated mean weighted effect size (MWES) assessed dispersion of effects and computed a summary effect. MWES for interventions with parents and children on physical activity (Z = 2.92; confidence interval [CI] = .09 to .48; p = .002) and on BMI for interventions with children alone (Z = -2.10; CI = -.16 to -.01; p = .02) was significant. A significant effect on physical activity but not on BMI was found when interventions included both parents and their children.

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Andrew; Dennis, Richard; Lee, Shuliang; Ouvry, Gilles; Perrey, David; Fisher, Michael; Wyvratt, Matthew; Leavitt, Penny; Liberator, Paul; Gurnett, Anne; Brown, Chris; Mathew, John; Thompson, Donald; Schmatz, Dennis; Biftu, Tesfaye

    2008-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the poultry industry. Protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria invade the intestinal lining of the avian host causing tissue pathology, poor weight gain, and in some cases mortality. Resistance to current anticoccidials has prompted the search for new therapeutic agents with potent in vitro and in vivo activity against Eimeria. Recently, we reported the synthesis and biological activity of potent imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine anticoccidial agents. Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). In this study, we report the synthesis and anticoccidial activity of a second set of such compounds, focusing on derivatization of the amine side chain at the imidazopyridine 7-position. From this series, several compounds showed subnanomolar in vitro activity and commercial levels of in vivo activity. However, the potential genotoxicity of these compounds precludes them from further development.

  2. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part II, Cancer Pain Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life in cancer populations. Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using the SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were subsequently included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy is effective for treating pain compared to no treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD)  = -.20] and active (SMD = -0.55) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also found to be beneficial for treating fatigue (SMD = -1.06) and anxiety (SMD = -1.24). Based on the evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to an active comparator, for the treatment of pain, fatigue, and anxiety. No recommendations were suggested for massage therapy compared to no treatment or sham control based on the available literature to date. This review addresses massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option for cancer pain populations. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  3. The Impact of Massage Therapy on Function in Pain Populations—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials: Part II, Cancer Pain Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Paat, Charmagne F; Price, Ashley; Xenakis, Lea; Zhang, Weimin; Buckenmaier, Chester; Buckenmaier, Pamela; Cambron, Jerrilyn; Deery, Christopher; Schwartz, Jan; Werner, Ruth; Whitridge, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Pain is multi-dimensional and may be better addressed through a holistic, biopsychosocial approach. Massage therapy is commonly practiced among patients seeking pain management; however, its efficacy is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to rigorously assess the quality of massage therapy research and evidence for its efficacy in treating pain, function-related and health-related quality of life in cancer populations. Methods Key databases were searched from inception through February 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality using the SIGN 50 Checklist. Meta-analysis was applied at the outcome level. A diverse steering committee interpreted the results to develop recommendations. Results Twelve high quality and four low quality studies were subsequently included in the review. Results demonstrate massage therapy is effective for treating pain compared to no treatment [standardized mean difference (SMD)  = −.20] and active (SMD = −0.55) comparators. Compared to active comparators, massage therapy was also found to be beneficial for treating fatigue (SMD = −1.06) and anxiety (SMD = −1.24). Conclusion Based on the evidence, weak recommendations are suggested for massage therapy, compared to an active comparator, for the treatment of pain, fatigue, and anxiety. No recommendations were suggested for massage therapy compared to no treatment or sham control based on the available literature to date. This review addresses massage therapy safety, research challenges, how to address identified research gaps, and necessary next steps for implementing massage therapy as a viable pain management option for cancer pain populations. PMID:27165967

  4. How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-05-01

    The physical activity (PA) intention-behaviour gap is a topic of considerable contemporary research, given that most of our models used to understand physical activity suggest that intention is the proximal antecedent of behavioural enactment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intention-PA gap at public health guidelines with a meta-analysis of the action control framework. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted in July 2012 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 2,865 potentially relevant records; of these, 10 studies fulfilled the full eligibility criteria (N = 3,899). Random-effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling bias were employed in the analysis for estimates of non-intenders who subsequently did not engage in physical activity (21%), non-intenders who subsequently performed physical activity (2%), intenders who were not successful at following through with their PA (36%), and successful intenders (42%). The overall intention-PA gap was 46%. These results emphasize the weakness in early intention models for understanding PA and suggest this would be a problem during intervention. Contemporary research that is validating and exploring additional constructs (e.g., self-regulation, automaticity) that augment intention or improving the measurement of motivation seems warranted. What is already known on this subject? Intention is considered the proximal antecedent of behaviour in many popular models. Intention is also an established correlate of physical activity behaviour, yet discordance is considerable in experimental research. What does this study add? This meta-analysis of studies that have assessed concordance/discordance of physical activity intention and behaviour at public health guidelines shows the intention-behaviour gap at 48% and the discordance is from intenders who do not act. The results demonstrate that discordance is not just from extreme levels of

  5. Inserting needles into the body: a meta-analysis of brain activity associated with acupuncture needle stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Younbyoung; Chang, Dong-Seon; Lee, Soon-Ho; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Jackson, Stephen; Kong, Jian; Lee, Hyangsook; Park, Hi-Joon; Lee, Hyejung; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is defined as the insertion of needles into the body at specific points (ie, acupoints). Advances in functional neuroimaging have made it possible to study brain responses to acupuncture; however, previous studies have mainly concentrated on acupoint specificity. We wanted to focus on the functional brain responses that occur because of needle insertion into the body. An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was carried out to investigate common characteristics of brain responses to acupuncture needle stimulation compared to tactile stimulation. A total of 28 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which consisted of 51 acupuncture and 10 tactile stimulation experiments, were selected for the meta-analysis. Following acupuncture needle stimulation, activation in the sensorimotor cortical network, including the insula, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and deactivation in the limbic-paralimbic neocortical network, including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and parahippocampus, were detected and assessed. Following control tactile stimulation, weaker patterns of brain responses were detected in areas similar to those stated above. The activation and deactivation patterns following acupuncture stimulation suggest that the hemodynamic responses in the brain simultaneously reflect the sensory, cognitive, and affective dimensions of pain. This article facilitates a better understanding of acupuncture needle stimulation and its effects on specific activity changes in different brain regions as well as its relationship to the multiple dimensions of pain. Future studies can build on this meta-analysis and will help to elucidate the clinically relevant therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  6. The active phasing experiment: Part II. Design and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Araujo, C.; Brast, R.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Noethe, L.; Sedghi, B.; Surdej, I.; Wilhelm, R.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Langlois, M.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the Active Phasing Experiment, designed under the lead of ESO, is to validate wavefront control concepts for ELT class telescopes. This instrument includes an Active Segmented Mirror, located in a pupil image. It will be mounted at a Nasmyth focus of one of the Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. APE contains four different types of phasing sensors, which are developed by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Arcetri, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. These phasing sensors can be compared simultaneously under identical optical and environmental conditions. All sensors receive telecentric F/15 beams with identical optical quality and intensity. Each phasing sensor can measure segmentation errors of the active segmented mirror and correct them in closed loop. The phasing process is supervised by an Internal Metrology system developed by FOGALE Nanotech and capable of measuring piston steps with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The Active Phasing Experiment is equipped with a turbulence generator to simulate atmospheric seeing between 0.45 and 0.85 arcsec in the laboratory. In addition, the Active Phasing Experiment is designed to control simultaneously with the phasing corrections the guiding and the active optics of one of the VLT Unit Telescopes. This activity is supported by the European Community (Framework Programme 6, ELT Design Study, contract No 011863).

  7. Surgical treatment of active native mitral infective endocarditis: A meta-analysis of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhou Liu

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that MVP may be associated with superior postoperative survival outcomes compared with MVR. MVP is desirable, if possible, as a durable alternative to replacement. However, we must consider the influence of different patient characteristics and surgeons' preferences on the choice of surgical approach, and additional powered clinical trials will be required to confirm these findings.

  8. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narula, Neeraj; Kassam, Zain; Yuan, Yuhong; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Ponsioen, Cyriel; Reinisch, Walter; Moayyedi, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in the colonic microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and restoration of healthy gut microbiota may ameliorate disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment for

  9. Activation of Central PPAR-γ Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the brain contribute to hypertension through effects on fluid intake, vasopressin release, and sympathetic nerve activity. We recently reported that activation of brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in heart failure rats reduced inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and ameliorated the peripheral manifestations of heart failure. We hypothesized that activation of brain PPAR-γ might have beneficial effects in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats received a 2-week subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (120 ng/kg/min) combined with a continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle, the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (3 nmol/h) or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (7 nmol/h). Angiotensin II+vehicle rats had increased mean blood pressure, increased sympathetic drive as indicated by the mean blood pressure response to ganglionic blockade, and increased water consumption. PPAR-γ mRNA in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was unchanged, but PPAR-γ DNA binding activity was reduced. mRNA for interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and angiotensin II type-1 receptor was augmented in both nuclei, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activity was increased. The plasma vasopressin response to a 6-hour water restriction also increased. These responses to angiotensin II were exacerbated by GW9662 and ameliorated by pioglitazone, which increased PPAR-γ mRNA and PPAR-γ DNA binding activity in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Pioglitazone and GW9662 had no effects on control rats. The results suggest that activating brain PPAR-γ to reduce central inflammation and brain renin-angiotensin system activity may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26101342

  10. Effects of stimulus type and strategy on mental rotation network:an Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We could predict how an object would look like if we were to see it from different viewpoints. The brain network governing mental rotation (MR has been studied using a variety of stimuli and tasks instructions. By using activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis we tested whether different MR networks can be modulated by the type of stimulus (body vs. non body parts or by the type of tasks instructions (motor imagery-based vs. non-motor imagery-based MR instructions. Testing for the bodily and non-bodily stimulus axis revealed a bilateral sensorimotor activation for bodily-related as compared to non bodily-related stimuli and a posterior right lateralized activation for non bodily-related as compared to bodily-related stimuli. A top-down modulation of the network was exerted by the MR tasks instructions frame with a bilateral (preferentially sensorimotor left network for motor imagery- vs. non-motor imagery-based MR instructions and the latter activating a preferentially posterior right occipito-temporal-parietal network. The present quantitative meta-analysis summarizes and amends previous descriptions of the brain network related to MR and shows how it is modulated by top-down and bottom-up experimental factors.

  11. Angiotensin II inhibits the Na+-K+ pump via PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Caroline N; Figtree, Gemma A; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Chia, Karin K M; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2009-04-01

    The sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump, pivotal in cardiac myocyte function, is inhibited by angiotensin II (ANG II). Since ANG II activates NADPH oxidase, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase mediates the pump inhibition. Exposure to 100 nmol/l ANG II increased superoxide-sensitive fluorescence of isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. The increase was abolished by pegylated superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, and by myristolated inhibitory peptide to epsilon-protein kinase C (epsilonPKC), previously implicated in ANG II-induced Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition. A role for epsilonPKC was also supported by an ANG II-induced increase in coimmunoprecipitation of epsilonPKC with the receptor for the activated kinase and with the cytosolic p47(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase. ANG II decreased electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current in voltage-clamped myocytes. The decrease was abolished by SOD, by the gp91ds inhibitory peptide that blocks assembly and activation of NADPH oxidase, and by epsilonPKC inhibitory peptide. Since colocalization should facilitate NADPH oxidase-dependent regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, we examined whether there is physical association between the pump subunits and NADPH oxidase. The alpha(1)-subunit coimmunoprecipitated with caveolin 3 and with membrane-associated p22(phox) and cytosolic p47(phox) NADPH oxidase subunits at baseline. ANG II had no effect on alpha(1)/caveolin 3 or alpha(1)/p22(phox) interaction, but it increased alpha(1)/p47(phox) coimmunoprecipitation. We conclude that ANG II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump via PKC-dependent NADPH oxidase activation.

  12. Activation of TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz; Bozic, Matjaz

    2002-01-01

    To determine neutron activation inside the TRIGA research reactor concrete body a special sample-holder for irradiation inside horizontal channel was developed and tested. In the sample-holder various samples can be irradiated at different concrete shielding depths. In this paper the description of the sample-holder, experiment conditions and results of long-lived activation measurements are given. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides in the samples were measured with HPGe detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in ordinary concrete samples were found to be 60 Co and 152 Eu and in barytes concrete samples 60 Co, 152 Eu and 133 Ba. Measured activity density of all nuclides was found to decrease almost linearly with depth in logarithmic scale. (author)

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating diagnostic test accuracy: A practical review for clinical researchers-Part II. general guidance and tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Huh, Jimi; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, June Young

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies differs from the usual meta-analysis of therapeutic/interventional studies in that, it is required to simultaneously analyze a pair of two outcome measures such as sensitivity and specificity, instead of a single outcome. Since sensitivity and specificity are generally inversely correlated and could be affected by a threshold effect, more sophisticated statistical methods are required for the meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Hierarchical models including the bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model are increasingly being accepted as standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. We provide a conceptual review of statistical methods currently used and recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. This article could serve as a methodological reference for those who perform systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies

  14. Effects of physical activity on executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, E

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a systematic review of intervention studies that investigated the effects of physical activity on multiple domains of executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age). In addition, a systematic quantification of the effects of physical activity on these domains is provided. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of electronic databases and examining relevant reviews between 2000 and April 2017 resulted in 31 intervention studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Four subdomains of executive functions (inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning), three subdomains of attention (selective, divided and sustained) and three subdomains of academic performance (mathematics, spelling and reading) were distinguished. Effects for different study designs (acute physical activity or longitudinal physical activity programs), type of physical activity (aerobic or cognitively engaging) and duration of intervention were examined separately. Acute physical activity has a positive effect on attention (g=0.43; 95% CI=0.09, 0.77; 6 studies), while longitudinal physical activity programs has a positive effect on executive functions (g=0.24; 95% CI=0.09, 0.39; 12 studies), attention (g=0.90; 95% CI=0.56, 1.24; 1 study) and academic performance (g=0.26; 95% CI=0.02, 0.49; 3 studies). The effects did depend on the subdomain. Positive effects were found for physical activity on executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children. Largest effects are expected for interventions that aim for continuous regular physical activity over several weeks. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active locking and entanglement in type II optical parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquín; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Type II optical parametric oscillators are amongst the highest-quality sources of quantum-correlated light. In particular, when pumped above threshold, such devices generate a pair of bright orthogonally-polarized beams with strong continuous-variable entanglement. However, these sources are of limited practical use, because the entangled beams emerge with different frequencies and a diffusing phase difference. It has been proven that the use of an internal wave-plate coupling the modes with orthogonal polarization is capable of locking the frequencies of the emerging beams to half the pump frequency, as well as reducing the phase-difference diffusion, at the expense of reducing the entanglement levels. In this work we characterize theoretically an alternative locking mechanism: the injection of a laser at half the pump frequency. Apart from being less invasive, this method should allow for an easier real-time experimental control. We show that such an injection is capable of generating the desired phase locking between the emerging beams, while still allowing for large levels of entanglement. Moreover, we find an additional region of the parameter space (at relatively large injections) where a mode with well defined polarization is in a highly amplitude-squeezed state.

  16. Salt mine Asse II. Status of the retrieval activities; Schachtanlage Asse II. Stand der Arbeiten und Rueckholung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-15

    The booklet on the status of retrieval activities in the salt mine Asse II includes information on the background of medium-level radioactive waste disposal during 1967 to 1978 on behalf of the Federal government. Since 2009 the former mine is operated by the BfS with the assignment of decommissioning. The potential risk for stability and safety due to problems of water ingress were known before beginning of the disposals. The retrieval of the radioactive waste will require many decades; the costs are financed by tax money. The planning of the retrieval is currently on the way, details of the concept are described.

  17. Psychosocial versus physiological stress – meta-analyses on deactivations and activations of the neural correlates of stress reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Mueller, Veronika I.; Chang, Amy; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Gur, Ruben C.; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Stress is present in everyday life in various forms and situations. Two stressors frequently investigated are physiological and psychosocial stress. Besides similar subjective and hormonal responses, it has been suggested that they also share common neural substrates. The current study used activation-likelihood-estimation meta-analysis to test this assumption by integrating results of previous neuroimaging studies on stress processing. Reported results are cluster-level FWE corrected. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the anterior insula (AI) were the only regions that demonstrated overlapping activation for both stressors. Analysis of physiological stress showed consistent activation of cognitive and affective components of pain processing such as the insula, striatum, or the middle cingulate cortex. Contrarily, analysis across psychosocial stress revealed consistent activation of the right superior temporal gyrus and deactivation of the striatum. Notably, parts of the striatum appeared to be functionally specified: the dorsal striatum was activated in physiological stress, whereas the ventral striatum was deactivated in psychosocial stress. Additional functional connectivity and decoding analyses further characterized this functional heterogeneity and revealed higher associations of the dorsal striatum with motor regions and of the ventral striatum with reward processing. Based on our meta-analytic approach, activation of the IFG and the AI seems to indicate a global neural stress reaction. While physiological stress activates a motoric fight-or-flight reaction, during psychosocial stress attention is shifted towards emotion regulation and goal-directed behavior, and reward processing is reduced. Our results show the significance of differentiating physiological and psychosocial stress in neural engagement. Furthermore, the assessment of deactivations in addition to activations in stress research is highly recommended. PMID:26123376

  18. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity ― A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Barata, Llilda; Chu, Audrey Y.; Mahajan, Anubha; Hadley, David; Xue, Luting; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; den Hoed, Marcel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Qi, Qibin; Ngwa, Julius S.; Quaye, Lydia; Eicher, John D.; Hayes, James E.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lim, Elise; Luan, Jian’an; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Wei; Griffin, Paula J.; Haller, Toomas; Ahmad, Shafqat; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M.; Bien, Stephanie; Yengo, Loic; Teumer, Alexander; Smith, Albert Vernon; Kumari, Meena; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Kleber, Marcus E.; Hollensted, Mette; Lohman, Kurt; Rivera, Natalia V.; Whitfield, John B.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Stringham, Heather M.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Huppertz, Charlotte; Willemsen, Gonneke; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Wu, Ying; Kristiansson, Kati; Demirkan, Ayse; Fornage, Myriam; Hassinen, Maija; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Cadby, Gemma; Tanaka, Toshiko; Mägi, Reedik; van der Most, Peter J.; Jackson, Anne U.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Vitart, Veronique; Marten, Jonathan; Navarro, Pau; Bellis, Claire; Pasko, Dorota; Johansson, Åsa; Snitker, Søren; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Eriksson, Joel; Lim, Unhee; Aadahl, Mette; Adair, Linda S.; Amin, Najaf; Balkau, Beverley; Auvinen, Juha; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Bertoni, Alain G.; Blangero, John; Bonnefond, Amélie; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Borja, Judith B.; Brage, Søren; Busonero, Fabio; Buyske, Steve; Campbell, Harry; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Corre, Tanguy; Smith, George Davey; Delgado, Graciela E.; Dueker, Nicole; Dörr, Marcus; Ebeling, Tapani; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Esko, Tõnu; Faul, Jessica D.; Fu, Mao; Færch, Kristine; Gieger, Christian; Gläser, Sven; Gong, Jian; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Grarup, Niels; van Grootheest, Gerard; Harald, Kennet; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hernandez, Dena; Hindorff, Lucia; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holmens, Oddgeir L.; Holzapfel, Christina; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jie; Huang, Tao; Hui, Jennie; Huth, Cornelia; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; James, Alan L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jhun, Min A.; Juonala, Markus; Kinnunen, Leena; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Kähönen, Mika; Lakka, Timo A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehne, Benjamin; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Marre, Michel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Monda, Keri L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, A. W.; Männikkö, Reija; Männistö, Satu; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Olden, Matthias; Ong, Ken K.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perez, Jeremiah; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Peters, Ulrike; Peyser, Patricia A.; Prokopenko, Inga; Puolijoki, Hannu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rawal, Rajesh; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Rudan, Igor; Sarti, Cinzia; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Savonen, Kai; Scott, William R.; Sanna, Serena; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sidney, Steve; Silbernagel, Günther; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Sternfeld, Barbara; Swift, Amy J.; Tammelin, Tuija; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Thuillier, Dorothée; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vestergaard, Henrik; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wild, Sarah; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Zubair, Niha; Haiman, Christopher A.; Lemarchand, Loic; Gyllensten, Ulf; Ohlsson, Claes; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pérusse, Louis; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Cucca, Francesco; Hveem, Kristian; Hartman, Catharina A.; Tönjes, Anke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Palmer, Lyle J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mangino, Massimo; Laakso, Markku; Bouchard, Claude; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kuh, Diana; Liu, Yongmei; Linneberg, Allan; März, Winfried; Strauch, Konstantin; Kivimäki, Mika; Harris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Völzke, Henry; Qi, Lu; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Froguel, Philippe; Kooperberg, Charles; Vollenweider, Peter; Hallmans, Göran; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Metspalu, Andres; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Weir, David R.; Porteous, David J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chasman, Daniel I.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Boehnke, Michael; Heid, Iris M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Franks, Paul W.; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery. PMID:28448500

  19. Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelisa Graff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423 or other ancestry (n = 20,029. We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.

  20. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  1. Optimization of lead (ii) ions adsorption on to chemically activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The derivative thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) profile of the activated carbon were employed in the proximate analysis. The BET surface area shows a high microporous surface area and micropore volume of 840.38 m2/g and 0.30 cc/g respectively which aids sorption efficiency. The adsorption ...

  2. Comparison of the accuracy of Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction in detecting clinically important cervical dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Hung N; Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; VonVille, Helena M; Scheurer, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985–2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89–0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84–0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73–0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62–0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio – dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39–11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86–11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16–6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50–9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12–19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87–10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31–6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy

  3. [Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of lead (II) on polyamine-functionalized mesoporous activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Quan; Wang, Yan-Jin; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Bagasse mesoporous carbon was prepared by microwave assisted H3 PO4 activation. Amido and imido groups were modified with ethanediamine on the channels' surface of mesoporous carbon through nitric oxidation and amide reaction. The influence of Pb(II) concentration, adsorption time on Pb(II) adsorption on the ethanediamine-modified mesoporous carbon (AC-EDA) was investigated. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism were also discussed. The results showed that AC-EDA had a great performance for Pb(II) adsorption, and more than 70% of Pb(II) was adsorbed in 5 minutes. The adsorption amount of Pb(II) on the carbon increased with the increase of solution pH in acidic conditions. It was found that AC-EDA had different binding energies on different adsorption sites for Pb(II) separation. The Pb(II) adsorption process on AC-EDA was controlled by intra-particle diffusion in the first 3 min, and then film diffusion played the important pole on the adsorption. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of temperature, indicating the adsorption was an endothermic reaction. The high adsorption energy (> 11 kJ x mol(-1)) implied that the) adsorption was a chemical adsorption. The XPS of AC-EDA before and after Pb(II) adsorption showed that the polyamine group was involved in the adsorption, and should be a main factor of the high efficient adsorption.

  4. A suggested revision to the specific activity limit for tritiated water transported as LSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    Tritiated water of specific activity not greater than 0.8 TBq L -1 is classified as LSA-II. This paper demonstrates by some simple calculations that the dose that may result from an accident involving tritiated water of this specific activity is very low and suggests that even if the specific activity limit of tritiated water which may be transported as LSA-II is raised above 0.8 TBq kg -1 , the resulting dose in accident conditions would not be unacceptable. (author)

  5. Reference methodologies for radioactive controlled discharges an activity within the IAEA's Program Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II (EMRAS II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, T.J.; Bergman, L.; Tellería, D.M.; Proehl, G.; Amado, V.; Curti, A.; Bonchuk, I.; Boyer, P.; Mourlon, C.; Chyly, P.; Heling, R.; Sági, L.; Kliaus, V.; Krajewski, P.; Latouche, G.; Lauria, D.C.; Newsome, L.; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2009, the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II) program was launched. The goal of the program is to develop, compare and test models for the assessment of radiological impacts to the public and the environment due to radionuclides being released or already existing in the environment; to help countries build and harmonize their capabilities; and to model the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Within EMRAS II, nine working groups are active; this paper will focus on the activities of Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases. Within this working group environmental transfer and dose assessment models are tested under different scenarios by participating countries and the results compared. This process allows each participating country to identify characteristics of their models that need to be refined. The goal of this working group is to identify reference methodologies for the assessment of exposures to the public due to routine discharges of radionuclides to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Several different models are being applied to estimate the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for various scenarios. The first phase of the project involves a scenario of nuclear power reactor with a coastal location which routinely (continuously) discharges 60Co, 85Kr, 131I, and 137Cs to the atmosphere and 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr to the marine environment. In this scenario many of the parameters and characteristics of the representative group were given to the modelers and cannot be altered. Various models have been used by the different participants in this inter-comparison (PC-CREAM, CROM, IMPACT, CLRP POSEIDON, SYMBIOSE and others). This first scenario is to enable a comparison of the radionuclide transport and dose modelling. These scenarios will facilitate the development of reference methodologies for controlled discharges. (authors)

  6. Search for spontaneous fission activity in Salton Sea and Atlantis II hot brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Sokol, E.A.; Fam Ngoc Chuong; Ivanov, M.P.; Popeko, G.S.; Molzahn, D.; Lund, T.; Feige, G.; Brandt, R.

    1984-01-01

    A search for an unknown spontaneously fissioning activity, possibly due to SHE, was carried out with the Dubna 3 He-counter system. In the investigation of Salton Sea samples and Atlantis II samples no such activity could be detected with limits -12 g/g. (orig.)

  7. Study of the Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions from Cd(II) and Pb(II) Adsorption on Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Doo Won; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yongkyun; Park, Eun Nam [Microfilter Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC), activated carbon fiber (ACF), modified ACF (NaACF), and a mixture of GAC and NaACF (GAC/NaACF) have been studied. The surface properties, such as morphology, surface functional groups, and composition of various adsorbents were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and pore size distribution were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. In this study, NaACF showed a high adsorption capacity and rate for heavy metal ions due to the improvement of its ion-exchange capabilities by additional oxygen functional groups. Moreover, the GAC and NaACF mixture was used as an adsorbent to determine the adsorbent-adsorbate interaction in the presence of two competitive adsorbents.

  8. Study of the Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions from Cd(II) and Pb(II) Adsorption on Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Doo Won; Kim, Bohye; Yang, Kap Seung; Lim, Yongkyun; Park, Eun Nam

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC), activated carbon fiber (ACF), modified ACF (NaACF), and a mixture of GAC and NaACF (GAC/NaACF) have been studied. The surface properties, such as morphology, surface functional groups, and composition of various adsorbents were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and pore size distribution were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods. In this study, NaACF showed a high adsorption capacity and rate for heavy metal ions due to the improvement of its ion-exchange capabilities by additional oxygen functional groups. Moreover, the GAC and NaACF mixture was used as an adsorbent to determine the adsorbent-adsorbate interaction in the presence of two competitive adsorbents

  9. Association of Physical Activity or Fitness With Incident Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Butler, Javed; Yancy, Clyde W; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that high levels of physical activity are associated with lower risk of risk factors for heart failure (HF), such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of physical activity or fitness on the incidence of HF remain unclear. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched until November 30, 2014. Prospective cohort studies reporting measures of the association of physical activity (n=10) or fitness (n=2) with incident HF were included. Extracted effect estimates from the eligible studies were pooled using a random-effects model meta-analysis, with heterogeneity assessed with the I(2) statistic. Ten cohort studies on physical activity eligible for meta-analysis included a total of 282 889 participants followed for 7 to 30 years. For the physical activity studies, maximum versus minimal amount of physical activity groups were used for analyses; with a total number of participants (n=165 695). The pooled relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) for HF among those with a regular exercise pattern was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67-0.79). Findings were similar for men (0.71 [95% CI, 0.61-0.83]) and women (0.72 [95% CI, 0.67-0.77]) and by type of exercise. There was no evidence of publication bias (P value for Egger test=0.34). The pooled associated effect of physical fitness on incident HF was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.75-0.83) for each unit increase in metabolic equivalent of oxygen consumption. Published literature support a significant association between increased physical activity or fitness and decreased incidence of HF. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Is physical activity a part of who I am? A review and meta-analysis of identity, schema and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Kaushal, Navin; Quinlan, Alison

    2016-06-01

    Two parallel literatures on the physical activity (PA) identity and schema constructs have the potential to supplement traditional social cognitive approaches used for PA promotion. The purpose of this paper was to review schema/identity research and appraise its relationship with PA via meta-analysis followed by thematic analyses of its correlates, as well as its proposed mechanisms on PA. Eligible studies were from English, peer-reviewed published articles that examined identity and/or schema in the context of PA. Searches were completed in June 2015 in five databases. Sixty-two independent data-sets (32 available for meta-analysis), primarily of modest quality, were identified. Results of the random effects meta-analysis showed that the point-estimate between identity/schema and behaviour was r = .44 (CI = .39-.48), and invariant to selected study characteristics. Thematic review showed that identity/schema was associated with commitment, ability, affective judgments, identified/integrated regulation and social comparison and predicted intention, self-regulatory efficacy, and self-regulation strategy use. It had reliable evidence as a moderator of the intention-behavior relationship, was associated with increases in the speed of processing of relevant information and created negative affect under hypothetical identity-behavior discrepant situations. While this initial research is promising, more rigorous research designs, including interventions to increase identity/schema, are warranted.

  11. Co(II) and Cd(II) Complexes Derived from Heterocyclic Schiff-Bases: Synthesis, Structural Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.

    2013-01-01

    New monomeric cobalt and cadmium complexes with Schiff-bases, namely, N′-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]furan-2-carbohydrazide (L1) and N′-[(E)-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide (L2) are reported. Schiff-base ligands L1 and L2 were derived from condensation of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (iso-vanillin) with furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide, respectively. Complexes of the general formula [M(L)2]Cl2 (where M = Co(II) or Cd(II), L = L1 or L2) have been obtained from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligands. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H, and 13C NMR spectra), elemental analysis, metal content, magnetic measurement, and conductance. These studies revealed the formation of four-coordinate complexes in which the geometry about metal ion is tetrahedral. Biological activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas (G−) revealed that the metal complexes become less resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligands. PMID:24027449

  12. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity regulates the proliferative potential of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Ahrens, Molly J; Wu, Amy; Liu, Jennifer; Dudley, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    For tissues that develop throughout embryogenesis and into postnatal life, the generation of differentiated cells to promote tissue growth is at odds with the requirement to maintain the stem cell/progenitor cell population to preserve future growth potential. In the growth plate cartilage, this balance is achieved in part by establishing a proliferative phase that amplifies the number of progenitor cells prior to terminal differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we show that endogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamkII, also known as Camk2) activity is upregulated prior to hypertrophy and that loss of CamkII function substantially blocks the transition from proliferation to hypertrophy. Wnt signaling and Pthrp-induced phosphatase activity negatively regulate CamkII activity. Release of this repression results in activation of multiple effector pathways, including Runx2- and β-catenin-dependent pathways. We present an integrated model for the regulation of proliferation potential by CamkII activity that has important implications for studies of growth control and adult progenitor/stem cell populations.

  13. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. I. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 was extracted with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction Il-b (acid phosphatase II. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward β-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards β-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca2+ and fluoride, but activated by Mg2+. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme.

  14. How can interventions increase motivation for physical activity? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Crutzen, Rik; Nurmi, Johanna; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan; Knittle, Keegan; Hankonen, Nelli

    2018-01-01

    Motivation is a proximal determinant of behavior in many psychological theories, and increasing motivation is central to most behavior change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to fill a gap in the literature by identifying features of behavior change interventions associated with favorable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 88 intervention studies (N = ...

  15. Adsorption of aqueous Cd(II) and Pb(II) on activated carbon nanopores prepared by chemical activation of doum palm shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Umar Ibrahim; Otene, Emmanuel; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniformly sized activated carbons were derived from doum palm shell, a new precursor, by carbonization in air and activation using KOH, NaOH and ZnCl2. The activated carbon fibres were characterised by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and evaluated for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. The 40-50 nm size, less graphitic, mesoporous NaOH activated carbon yielded high adsorption efficiency, pointing largely to the influence surface area. The performance of the KOH based activated carbon was arguably explained for the first time in terms of crystallinity. The efficiencies of the mesoporous ZnCl2-formulated activated carbon diminished due to the presence of larger particles. Batch adsorption of divalent metals revealed dependence on adsorbent dose, agitation time, pH and adsorbate concentrations with high adsorption efficiencies at optimum operating parameters. The equilibrium profiles fitted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and kinetics favoured pseudo-second order model. The study demonstrated the practicability of the removal of alarming levels of cadmium and lead ions from industrial effluents.

  16. NOMAGE4 activities 2011, Part II, Supercritical water loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vierstraete, Pierre; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Lauritzen, Bent

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material...... and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal...

  17. Impact of ambient air pollution on physical activity among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Zhang, Sheng; Ji, Mengmeng; Guan, Chenghua

    2018-03-01

    This study systematically reviewed literature regarding the impact of ambient air pollution on physical activity among children and adults. Keyword and reference search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to systematically identify articles meeting all of the following criteria - study designs: interventions or experiments, retrospective or prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies; subjects: adults; exposures: specific air pollutants and overall air quality; outcomes: physical activity and sedentary behaviour; article types: peer-reviewed publications; and language: articles written in English. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size of ambient PM 2.5 air pollution on physical inactivity. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Among them, six were conducted in the United States, and one was conducted in the United Kingdom. Six adopted a cross-sectional study design, and one used a prospective cohort design. Six had a sample size larger than 10,000. Specific air pollutants assessed included PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O 3 , and NO x , whereas two studies focused on overall air quality. All studies found air pollution level to be negatively associated with physical activity and positively associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Study participants, and particularly those with respiratory disease, self-reported a reduction in outdoor activities to mitigate the detrimental impact of air pollution. Meta-analysis revealed a one unit (μg/m 3 ) increase in ambient PM 2.5 concentration to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 1.1% (odds ratio = 1.011; 95% confidence interval = 1.001, 1.021; p-value air pollution discouraged physical activity. Current literature predominantly adopted a cross-sectional design and focused on the United States. Future studies are warranted to implement a longitudinal study design and evaluate the impact of air pollution on physical

  18. Clinical outcomes after estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, A; Vandenbroucke, J P; Smit, J W A; Stokkel, M P M; Dekkers, O M

    2009-11-01

    Despite the long experience with radioiodine for hyperthyroidism, controversy remains regarding the optimal method to determine the activity that is required to achieve long-term euthyroidism. To compare the effect of estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine in hyperthyroidism. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for randomized and nonrandomized studies, comparing the effect of activity estimation methods with dosimetry for hyperthyroidism. The main outcome measure was the frequency of treatment success, defined as persistent euthyroidism after radioiodine treatment at the end of follow-up in the dose estimated and calculated dosimetry group. Furthermore, we assessed the cure rates of hyperthyroidism. Three randomized and five nonrandomized studies, comparing the effect of estimated versus calculated activity of radioiodine on clinical outcomes for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, were included. The weighted mean relative frequency of successful treatment outcome (euthyroidism) was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.16) for estimated versus calculated activity; the weighted mean relative frequency of cure of hyperthyroidism (eu- or hypothyroidism) was 1.03 (95% CI 0.96-1.10). Subgroup analysis showed a relative frequency of euthyroidism of 1.03 (95% CI 0.84-1.26) for Graves' disease and of 1.05 (95% CI 0.91-1.19) for toxic multinodular goiter. The two main methods used to determine the activity in the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine, estimated and calculated, resulted in an equally successful treatment outcome. However, the heterogeneity of the included studies is a strong limitation that prevents a definitive conclusion from this meta-analysis.

  19. Development of Smart Active Layer Sensor (II): Manufacturing and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Lee, Sang Il; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Dong Jin

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second part of the study on the development of a smart active layer (SAL) sensor, which consists of two parts. As mentioned in the first paper, structural health monitoring (SHM) is a new technology that is being increasingly applied at the industrial field as a potential approach to improve cost and convenience of structural inspection. Recently, the development of smart sensor is very active for real application. This study has focused on preparation and application study of SAL sensor which is described with regard to the theory and concept of the SAL sensor in the first paper. In order to detect elastic wave, smart piezoelectric sensor, SAL, is fabricated by using a piezoelectric element, shielding layer and protection layer. This protection layer plays an important role in a patched network of distributed piezoelectric sensor and shielding treatment. Four types of SAL sensor are designed/prepared/tested, and these details will be discussed in the paper In this study, SAL sensor ran be feasibly applied to perform structural health monitoring and to detect damage sources which result in elastic waves

  20. Kinetic study on adsorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Cucumis melo peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, M.; Anitha, R.; Manonmani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The adsorption of Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), ions from aqueous solutions by Cucumis melo peel-activated carbon was investigated under laboratory conditions to assess its potential in removing metal ions. The adsorption behavior of metal ions onto CMAC was analyzed with Elovich, intra-particle diffusion rate equations and pseudo-first-order model. The rate constant of Elovich and intra-particle diffusion on CMAC increased in the sequence of Cr(VI) > Ni(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II). According to the regression coefficients, it was observed that the kinetic adsorption data can fit better by the pseudo-first-order model compared to the second-order Lagergren's model with R 2 > 0.957. The maximum adsorption of metal ions onto the CMAC was found to be 97.95% for Chromium(VI), 98.78% for Ni(II), 98.55% for Pb(II) and 97.96% for Cd(II) at CMAC dose of 250 mg. The adsorption capacities followed the sequence Ni(II) ≈ Pb(II) > Cr(VI) ≈ Cd(II) and Ni(II) > Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cr(VI). The optimum adsorption conditions selected were adsorbent dosage of 250 mg, pH of 3.0 for Cr(VI) and 6.0 for Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), adsorption concentration of 250 mg/L and contact time of 180.

  1. Antibacterial activity on electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) based membranes via Magainin II grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yüksel, Emre; Karakeçili, Ayşe, E-mail: akarakecili@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2014-12-01

    An antimicrobial peptide (AMP), Magainin II (Mag II) was covalently immobilized on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun fibrous membranes. The surface immobilization was characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy studies showed that the surface morphology of the fibers at micron scale was not affected by the immobilization process. The antibacterial activity of the bound Mag II was tested against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial adhesion tests, SEM and confocal analyses revealed that the attachment and survival of bacteria were inhibited on Mag II functionalized membranes. AMP immobilization strategy was introduced as a new perspective for the modulation of antibacterial properties on PLGA based materials prepared by electrospinning. - Highlights: • PLGA and PLGA/gelatin fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Antimicrobial peptide Mag II was successfully immobilized on PLGA based membranes. • The antibacterial activity was tested against E. coli and S. aureus. • Bacterial adhesion was inhibited on Mag II functionalized membranes.

  2. Advice to Stay Active or Structured Exercise in the Management of Sciatica: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Matt; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Machado, Aryane F; Lemes, Ítalo R; Maher, Chris G; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2015-09-15

    A systematic review and meta-analysis. To evaluate the evidence on comparative effectiveness of advice to stay active versus supervised structured exercise in the management of sciatica. Conservative management of sciatica usually includes interventions to promote physical activity in the form of advice to stay active or exercise, but there has been no systematic review directly comparing the effectiveness of these 2 approaches. Data Sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PEDro databases. Studies were randomized controlled trials comparing advice with exercise. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Pain and disability data were extracted for all time points and converted to a common 0 to 100 scale. Data were pooled with a random effects model for short, intermediate, and long-term follow-ups. The GRADE approach was used to summarize the strength of evidence. Five trials were included in the meta-analysis, which showed a significant, although small effect favoring exercise over advice for reducing leg pain intensity in the short term (weighted mean difference: 11.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.71-22.16]) but no difference for disability (weighted mean difference: 1.45 [95% confidence interval, -2.86 to 5.76]). Furthermore, there was no difference at intermediate and long-term follow-ups between advice and exercise for patient-relevant outcomes. There is low-quality evidence (GRADE) that exercise provides small, superior effects compared with advice to stay active on leg pain in the short term for patients experiencing sciatica. However, there is moderate-quality evidence showing no difference between advice to stay active and exercise on leg pain and disability status in people with sciatica in the long term. 1.

  3. Physical activity interventions in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Lindsey M; Nobles, Carrie; Ertel, Karen A; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Whitcomb, Brian W

    2015-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy associated with an increased incidence of pregnancy complications, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and fetal risks of chronic health conditions later in life. Physical activity has been proposed to reduce the risk of GDM and is supported by observational studies, but experimental research assessing its effectiveness is limited and conflicting. We aimed to use meta-analysis to synthesize existing randomized controlled studies of physical activity and GDM. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for eligible studies. The following combination of keywords was used: (pregnant or pregnancy or gestation or gestate or gestational or maternity or maternal or prenatal) AND (exercise or locomotion or activity or training or sports) AND (diabetes or insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance) AND (random* or trial). Eligibility was restricted to studies that randomized participants to an exercise-only-based intervention (ie, separate from dietary interventions) and presented data regarding GDM risk. Two authors performed the database search, assessment of eligibility, and abstraction of data from included studies, and a third resolved any discrepancies. A total of 469 studies was retrieved, of which 10 met inclusion criteria and could be used for analysis (3,401 participants). Fixed-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and I to assess heterogeneity. There was a 28% reduced risk (95% CI 9-42%) in the intervention group compared with the control group (RR 0.72, P=.005). Heterogeneity was low (I=12%) and nonsignificant (P=.33). The results from this meta-analysis suggest that physical activity in pregnancy provides a slight protective effect against the development of GDM. Studies evaluating type, timing, duration, and compliance of physical activity regimens are warranted to best inform

  4. Behaviour change techniques targeting both diet and physical activity in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Kevin A; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Finucane, Francis M; Gainforth, Heather L; Quinlan, Leo R; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2017-02-08

    Changing diet and physical activity behaviour is one of the cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment, but changing behaviour is challenging. The objective of this study was to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and intervention features of dietary and physical activity interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes that are associated with changes in HbA 1c and body weight. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1975-2015 describing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focused exclusively on both diet and physical activity. The constituent BCTs, intervention features and methodological rigour of these interventions were evaluated. Changes in HbA 1c and body weight were meta-analysed and examined in relation to use of BCTs. Thirteen RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses revealed reductions in HbA 1c at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of -1.11 % (12 mmol/mol), -0.67 % (7 mmol/mol), -0.28 % (3 mmol/mol) and -0.26 % (2 mmol/mol) with an overall reduction of -0.53 % (6 mmol/mol [95 % CI -0.74 to -0.32, P 0.3 % reduction in HbA 1c : 'instruction on how to perform a behaviour', 'behavioural practice/rehearsal', 'demonstration of the behaviour' and 'action planning', as were intervention features 'supervised physical activity', 'group sessions', 'contact with an exercise physiologist', 'contact with an exercise physiologist and a dietitian', 'baseline HbA 1c >8 %' and interventions of greater frequency and intensity. Diet and physical activity interventions achieved clinically significant reductions in HbA 1c at three and six months, but not at 12 and 24 months. Specific BCTs and intervention features identified may inform more effective structured lifestyle intervention treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes.

  5. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part II, Supercritical water loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierstraete, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des mines, Paris (France)); Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), Kjeller (Norway)); Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure a supercritical flow state inside the test section (the core side) and a subcritical flow state inside the pump section. The objective is to design the heat exchanger in order to optimize the efficiency of the heat transfer and to respect several requirements as the room available inside the reactor hall, the maximal total pressure drop allowed and so on. (Author)

  6. Circulating prolactin level in systemic lupus erythematosus and its correlation with disease activity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G G; Lee, Y H

    2017-10-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between circulating prolactin level and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to establish a correlation between plasma/serum prolactin levels and SLE activity. Methods We performed a meta-analysis comparing the plasma/serum prolactin levels in patients with SLE to controls, and examined correlation coefficients between circulating prolactin level and SLE disease activity. Results Twenty-five studies with a total of 1056 SLE patients and 426 controls were included. Prolactin levels were significantly higher overall in the SLE group than in the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.987, 95% CI = 0.512-1.463, p = 4.7 × 10 -5 ). Stratification by ethnicity showed significantly elevated prolactin levels in the SLE group in Asian, Latin American, and mixed populations (SMD = 0.813, 95% CI = 0.137-1.490, p = 0.018; SMD = 0.981, 95% CI = 0.307-1.655, p = 0.004; SMD = 1.469, 95% CI = 0.443-2.495, p = 0.005, respectively), but not in the European population. Subgroup analysis by sample size showed significantly higher prolactin levels in the SLE group by small ( n  30). Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients showed a significantly positive correlation between circulating prolactin level and SLE activity (correlation coefficient = 0.379, 95% CI = 0.026-0.487, p = 4.0 × 10 -9 ). Circulating prolactin levels were positively associated with SLE activity in European, Asian, and mixed populations (SMD = 0.532, 95% CI = 0.443-0.609  p < 1.0 × 10 -8 ; SMD = 0.427, 95% CI = 0.240-0.583, p = 2.4 × 10 -5 ; SMD = 0.433, 95% CI = 0.212-0.591, p = 2.7 × 10 -5 , respectively). Conclusions Our meta-analysis demonstrated that circulating prolactin levels are higher in patients with SLE, and that a significantly positive correlation exists between prolactin levels and SLE activity.

  7. What proportion of people with hip and knee osteoarthritis meet physical activity guidelines? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, J A; Webster, K E; Levinger, P; Taylor, N F

    2013-11-01

    To determine the proportion of people with hip and knee osteoarthritis that meet physical activity guidelines recommended for adults and older adults. Systematic review with meta-analysis of studies measuring physical activity of participants with hip and knee osteoarthritis using an activity monitor. Physical activity levels were calculated using the mean average [95% confidence interval (CI)] weighted according to sample size. Meta-analyses determined the proportion of people meeting physical activity guidelines and recommendations of (1) ≥150 min per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of ≥10 min; (2) ≥150 min per week of MVPA in absence of bouts; (3) ≥10,000 steps per day and ≥7000 steps per day. The Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the quality of the evidence. For knee osteoarthritis, 21 studies involving 3266 participants averaged 50 min per week (95% CI = 46, 55) of MVPA when measured in bouts of ≥10 min, 131 min per week (95% CI = 125, 137) of MVPA, and 7753 daily steps (95% CI = 7582, 7924). Proportion meta-analyses provided high quality evidence that 13% (95% CI = 7, 20) completed ≥150 min per week of MVPA in bouts of ≥10 min, low quality evidence that 41% (95% CI = 23, 61) completed ≥150 min per week of MVPA in absence of bouts, moderate quality evidence that 19% (95% CI = 8, 33) completed ≥10,000 steps per day, and low quality evidence that 48% (95% CI = 31, 65) completed ≥7000 steps per day. For hip osteoarthritis, 11 studies involving 325 participants averaged 160 min per week (95% CI = 114, 216) of MVPA when measured in bouts of ≥10 min, 189 min per week (95% CI = 166, 212) of MVPA, and 8174 daily steps (95% CI = 7670, 8678). Proportion meta-analyses provided low quality evidence that 58% (95% CI = 18, 92) completed ≥150 min per week of MVPA in absence of bouts, low quality evidence that 30% (95% CI

  8. Comparative Study on Adsorption of Mn(II from Aqueous Solutions on Various Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Mn(II on indigenously prepared activated carbons (IPAC from Bombax malabaricum, Pithecelobium dulse, Ipomea batatas and Peltaforum ferraginium have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters have been investigated using batch adsorption technique. The extent of Mn(II removal increased with decrease in initial concentration of the Mn(II, particle size of the adsorbent and increased with increase in contact time, amount of adsorbent used and the initial pH of the solution. Adsorption data were modeled using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms and first order kinetic equations. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be first order with regard to intra-particle diffusion rate. The results indicate that such carbons could be employed as low cost adsorbents in waste water treatment for the removal of Mn(II.

  9. Galaxy mergers and active nuclei. II. Cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1985-01-01

    Galaxy mergers may produce active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by repopulating stellar loss-cone orbits around a central black hole. In the companion paper we derived a local bolometric luminosity function of AGNs based on this process. In this paper we interpret the observed cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of AGNs as due to evolution of the merging rate among galaxies after their formation at a redshift of approx.3. An important difference between our model and previous (empirical) models is that the evolution depends on galactic (stellar) luminosity instead of central nonthermal luminosity. The radio counts at 1.4 GHz and optical counts are reproduced by the model if the merging rate of the galaxies at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function evolves considerably faster than the merging rate of the smaller galaxies. The theoretical and observed luminosity functions at high redshift have similar characteristics: (i) at high luminosity the evolution is best described by luminosity evolution, and (2) the luminosity function has a maximum at approx.10 3 Gpc -3 , which is the space density of the most massive galaxies. A large fraction of these galaxies are presumably formed in the precursors of rich clusters. Their merger rate is high initially and declines rapidly on a time scale of a few billion years. If the initial density fluctuation spectrum for protoclusters of mass M/sub cl/ has the form deltarho/rhoproportionalM/sup( -1+n//3)/2/sub cl/, then the steep evolution of the most luminous galaxies suggests nroughly-equal-1.3 at a redshift of approx.3, which is consistent with the observed clustering of galaxies

  10. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pooley, David, E-mail: Robert.Barrows@Colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (∼0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  11. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (˜0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  12. Physical activity monitors to enhance the daily amount of physical activity in elderly-a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the use of physical activity monitors (PAMs) for the elderly, the scientific literature should be systematically reviewed and the effect quantified, as the evidence seems inconclusive. Randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials, with participants with a mean age...... above 65 years, comparing any PAM intervention with other control interventions or no intervention, will be included. This protocol is detailed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook, and it is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta...

  13. Promiscuous activity of ER glucosidase II discovered through donor specificity analysis of UGGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Atsushi, E-mail: miyagawa.atsushi@nitech.ac.jp [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-Ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Totani, Kiichiro [Department of Materials and Life Science, Seikei University, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Matsuo, Ichiro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Ito, Yukishige, E-mail: yukito@riken.jp [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); ERATO Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} UGGT has a narrow donor specificity. {yields} UGGT gave several non-natural high-mannose-type glycans. {yields} G-II has a promiscuous activity as broad specificity hexosidase. -- Abstract: In glycoprotein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), UGGT (UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase) and glucosidase II (G-II) play key roles. UGGT serves as a glycoprotein folding sensor by virtue of its unique specificity to glucosylate glycoproteins at incompletely folded stage. By using various UDP-Glc analogues, we first analyzed donor specificity of UGGT, which was proven to be rather narrow. However, marginal activity was observed with UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronic acid as well as with 3-, 4- and 6-deoxy glucose analogues to give corresponding transfer products. Intriguingly, G-II smoothly converted all of them back to Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}, providing an indication that G-II has a promiscuous activity as a broad specificity hexosidase.

  14. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for diagnosis and estimating activity in lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y G; Chen, N N; Cheng, Y B; Sun, S J; Li, H X; Sun, F; Xiang, Y

    2015-12-01

    Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is relatively specific in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. However, its diagnostic value has not been evaluated. The aim of this review was to determine the value of uNGAL for diagnosis and estimating activity in LN. A comprehensive search was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane electronic databases through December 2014. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed with a random-effects model. Additionally, summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Fourteen studies were selected for this review. With respect to diagnosing LN, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 73.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 61.9-83.3) and 78.1% (95% CI, 69.0-85.6), respectively. The SROC-AUC value was 0.8632. Regarding estimating LN activity, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 66.2% (95% CI, 60.4-71.7) and 62.1% (95% CI, 57.9-66.3), respectively. The SROC-AUC value was 0.7583. In predicting renal flares, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 77.5% (95% CI, 68.1-85.1) and 65.3% (95% CI, 60.0-70.3), respectively. The SROC-AUC value was 0.7756. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that uNGAL has relatively fair sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing LN, estimating LN activity and predicting renal flares, suggesting that uNGAL is a potential biomarker in diagnosing LN and monitoring LN activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Social cognitive theories used to explain physical activity behavior in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Costigan, Sarah A; Karunamuni, Nandini; Lubans, David R

    2013-05-01

    To systematically review and examine the explanatory power of key social-cognitive theories used to explain physical activity (PA) intention and behavior, among adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed using the electronic databases Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SPORTdiscus, EBSCO and Education Resources Information Center, Proquest Education Journals Collection, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus for social-cognitive theories (i.e., Health Promotion Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Reasoned Action, Protection Motivation Theory, Social Cognitive Theory/Self-Efficacy Theory, Health Belief Model, Self-Determination Theory, Transtheoretical Model) used to explain PA intention and behavior. Related keywords in titles, abstracts, or indexing fields were searched. Twenty-three studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were retained for data extraction and analysis; 16 were cross-sectional studies and seven were longitudinal studies. Most studies employed self-report measures. In general, the models explained greater proportions of variance for intention compared to behavior. The meta-analyses revealed 33% and 48% of the variance respectively for PA and intention were explained by social cognitive models. Few studies have tested the predictive capacity of social cognitive theories to explain objectively measured PA. The majority of PA variance remains unexplained and more theoretical research is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Workplace Physical Activity Programs on Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Teixeira, Pedro M; Santos, Rute; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) interventions at the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal pain among employees and assesses the effect size of these programs using meta-analysis. Four databases (i.e., PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched for research trials, which included comparison groups of employees that assessed PA programs, musculoskeletal pain, and health-related behaviors, published between January 1990 and March 2013. The meta-analysis estimates of standardized mean differences (Hedges' g) present significant evidence of less general pain (g = -.40 with a 95% confidence interval [CI] = [-0.78, -0.02]) and neck and shoulder pain (g = -.37 with a 95% CI = [-0.63, -0.12]) in intervention groups. The few studies of low back pain and arm, elbow, wrist, hand, or finger pain did not present sufficient statistically significant evidence. Consistent evidence demonstrates that workplace PA interventions significantly reduce general musculoskeletal pain and neck and shoulder pain. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of work-related PA interventions for arm, elbow, wrist, hand or finger, and low back pain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Efficient adsorption of Hg (II) ions in water by activated carbon modified with melamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hangdao; Meng, Jingling; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Removal of Hg (II) ions from industrial wastewater is important for the water treatment, and adsorption is an efficient treatment process. Activated carbon (AC) was modified with melamine, which introduced nitrogen-containing functional groups onto AC surface. Original AC and melamine modified activated carbon (ACM) were characterized by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, determination of the pH of the point of zero charge (pHpzc) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their performance in the adsorption of Hg(II) ions was investigated. Langmuir model fitted the experimental data of equilibrium isotherms well. ACM showed the higher Hg (II) ions adsorption capacity, increasing more than more than 1.8 times compared to the original one. Moreover, ACM showed a wider pH range for the maximum adsorption than the parent AC.

  18. Chemically modified activated carbon with 1-acylthiosemicarbazide for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ru; Hu, Zheng; Chang, Xijun; He, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Tu, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianping

    2009-12-15

    A new sorbent 1-acylthiosemicarbazide-modified activated carbon (AC-ATSC) was prepared as a solid-phase extractant and applied for removing of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated, including effects of pH, the shaking time, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions. At pH 3, the maximum static adsorption capacity of Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) onto the AC-ATSC were 78.20, 67.80 and 48.56 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were quantitatively eluted by 3.0 mL of 2% CS(NH2)2 and 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl solution. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation. According to the definition of IUPAC, the detection limits (3sigma) of this method for Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were 0.20, 0.12 and 0.45 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions is less than 4.0% (n=8). The prepared sorbent was applied for the preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) in certified and water samples with satisfactory results.

  19. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jeffra K.; Rocks, Sara S.; Zheng, Wang; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Morel, François M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments. PMID:21555571

  20. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies. ... the maximum adsorption capacity of SA-S-C calculated by the Langmuir isotherm is 149.93 mg/g at 30°C. Acid regeneration was tried for several cycles with a ...

  1. Activity of pyramidal I and II slip in Mg alloys as revealed by texture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Miroslav; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Knezevic, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Due to the geometry of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) lattice, there are two types of pyramidal slip modes: { 10 1 bar 1 } 〈 11 2 bar 3 bar 〉 or type I and { 1 bar 1 bar 22 } 〈 11 2 bar 3 〉 or type II in HCP crystalline materials. Here we use crystal plasticity to examine the importance of crystallographic slip by pyramidal type I and type II on texture evolution. The study is applied to an Mg-4%Li alloy. An elastic-plastic polycrystal model is employed to elucidate the reorientation tendencies of these two slip modes in rolling of a textured polycrystal. Comparisons with experimental texture measurements indicate that both pyramidal I and II type slip were active during rolling deformation, with pyramidal I being the dominant mode. A single-slip-mode analysis is used to identify the orientations that prefer pyramidal I vs. II type slip when acting alone in a crystal. The analysis applies not only to Mg-4%Li, but identifies the key texture components in HCP crystals that would help distinguish the activity of pyramidal I from pyramidal II slip in rolling deformation.

  2. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  3. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  4. Patients' perceptions of physical activity before and after joint replacement: a systematic review with meta-ethnographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Latham, Sarah; Maskrey, Vivienne; Blyth, Annie

    2015-09-01

    It has been perceived that people following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have the capability, with reduced pain, to increase their levels of physical activity. To determine the attitudes and perceptions of people awaiting or having undergone THA or TKA to physical activity post-arthroplasty and to identify potential facilitators or barriers to engage in active living and physical activity pursuits. Systematic review of published and unpublished databases was undertaken from their inception to November 2014. Studies exploring the attitudes and perceptions of people awaiting or having undergone THA or TKA to physical activity post-arthroplasty were included. Data were analysed through a meta-ethnography approach. From 528 citations, 13 papers were eligible, sampling 282 people post-THA or TKA. The literature was judged moderate to high quality. Following THA and TKA, people either wished to return to their pre-pathology level of physical activity or simply be able to engage in less physically demanding activities that are meaningful to them and their lifestyles. Barriers to engaging in higher levels of physical activity were largely related to limited information, which culminated in fear surrounding 'doing the right thing' both for individual's recovery and the longevity of the joint replacement. While many people post-THA or TKA wish to return to pre-pathological physical activity status, there is limited interest in actually undertaking greater levels of physical activity post-arthroplasty either for pleasure or health gains. Improvement in education and awareness of this may be key drivers to improve habitualisation of physical activity post-arthroplasty. CRD42014014995. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) on EDTA immobilized activated carbon cloth prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in environmental samples

    OpenAIRE

    ALOTHMAN, ZEID ABDULLAH; YILMAZ, ERKAN; HABİLA, MOHAMED; SOYLAK, MUSTAFA

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid immobilized activated carbon cloth was performed in the present work. It was used for preconcentration-separation of lead(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) at trace levels as an adsorbent. Factors including pH, concentration and volume of eluent, sample and eluent flow rates, sample volume, and effect of coexisting ions on the solid phase extraction of analytes were examined. The preconcentration factor was 50. The detection ...

  6. Association of estrogen receptor α PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility and risk stratification: a meta-analysis from case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yining Zhao,1,* Xi Zheng,2,* Lijie Zhang,3 Qiang Hu,3 Yitian Guo,3 Hua Jiang,3 Shennan Shi,4 Xiang Zhang1 1Department of Urology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 2Department of Urology, Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 3Department of Urology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, 4Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Studies on the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in estrogen receptor α (ERα, PvuII (rs2234693 T>C and XbaI (rs9340799 A>G, and the prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to derive a more accurate estimation of this relationship. Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science databases until October 1, 2016, was conducted. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of this association. Results: Eighteen case-control studies, with a total of 3,317 prostate cancer patients and 8,324 controls, were included. Results showed that both PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with a higher prostate cancer risk in overall populations. To derive a more accurate estimation, subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity revealed that this relationship existed only in Caucasians, but not in Asians. Furthermore, PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with high Gleason grade (Gleason score ≥7 cancers. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis demonstrates that ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk in Caucasians, but not in Asians, and PvuII polymorphism is significantly associated with high Gleason grade tumors, indicating the probability of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer arising from different genomic ERα SNPs

  7. NEW APPROACHES IN DECEPTION DETECTION II. ACTIVE INTERVIEWING STRATEGIES AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytical evidence shows that behavioural indicators of deception are scant, poorly diagnostic and inconsistent. This has yielded a shift in deception detection research. Rather than passively scrutinising the communication sender to find tell-tale behavioural indicators of deception, the deception judge needs to (a adopt an active role by using interviewing techniques specifically designed to detect deception, or (b focus on contextual (rather than behavioural deception cues. In the previous paper (Masip & Herrero, 2015a, we reviewed the antecedents of this change in focus, as well as the theoretical grounding of the new approaches. Here we describe specific interviewing strategies for detecting deception, as well as the (still scant research on contextual deception indicia. In doing this, we hope to offer the reader a detailed perspective on the recent developments in this specific area of psychology and law.

  8. Truancy, grade point average, and sexual activity: a meta-analysis of risk indicators for youth substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise; Vevea, Jack L; Iritani, Bonita; Cho, HyunSan; Khatapoush, Shereen; Saxe, Leonard

    2002-05-01

    Society increasingly holds schools responsible for the effectiveness of health promotion activities, such as drug abuse prevention efforts funded through the federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. Consequently, school districts use student surveys as a method for assessing trends and evaluating effects of programs on behavior. Because cost and practical concerns often preclude consistent population-based school survey sampling, risk indicators can provide an essential tool in analyzing needs assessment and program evaluation data. In this paper, three risk measures associated with substance use were selected from among commonly used school surveys. These measures--truancy, grade point average, and recent sexual intercourse--were compared, using meta-analysis techniques, to assess the reliability of risk measures across different survey instruments, different communities, and different points in time. Truancy was judged superior, because of its strong predictive value, particularly among younger students, and because rates can be compared to school records to assess sampling validity over time.

  9. Complexes cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with some newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives and their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of some complexes of cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with several newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives (L are reported. The complexes, of the general formula [MCl2L2] (M=Co(II, Zn(II and [CuCl2L(H2O], have a tetrahedral structure. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR and absorption electronic spectra. The antibacterial activitiy of the benzimidazoles and their complexes was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia amylovora. The complexes were found to be more toxic than the ligands.

  10. Neural Networks Involved in Adolescent Reward Processing: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis of Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Merav H.; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: 1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents’ reward processing, 2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and 3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing (Liu et al., 2011) reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  11. Effect of Active Workstation on Energy Expenditure and Job Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunmei; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Weimo; Ma, Jiangjun

    2016-05-01

    Recently developed active workstation could become a potential means for worksite physical activity and wellness promotion. The aim of this review was to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of active workstation in energy expenditure and job performance. The literature search was conducted in 6 databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Scopuse) for articles published up to February 2014, from which a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The cumulative analysis for EE showed there was significant increase in EE using active workstation [mean effect size (MES): 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.72, P job performance indicated 2 findings: (1) active workstation did not affect selective attention, processing speed, speech quality, reading comprehension, interpretation and accuracy of transcription; and (2) it could decrease the efficiency of typing speed (MES: -0.55; CI: -0.88 to -0.21, P job performance were significantly lower, others were not. As a result there was little effect on real-life work productivity if we made a good arrangement of job tasks.

  12. Creatine Kinase Activity in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlija Jevrić-Čaušević

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus can be looked upon as an array of diseases, all of which exhibit common symptoms. While pathogenesis of IDDM (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus is well understood, the same is not true for diabetes mellitus type II. In the latter case, relative contribution of the two factors (insulin resistance or decreased insulin secretion varies individually, being highly increased in peripheral tissues and strictly dependant on insulin for glucose uptake. Moreover, in patients with diabetes mellitus type II, disbalance at the level of regulation of glucose metabolism as well as lipid metabolism has been noted in skeletal muscles. It is normal to assume that in this type of diabetes, these changes are reflected at the level of total activity of enzyme creatine kinase. This experimental work was performed on a group of 80 regular patients of Sarajevo General Hospital. Forty of those patients were classified as patients with diabetes type I and forty as patients with diabetes type II. Each group of patients was carefully chosen and constituted of equal number of males and females. The same was applied for adequate controls. Concentration of glucose was determined for each patient with GOD method, while activity of creatine kinase was determined with CK-NAC activated kit. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS software for Windows. Obtained results point out highly expressed differences in enzyme activity between two populations examined. Changes in enzyme activity are more expressed in patients with diabetes type II. Positive correlation between concentration of glucose and serum activity of the enzyme is seen in both categories of diabetic patients which is not the case for the patients in control group. At the same time, correlation between age and type of diabetes does exist . This is not followed at the level of enzyme activity or concentration of glucose.

  13. Physical Activity Targeted at Maximal Lipid Oxidation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Romain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is recognized as a part of the management of obesity and diabetes. Various protocols of exercise are proposed for the management of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. One of the strategies proposed by several authors is low intensity endurance training targeted at the level of maximal oxidation. Large series using this technique are lacking. Addressing this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the studies on anthropometric measurements. From a database of 433 articles, 15 were selected, including 279 subjects with 6 different populations. Studies duration ranged from 2 months to 12 months. Concerning weight loss, in the intervention versus control analysis, five studies with 185 participants were included with a significant effect size favors exercise (P=0.02 without significant heterogeneity (I2=0.0%, P=0.83. Further randomized controlled trials for comparing it with other exercise protocols and defining its dose effectiveness on large samples are needed.

  14. Default network activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: A selective meta-analytic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2016-01-08

    It remains unclear whether and to what extent the default network subregions involved in episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) processes overlap or are separated from one another. This study addresses this issue through a controlled meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies involving healthy participants. Various EM and SM task paradigms differ widely in the extent of default network involvement. Therefore, the issue at hand cannot be properly addressed without some control for this factor. In this regard, this study employs a two-stage analysis: a preliminary meta-analysis to select EM and SM task paradigms that recruit relatively extensive default network regions and a main analysis to compare the selected task paradigms. Based on a within-EM comparison, the default network contributed more to recollection/familiarity effects than to old/new effects, and based on a within-SM comparison, it contributed more to word/pseudoword effects than to semantic/phonological effects. According to a direct comparison of recollection/familiarity and word/pseudoword effects, each involving a range of default network regions, there were more overlaps than separations in default network subregions involved in these two effects. More specifically, overlaps included the bilateral posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, and left anteromedial prefrontal regions, whereas separations included only the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal cortex region, which was unique to recollection/familiarity effects. These results indicate that EM and SM retrieval processes involving strong memory signals recruit extensive and largely overlapping default network regions and differ mainly in distinct contributions of hippocampus and parahippocampal regions to EM retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human type II pneumocyte chemotactic responses to CXCR3 activation are mediated by splice variant A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rong; Lee, Clement M; Gonzales, Linda W; Yang, Yi; Aksoy, Mark O; Wang, Ping; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae; Hurford, Matthew T; Kelsen, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    Chemokine receptors control several fundamental cellular processes in both hematopoietic and structural cells, including directed cell movement, i.e., chemotaxis, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that CXCR3, the chemokine receptor expressed by Th1/Tc1 inflammatory cells present in the lung, is also expressed by human airway epithelial cells. In airway epithelial cells, activation of CXCR3 induces airway epithelial cell movement and proliferation, processes that underlie lung repair. The present study examined the expression and function of CXCR3 in human alveolar type II pneumocytes, whose destruction causes emphysema. CXCR3 was present in human fetal and adult type II pneumocytes as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. CXCR3-A and -B splice variant mRNA was present constitutively in cultured type II cells, but levels of CXCR3-B greatly exceeded CXCR3-A mRNA. In cultured type II cells, I-TAC, IP-10, and Mig induced chemotaxis. Overexpression of CXCR3-A in the A549 pneumocyte cell line produced robust chemotactic responses to I-TAC and IP-10. In contrast, I-TAC did not induce chemotactic responses in CXCR3-B and mock-transfected cells. Finally, I-TAC increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B kinases only in CXCR3-A-transfected cells. These data indicate that the CXCR3 receptor is expressed by human type II pneumocytes, and the CXCR3-A splice variant mediates chemotactic responses possibly through Ca(2+) activation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways. Expression of CXCR3 in alveolar epithelial cells may be important in pneumocyte repair from injury.

  16. Adsorption of manganese(II) ions by EDTA-treated activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.Y.; Mazyck, D.W. [Jones Edmunds & Associates, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The adsorption of manganese(II) ions from aqueous solution onto three different granular activated carbons treated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its sodium salt was investigated. Characterization of the chelate-treated carbons showed that EDTA altered the physical and chemical properties of the sorbents relative to their untreated counterparts. Furthermore, the modified sorbents exhibited a heightened capacity towards the adsorption of Mn(II) ions from aqueous media. Manganese(II) ion removal increased from 0 to 6.5 mg/g for the lignite coal-based sorbent, from 3.5 to 14.7 mg/g for the wood-based sorbent and from 1.3 to 7.9 mg/g for the bituminous coal-based sorbent. The increased removal is attributed, in part, to the creation of Lewis base sites that participate in covalent interactions and hydrolysis reactions.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Pd(II) complexes with salicylaldehyde-amino acids Schiff bases ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rîmbu, Cristina; Danac, Ramona; Pui, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes with Schiff bases ligands derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids (Ala, Gly, Met, Ser, Val) have been synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform (FT)-IR, UV-Vis and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) spectrometry confirms the formation of palladium(II) complexes in 1/2 (M/L) molar ratio. All the Pd(II) complexes 1, [Pd(SalAla)2]Cl2; 2, [Pd(SalGly)2]Cl2; 3, [Pd(SalMet)2]Cl2; 4, [Pd(SalSer)2]Cl2; 5, [Pd(SalVal)2]Cl2; have shown antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli.

  18. Antibacterial activity of cobalt(II complexes with some benzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of cobalt(II complexes with two series of benzimidazoles were evaluated in vitro against three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Sarcina lutea and one Gram-negative isolate (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all the complexes. The majority of the investtigated complexes displayed in vitro inhibitory activity against very persistent bacteria. They were found to be more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. It may be concluded that the antibacterial activity of the compounds is related to the cell wall structure of the tested bacteria. Comparing the inhibitory activities of the tested complexes, it was found that the 1-substituted-2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives were more active than complexes of 1-substituted-2-amino-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazoles. The effect of chemical structure on the antibacterial activity is discussed.

  19. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  20. Impact of Physical Activity on Cognitive Decline, Dementia, and Its Subtypes: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris B. Guure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of physical activity with dementia and its subtypes has remained controversial in the literature and has continued to be a subject of debate among researchers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on the relationship between physical activity and the risk of cognitive decline, all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia among nondemented subjects are considered. A comprehensive literature search in all available databases was conducted up until April 2016. Well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed with focus on prospective studies ≥ 12 months. The overall sample from all studies is 117410 with the highest follow-up of 28 years. The analyses are performed with both Bayesian parametric and nonparametric models. Our analysis reveals a protective effect for high physical activity on all-cause dementia, odds ratio of 0.79, 95% CI (0.69, 0.88, a higher and better protective effect for Alzheimer’s disease, odds ratio of 0.62, 95% CI (0.49, 0.75, cognitive decline odds ratio of 0.67, 95% CI (0.55, 0.78, and a nonprotective effect for vascular dementia of 0.92, 95% CI (0.62, 1.30. Our findings suggest that physical activity is more protective against Alzheimer’s disease than it is for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, and cognitive decline.

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization, and pro-apoptotic activity of 1-indanone thiosemicarbazone platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes: potential as antileukemic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Natalia; Santos, Diego; Vázquez, Ramiro; Suescun, Leopoldo; Mombrú, Alvaro; Vermeulen, Monica; Finkielsztein, Liliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Gambino, Dinorah; Davio, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    In the search for alternative chemotherapeutic strategies against leukemia, various 1-indanone thiosemicarbazones, as well as eight novel platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes, with the formula [MCl₂(HL)] and [M(HL)(L)]Cl, derived from two 1-indanone thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and tested for antiproliferative activity against the human leukemia U937 cell line. The crystal structure of [Pt(HL1)(L1)]Cl·2MeOH, where L1=1-indanone thiosemicarbazone, was solved by X-ray diffraction. Free thiosemicarbazone ligands showed no antiproliferative effect, but the corresponding platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Platinum(II) complexes also displayed selective apoptotic activity in U937 cells but not in peripheral blood monocytes or the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line used to screen for potential hepatotoxicity. Present findings show that, in U937 cells, 1-indanone thiosemicarbazones coordinated to palladium(II) were more cytotoxic than those complexed with platinum(II), although the latter were found to be more selective for leukemic cells suggesting that they are promising compounds with potential therapeutic application against hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dropout from physical activity interventions in people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, D; Mugisha, J; Richards, J; De Hert, M; Lazzarotto, A R; Schuch, F B; Probst, M; Stubbs, B

    2017-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have been shown to improve the health of people living with HIV (PLWH), yet treatment dropout poses an important challenge. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence and predictors of treatment dropout in PA interventions in PLWH. Electronic databases were searched for records up to September 2016. Randomized control trials of PA interventions in PLWH reporting dropout rates were included. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression analyses were employed. In 36 studies involving 49 PA intervention arms, 1128 PLWH were included (mean age = 41.6 years; 79.3% male; 39% White). The trim and fill adjusted treatment dropout rate was 29.3% (95% CI = 24.5-34.7%). There was a significant lower dropout rate in resistance training interventions compared with aerobic (p = 0.003) PA interventions, in studies utilizing supervised interventions throughout the study period (p dropout rates were a lower percentage of male participants (β = 1.15, standard error (SE) = 0.49, z = 2.0, p = 0.048), a lower body mass index(BMI) (β = 0.14, SE = 0.06, z = 2.16, p = 0.03), and a lower cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.10, SE = 0.04, z = 2.7, p = 0.006). The dropout from PA interventions is much higher in PLWH than in many other populations with chronic morbidities. Qualified professionals (i.e., exercise physiologists, physical educators, or physical therapists) should be incorporated as key care providers in the multidisciplinary care of HIV/AIDS and should prescribe supervised PA for PLWH in order to enhance adherence and reduce the burden of HIV/AIDS. Special attention should be given men, those with a higher BMI, and those with a lower cardiorespiratory fitness.

  3. Effective techniques for changing physical activity and healthy eating intentions and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Iverson, Don; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to review the evidence on the impact of a change in intention on behaviour and to identify (1) behaviour change techniques (BCTs) associated with changes in intention and (2) whether the same BCTs are also associated with changes in behaviour. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventions that produced a significant change in intention and assessed the impact of this change on behaviour at a subsequent time point. Each intervention was coded using a taxonomy of BCTs targeting healthy eating and physical activity. A series of meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify effective BCTs. In total, 25 reports were included. Interventions had a medium-to-large effect on intentions (d +  = 0.64) and a small-to-medium effect (d +  = 0.41) on behaviour. One BCT, 'provide information on the consequences of behaviour in general', was significantly associated with a positive change in intention. One BCT, 'relapse prevention/coping planning', was associated with a negative change in intention. No BCTs were found to have significant positive effects on behaviour. However, one BCT, 'provide feedback on performance', was found to have a significant negative effect. BCTs aligned with social cognitive theory were found to have significantly greater positive effects on intention (d +  = 0.83 vs. 0.56, p behaviour (d +  = 0.35 vs. 0.23, ns), than those aligned with the theory of planned behaviour. Although the included studies support the notion that a change in intention is associated with a change in behaviour, this review failed to produce evidence on how to facilitate behaviour change through a change in intention. Larger meta-analyses incorporating interventions targeting a broader range of behaviours may be warranted. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Prior research on the causal relationship between intention and behaviour has produced mixed findings. Further experimental research to

  4. Structure of the Ni(II) complex of Escherichia coli peptide deformylase and suggestions on deformylase activities depending on different metal(II) centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ngo Thi Hai; Bogdanović, Xenia; Palm, Gottfried J; Kühl, Olaf; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2010-02-01

    Crystal structures of polypeptide deformylase (PDF) of Escherichia coli with nickel(II) replacing the native iron(II) have been solved with chloride and formate as metal ligands. The chloro complex is a model for the correct protonation state of the hydrolytic hydroxo ligand and the protonated status of the Glu133 side chain as part of the hydrolytic mechanism. The ambiguity that recently some PDFs have been identified with Zn(2+) ion as the active-site centre whereas others are only active with Fe(2+) (or Co(2+), Ni(2+) is discussed with respect to Lewis acid criteria of the metal ion and substrate activation by the CD loop.

  5. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...

  6. Simultaneous absorption of NO and SO{sub 2} into Fe-II-EDTA solution coupled with the Fe-II-EDTA regeneration catalyzed by activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, H.S.; Mao, Y.P.; Yang, X.J.; Chen, Y.; Long, X.L.; Yuan, W.K. [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-30

    The simultaneous removal of NO and SO{sub 2} from flue gases can be realized with Fe(II)-ethylenediamineteraacetate (EDTA) solution. Activated carbon is used to catalyze the reduction of Fe-III-EDTA to Fe-II-EDTA to maintain the capability of removing NO of the Fe-EDTA solution. The reductant is the sulfite/bisulfite ions produced by SO{sub 2} dissolving into the aqueous solution. Experiments have been performed to determine the effects of activated carbon of coconut shell, Fe-II-EDTA concentration, Fe/EDTA molar ratio, SO{sub 2} partial pressure, NO partial pressure and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration on the combined elimination of NO and SO{sub 2} with Fe-II-EDTA solution coupled with the Fe-II-EDTA regeneration catalyzed by activated carbon. According to the experimental results, activated carbon not only catalyzes the reduction of Fe-III-EDTA by sulfite/bisulfite greatly but also avoids the release of N{sub 2}O. The NO removal efficiency increases with the initial Fe-II-EDTA concentration and SO{sub 2} partial pressure. The ratio of Fe/EDTA and the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration has little effect on the catalytic reduction of Fe-III-EDTA. The optimal initial NO concentration range is from 600 ppm to 900 ppm. The experimental results manifest that the Fe-II-EDTA solution coupled with catalytic regeneration of Fe-II-EDTA can maintain high nitric oxide removal efficiency for a long period of time.

  7. Structural insight into activity enhancement and inhibition of H64A carbonic anhydrase II by imidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Aggarwal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydration and dehydration of CO2 and HCO3−, respectively. The reaction follows a ping-pong mechanism, in which the rate-limiting step is the transfer of a proton from the zinc-bound solvent (OH−/H2O in/out of the active site via His64, which is widely believed to be the proton-shuttling residue. The decreased catalytic activity (∼20-fold lower with respect to the wild type of a variant of CA II in which His64 is replaced with Ala (H64A CA II can be enhanced by exogenous proton donors/acceptors, usually derivatives of imidazoles and pyridines, to almost the wild-type level. X-ray crystal structures of H64A CA II in complex with four imidazole derivatives (imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole have been determined and reveal multiple binding sites. Two of these imidazole binding sites have been identified that mimic the positions of the `in' and `out' rotamers of His64 in wild-type CA II, while another directly inhibits catalysis by displacing the zinc-bound solvent. The data presented here not only corroborate the importance of the imidazole side chain of His64 in proton transfer during CA catalysis, but also provide a complete structural understanding of the mechanism by which imidazoles enhance (and inhibit when used at higher concentrations the activity of H64A CA II.

  8. Regulatory activity based risk model identifies survival of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Chuanpeng; Wang, Xing; Hou, Guojun; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Huilin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Liu, Lei

    2017-11-17

    Clinical and pathological indicators are inadequate for prognosis of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we utilized the activity of regulatory factors, univariate Cox regression and random forest for variable selection and developed a multivariate Cox model to predict the overall survival of Stage II/III colorectal carcinoma in GSE39582 datasets (469 samples). Patients in low-risk group showed a significant longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival time than those in high-risk group. This finding was further validated in five other independent datasets (GSE14333, GSE17536, GSE17537, GSE33113, and GSE37892). Besides, associations between clinicopathological information and risk score were analyzed. A nomogram including risk score was plotted to facilitate the utilization of risk score. The risk score model is also demonstrated to be effective on predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival of chemotherapy received patients. After performing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) between high and low risk groups, we found that several cell-cell interaction KEGG pathways were identified. Funnel plot results showed that there was no publication bias in these datasets. In summary, by utilizing the regulatory activity in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma, the risk score successfully predicts the survival of 1021 stage II/III CRC patients in six independent datasets.

  9. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Meczes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity.We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity.In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs.

  10. Digital health behaviour change interventions targeting physical activity and diet in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anna L; Fisher, Abigail; Smith, Lee; Heinrich, Malgorzata; Potts, Henry W W

    2017-12-01

    The number of cancer survivors has risen substantially due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatment. Health behaviours such as physical activity (PA) and diet can reduce recurrence and mortality, and alleviate negative consequences of cancer and treatments. Digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) have the potential to reach large numbers of cancer survivors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant studies identified by a search of Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL. Studies which assessed a DBCI with measures of PA, diet and/or sedentary behaviour were included. Fifteen studies were identified. Random effects meta-analyses showed significant improvements in moderate-vigorous PA (seven studies; mean difference (MD) = 41 min per week; 95% CI 12, 71) and body mass index (BMI)/weight (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI -0.41, -0.05). There was a trend towards significance for reduced fatigue and no significant change in cancer-specific measures of quality of life (QoL). Narrative synthesis revealed mixed evidence for effects on diet, generic QoL measures and self-efficacy and no evidence of an effect on mental health. Two studies suggested improved sleep quality. DBCIs may improve PA and BMI among cancer survivors, and there is mixed evidence for diet. The number of included studies is small, and risk of bias and heterogeneity was high. Future research should address these limitations with large, high-quality RCTs, with objective measures of PA and sedentary time. Digital technologies offer a promising approach to encourage health behaviour change among cancer survivors.

  11. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuezhou; Chen, Weixian; Qian, Yun; Zeng, Yanying; Liu, Wenhua

    2014-12-01

    The guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism (4G/5G) of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been suggested as a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), but direct evidence from genetic association studies remains inconclusive even in Chinese population. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate this association. All of the relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database and Chinese Wanfang database up to September 2013. Statistical analyses were conducted with Revman 5.2 and STATA 12.0 software. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) values were applied to evaluate the strength of the association. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q-test and the I² statistic. The Begg's test and Egger's test were used to assess the publication bias. A significant association and a borderline association between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and IS were found under the recessive model (OR = 1.639, 95% CI = 1.136-2.364) and allelic model (OR = 1.256, 95% CI = 1.000-1.578), respectively. However, no significant association was observed under homogeneous comparison model (OR = 1.428, 95% CI = 0.914-2.233), heterogeneous comparison model (OR = 0.856, 95% CI = 0.689-1.063) and dominant model (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 0.846-1.270). This meta-analysis suggested that 4G4G genotype of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism might be a risk factor for IS in the Chinese population.

  12. Dose-Response Association Between Physical Activity and Incident Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejiao; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Han, Chengyi; Wang, Bingyuan; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Junmei; Zhao, Yang; Shi, Yuanyuan; Hu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Ming

    2017-05-01

    Despite the inverse association between physical activity (PA) and incident hypertension, a comprehensive assessment of the quantitative dose-response association between PA and hypertension has not been reported. We performed a meta-analysis, including dose-response analysis, to quantitatively evaluate this association. We searched PubMed and Embase databases for articles published up to November 1, 2016. Random effects generalized least squares regression models were used to assess the quantitative association between PA and hypertension risk across studies. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association. We identified 22 articles (29 studies) investigating the risk of hypertension with leisure-time PA or total PA, including 330 222 individuals and 67 698 incident cases of hypertension. The risk of hypertension was reduced by 6% (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.96) with each 10 metabolic equivalent of task h/wk increment of leisure-time PA. We found no evidence of a nonlinear dose-response association of PA and hypertension ( P nonlinearity =0.094 for leisure-time PA and 0.771 for total PA). With the linear cubic spline model, when compared with inactive individuals, for those who met the guidelines recommended minimum level of moderate PA (10 metabolic equivalent of task h/wk), the risk of hypertension was reduced by 6% (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.97). This meta-analysis suggests that additional benefits for hypertension prevention occur as the amount of PA increases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Locomotor activity measures in the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-analyses and new findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Lourdes García; Cortese, Samuele; Anderson, David; Martino, Adriana Di; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to assess differences in movement measures in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) vs. typically developing (TD) controls. Methods We performed meta-analyses of published studies on motion measures contrasting ADHD with controls. We also conducted a case-control study with children/adolescents (n=61 TD, n=62 ADHD) and adults (n=30 TD, n=19 ADHD) using the McLean Motion Activity Test, semi-structured diagnostic interviews and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Conners (Parent, Teacher; Self) Rating Scales. Results Meta-analyses revealed medium-to-large effect sizes for actigraph (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.64, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.43, 0.85) and motion tracking systems (SDM: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.20) measures in differentiating individuals with ADHD from controls. Effects sizes were similar in studies of children/adolescents ([SMD]:0.75, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.01) and of adults ([SMD]: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.00). In our sample, ADHD groups differed significantly in number of Head Movements (p=0.02 in children; p=0.002 in adults), Displacement (p=0.009/pADHD (d=0.45, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.82). In the concurrent go/no-go task, reaction time variability was significantly greater in ADHD (pADHD even in adults. Our results suggest that objective locomotion measures may be particularly useful in evaluating adults with possible ADHD. PMID:25770940

  14. Angiotensin II up-regulates PAX2 oncogene expression and activity in prostate cancer via the angiotensin II type I receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sudeep K; Gibson, Willietta; Giri, Shailendra; Nath, Narender; Donald, Carlton D

    2009-09-01

    Paired homeobox 2 gene (PAX2) is a transcriptional regulator, aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and its down-regulation promotes cell death in these cells. The molecular mechanisms of tumor progression by PAX2 over-expression are still unclear. However, it has been reported that angiotensin-II (A-II) induces cell growth in prostate cancer via A-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and is mediated by the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Here we have demonstrated that A-II up-regulates PAX2 expression in prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cell lines resulting in increased cell growth. Furthermore, AT1R receptor antagonist losartan was shown to inhibit A-II induced PAX2 expression in prostate cancer. Moreover, analysis using pharmacological inhibitors against MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JAK-II, and phospho-STAT3 demonstrated that AT1R-mediated stimulatory effect of A-II on PAX2 expression was regulated in part by the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JAK II, and STAT3 pathways. In addition, we have showed that down-regulation of PAX2 by an AT1R antagonist as well as JAK-II and STAT3 inhibitors suppress prostate cancer cell growth. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may promote prostate tumorigenesis via up-regulation of PAX2 expression. Therefore, PAX2 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of carcinomas such as prostate cancer via the down-regulation of its expression by targeting the AT1R signaling pathways.

  15. Association between mental health-related stigma and active help-seeking: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Nina; Panczak, Radoslaw; Groth, Nicola; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2017-04-01

    Background Mental disorders create high individual and societal costs and burden, partly because help-seeking is often delayed or completely avoided. Stigma related to mental disorders or mental health services is regarded as a main reason for insufficient help-seeking. Aims To estimate the impact of four stigma types (help-seeking attitudes and personal, self and perceived public stigma) on active help-seeking in the general population. Method A systematic review of three electronic databases was followed by random effect meta-analyses according to the stigma types. Results Twenty-seven studies fulfilled eligibility criteria. Participants' own negative attitudes towards mental health help-seeking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.88) and their stigmatising attitudes towards people with a mental illness (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) were associated with less active help-seeking. Self-stigma showed insignificant association (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.76-1.03), whereas perceived public stigma was not associated. Conclusions Personal attitudes towards mental illness or help-seeking are associated with active help-seeking for mental problems. Campaigns promoting help-seeking and fighting mental illness-related stigma should target these personal attitudes rather than broad public opinion. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  16. Adsorption of Pb(II by Activated Pyrolytic Char from Used Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable resource, the pyrolytic char derived from used tire has promising adsorption capacities owing to its similar structure and properties with active carbon. The purification and activation of the pyrolytic char from used tire, as well as the application of this material in the adsorption of Pb(II in water is conducted. The influences on the adsorption capacity by temperature and pH value are investigated and discussed; the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics are also studied. The results show that the pyrolytic char from used tire has remarkable adsorption capacity for Pb(II, and the adsorption is an endothermic process complying with the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics is a pseudo second-order reaction.

  17. Activation analysis of tritium breeder lithium lead irradiated by fusion neutrons in FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingliang Chen

    2006-01-01

    R-and-D of fusion materials, especially their activation characteristics, is one of the key issues for fusion research in the world. Research on activation characteristics for low activation materials, such as reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites, is being done throughout the world to ensure the attractiveness of fusion power regarding safety and environmental aspects. However, there is less research on the activation characteristics of the other important fusion materials, such as tritium breeder etc.. Lithium lead (Li 17 Pb 83 ) is presently considered as a primary candidate tritium breeder for fusion power reactors because of its attractive characteristics. It can serve as a tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and coolant in the blanket at the same time. The radioactivity of Li 17 Pb 83 by D-T fusion neutrons in FDS-II has been calculated and analyzed. FDS-II is a concept design of fusion power reactor, which consists of fusion core with advanced plasma parameters extrapolated from the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and two candidates of liquid lithium breeder blankets (named SLL and DLL blankets). The neutron transport and activation calculation are carried out based on the one-dimensional model for FDS-II with the home-developed multi-functional code system VisualBUS and the multi-group data library HENDL1.0/MG and European Activation File EAF-99. The effects of irradiation time on the activation characteristics of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed and it concludes that the irradiation time has an important effect on the activation level of Li 17 Pb 83 . Furthermore, the results were compared with the activation levels of other tritium breeders, such as Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 O and Li etc., under the same irradiation conditions. The dominant nuclides to dose rate and activity of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed as well. Tritium generated by Li has a great contribution to the afterheat and

  18. Arthrogenicity of type II collagen monoclonal antibodies associated with complement activation and antigen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Koobkokkruad, Thongchai; Kadotani, Tatsuya; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Yoshino, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model, which employs a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to type II collagen (CII), has been widely used for studying the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. In this model, not all mAbs to CII are capable of inducing arthritis because one of the initial events is the formation of collagen-antibody immune complexes on the cartilage surface or in the synovium, and subsequent activation of the complement by the complexes...

  19. Purposeless oral activity induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP): Undefined tic-like behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Deborah S; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiological hypothesis underlying tic disorders in Tourette syndrome (TS) is that basal ganglia are not capable of properly filtering cortical information, leading patients with difficulties in inhibiting unwanted behaviors or impulses. One of the main challenges for furthering such a hypothesis is to find appropriate animal models summarizing some aspects of the disease. It has been established for more than 25 years in rodents that the prototypical serotonin (5-HT) agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) elicits purposeless oral movements including chewing behavior. These bouts of oral movements, originally thought to mimic human oral dyskinesia consequent to long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs or parkinsonian tremor, could correspond to an undefined form of tics. Here, we describe the nature of the purposeless oral movements triggered by m-CPP and other agonists which could be associated with obsessive compulsive disorders. We report the pharmacology of this response with a focus on the 5-HT 2C receptor subtype and the degree to which the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems are involved. The orofacial dyskinetic effects are related to the action of these compounds in associative/limbic territories of the basal ganglia, rather than sensorimotor ones, as expected from the human disease. In spite of the low translational value of these oral movements, the neurobiological analysis of these oral movements could help to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of tics and compulsive disorders often cormorbid with TS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Active site of tripeptidyl peptidase II from human erythrocytes is of the subtilisin type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkinson, B.; Wernstedt, C.; Hellman, U.; Zetterqvist, Oe.

    1987-11-01

    The present report presents evidence that the amino acid sequence around the serine of the active site of human tripeptidyl peptidase II is of the subtilisin type. The enzyme from human erythrocytes was covalently labeled at its active site with (/sup 3/H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and the protein was subsequently reduced, alkylated, and digested with trypsin. The labeled tryptic peptides were purified by gel filtration and repeated reversed-phase HPLC, and their amino-terminal sequences were determined. Residue 9 contained the radioactive label and was, therefore, considered to be the active serine residue. The primary structure of the part of the active site (residues 1-10) containing this residue was concluded to be Xaa-Thr-Gln-Leu-Met-Asx-Gly-Thr-Ser-Met. This amino acid sequence is homologous to the sequence surrounding the active serine of the microbial peptidases subtilisin and thermitase. These data demonstrate that human tripeptidyl peptidase II represents a potentially distinct class of human peptidases and raise the question of an evolutionary relationship between the active site of a mammalian peptidase and that of the subtilisin family of serine peptidases.

  1. Electromyographic Activity of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in Patients With Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Peter; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Sole, Gisela

    2016-09-01

    To compare electromyographic activity in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears with healthy controls or to those with asymptomatic cuff tears. TYPE: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Scopus, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science were searched from inception to August 1, 2014, and a search update was performed on June 8, 2015. Case-control studies or intervention studies that had baseline comparisons for symptomatic versus healthy shoulders or those with asymptomatic rotator cuff tear were searched. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme score and meta-analyses were performed when 2 or more studies explored the same outcome measures. Nine studies were included, with the quality ranging from 1 to 3 (maximum 6). Electromyographic outcomes included amplitudes and ratios thereof, activity duration, and median frequency of shoulder girdle muscles during isometric contractions (4 studies) and functional tasks (5 studies). Longer activity duration was found for upper trapezius during glenohumeral movements, and greater fatigability of anterior and middle deltoids during isometric hand gripping for patients with rotator cuff tears compared to controls. The meta-analysis (3 studies) showed that patients with rotator cuff tears had lower activation ratios for latissimus dorsi during isometric abduction contraction compared to controls (P muscle activity differences between the rotator cuff tear group and controls is thus limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions targeting sleep and their impact on child body mass index, diet, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Chai, Li Kheng; Williams, Christopher M; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-05-01

    This review aimed to examine the impact of interventions involving an explicit sleep component on child body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. A systematic search was undertaken in six databases to identify randomized controlled trials examining the impact of interventions with a sleep component on child BMI, dietary intake, and/or physical activity. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted assessing the impact of included interventions on child BMI. Of the eight included trials, three enforced a sleep protocol and five targeted sleep as part of multicomponent behavioral interventions either exclusively or together with nutrition and physical activity. Meta-analysis of three studies found that multicomponent behavioral interventions involving a sleep component were not significantly effective in changing child BMI (n = 360,-0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.18, 0.11], I(2)  = 0%); however, only one study included in the meta-analysis successfully changed sleep duration in children. There were some reported improvements to adolescent diet, and only one trial examined the impact on child physical activity, where a significant effect was observed. Findings from the included studies suggest that where improvements in child sleep duration were achieved, a positive impact on child BMI, nutrition, and physical activity was also observed. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Dead layer and active volume determination for GERDA Phase II detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment investigates the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge and is currently running Phase I of its physics program. Using the same isotope as the Heidelberg Moscow (HDM) experiment, GERDA aims to directly test the claim of observation by a subset of the HDM collaboration. For the update to Phase II of the experiment in 2013, the collaboration organized the production of 30 new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) type detectors from original 35 kg enriched material and tested their performance in the low background laboratory HADES in SCK.CEN, Belgium. With additional 20 kg of detectors, GERDA aims to probe the degenerated hierarchy scenario. One of the crucial detector parameters is the active volume (AV) fraction which directly enters into all physics analysis. This talk presents the methodology of dead layer and AV determination with different calibration sources such as {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 228}Th and the results obtained for the new Phase II detectors. Furthermore, the AV fraction turned out to be the largest systematic uncertainty in the analysis of Phase I data which makes it imperative to reduce its uncertainty for Phase II. This talk addresses the major contributions to the AV uncertainty and gives an outlook for improvements in Phase II analysis.

  4. Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca

    OpenAIRE

    prueba1, prueba; Informe actividades realizadas sobre OJS UPTC

    2016-01-01

    Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Rechazo MetaBiblioteca Dcumento Recha...

  5. Anticonvulsant activity of DNS II fraction in the acute seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad Liaquat; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Manzoor; Shaheen, Farzana; Simjee, Shabana U

    2010-04-21

    Delphinium nordhagenii belongs to family Ranunculaceae, it is widely found in tropical areas of Pakistan. Other species of Delphinium are reported as anticonvulsant and are traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy. Delphinium nordhagenii is used by local healer in Pakistan but never used for scientific investigation as anticonvulsant. Thus, Delphinium nordhagenii was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation and the most active fraction, i.e. DNS II acetone was chosen for further testing in the acute seizure models of epilepsy to study the antiepileptic potential in male mice. Different doses (60, 65 and 70mg/kg, i.p.) of DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii was administered 30min prior the chemoconvulsant's injection in the male mice. Convulsive doses of chemoconvulsants (pentylenetetrazole 90mg/kg, s.c. and picrotoxin 3.15mg/kg, s.c.) were used. The mice were observed 45-90min for the presence of seizures. Moreover, four different doses of DNS II (60, 65, 70 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in the MES test. The DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii has exhibited the anticonvulsant actions by preventing the seizures against PTZ- and picrotoxin-induced seizure as well as 100% seizure protection in MES test. The results are comparable with standard AEDs (diazepam 7.5mg/kg, i.p. and phenytoin 20mg/kg, i.p.). These findings suggest that the Delphinium nordhagenii possesses the anticonvulsant activity. Further analysis is needed to confirm the structure and target the extended activity profile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New bioactive silver(I) complexes: Synthesis, characterization, anticancer, antibacterial and anticarbonic anhydrase II activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ummuhan O.; Ozbek, Neslihan; Genc, Zuhal Karagoz; İlbiz, Firdevs; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban

    2017-06-01

    Silver(I) complexes of alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides were newly synthesized as homologous series. Methanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L1), ethanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L2), propanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L3) and butanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L4) were used for complexation with Ag(I) ions. The silver complexes obtained in the mol ratio of 1:2 have the structural formula as Ag(L1)2NO3 (I), Ag(L2)2NO3 (II), Ag(L3)2NO3(III), (Ag(L4)2NO3 (IV). The Ag(I) complexes exhibit distorted linear two-fold coordination in [AgL2]+ cations with uncoordinated nitrates. Ligands are chelated with silver(I) ions through unsubstituted primary nitrogen in hydrazide group. Ag(I) complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, LC-MS), magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Silver(I) complexes were optimized using PBEPBE/LanL2DZ/DEF2SV basic set performed by DFT method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The geometrical parameters, frontier molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapped surfaces of the optimized geometries were also determined by this quantum set. The anticancer activities of silver(I) complexes on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of complexes were studied against Gram positive bacteria; S. aureus ATCC 6538, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, B. cereus NRRL-B-3711, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; E. coli ATCC 11230, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, K. pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of Ag(I) complexes on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) were also investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that Ag(I) complex of butanesulfonicacidehydrazide (IV) has the highest activity against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram positive/Gram negative bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  7. Neural signatures of social conformity: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang

    2016-12-01

    People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI). Specifically, consistent deactivation of VS and activation of dorsal pMFC and AI are identified when people's responses deviate from group opinions. In addition, the deviation-related responses in dorsal pMFC predict people's conforming behavioral adjustments. These are consistent with current models that disagreement with others might evoke "error" signals, cognitive imbalance, and/or aversive feelings, which are plausibly detected in these brain regions as control signals to facilitate subsequent conforming behaviors. Finally, group opinions result in altered neural correlates of valuation, manifested as stronger responses of VS to stimuli endorsed than disliked by others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of EDTA-functionalized bamboo activated carbon (BAC) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Jiasheng; Yang, Kunlun; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel bamboo activated carbon (BAC) with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) functionality was prepared by direct grafting in the presence of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a crosslinking agent. The BAC@SiO2-EDTA was characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA, FTIR, XPS and its adsorption property for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) under various experimental conditions was also investigated. The characterization results reflected that EDTA was successfully assembled on the surface of the BAC and average pore size increased from 4.10 to 4.83 nm as BAC grafted with EDTA. Adsorption data fitted very well in Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As compared with the raw BAC, the maximum adsorption capacities of BAC@SiO2-EDTA for the Pb(II) and Cu(II) increased from 45.45 to 123.45 mg g-1 and from 6.85 to 42.19 mg g-1, since the existence of EDTA on modified BAC promoted the formation of chemical complex. The removal of heavy metal ions mainly depended on the complexation with EDTA and the electrostatic attractions with negatively charged surface of BAC@SiO2-EDTA. The adsorption of Pb(II)/Cu(II) on the BAC@SiO2-EDTA was pH dependent and pH 5-6 was considered an optimum. However, lower temperature favored the adsorption and the maximum adsorption was recorded at 20 °C. In addition, BAC@SiO2-EDTA had an excellent reusability with about 40% decline in the adsorption capacity for Pb(II) after fifth reuse. Insignificant influences of co-existing cations and natural organic matter (NOM) were found on the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II). All the results demonstrate that BAC@SiO2-EDTA is a potential adsorbent for metal ions in wastewater.

  9. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  10. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib for active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to methotrexate or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gwan Gyu; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib (5 and 10 mg twice daily) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with active RA was performed using the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register databases as well as manual searches. Results Five RCTs, including three phase-II and two phase-III trials involving 1,590 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The three phase-II RCTs included 452 patients with RA (144 patients randomized to 5 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, 156 patients randomized to 10 mg of tofacitinib twice daily, and 152 patients randomized to placebo) who were included in this meta-analysis. The American College of Rheumatology 20% response rate was significantly higher in the tofacitinib 5- and 10-mg groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR], 2.445; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.229 to 4.861; p = 0.011; and RR, 2.597; 95% CI, 1.514 to 4.455; p = 0.001, respectively). The safety outcomes did not differ between the tofacitinib 5- and 10-mg groups and placebo groups with the exception of infection in the tofacitinib 10-mg group (RR, 2.133; 95% CI, 1.268 to 3.590; p = 0.004). The results of two phase-III trials (1,123 patients) confirmed the findings in the phase-II studies. Conclusions Tofacitinib at dosages of 5 and 10 mg twice daily was found to be effective in patients with active RA that inadequately responded to methotrexate or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and showed a manageable safety profile. PMID:25228842

  11. Modeling and optimization by particle swarm embedded neural network for adsorption of zinc (II) by palm kernel shell based activated carbon from aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karri, Rama Rao; Sahu, J N

    2018-01-15

    Zn (II) is one the common pollutant among heavy metals found in industrial effluents. Removal of pollutant from industrial effluents can be accomplished by various techniques, out of which adsorption was found to be an efficient method. Applications of adsorption limits itself due to high cost of adsorbent. In this regard, a low cost adsorbent produced from palm oil kernel shell based agricultural waste is examined for its efficiency to remove Zn (II) from waste water and aqueous solution. The influence of independent process variables like initial concentration, pH, residence time, activated carbon (AC) dosage and process temperature on the removal of Zn (II) by palm kernel shell based AC from batch adsorption process are studied systematically. Based on the design of experimental matrix, 50 experimental runs are performed with each process variable in the experimental range. The optimal values of process variables to achieve maximum removal efficiency is studied using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches. A quadratic model, which consists of first order and second order degree regressive model is developed using the analysis of variance and RSM - CCD framework. The particle swarm optimization which is a meta-heuristic optimization is embedded on the ANN architecture to optimize the search space of neural network. The optimized trained neural network well depicts the testing data and validation data with R 2 equal to 0.9106 and 0.9279 respectively. The outcomes indicates that the superiority of ANN-PSO based model predictions over the quadratic model predictions provided by RSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immobilized copper(II) macrocyclic complex on MWCNTs with antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarlani, Aliakbar, E-mail: Tarlani@ccerci.ac.ir [Inorganic Nanostructures and Catalysts Research Lab., Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Pajoohesh Blvd., km 17, Karaj Hwy, Tehran 14968-13151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Narimani, Khashayar [Inorganic Nanostructures and Catalysts Research Lab., Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Pajoohesh Blvd., km 17, Karaj Hwy, Tehran 14968-13151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Javad [Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Tehran Biocompound Collection (UTBC), Microbial Technology and Products Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahermansouri, Hasan [Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Behshti University, 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: In an antibacterial test, grafted copper(II) macrocyclic complex on the surface of MWCNT showed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis compared to the individual MWCNT-COOH and the complex. - Highlights: • Copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex covalently bonded to modified MWCNT. • Grafting of the complex carried out via an interaction between −C(=O)Cl group and NH of the ligand. • The samples were subjected in an antibacterial assessment to compare their activity. • Immobilized complex showed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 compared to separately MWCNT-C(C=O)-OH and CuTAM. - Abstract: In a new approach, a copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex (CuTAM) was covalently bonded on modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To achieve this purpose, MWCNTs were converted to MWCNT-COCl and then reacted to NH groups of TAM ligand. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy). FT-IR and TGA demonstrated the presence of the organic moieties, and XRD proved that the structure of MWCNTs remained intact during the three modification steps. An increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in Raman spectra confirmed the surface modifications. Finally, the samples were subjected to an antibacterial assessment to compare their biological activity. The antibacterial test showed that the grafted complex on the surface of the nanotube (MWCNT-CO-CuTAM) has higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 than the MWCNT-COOH and CuTAM with 1000 and 2000 μg/mL.

  13. Agonists and partial agonists of rhodopsin: retinal polyene methylation affects receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Reiner; Lüdeke, Steffen; Siebert, Friedrich; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Sheves, Mordechai

    2006-02-14

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, we have studied the impact of sites and extent of methylation of the retinal polyene with respect to position and thermodynamic parameters of the conformational equilibrium between the Meta I and Meta II photoproducts of rhodopsin. Deletion of methyl groups to form 9-demethyl and 13-demethyl analogues, as well as addition of a methyl group at C10 or C12, shifted the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium toward Meta I, such that the retinal analogues behaved like partial agonists. This equilibrium shift resulted from an apparent reduction of the entropy gain of the transition of up to 65%, which was only partially offset by a concomitant reduction of the enthalpy increase. The analogues produced Meta II photoproducts with relatively small alterations, while their Meta I states were significantly altered, which accounted for the aberrant transitions to Meta II. Addition of a methyl group at C14 influenced the thermodynamic parameters but had little impact on the position of the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium. Neutralization of the residue 134 in the E134Q opsin mutant increased the Meta II content of the 13-demethyl analogue, but not of the 9-demethyl analogue, indicating a severe impairment of the allosteric coupling between the conserved cytoplasmic ERY motif involved in proton uptake and the Schiff base/Glu 113 microdomain in the 9-demethyl analogue. The 9-methyl group appears therefore essential for the correct positioning of retinal to link protonation of the cytoplasmic motif with protonation of Glu 113 during receptor activation.

  14. Excessive activity of cathepsin K is associated with cartilage defects in a zebrafish model of mucolipidosis II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Petrey

    2012-03-01

    The severe pediatric disorder mucolipidosis II (ML-II; also known as I-cell disease is caused by defects in mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P biosynthesis. Patients with ML-II exhibit multiple developmental defects, including skeletal, craniofacial and joint abnormalities. To date, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these clinical manifestations are poorly understood. Taking advantage of a zebrafish model of ML-II, we previously showed that the cartilage morphogenesis defects in this model are associated with altered chondrocyte differentiation and excessive deposition of type II collagen, indicating that aspects of development that rely on proper extracellular matrix homeostasis are sensitive to decreases in Man-6-P biosynthesis. To further investigate the molecular bases for the cartilage phenotypes, we analyzed the transcript abundance of several genes in chondrocyte-enriched cell populations isolated from wild-type and ML-II zebrafish embryos. Increased levels of cathepsin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP transcripts were noted in ML-II cell populations. This increase in transcript abundance corresponded with elevated and sustained activity of several cathepsins (K, L and S and MMP-13 during early development. Unlike MMP-13, for which higher levels of protein were detected, the sustained activity of cathepsin K at later stages seemed to result from its abnormal processing and activation. Inhibition of cathepsin K activity by pharmacological or genetic means not only reduced the activity of this enzyme but led to a broad reduction in additional protease activity, significant correction of the cartilage morphogenesis phenotype and reduced type II collagen staining in ML-II embryos. Our findings suggest a central role for excessive cathepsin K activity in the developmental aspects of ML-II cartilage pathogenesis and highlight the utility of the zebrafish system to address the biochemical underpinnings of metabolic disease.

  15. Synthesis and application of surface-imprinted activated carbon sorbent for solid-phase extraction and determination of copper (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Yanbin; Wei, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    A new Cu(II)-imprinted amino-functionalized activated carbon sorbent was prepared by a surface imprinting technique for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cu(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of Cu(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using static and dynamic procedures in detail. Compared with non-imprinted sorbent, the ion-imprinted sorbent had higher selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cu(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Cu(II) was 26.71 and 6.86 mg g-1, respectively. The relatively selectivity factor values (αr) of Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Ni(II), Cu(II)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 166.16, 50.77, 72.26 and 175.77, respectively, which were greater than 1. Complete elution of the adsorbed Cu(II) from Cu(II)-imprinted sorbent was carried out using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 EDTA solution. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.4% for eleven replicate determinations. The method was validated for the analysis by two certified reference materials (GBW 08301, GBW 08303), the results obtained is in good agreement with standard values. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace copper in natural water samples with satisfactory results.

  16. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.

    2015-02-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  17. Electroencephalographic characterization of seizure activity in the synapsin I/II double knockout mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etholm, Lars; Lindén, Henrik; Eken, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the behavioral and electrophysiological development of seizure activity in mice genetically depleted of synapsin I and synapsin II (SynDKO mice), based on combined video and surface EEG recordings. SynDKO mice develop handling-induced epileptic seizures...... at the age of 2months. The seizures show a very regular behavioral pattern, where activity is initially dominated by truncal muscle contractions followed by various myoclonic elements. Whereas seizure behavior goes through clearly defined transitions, cortical activity as reflected by EEG recordings shows...... a more gradual development with respect to the emergence of different EEG components and the frequency of these components. No EEG pattern was seen to define a particular seizure behavior. However, myoclonic activity was characterized by more regular patterns of combined sharp waves and spikes. Where...

  18. Meta-Teaching: Meaning and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoduan

    2013-01-01

    Meta-teaching is the knowledge and reflection on teaching based on meta-ideas. It is the teaching about teaching, a teaching process with practice consciously guided by thinking, inspiring teachers to teach more effectively. Meta-teaching is related to the knowledge, inspection and amendment of teaching activities in terms of their design,…

  19. Dichloroacetate Decreases Cell Health and Activates Oxidative Stress Defense Pathways in Rat Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Valauri-Orton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichloroacetate (DCA is a water purification byproduct that is known to be hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic and to induce peripheral neuropathy and damage macrophages. This study characterizes the effects of the haloacetate on lung cells by exposing rat alveolar type II (L2 cells to 0–24 mM DCA for 6–24 hours. Increasing DCA concentration and the combination of increasing DCA concentration plus longer exposures decrease measures of cellular health. Length of exposure has no effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, glutathione, SOD, or CAT. Increasing DCA concentration alone does not affect total glutathione or its redox ratio but does increase activity in the SOD/CAT oxidative stress defense pathway. These data suggest that alveolar type II cells rely on SOD and CAT more than glutathione to combat DCA-induced stress.

  20. Platinum(II/palladium(II complexes with n-propyldithiocarbamate and 2,2′-bipyridine: synthesis, characterization, biological activity and interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Pd(II and Pt(II complexes ([Pt(bpy(pr-dtc]Br and [Pd(bpy(pr-dtc]Br, where bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine and pr-dtc = n-propyldithiocarbamate were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN, molar conductivity measurements, Fourier transform infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and UV–visible techniques. In these complexes, the dithiocarbamato ligand coordinates to Pt(II or Pd(II center as bidentate with two sulfur atoms. The binding of these complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA was investigated using various physicochemical methods such as spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric and gel filtration technique. The experimental results indicate that Pt(II and Pd(II complexes interact with CT-DNA in the intercalative mode. Both complexes unexpectedly denatured DNA at low concentration. Gel filtration studies indicated that the binding of complexes with DNA is strong enough and does not break readily. The cytotoxic activity of these metal complexes has been tested against human cell tumor lines (K562 and revealed much lower 50% cytotoxic concentration (Cc50 less than that of cisplatin. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described.

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the association between the PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms and PCOS using: (1) allele contrast (2) homozygote contrast, (3) recessive, and (4) dominant models. For meta-analysis, nine studies of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with 2384 subjects (PCOS, 1615; controls, 769) and eight studies of the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism with 1270 study subjects were included. Meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G allele (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.671-1.343, p=0.767). Stratification by ethnicity, however, indicated a significant association between the PAI-1 4G allele and PCOS in Turkish and Asian populations (OR=0.776, 95% CI=0.602-0.999, p=0.049; OR=1.749, 95% CI=1.297-2.359, p=2.5×10(-5) respectively). In addition, meta-analysis indicated an association between PCOS and the PAI-1 4G4G+4G5G genotype in Europeans (OR=1.406, 95% CI=1.025-1.928, p=0.035). However, meta-analysis of all study subjects showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.762-1.307, p=0.989), including Europeans (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.610-1.063, p=0.126). Meta-analysis showed no association between PCOS and the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism using homozygote contrast, and recessive and dominant models. In conclusion, meta-analysis suggests the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to PCOS in European, Turkish, and Asian populations, but the MTHFR 677C/T polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to PCOS in Europeans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Wu, Lang; Ming, Qingsen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. Design A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Method Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants’ ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators. Results Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges’ g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges’ g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges’ g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013). Conclusion Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium

  3. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Wu, Lang; Ming, Qingsen

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants' ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators. Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges' g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges' g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges' g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013). Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium-based intervention compared with other settings.

  4. The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanmore, Emma; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; de Bruin, Eling D; Firth, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    Physically-active video games ('exergames') have recently gained popularity for leisure and entertainment purposes. Using exergames to combine physical activity and cognitively-demanding tasks may offer a novel strategy to improve cognitive functioning. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to establish effects of exergames on overall cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinical and non-clinical populations. We identified 17 eligible RCTs with cognitive outcome data for 926 participants. Random-effects meta-analyses found exergames significantly improved global cognition (g=0.436, 95% CI=0.18-0.69, p=0.001). Significant effects still existed when excluding waitlist-only controlled studies, and when comparing to physical activity interventions. Furthermore, benefits of exergames where observed for both healthy older adults and clinical populations with conditions associated with neurocognitive impairments (all p<0.05). Domain-specific analyses found exergames improved executive functions, attentional processing and visuospatial skills. The findings present the first meta-analytic evidence for effects of exergames on cognition. Future research must establish which patient/treatment factors influence efficacy of exergames, and explore neurobiological mechanisms of action. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the complex interplay of barriers to physical activity amongst black and minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom: a qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoedo, Sejlo A; Paul-Ebhohimhen, Virginia A; Jepson, Ruth G; Watson, Margaret C

    2015-07-12

    To conduct a meta-ethnographic analysis of qualitative studies to identify barriers to Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) individuals engaging in physical activity in the UK context. A qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnographic methods to synthesis studies of barriers to engaging in physical activity among BME groups in the UK. A comprehensive search strategy of multiple databases was employed to identify qualitative research studies published up to October 2012. The eleven searched databases included ASSIA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA), NHS Scotland Library, Physical Activity Health Alliance (PAHA), PsyINFO, Social Services Abstract, Sport discuss and Web of Science. The Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach was undertaken to develop an inductive and interpretive form of knowledge synthesis. Fourteen papers met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis indicated that barriers to physical activity among BME individuals were influenced by four main concepts: perceptions; cultural expectations; personal barriers; and factors limiting access to facilities. BME individuals had different understandings of physical activity were influenced by migration history, experiences, cultural and health beliefs. This in turn may have a disempowering effect on BME individuals in terms of adopting or maintaining physical activity. These barriers to physical activity were explained at a higher conceptual level by a socio-ecological model. The social construct 'individual perception and understanding of physical activity' was particularly relevant to theoretical models and interventions. Interventions to promote engagement with physical activity need to address perceptions of this behaviour. The elicited concepts and contexts could be used to enhance the development of tailored effective health promotion interventions for BME individuals.

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tengyue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of associations. Results Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77. When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00. We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and retinopathy risk in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengyue; Pang, Chong; Li, Ningdong; Zhou, Elaine; Zhao, Kanxing

    2013-01-02

    Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77). When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00). We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57). The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of diabetes (more than 10 years) indicated a gene

  8. Sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungun; Ok, Gina; Jeon, Soeun; Kang, Minsoo; Lee, Sukho

    2017-02-01

    Controversial results reported in past research pertaining to the effectiveness of sport-based physical activity interventions on weight loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents using a meta-analysis. Academic Search Complete, Education Source, ERIC, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO and SportDiscus databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2015. Eighteen studies met following inclusion criteria: sport-based intervention studies; subjects aged 6-18 years; reported body weight; published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. The mean intervention duration was 17.72 weeks. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.52 (Cohen's d (ES) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.95, P = 0.021), using a random effects model. Moderator analyses results showed that the Q statistic for the sport type (individual sport or team sport, Qbetween (Q b ) = 14.52, df = 1, P = 0.001) and diet control (Qbetween (Q b ) = 8.85, df = 1, P = 0.001), explained the heterogeneity of ESs. Our study showed that there was a moderate overall effect of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight reduction. The team sport type (ES = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.66) and diet control group (ES = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.26, 1.41) appeared to be more effective in reducing body weight.

  9. Event-related fMRI studies of false memory: An Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkela, Kyle A; Dennis, Nancy A

    2016-01-29

    Over the last two decades, a wealth of research in the domain of episodic memory has focused on understanding the neural correlates mediating false memories, or memories for events that never happened. While several recent qualitative reviews have attempted to synthesize this literature, methodological differences amongst the empirical studies and a focus on only a sub-set of the findings has limited broader conclusions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying false memories. The current study performed a voxel-wise quantitative meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation to investigate commonalities within the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature studying false memory. The results were broken down by memory phase (encoding, retrieval), as well as sub-analyses looking at differences in baseline (hit, correct rejection), memoranda (verbal, semantic), and experimental paradigm (e.g., semantic relatedness and perceptual relatedness) within retrieval. Concordance maps identified significant overlap across studies for each analysis. Several regions were identified in the general false retrieval analysis as well as multiple sub-analyses, indicating their ubiquitous, yet critical role in false retrieval (medial superior frontal gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal cortex). Additionally, several regions showed baseline- and paradigm-specific effects (hit/perceptual relatedness: inferior and middle occipital gyrus; CRs: bilateral inferior parietal cortex, precuneus, left caudate). With respect to encoding, analyses showed common activity in the left middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex. No analysis identified a common cluster of activation in the medial temporal lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioural physical activity interventions in participants with lower-limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Wilby; Kluzek, Stefan; Roberts, Nia; Richards, Justin; Arden, Nigel; Leeson, Paul; Newton, Julia; Foster, Charlie

    2015-08-10

    To assess effectiveness of osteoarthritis interventions to promote long-term physical activity behaviour change. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD4201300444 5 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing physical activity interventions with placebo, no/or minimal intervention in community-dwelling adults with symptomatic knee or hip osteoarthritis. Primary outcomes were change in physical activity or cardiopulmonary fitness after a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Outcomes were measures of physical activity (self-reported and objectively measured) and cardiovascular fitness. Standard mean differences between postintervention values were used to describe the effect sizes. 27,984 titles were screened and 180 papers reviewed in full. Eleven RCTs satisfied inclusion criteria, total study population of 2741 participants, mean age 62.2. The commonest reasons for study exclusion were follow-up less than 6 months and no physical activity measures. The majority of included interventions implement an arthritis self-management programme targeting coping skills and self-efficacy. Seven studies used self-report measures, the pooled effect of these studies was small with significant heterogeneity between studies (SMD 0.22 with 95% CI -0.11 to 0.56, z=1.30 (p=0.19) I(2) statistic of 85%). Subgroup analysis of 6-12 month outcome reduced heterogeneity and increased intervention effect compared to control (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.65, z=8.84 (p<0.00001) I(2) of 66%). Arthritis self-management programmes achieve a small but significant improvement in physical activity in the short term. Effectiveness of intervention declines with extended follow-up beyond 12 months with no significant benefit compared to control. The small number of studies (11 RCTs) limited ability to define effective delivery methods. Investigation of behavioural lifestyle interventions for lower limb osteoarthritis populations would

  11. Urotensin II promotes vagal-mediated bradycardia by activating cardiac-projecting parasympathetic neurons of nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, Gabriela Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-05-01

    Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic undecapeptide that regulates cardiovascular function at central and peripheral sites. The functional role of U-II nucleus ambiguus, a key site controlling cardiac tone, has not been established, despite the identification of U-II and its receptor at this level. We report here that U-II produces an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus via two pathways: (i) Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; and (ii) Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. In addition, U-II depolarizes cultured cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Microinjection of increasing concentrations of U-II into nucleus ambiguus elicits dose-dependent bradycardia in conscious rats, indicating the in vivo activation of the cholinergic pathway controlling the heart rate. Both the in vitro and in vivo effects were abolished by the urotensin receptor antagonist, urantide. Our findings suggest that, in addition, to the previously reported increase in sympathetic outflow, U-II activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus, which may contribute to cardioprotection. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. The facile synthesis of a chitosan Cu(II) complex by solution plasma process and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengming; Li, Pu; Zhang, Baiqing; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis of chitosan-Cu(II) complex by solution plasma process (SPP) irradiation was investigated. The effects of the distance between the electrodes, initial Cu(II) concentration, and initial pH on the Cu(II) adsorption capacity were evaluated. The results showed that narrower distance between the electrodes, higher initial Cu(II) concentration and higher initial pH (at pHchitosan-Cu(II) complex by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that the main structure of chitosan was not changed after irradiation. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis indicated that Cu(II) ions were well incorporated into the chitosan. The antioxidant activity of the chitosan-Cu(II) complex was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, and reducing power assays. The chitosan-Cu(II) complex exhibited greater antioxidant activity than the original chitosan. Thus, SPP could be used for preparation of chitosan-Cu(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of Temperature and light intensity on growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel Jaen, M.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of five temperatures (15,20,25,30 and 35 degree centigree) and two levels of illumination on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhard II has been studied. The growth of the cultures was evaluated by optical density. Photosynthetic activity has been carried out studying either the assimilation rate of C0 2 labelled with C-14 or the oxygen evolution by means of polarographic measurements. The maximum photosynthetic rate has been obtained at 25 degree centigree for the lower level of illumination (2400 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher one (13200 lux) and at 35 degree centigree for the higher ono (13200 lux). These results suggest an interaction of temperature and illumination on photosynthetic activity. (Author) 37 refs

  14. Facilitated transport of Hg(II) through novel activated composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez-Hernandez, M.E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Aguilar-Arteaga, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Valiente, M. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica, Unitat Analitica, Centre GTS, Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ramirez-Silva, M.T. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio R-105, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Romero-Romo, M.; Palomar-Pardave, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2004-10-01

    The results presented in this work deal with the prime application of activated composite membranes (ACMs) for the transport of Hg(II) ions in a continuous extraction-re-extraction system using di-(2-ethylhexyl)dithiophosphoric acid (DTPA) as carrier. The effects of variables such as the pH, the nature of the acid and the concentration of the casting solutions on the transport of Hg(II) are also investigated. When the ACM was prepared with a 0.5 M DTPA solution and when the feed solution contained 2.5 x 10{sup -4} M Hg(II) in 0.1 M HCl, the amount of mercury extracted was greater than 76%. The re-extracted mercury was subsequently recovered by means of a stripping phase comprising 0.3 M thiourea solution in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, yielding 54% of the initial amount of mercury after transport had taken place for 180 min. (orig.)

  15. Degradation of a xanthene dye by Fe(II)-mediated activation of Oxone process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y R; Chu, W

    2011-02-28

    A powerful oxidation process using sulfate radicals activated by transition metal mediated Oxone process has been evaluated in depth by monitoring the degradation of a xanthene dye Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution. Ferrous ion was chosen as the transition metal due to its potential catalytic effect and wide availability in dyeing industrial effluent. The effects of parameters including reactant dosing sequence, Fe(II)/Oxone molar ratio and concentration, solution pH, and inorganic salts on the process performance have been investigated. Total RhB removal was obtained within 90 min under an optimal Fe(II)/Oxone molar ratio of 1:1. The RhB degradation was found to be a two-stage kinetics, consisting of a rapid initial decay and followed by a retarded stage. Additionally, experimental results indicated that the presence of certain anions had either a positive or negative effect on the process. The inhibitory effect in the presence of SO(4)(2-) was elucidated by a proposed formula using Nernst equation. Furthermore, dye mineralization in terms of TOC removal indicates that stepwise addition of Fe(II) and Oxone can significantly improve the process performance by about 20%, and the retention time required can be greatly reduced comparing with the conventional one-off dosing method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorption of NI (II on activated Carbon of Coconut shell Chemicaly Modifieded with Acid Nitric Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research the effect of modification of coconut shell activated carbon with diluted solutions of nitric acid, in its chemical characteristics and removal capacity of the nickel (II ions present in modeling solutions of sulfates with similar characteristics to the acid liquor waste of the nickel industry, was studied. The characterization of the adsorbent material evidenced that the modification process increases the superficial acids groups according with the increase of acid nitric concentration employee in the treatment. The adsorption equilibrium tests, carried out with metallic species solutions at concentrations between 0,5 and 3,5 g/L evidenced that the process is described by Freundlich model. The effect of chemical modification of the adsorbent material in adsorption capacity of nickel (II ions was evaluated using a traditional experimental design at pH of 1,2 and 6,9 units, obtaining that the increase of acid groups in the carbon surface causes an increase of adsorption capacity and removal percentages of nickel (II, due to specific interactions of these groups with the metal cations.

  17. Glucose 6P binds and activates HlyIIR to repress Bacillus cereus haemolysin hlyII gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Guillemet

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation despite the recruitment of phagocytic cells. We have previously shown that B. cereus Haemolysin II (HlyII induces macrophage cell death by apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the regulation of the hlyII gene. We show that HlyIIR, the negative regulator of hlyII expression in B. cereus, is especially active during the early bacterial growth phase. We demonstrate that glucose 6P directly binds to HlyIIR and enhances its activity at a post-transcriptional level. Glucose 6P activates HlyIIR, increasing its capacity to bind to its DNA-box located upstream of the hlyII gene, inhibiting its expression. Thus, hlyII expression is modulated by the availability of glucose. As HlyII induces haemocyte and macrophage death, two cell types that play a role in the sequestration of nutrients upon infection, HlyII may induce host cell death to allow the bacteria to gain access to carbon sources that are essential components for bacterial growth.

  18. Active background suppression with the liquid argon scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would allow to shed light onto the particle nature of neutrinos. Gerda is aiming to perform a background-free search for this process using high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge operated in liquid argon. This goal relies on the application of active background suppression techniques. A low background light instrumentation has been installed for Phase II to detect events with coincident energy deposition in the nearby liquid argon. The intended background index of ˜10-3 cts/(keV·ky·yr) has been confirmed.

  19. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  20. Generation of an activation map for decommissioning planning of the Berlin Experimental Reactor-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapins, Janis; Guilliard, Nicole; Bernnat, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The BER-II is an experimental facility with 10 MW that was operated since 1974. Its planned operation will end in 2019. To support the decommissioning planning, a map with the overall distribution of relevant radionuclides has to be created according to the state of the art. In this paper, a procedure to create these 3-d maps using a combination of MCNP and deterministic methods is presented. With this approach, an activation analysis is performed for the whole reactor geometry including the most remote parts of the concrete shielding.

  1. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James; Hallgren, Mats; Probst, Michel; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; De Hert, Marc; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) die up to 15 years prematurely due to chronic somatic comorbidities. Sedentary behavior and low physical activity are independent yet modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in these people. A comprehensive meta-analysis exploring these risk factors is lacking in this vulnerable population. We conducted a meta-analysis investigating sedentary behavior and physical activity levels and their correlates in people with severe mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception up to April 2017 for articles measuring sedentary behavior and/or physical activity with a self-report questionnaire or an objective measure (e.g., accelerometer). Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Sixty-nine studies were included (N=35,682; 39.5% male; mean age 43.0 years). People with severe mental illness spent on average 476.0 min per day (95% CI: 407.3-545.4) being sedentary during waking hours, and were significantly more sedentary than age- and gender-matched healthy controls (p=0.003). Their mean amount of moderate or vigorous physical activity was 38.4 min per day (95% CI: 32.0-44.8), being significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p=0.002 for moderate activity, pphysical activity guidelines (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, pphysical activity levels and non-compliance with physical activity guidelines were associated with male gender, being single, unemployment, fewer years of education, higher body mass index, longer illness duration, antidepressant and antipsychotic medication use, lower cardiorespiratory fitness and a diagnosis of schizophrenia. People with bipolar disorder were the most physically active, yet spent most time being sedentary. Geographical differences were detected, and inpatients were more active than outpatients and those living in the community. Given the

  2. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of N,N-dialkyl-N‧-3-chlorobenzoylthiourea: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, Hirshfeld surfaces and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzet, Gun; Gumus, Ilkay; Dogen, Aylin; Flörke, Ulrich; Kulcu, Nevzat; Arslan, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    We synthesized four new N,N-dialkyl-N‧-3-chlorobenzoylthiourea ligands (Alkyl: Dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-propyl and di-n-butyl) and their metal complexes with copper and nickel atoms. The structure of all synthesized compounds was fully characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis techniques. The physical, spectral and analytical data of the newly synthesized metal complexes have shown the formation of 1:2 (metal:ligand) ratio. The benzoylthiourea ligands coordinate with metal atoms through oxygen and sulphur atoms. The metal atoms are in slightly distorted square-planar coordination geometry in Ni(II) or Cu(II) complex. Two oxygen and two sulphur atoms are mutually cis to each other in Ni(II) or Cu(II) complex. The intermolecular contacts in the compounds, which are HL1 and HL3, were examined by Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots using the data obtained from X-ray single crystal diffraction measurement. Besides these, their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and anti-yeast activity (Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans) were investigated. This exhibited some promising results towards testing organism. Among all the compounds, Ni(L1)2 complex showed high activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC values at 7.81 μg/mL.

  3. Simultaneous removal of NO and SO2 with hexamminecobalt(II) solution coupled with the hexamminecobalt(II) regeneration catalyzed by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Xiang-Li; Xin, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Hong-Xin; Xiao, Wen-De; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2004-01-01

    The wet ammonia desulfurization process can be retrofitted for combined removal of SO 2 and NO from the flue gases by adding soluble cobalt(II) salt into the aqueous ammonia solution. Activated carbon is used to catalyze the reduction of hexamminecobalt(III) to hexamminecobalt(II) to maintain the capability of removing NO of the hexamminecobalt solution. The effects of temperature, pH, activated carbon particle size, and superficial liquid flow velocity on hexamminecobalt(III) conversion have been investigated. An apparent activation energy is obtained. According to the experimental results, the catalytic reduction reaction rate increases with temperature. The batch reactor experiments show that the best pH range lies in between 3.5 and 6.5. In a fixed-bed reactor, superficial liquid flow velocity obviously affects the reaction and a high yield of cobalt(II) is obtained at a pH value lower than 9.0. The experiments manifest that the hexamminecobalt solution coupled with catalytic regeneration of hexamminecobalt(II) can maintain a high nitric oxide removal efficiency during a period of time

  4. Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S J; Biddle, S J H; Gorely, T; Cameron, N; Murdey, I

    2004-10-01

    To review the empirical evidence of associations between television (TV) viewing, video/computer game use and (a) body fatness, and (b) physical activity. Meta-analysis. Published English-language studies were located from computerized literature searches, bibliographies of primary studies and narrative reviews, and manual searches of personal archives. Included studies presented at least one empirical association between TV viewing, video/computer game use and body fatness or physical activity among samples of children and youth aged 3-18 y. The mean sample-weighted corrected effect size (Pearson r). Based on data from 52 independent samples, the mean sample-weighted effect size between TV viewing and body fatness was 0.066 (95% CI=0.056-0.078; total N=44,707). The sample-weighted fully corrected effect size was 0.084. Based on data from six independent samples, the mean sample-weighted effect size between video/computer game use and body fatness was 0.070 (95% CI=-0.048 to 0.188; total N=1,722). The sample-weighted fully corrected effect size was 0.128. Based on data from 39 independent samples, the mean sample-weighted effect size between TV viewing and physical activity was -0.096 (95% CI=-0.080 to -0.112; total N=141,505). The sample-weighted fully corrected effect size was -0.129. Based on data from 10 independent samples, the mean sample-weighted effect size between video/computer game use and physical activity was -0.104 (95% CI=-0.080 to -0.128; total N=119,942). The sample-weighted fully corrected effect size was -0.141. A statistically significant relationship exists between TV viewing and body fatness among children and youth although it is likely to be too small to be of substantial clinical relevance. The relationship between TV viewing and physical activity is small but negative. The strength of these relationships remains virtually unchanged even after correcting for common sources of bias known to impact study outcomes. While the total amount of

  5. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-P.; Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I.; Chiou, Robin Y.; Kan, L.-S.; Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y.; Lin, S.-B.

    2008-01-01

    Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo IIα activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC 50 of 0.9 μM, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC 50 of 9.6 μM, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 μM. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC 50 about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design

  6. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 modulates human T lymphotropic virus type 1 p30II-mediated repression of LTR transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amrithraj M.; Datta, Antara; Hiraragi, Hajime; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 provirus has regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. HTLV-1 pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 II and p30 II , which are incompletely defined in virus replication or pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that pX ORF-II mutations block virus replication in vivo and that ORF-II encoded p30 II , a nuclear-localizing protein that binds with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, represses CREB and Tax responsive element (TRE)-mediated transcription. Herein, we have identified p30 II motifs important for p300 binding and in regulating TRE-mediated transcription in the absence and presence of HTLV-1 provirus. Within amino acids 100-179 of p30 II , a region important for repression of LTR-mediated transcription, we identified a single lysine residue at amino acid 106 (K3) that significantly modulates the ability of p30 II to repress TRE-mediated transcription. Exogenous p300, in a dose-responsive manner, reverses p30 II -dependent repression of TRE-mediated transcription, in the absence or presence of the provirus, In contrast to wild type p300, p300 HAT mutants (defective in histone acetyltransferase activity) only partially rescued p30 II -mediated LTR repression. Deacetylation by histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) enhanced p30 II -mediated LTR repression, while inhibition of deacetylation by trichostatin A decreases p30 II -mediated LTR repression. Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30 II modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation

  7. Activation of photoprotective winter photoinhibition in plants from different environments: a literature compilation and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Fátima; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering plants face a pronounced imbalance between light capture and use of that excitation for photosynthesis. In response, plants upregulate thermal dissipation, with concomitant reductions in photochemical efficiency, in a process characterized by a slow recovery upon warming. These sustained depressions of photochemical efficiency are termed winter photoinhibition (WPI) here. WPI has been extensively studied in conifers and in few overwintering crops, but other plant species have received less attention. Furthermore, the literature shows some controversies about the association of WPI with xanthophylls and the environmental conditions that control xanthophylls conversion. To overview current knowledge and identify knowledge gaps on WPI mechanisms, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of literature published over the period 1991-2011. All publications containing measurements of Fv/Fm for a cold period and a corresponding warm control were included in our final database of 190 studies on 162 species. WPI was estimated as the relative decrease in Fv/Fm. High WPI was always accompanied by a high (A + Z)/(V + A + Z). Activation of lasting WPI was directly related to air temperature, with a threshold of around 0°C. Tropical plants presented earlier (at a temperature of >0°C) and higher WPI than non-tropical plants. We conclude that (1) activation of a xanthophyll-dependent mechanism of WPI is a requisite for maintaining photosynthetic structures at sub-zero temperatures, while (2) absence (or low levels) of WPI is not necessarily related to low (A + Z)/(V + A + Z); and (3) the air temperature that triggers lasting WPI, and the maximum level of WPI, do not depend on plant growth habit or bioclimatic origin of species. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes of benzimidazole derivative: Structures, catecholase like activities and interaction studies with hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Babli; Adhikari, Sangita; Matalobos, Jesús Sanmartín; Das, Debasis

    2018-01-01

    Present study describes the synthesis and single crystal X-ray structures of two metal complexes of benzimidazole derivative (PBI), viz. the Cu(II) complex, [Cu(PBI)2(NCS)]ClO4 (1) and a Co(II) complex, [Co(PBI)2(NCS)1.75Cl0.25] (2). The Cu(II) complex (1) shows catecholase like activity having Kcat = 1.84 × 104 h-1. Moreover, interactions of the complexes with hydrogen peroxide have been investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. The interaction constant of 1 and 2 for H2O2 are 6.67 × 102 M-1 and 1.049 × 103 M-1 while their detection limits for H2O2 are 3.37 × 10-7 M and 2.46 × 10-7 M respectively.

  9. Geeks, meta-Geeks, and gender trouble: activism, identity, and low-power FM radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar-Hester, Christina

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, I consider the activities of a group of individuals who tinker with and build radio hardware in an informal setting called 'Geek Group'. They conceive of Geek Group as a radical pedagogical activity, which constitutes an aspect of activism surrounding citizen access to low-power FM radio. They are also concerned with combating the gendered nature of hardware skills, yet in spite of their efforts men tend to have more skill and familiarity with radio hardware than women. Radio tinkering has a long history as a masculine undertaking and a site of masculine identity construction. I argue that this case represents an interplay between geek, activist, and gendered identities, all of which are salient for this group, but which do not occur together without some tension.

  10. Spatial Bayesian latent factor regression modeling of coordinate-based meta-analysis data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Silvia; Wager, Tor; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E

    2018-03-01

    Now over 20 years old, functional MRI (fMRI) has a large and growing literature that is best synthesised with meta-analytic tools. As most authors do not share image data, only the peak activation coordinates (foci) reported in the article are available for Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis (CBMA). Neuroimaging meta-analysis is used to (i) identify areas of consistent activation; and (ii) build a predictive model of task type or cognitive process for new studies (reverse inference). To simultaneously address these aims, we propose a Bayesian point process hierarchical model for CBMA. We model the foci from each study as a doubly stochastic Poisson process, where the study-specific log intensity function is characterized as a linear combination of a high-dimensional basis set. A sparse representation of the intensities is guaranteed through latent factor modeling of the basis coefficients. Within our framework, it is also possible to account for the effect of study-level covariates (meta-regression), significantly expanding the capabilities of the current neuroimaging meta-analysis methods available. We apply our methodology to synthetic data and neuroimaging meta-analysis datasets. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Mercury (II) removal by resistant bacterial isolates and mercuric (II) reductase activity in a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Gianello, Clesio; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2016-01-25

    This study aimed to isolate mercury resistant bacteria, determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for Hg, estimate mercury removal by selected isolates, explore the mer genes, and detect and characterize the activity of the enzyme mercuric (II) reductase produced by a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A. The Hg removal capacity of the isolates was determined by incubating the isolates in Luria Bertani broth and the remaining mercury quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A PCR reaction was carried out to detect the merA gene and the mercury (II) reductase activity was determined in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. Eight Gram-negative bacterial isolates were resistant to high mercury concentrations and capable of removing mercury, and of these, five were positive for the gene merA. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50A removed 86% of the mercury present in the culture medium and was chosen for further analysis of its enzyme activity. Mercuric (II) reductase activity was detected in the crude extract of this strain. This enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 8 and at temperatures between 37 °C and 45 °C. The ions NH4(+), Ba(2+), Sn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cd(2+) neither inhibited nor stimulated the enzyme activity but it decreased in the presence of the ions Ca(2+), Cu(+) and K(+). The isolate and the enzyme detected were effective in reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), showing the potential to develop bioremediation technologies and processes to clean-up the environment and waste contaminated with mercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Return to Sports and Physical Activity After Total and Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Suzanne; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P Paul F M; van Geenen, Rutger C I; Poolman, Rudolf W; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2016-02-01

    People today are living longer and want to remain active. While obesity is becoming an epidemic, the number of patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) is expected to grow exponentially in the coming decades. Patients with OA of the knee are progressively being restricted in their activities. Since a knee arthroplasty (KA) is a well accepted, cost-effective intervention to relieve pain, restore function and improve health-related quality of life, indications are expanding to younger and more active patients. However, evidence concerning return to sports (RTS) and physical activity (PA) after KA is sparse. Our aim was to systematically summarise the available literature concerning the extent to which patients can RTS and be physically active after total (TKA) and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA), as well as the time it takes. PRISMA guidelines were followed and our study protocol was published online at PROSPERO under registration number CRD42014009370. Based on the keywords (and synonyms of) 'arthroplasty', 'sports' and 'recovery of function', the databases MEDLINE, Embase and SPORTDiscus up to January 5, 2015 were searched. Articles concerning TKA or UKA patients who recovered their sporting capacity, or intended to, were included and were rated by outcomes of our interest. Methodological quality was assessed using Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and data extraction was performed using a standardised extraction form, both conducted by two independent investigators. Out of 1115 hits, 18 original studies were included. According to QUIPS, three studies had a low risk of bias. Overall RTS varied from 36 to 89% after TKA and from 75 to >100% after UKA. The meta-analysis revealed that participation in sports seems more likely after UKA than after TKA, with mean numbers of sports per patient postoperatively of 1.1-4.6 after UKA and 0.2-1.0 after TKA. PA level was higher after UKA than after TKA, but a trend towards lower-impact sports was shown after both TKA

  13. Effect of clinical response to active drugs and placebo on antipsychotics and mood stabilizers relative efficacy for bipolar depression and mania: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Clerici, Massimo; Di Brita, Carmen; Riboldi, Ilaria; Crocamo, Cristina; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Randomised placebo-controlled trials investigating treatments for bipolar disorder have been hampered by wide variations of active drugs and placebo clinical response rates. It is important to estimate whether the active drug or placebo response has a greater influence in determining the relative efficacy of drugs for psychosis (antipsychotics) and relapse prevention (mood stabilisers) for bipolar depression and mania. We identified 53 randomised, placebo-controlled trials assessing antipsychotic or mood stabiliser monotherapy ('active drugs') for bipolar depression or mania. We carried out random-effects meta-regressions, estimating the influence of active drugs and placebo response rates on treatment relative efficacy. Meta-regressions showed that treatment relative efficacy for bipolar mania was influenced by the magnitude of clinical response to active drugs ( p=0.002), but not to placebo ( p=0.60). On the other hand, treatment relative efficacy for bipolar depression was influenced by response to placebo ( p=0.047), but not to active drugs ( p=0.98). Despite several limitations, our unexpected findings showed that antipsychotics / mood stabilisers relative efficacy for bipolar depression seems unrelated to active drugs response rates, depending only on clinical response to placebo. Future research should explore strategies to reduce placebo-related issues in randomised, placebo-controlled trials for bipolar depression.

  14. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Anti-Leishmania activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes: Effect on parasite-host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mônica S; Gonçalves, Yasmim G; Nunes, Débora C O; Napolitano, Danielle R; Maia, Pedro I S; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Veridiana M; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Yoneyama, Kelly A G

    2017-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The many complications presented by the current treatment - including high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance - make the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-Leishmania potential of new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis‑[Ru II (η 2 -O 2 CR)(dppm) 2 ]PF 6 , with dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and R=4-butylbenzoate (bbato) 1, 4-(methylthio)benzoate (mtbato) 2 and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (hmxbato) 3, in promastigote cytotoxicity and their effect on parasite-host interaction. The cytotoxicity of complexes was analyzed by MTT assay against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7). The effect of complexes on parasite-host interaction was evaluated by in vitro infectivity assay performed in the presence of two different concentrations of each complex: the promastigote IC 50 value and the concentration nontoxic to 90% of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Complexes 1-3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all Leishmania species assayed. The IC 50 values ranged from 7.52-12.59μM (complex 1); 0.70-3.28μM (complex 2) and 0.52-1.75μM (complex 3). All complexes significantly inhibited the infectivity index at both tested concentrations. The infectivity inhibitions ranged from 37 to 85%. Interestingly, the infectivity inhibitions due to complex action did not differ significantly at either of the tested concentrations, except for the complex 1 against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The infectivity inhibitions resulted from reductions in both percentage of infected macrophages and number of parasites per macrophage. Taken together the results suggest remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro by these new ruthenium(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  17. Effect of Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Interventions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsoo; Marshall, Simon J.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Lee, Jin-Oh

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) improves mental health and reduces the risk of a number of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease mortality, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Many studies with different strategies have been conducted to increase the level of PA for people of all ages. One of many strategies…

  18. Surgery or physical activity in the management of sciatica: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Matthew; Ferreira, Manuela L; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Hartvigsen, Jan; Silva, Isabela R C; Maher, Chris G; Koes, Bart W; Ferreira, Paulo H

    2016-11-01

    Previous reviews have compared surgical to non-surgical management of sciatica, but have overlooked the specific comparison between surgery and physical activity-based interventions. Systematic review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and PEDro databases was conducted. Randomised controlled trials comparing surgery to physical activity, where patients were experiencing the three most common causes of sciatica-disc herniation, spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis. Two independent reviewers extracted pain and disability data (converted to a common 0-100 scale) and assessed methodological quality using the PEDro scale. The size of the effects was estimated for each outcome at three different time points, with a random effects model adopted and the GRADE approach used in summary conclusions. Twelve trials were included. In the short term, surgery provided better outcomes than physical activity for disc herniation: disability [WMD -9.00 (95 % CI -13.73, -4.27)], leg pain [WMD -16.01 (95 % CI -23.00, -9.02)] and back pain [WMD -12.44 (95 % CI -17.76, -7.09)]; for spondylolisthesis: disability [WMD -14.60 (95 % CI -17.12, -12.08)], leg pain [WMD -35.00 (95 % CI -39.66, -30.34)] and back pain [WMD -20.00 (95 % CI -24.66, -15.34)] and spinal stenosis: disability [WMD -11.39 (95 % CI -17.31, -5.46)], leg pain [WMD, -27.17 (95 % CI -35.87, -18.46)] and back pain [WMD -20.80 (95 % CI -25.15, -16.44)]. Long-term and greater than 2-year post-randomisation results favoured surgery for spondylolisthesis and stenosis, although the size of the effects reduced with time. For disc herniation, no significant effect was shown for leg and back pain comparing surgery to physical activity. There are indications that surgery is superior to physical activity-based interventions in reducing pain and disability for disc herniation at short-term follow-up only; but high-quality evidence in this field is lacking (GRADE). For spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis, surgery is superior to physical

  19. Impact of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions on Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health Among Working-Age Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Elliott, Cara G; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Tulloch, Heather E; Hiremath, Swapnil; Cotie, Lisa M; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Physical activity is protective for cardiovascular disease. The realities of modern life require working-age women to address work-related, family, and social demands. Few working-age women meet current moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) recommendations. Given that working-age women spend a substantial proportion of their waking hours at work, places of employment may be an opportune and a controlled setting to implement programs, improving MVPA levels and enhancing cardiometabolic health. Eight electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective cohort and experimental studies reporting an MVPA outcome of workplace interventions for working-age women (mean age, 18-65 years) in high-income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool; quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. A qualitative synthesis was performed for all studies, and meta-analyses were conducted where possible. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria; 20 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Workplace interventions significantly increased minutes per week of metabolic equivalents (4 studies; standardized mean differences, 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44 to 2.69), but not minutes per week of MVPA (13 studies; standardized mean differences, 0.38; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.92) or metabolic equivalents per week (3 studies; standardized mean differences, 0.11; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.71). Workplace interventions also significantly decreased body mass (7 studies; mean differences, -0.83 kg; 95% CI, -1.64 to -0.02), body mass index (6 studies; mean differences, -0.35 kg/m 2 ; 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.07), low-density lipoprotein (4 studies; mean differences, -0

  20. New Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II, Pb(II complexes with 2-methylbenzimidazole and other ligands. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, crystal structure, magnetic susceptibility and biological activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma A. Shaker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Pb(II mixed ligand complexes of 2-methylbenzimidazole with other ligands have been reported. The structure of the ligands and their complexes was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, UV–Vis, (1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. In all the studies of complexes, the 2-methylbenzimidazole behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand which is coordinated with the metal ions through the N atom. While benzotriazole behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand which is coordinated with the Ni(II ion through the two N atoms. Moreover, the N-acetylglycine behaves as a bidentate ligand which is coordinated with the Mn(II, Ni(II and Pb(II ions through the N atom and the terminal carboxyl oxygen atom. The magnetic and spectral data indicate the tetrahedral geometry for Mn(II complex, irregular tetrahedral geometry for Pb(II complex and octahedral geometry for Ni(II complex. The X-ray single crystal diffraction method was used to confirm a centrosymmetric dinuclear Cd(II complex as each two metal ions are linked by a pair of thiocyanate N = S bridge. Two 2-methylbenzimidazole N-atom donors and one terminal thiocyanate N atom complete a highly distorted square pyramid geometry around the Cd atom. Besides, different cell types were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Pb(II complexes on cell growth using MTT assay. Cd(II complex showed cytotoxic effect on various types of cancer cell lines with different EC50 values.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new palladium(II) complex with deoxyalliin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbi, P.P.; Massabni, A.C. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept., Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrocorbi@yahoo.com; Moreira, A.G. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Medrano, F.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas (Brazil); Jasiulionis, M.G. [Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, Dept. de Micro-Imuno-Parasitologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Costa-Neto, C.M. [Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2005-02-15

    Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new water-soluble Pd(II)-deoxyalliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine) complex are described in this article. Elemental and thermal analysis for the complex are consistent with the formula [Pd(C{sub 6}H{sub 10}NO{sub 2}S){sub 2}]. {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 1}H NMR, and IR spectroscopy show coordination of the ligand to Pd(II) through S and N atoms in a square planar geometry. Final residue of the thermal treatment was identified as a mixture of PdO and metallic Pd. Antiproliferative assays using aqueous solutions of the complex against HeLa and TM5 tumor cells showed a pronounced activity of the complex even at low concentrations. After incubation for 24 h, the complex induced cytotoxic effect over HeLa cells when used at concentrations higher than 0.40 mmol/L. At lower concentrations, the complex was nontoxic, indicating its action is probably due to cell cycle arrest, rather than cell death. In agreement with these results, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that after incubation for 24 h at low concentrations of the complex cells are arrested in G0/G1. (author)

  2. Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics investigation on the adsorption of lead(II) by coal-based activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhengji; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Mijia; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Liu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using activated coal-based activated carbon (CBAC) to adsorb Pb(II) from aqueous solutions through batch tests. Effects of contact time, pH, temperature and initial Pb(II) concentration on the Pb(II) adsorption were examined. The Pb(II) adsorption is strongly dependent on pH, but insensitive to temperature. The best pH for Pb(II) removal is in the range of 5.0-5.5 with more than 90 % of Pb(II) removed. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 min and the adsorption data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Isotherm data followed Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 162.33 mg/g. The adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that CBAC possessed a porous structure and was rich in carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on its surface, which might play a major role in Pb(II) adsorption. These findings indicated that CBAC has great potential as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) removal.

  3. Phaeophytins from Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. with inhibitory activity on human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Analucia Guedes Silveira; Tenorio-Souza, Fabio Henrique; Moura, Marcelo Dantas; Mota, Sabrina Gondim Ribeiro; Silva Lins, Antonio Claudio da; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Frmaceuticas; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares; Santos, Creusioni Figueredo dos, E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular

    2012-07-01

    Our study reports the extraction and isolation of a new phaeophytin derivative 15{sup 1}-hydroxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone, designated anamariaine (1) herein, isolated from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. along with the known 15{sup 1}-ethoxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone (2). These compounds were identified by usual spectroscopic methods. Both compounds were subjected to in vitro (inhibitory activity) tests by means of supercoiled DNA relaxation techniques and were shown to display inhibitory activity against human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha} at 50 {mu}M. Interconversion of these two pigments under the mild conditions of the isolation techniques should be highly unlikely but cannot be entirely ruled out. (author)

  4. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  5. FISPACT-II: An Advanced Simulation System for Activation, Transmutation and Material Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublet, J.-Ch., E-mail: jean-christophe.sublet@ukaea.uk [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Eastwood, J.W.; Morgan, J.G. [Culham Electromagnetics Ltd, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.R.; Fleming, M.; Arter, W. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Fispact-II is a code system and library database for modelling activation-transmutation processes, depletion-burn-up, time dependent inventory and radiation damage source terms caused by nuclear reactions and decays. The Fispact-II code, written in object-style Fortran, follows the evolution of material irradiated by neutrons, alphas, gammas, protons, or deuterons, and provides a wide range of derived radiological output quantities to satisfy most needs for nuclear applications. It can be used with any ENDF-compliant group library data for nuclear reactions, particle-induced and spontaneous fission yields, and radioactive decay (including but not limited to TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0u, CENDL-3.1 processed into fine-group-structure files, GEFY-5.2 and UKDD-16), as well as resolved and unresolved resonance range probability tables for self-shielding corrections and updated radiological hazard indices. The code has many novel features including: extension of the energy range up to 1 GeV; additional neutron physics including self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, thin and thick target yields; pathway analysis; and sensitivity and uncertainty quantification and propagation using full covariance data. The latest ENDF libraries such as TENDL encompass thousands of target isotopes. Nuclear data libraries for Fispact-II are prepared from these using processing codes PREPRO, NJOY and CALENDF. These data include resonance parameters, cross sections with covariances, probability tables in the resonance ranges, PKA spectra, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and energy-dependent fission yields, supplemented with all 27 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are provided in evaluated data tables. The Fispact-II simulation software is described in detail in this paper, together with the nuclear data libraries. The Fispact-II system also includes several utility programs for code-use optimisation

  6. Removal of zinc (II) ion from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated palm midrib bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulana, F.; Mariana; Muslim, A.; Mohibah, M.; Halim, K. H. Ku

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, palm midrib that was activated with mixed citric acid and tartaric acid as biosorbent was used to remove Zn (II) ion from aqueous solution. The aim of this research is to activate palm midrib by using a mixed citric acid and tartaric acid and to determine adsorption capacity of activated palm midrib biosorbent on Zn (II) ion uptake from aqueous solution. The effect of several parameters such as contact time, initial Zn (II) ion concentration and activator concentration on the degree of Zn (II) ion removal was examined. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method was performed to determine adsorbed amount of Zn (II) ion into activated biosorbent. The result showed that the adsorption process was relatively not so fast and equilibrium was reached after contact time of 120 min. The adsorption capacity of biosorbent reached a maximum when the concentration of mixed citric acid and tartaric acid was 1.6 M. The optimum adsorption capacity was 5.72 mg/g. The result was obtained on initial Zn (II) ion concentration of 80 ppm for 120-min contact time. Langmuir isotherm was found as the best fit for the equilibrium data indicating homogeneous adsorption of metal ions onto the biosorbent surface.

  7. Improving nutrition and physical activity in the workplace: a meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2012-06-01

    A comprehensive search of the literature for studies examining physical activity or nutrition interventions in the workplace, published between 1999 and March 2009, was conducted. This search identified 29 relevant studies. Interventions were grouped according to the theoretical framework on which the interventions were based (e.g. education, cognitive-behavioural, motivation enhancement, social influence, exercise). Weighted Cohen's d effect sizes, percentage overlap statistics, confidence intervals and fail safe Ns were calculated. Most theoretical approaches were associated with small effects. However, large effects were found for some measures of interventions using motivation enhancement. Effect sizes were larger for studies focusing on one health behaviour and for randomized controlled trials. The workplace is a suitable environment for making modest changes in the physical activity, nutrition and health of employees. Further research is necessary to determine whether these changes can be maintained in the long term.

  8. Medicinal plants with promising antileishmanial activity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Soosaraei; Mahdi Fakhar; Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi; Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi; Elham Sadat Banimostafavi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate medicinal plants with anti-Leishmania activity which used in Iran. Methods: Data were systematically gathered from five English databases including Ebsco, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus, four Persian databases including Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex and the Scientific Information Database (SID) from 1999 to April 2015. Information obtained included plant ...

  9. Msn2p/Msn4p act as a key transcriptional activator of yeast cytoplasmic thiol peroxidase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Cha, Mee-Kyung; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Won-Cheol; Kim, Il-Han

    2002-04-05

    We observed that the transcription of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic thiol peroxidase type II (cTPx II) (YDR453C) is regulated in response to various stresses (e.g. oxidative stress, carbon starvation, and heat-shock). It has been suggested that both transcription-activating proteins, Yap1p and Skn7p, regulate the transcription of cTPx II upon exposure to oxidative stress. However, a dramatic loss of transcriptional response to various stresses in yeast mutant strains lacking both Msn2p and Msn4p suggests that the transcription factors act as a principal transcriptional activator. In addition to two Yap1p response elements (YREs), TTACTAA and TTAGTAA, the presence of two stress response elements (STREs) (CCCCT) in the upstream sequence of cTPx II also suggests that Msn2p/Msn4p could control stress-induced expression of cTPx II. Analysis of the transcriptional activity of site-directed mutagenesis of the putative STREs (STRE1 and STRE2) and YREs (TRE1 and YRE2) in terms of the activity of a lacZ reporter gene under control of the cTPx II promoter indicates that STRE2 acts as a principal binding element essential for transactivation of the cTPx II promoter. The transcriptional activity of the cTPx II promoter was exponentially increased after postdiauxic growth. The transcriptional activity of the cTPx II promoter is greatly increased by rapamycin. Deletion of Tor1, Tor2, Ras1, and Ras2 resulted in a considerable induction when compared with their parent strains, suggesting that the transcription of cTPx II is under negative control of the Ras/cAMP and target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that cTPx II is a target of Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors under negative control of the Ras-protein kinase A and target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Furthermore, the accumulation of cTPx II upon exposure to oxidative stress and during the postdiauxic shift suggests an important antioxidant role in stationary phase yeast cells.

  10. Synthesis, DNA Cleavage Activity, Cytotoxicity, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition, and Acute Murine Toxicity of Redox-Active Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrash, Nagham; Narh, Eugenia S; Yadav, Abhishek; Kim, Mahn-Jong; Janaratne, Thamara; Gabriel, James; MacDonnell, Frederick M

    2017-07-06

    Four mononuclear [(L-L) 2 Ru(tatpp)] 2+ and two dinuclear [(L-L) 2 Ru(tatpp)Ru(L-L) 2 ] 4+ ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RPCs) containing the 9,11,20,22-tetraazatetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-l:2''',3'''-n]pentacene (tatpp) ligand were synthesized, in which L-L is a chelating diamine ligand such as 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me 4 phen) or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Ph 2 phen). These Ru-tatpp analogues all undergo reduction reactions with modest reducing agents, such as glutathione (GSH), at pH 7. These, plus several structurally related but non-redox-active RPCs, were screened for DNA cleavage activity, cytotoxicity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and acute mouse toxicity, and their activities were examined with respect to redox activity and lipophilicity. All of the redox-active RPCs show single-strand DNA cleavage in the presence of GSH, whereas none of the non-redox-active RPCs do. Low-micromolar cytotoxicity (IC 50 ) against malignant H358, CCL228, and MCF7 cultured cell lines was mainly restricted to the redox-active RPCs; however, they were substantially less toxic toward nonmalignant MCF10 cells. The IC 50 values for AChE inhibition in cell-free assays and the acute toxicity of RPCs in mice revealed that whereas most RPCs show potent inhibitory action against AChE (IC 50 values <15 μm), Ru-tatpp complexes as a class are surprisingly well tolerated in animals relative to other RPCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Type II thyroplasty changes cortical activation in patients with spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateya, Ichiro; Omori, Koichi; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Naito, Yasushi; Hirano, Shigeru; Yamashita, Masaru; Ito, Juichi

    2015-04-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a complex neurological communication disorder characterized by a choked, strain-strangled vocal quality with voice stoppages in phonation. Its symptoms are exacerbated by situations where communication failures are anticipated, and reduced when talking with animals or small children. Symptoms are also reduced following selected forms of treatment. It is reasonable to assume that surgical alteration reducing symptoms would also alter brain activity, though demonstration of such a phenomenon has not been documented. The objective of this study is to reveal brain activity of SD patients before and after surgical treatment. We performed lateralization thyroplasties on three adductor SD patients and compared pre- and post-operative positron emission tomography recordings made during vocalization. Pre-operatively, cordal supplementary motor area (SMA), bilateral auditory association areas, and thalamus were activated while reading aloud. Such activity was not observed in normal subjects. Type II thyroplasty was performed according to Isshiki's method and the strained voice was significantly reduced or eliminated in all three patients. Post-operative PET showed normal brain activation pattern with a significant decrease in cordal SMA, bilateral auditory association areas and thalamus, and a significant increase in rostral SMA compared with pre-operative recordings. This is the first report showing that treatment to a peripheral organ, which reverses voice symptoms, also reverses dysfunctional patterns of the central nervous system in patients with SD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY FROM SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  13. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed meta-C-H Olefination: Constructing Multisubstituted Arenes through Homo-Diolefination and Sequential Hetero-Diolefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Milan; Maji, Arun; Sahoo, Santosh K; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-07-13

    Divinylbenzene derivatives represent an important class of molecular building blocks in organic chemistry and materials science. Reported herein is the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of divinylbenzenes by meta-C-H olefination of sulfone-based arenes. Successful sequential olefinations in a position-selective manner provided a novel route for the synthesis of hetero-dialkenylated products, which are difficult to access using conventional methods. Additionally, 1,3,5-trialkenylated compounds can be generated upon successful removal of the directing group. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Diet and Physical Activity Interventions to Prevent or Treat Obesity in South Asian Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Methods: Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Results are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway

  15. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  16. Clinicopathological significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Han; Kim, Younghye; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Transcriptional expression of the PAI-1 can be controlled by PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism. However, the significance of PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in breast cancer patients is contentious. To address this controversy, we conducted a meta-analysis for the relationships between PAI-1 promoter polymorphism and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Relevant published studies were identified using a search of PubMed, Embase, and the ISI Web of Science. The effect sizes of PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism on breast cancer risk, lymph node metastasis, histologic grade, and overall survival were calculated by odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio. The effect sizes were combined using a random-effects model. Individuals with 4G/4G genotype had a higher risk of breast cancer than those with the combined 4G/5G and 5G/5G genotypes (OR = 1.388; p = 0.031). Breast cancer patients with the 5G/5G genotype displayed lymph node metastasis more than patients with either the combined other genotypes (OR = 1.495; p = 0.027) or with the 4G/4G genotype (OR = 1.623; p = 0.018). However, the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was not associated with histological grade or overall survival. PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with a relatively increased risk of breast cancer development and lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the experience of initiating community-based physical activity and social support by people with serious mental illness: a systematic review using a meta-ethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Quirk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with long-term serious mental illness live with severe and debilitating symptoms that can negatively influence their health and quality of life, leading to outcomes such as premature mortality, morbidity and obesity. An interplay of social, behavioural, biological and psychological factors is likely to contribute to their poor physical health. Participating in regular physical activity could bring symptomatic improvements, weight loss benefits, enhanced wellbeing and when undertaken in a community-based group setting can yield additional, important social support benefits. Yet poor uptake of physical activity by people with serious mental illness is a problem. This review will systematically search, appraise and synthesise the existing evidence that has explored the experience of community-based physical activity initiation and key features of social support within these contexts by adults with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder or psychosis using the meta-ethnography approach. This new understanding may be key in designing more acceptable and effective community-based group PA programmes that meet patients’ need and expectations. Methods This will be a systematic review of qualitative studies using the meta-ethnography approach. The following databases will be searched: ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Health Technology Assessment Database, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Grey literature will also be sought. Eligible studies will use qualitative methodology; involve adults (≥18 years with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder or psychosis; will report community-based group physical activity; and capture the experience of physical activity initiation and key features of social support from the perspective of the participant. Study selection and assessment of quality will

  18. Understanding the experience of initiating community-based physical activity and social support by people with serious mental illness: a systematic review using a meta-ethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Helen; Crank, Helen; Harrop, Deborah; Hock, Emma; Copeland, Robert

    2017-10-25

    People with long-term serious mental illness live with severe and debilitating symptoms that can negatively influence their health and quality of life, leading to outcomes such as premature mortality, morbidity and obesity. An interplay of social, behavioural, biological and psychological factors is likely to contribute to their poor physical health. Participating in regular physical activity could bring symptomatic improvements, weight loss benefits, enhanced wellbeing and when undertaken in a community-based group setting can yield additional, important social support benefits. Yet poor uptake of physical activity by people with serious mental illness is a problem. This review will systematically search, appraise and synthesise the existing evidence that has explored the experience of community-based physical activity initiation and key features of social support within these contexts by adults with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder or psychosis using the meta-ethnography approach. This new understanding may be key in designing more acceptable and effective community-based group PA programmes that meet patients' need and expectations. This will be a systematic review of qualitative studies using the meta-ethnography approach. The following databases will be searched: ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Health Technology Assessment Database, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Grey literature will also be sought. Eligible studies will use qualitative methodology; involve adults (≥18 years) with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder or psychosis; will report community-based group physical activity; and capture the experience of physical activity initiation and key features of social support from the perspective of the participant. Study selection and assessment of quality will be performed by two reviewers. Data will be

  19. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and antibacterial activity of palladium(II) cyanide complexes with thioamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Nadeem, Shafqat; Anwar, Aneela; Hameed, Abdul; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Abbas, Azhar; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Alotaibi, Mshari A.

    2017-08-01

    Palladium(II) cyanide complexes of thioamides (or thiones) having the general formula PdL2(CN)2, where L = Thiourea (Tu), Methylthiourea (Metu), N,N‧-Dimethylthiourea (Dmtu), Tetramethylthiourea (Tmtu), 2-Mercaptopyridine (Mpy) and 2-Mercaptopyrimidine (Mpm) were prepared by reacting K2[PdCl4] with potassium cyanide and thioamides in the molar ratio of 1:2:2. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal and spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of three of the complexes were predicted by DFT calculations. The appearance of a band around 2100 cm-1 in IR and resonances around 120-130 ppm in the 13C NMR spectra indicated the coordination of cyanide to palladium(II). More than one resonances were observed for CN- carbon atoms in 13C NMR indicating the existence of equilibrium between different species in solution. DFT calculations revealed that in the case of the palladium(II) complex of Tmtu, the ionic dinuclear [Pd(Tmtu)4][Pd(CN)4] form was more stable than the dimer of mononuclear complex [Pd(Tmtu)2(CN)2] by 0.91 kcal mol-1, while for the complexes of Tu or Mpy ligands, the nonionic [Pd(L)2(CN)2] forms were more stable than the corresponding [Pd(L)4][Pd(CN)4] complexes by 1.26 and 6.49 kcal mol-1 for L = Tu and Mpy, respectively. The complexes were screened for antibacterial effects and some of them showed significant activities against both gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chou; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on gross motor outcomes representing the ICF component of body functions and activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy (HPOT) and therapeutic horseback riding (TR) for children with spastic CP. Gross motor outcomes, assessed via muscle activity and muscle tone, gait, posture and Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM) were evaluated. Five TR studies and nine HPOT studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that short-term HPOT (total riding time 8-10 min) significantly reduced asymmetrical activity of the hip adductor muscles. HPOT could improve postural control in children with spastic CP, GMFCS level < 5. However, the evidence did not show a statistically significant effect on GMFM after long-term HPOT or TR (total riding time, 8-22 h) in children with spastic CP. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP. We found no statistically significant evidence of either therapeutic effect or maintenance effects on the gross motor activity status in CP children.

  2. CATALYTIC WET PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF HYDROQUINONE WITH Co(II)/ACTIVE CARBON CATALYST LOADED IN STATIC BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Catalysts based on Co(II) supported on active carbon were prepared and loaded in static bed. The hydroquinone would be degraded completely after treated by Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation method with Co(II)/active carbon catalyst. After activate treatment, the active carbon was immerged in cobaltous nitrate solution, then put into a drying oven, Co(II) could be loaded on the micro-surface of carbon. Taking the static bed as the equipment, the absorption of active carbon and catalysis of Co(II) was used to reduce activation energy of hydroquinone. Thus hydroquinone could be drastically degraded and the effluent can be drained under the standard. Referring to Fenton reaction mechanism, experiment had been done to study the heterogeneous catalyzed oxidation mechanism of Co(II). The degradation rate of hydroquinone effluent could be achieved to 92% when treated in four columns at H2O2 concentration 10%, reaction temperature 40℃ , pH 5 and reaction time 2.5h.

  3. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  4. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of renal arginase II in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaw, T; Sharma, R

    2017-06-01

    Arginase II is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of L-arginine into urea and ornithine. It is present in other extra-hepatic tissues that lack urea cycle. Therefore, it is plausible that arginase II has a physiological role other than urea cycle which includes polyamine, proline, glutamate synthesis and regulation of nitric oxide production. The high expression of arginase II in kidney, among extrahepatic tissues, might have an important role associated with kidney functions. The present study is aimed to determine the age-associated alteration in the activity and expression of arginase II in the kidney of mice of different ages. The effect of dietary restriction to modulate the agedependent changes of arginase II was also studied. Results showed that renal arginase II activity declines significantly with the progression of age (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001 in 6- and 18-month-old mice, respectively as compared to 2-month old mice) and is due to the reduction in its protein as well as the mRNA level (p less than 0.001 in both 6- and 18-month-old mice as compared to 2-month-old mice). Long-term dietary restriction for three months has significantly up-regulated arginase II activity and expression level in both 2- and 18-month-old mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively as compared to AL group). These findings clearly indicate that the reducing level of arginase II during aging might have an impact on the declining renal functions. This age-dependent down-regulation of arginase II in the kidney can be attenuated by dietary restriction which may help in the maintenance of such functions.

  5. Removal of lead(II) by adsorption using treated granular activated carbon: batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Jyotsna; Kadirvelu, Krishna; Rajagopal, Chitra; Kumar Garg, Vinod

    2005-10-17

    In the present study, a deeper understanding of adsorption behavior of Pb(II) from aqueous systems onto activated carbon and treated activated carbon has been attempted via static and column mode studies under various conditions. It probes mainly two adsorbents that is, activated carbon (AC) and modified activated carbon (AC-S). Characterization of both the adsorbents was one of the key focal areas of the present study. This has shown a clear change or demarcation in the various physical and chemical properties of the modified adsorbent from its precursor activated carbon. Both the adsorbents are subjected to static mode adsorption studies and then after a comparison based on isotherm analysis; more efficient adsorbent is screened for column mode adsorption studies. The lead removal increased for sample of treated carbon. The extent of Pb(II) removal was found to be higher in the treated activated carbon. The aim of carrying out the continuous-flow studies was to assess the effect of various process variables, viz., of bed height, hydraulic loading rate and initial feed concentration on breakthrough time and adsorption capacity. This has helped in ascertaining the practical applicability of the adsorbent. Breakthrough curves were plotted for the adsorption of lead on the adsorbent using continuous-flow column operation by varying different operating parameters like hydraulic loading rate (3.0-10.5 m3/(hm2)), bed height (0.3-0.5 m) and feed concentrations (2.0-6.0 mg/l). At the end, an attempt has also been made to model the data generated from column studies using the empirical relationship based on Bohart-Adams model. This model has provided an objective framework to the subjective interpretation of the adsorption system and the model constant obtained here can be used to achieve the ultimate objective of our study that is, up scaling and designing of adsorption process at the pilot plant scale level. AC-S column regeneration using 0.5 and 1.0M concentration of

  6. OCCAMS: Optically Controlled and Corrected Active Meta-material Space Structures (Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photons weigh nothing. Why must even small space telescopes have high mass? Our team has demonstrated this is not the case using a completely novel approach to...

  7. Association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity in patients with sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto, Y.; Sakatani, M.; Takami, S.; Tachibana, T.; Higaki, J.; Ogihara, T.; Miki, T.; Katsuya, T.; Tsuchiyama, T.; Yoshida, A.; Yu, H.; Tanio, Y.; Ueda, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) is considered to reflect disease activity in sarcoidosis. SACE activity is increased in many patients with active sarcoid lesions. The mechanism for the increased SACE activity in this disease has not been clarified. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been reported to have an association with SACE levels in sarcoidosis, but no evidence of an association between angiotensin II receptor gene polymorphism and SA...

  8. LEVIS active anode lithium ion source development on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Clark, B.F.; Reyes, C.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Carlson, A.L.; Lake, P.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are ongoing on the PBFA-II Accelerator (10 MV typical, 50 ns) to optimize an active lithium ion source in a 15-cm focusing Applied-B ion diode using the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) process. Two laser pulses impinge on a thin (500 nm) Li or Li-bearing alloy on an insulating substrate. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1 μm, 8 ns, 0.1--0.2 J/cm 2 ) creates a thin (∼1 mm) Li vapor, which is then ionized by a 30--60 mJ/cm 2 dye laser tuned to the first resonant transition of Li (670.8 nm). In order to achieve a high-purity Li beam on PBFA-II with LEVIS, it has proven necessary to clean the anode surface in some way. The principal technique has been DC-heating of the anode to temperatures of 150--200 C for typically 5 hours, and for as long as 13 hours, prior to machine firing. Use of a LiAg alloy and YAG energy densities of 200 mJ/cm 2 have yielded beams of Li purity greater than 90%. They authors also plan to test a diode configuration that deposits Li in-situ on the anode surface just prior to the machine shot, as an alternative to DC-heating

  9. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Uranium and Radioactive Waste Div.; Pescatore, Claudio [Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2006-09-15

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of kaempferol-zinc(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Lv-Ying; Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Cai, Ji-Ye; Deng, Sui-Ping

    2016-06-01

    According to the previous studies, the anticancer activity of flavonoids could be enhanced when they are coordinated with transition metal ions. In this work, kaempferol-zinc(II) complex (kaempferol-Zn) was synthesized and its chemical properties were characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) and fluorescence spectroscopy, which showed that the synthesized complex was coordinated with a Zn(II) ion via the 3-OH and 4-oxo groups. The anticancer effects of kaempferol-Zn and free kaempferol on human oesophageal cancer cell line (EC9706) were compared. MTT results demonstrated that the killing effect of kaempferol-Zn was two times higher than that of free kaempferol. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the morphological and ultrastructural changes of cellular membrane induced by kaempferol-Zn at subcellular or nanometer level. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis indicated that kaempferol-Zn could induce apoptosis in EC9706 cells by regulating intracellular calcium ions. Collectively, all the data showed that kaempferol-Zn might be served as a kind of potential anticancer agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available

  12. O2 Activation and Double C-H Oxidation by a Mononuclear Manganese(II) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Claire; Padamati, Sandeep K; Sundberg, Jonas; McKee, Vickie; Browne, Wesley R; McKenzie, Christine J

    2016-01-11

    A Mn(II) complex, [Mn(dpeo)2](2+) (dpeo=1,2-di(pyridin-2-yl)ethanone oxime), activates O2, with ensuing stepwise oxidation of the methylene group in the ligands providing an alkoxide and ultimately a ketone group. X-ray crystal-structure analysis of an intermediate homoleptic alkoxide Mn(III) complex shows tridentate binding of the ligand via the two pyridyl groups and the newly installed alkoxide moiety, with the oxime group no longer coordinated. The structure of a Mn(II) complex of the final ketone ligand, cis-[MnBr2(hidpe)2] (hidpe=2-(hydroxyimino)-1,2-di(pyridine-2-yl)ethanone) shows that bidentate oxime/pyridine coordination has been resumed. H2(18)O and (18)O2 labeling experiments suggest that the inserted O atoms originate from two different O2 molecules. The progress of the oxygenation was monitored through changes in the resonance-enhanced Raman bands of the oxime unit. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Eriochrome Blue Black modified activated carbon as solid phase extractor for removal of Pb(II ions from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Albishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a sensitive and simple method for the removal of lead Pb(II, from water samples prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, was investigated. The method utilized activated carbon (AC physically modified with Eriochrome Blue Black (EBB as a solid-phase extractant. Surface properties of the AC-EBB phase were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The separation parameters for effective adsorption of lead Pb(II, including effects of pH, initial concentration of Pb(II, coexisting ions and shaking time using batch method were studied. The optimum pH value for the separation of Pb(II on the new sorbent was 7.0, and the maximum static adsorption capacity of Pb(II onto the AC-EBB was 127.896 mg/g at this pH and after 1 h contact time. The Pb(II adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II onto activated carbon followed pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  14. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial enterotoxin superantigens bind directly to HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR) expressed on both APC and activated human T cells, and simultaneously bind to certain V beta chains of the TCR. In this report, we compared early T cell signaling events in human alloantigen-stimulated T cells when...... activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...

  15. Physical activity reduces fatigue in patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sapna; Robinson, Paula D; Cataudella, Danielle; Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Davis, Hailey; Duong, Nathan; Gibson, Faith; Götte, Miriam; Hinds, Pamela; Nijhof, Sanne L; Tomlinson, Deborah; van der Torre, Patrick; Cabral, Sandra; Dupuis, L Lee; Sung, Lillian

    2018-02-01

    Objective was to determine whether physical activity reduces the severity of fatigue in patients with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing physical activity with control interventions for the management of fatigue in patients with cancer or HSCT recipients. There were 170 trials included. Physical activity reduced the severity of fatigue when compared to all control groups (standardized mean difference -0.49, 95% confidence interval -0.60 to -0.37; P fatigue although smaller effects were observed with resistance exercises (P interaction = 0.01). Other intervention and patient characteristics did not influence the effect of physical activity on the severity of fatigue. Physical activity was effective at reducing fatigue in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients across patient sub-groups. Determining the best approaches for safe implementation should be a priority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, J; Scott, R.W.; Diamond, G

    2011-01-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 µg ml−1 mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues. PMID:21040516

  17. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  18. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases plasma membrane Na pump activity by enhancing Na entry in rat thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    Thick ascending limbs (TAL) reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Na enters the cells via apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporters and Na/H exchangers and exits via basolateral Na pumps. Chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net TAL Na transport and Na apical entry; however, little is known about its effects on the basolateral Na pump. We hypothesized that in rat TALs Na pump activity is enhanced by ANG II-infusion, a model of ANG II-induced hypertension. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 7 days, and TAL suspensions were obtained. We studied plasma membrane Na pump activity by measuring changes in 1) intracellular Na (Nai) induced by ouabain; and 2) ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption (QO2). We found that the ouabain-sensitive rise in Nai in TALs from ANG II-infused rats was 12.8 ± 0.4 arbitrary fluorescent units (AFU)·mg(-1)·min(-1) compared with only 9.9 ± 1.1 AFU·mg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (P Na pump expression, the number of Na pumps in the plasma membrane, or the affinity for Na. When furosemide (1.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was coinfused with ANG II, no increase in plasma membrane Na pump activity was observed. We concluded that in ANG II-induced hypertension Na pump activity is increased in the plasma membrane of TALs and that this increase is caused by the chronically enhanced Na entry occurring in this model.

  19. TOPOISOMERASE-I AND TOPOISOMERASE-II ACTIVITY IN HUMAN BREAST, CERVIX, LUNG AND COLON-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCLEOD, HL; DOUGLAS, F; OATES, M; SYMONDS, RP; PRAKASH, D; VANDERZEE, AGJ; KAYE, SB; BROWN, R; KEITH, WN

    1994-01-01

    The identification of human DNA topoisomerases as cellular targets for active anti-cancer drugs has stimulated further interest in topoisomerase function in tumour biology. Topoisomerase I and II catalytic activity is detectable in many normal and malignant tissues. However, little is known about

  20. Enhancing physical activity in older adults receiving hospital based rehabilitation: a phase II feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Catherine M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation have low activity levels and poor mobility outcomes. Increased physical activity may improve mobility. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation. Methods Patients admitted to aged care rehabilitation with reduced mobility were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus additional physical activity, which was delivered by a physiotherapist or physiotherapy assistant. The feasibility and safety of the proposed RCT protocol was evaluated. The primary clinical outcome was mobility, which was assessed on hospital admission and discharge by an assessor blinded to group assignment. To determine the most appropriate measure of mobility, three measures were trialled; the Timed Up and Go, the Elderly Mobility Scale and the de Morton Mobility Index. Results The protocol was feasible. Thirty-four percent of people admitted to the ward were recruited, with 47 participants randomised to a control (n = 25 or intervention group (n = 22. The rates of adverse events (death, falls and readmission to an acute service did not differ between the groups. Usual care therapists remained blind to group allocation, with no change in usual practice. Physical activity targets were met on weekdays but not weekends and the intervention was acceptable to participants. The de Morton Mobility Index was the most appropriate measure of mobility. Conclusions The proposed RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation was feasible. A larger multi-centre RCT to establish whether this intervention is cost effective and improves mobility is warranted. Trial registration The trial was registered with the ANZTCR (ACTRN12608000427370.

  1. [Differences of blood plasma renin activity, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in essential or secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ai-ling; Zeng, Zheng-pei; Tong, An-li; Lu, Lin; Chen, Shi; Li, Ming; Fu, Chun-li; Wang, Yong-hui; Sun, Mei-li

    2012-04-01

    To study on the difference of plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) or primary aldosteronism (PA) or pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and to analyze the sensitivity and specificity on the diagnosis of PA among patients with hypertension with aldosterone/PRA ratio (ARR). The plasma aldosterone, Ang II and PRA concentrations in supine and upright positions were measured by radioimmunoassay from 413 patients including idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA, n = 111), aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA, n = 118), PHEO (n = 98) and EH (n = 86). ARR was calculated. Plasma aldosterone concentrations in both of supine and upright positions in PHEO group [374 (294, 465) pmol/L and 629 (449, 997) pmol/L] and PA group [471 (346, 632) pmol/L and 673 (499, 825) pmol/L] were higher than those in EH group [277 (224, 332) pmol/L and 427 (341, 501) pmol/L] (P 0.05). The PRA level in both positions of each group were PHEO group [0.3 (0.2, 1.0) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 1.4 (0.6, 3.4) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] > EH group [0.2 (0.1, 0.4) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.6 (0.4, 1.0) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (P PA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.1) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (P < 0.01), and APA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.1) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.1 (0.1, 0.3) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] < IHA group [0.1 (0.1, 0.2) µg · L(-1) · h(-1) and 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) µg · L(-1) · h(-1)] (supine P < 0.01; upright P < 0.05). APA was divided into 2 types with renin-Ang II-responsive APA (n = 26) and unresponsive APA (n = 92). The plasma aldosterone concentration was lower in supine position but higher in upright position in renin-Ang II-responsive APA than in unresponsive APA patients. ARR in upright was higher in PA group (P < 0.01) but lower in PHEO group (P < 0.05) compared with EH. ARR was higher in APA than in IHA (P < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of ARR as 40 (aldosterone unit: ng/dl; PRA unit: µg · L(-1

  2. Effect of Vitamin D Receptor Activators on Glomerular Filtration Rate: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Vitamin D receptor activators (VDRAs can protect against mineral bone disease, but they are reported to elevate serum creatinine (SCr and may also reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs to evaluate the effect of VDRAs on kidney function and adverse events. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for RCTs that evaluate vitamin D receptor activators (alfacalcidol, calcitriol, doxercalciferol, falecalcitriol, maxacalcitol and paricalcitol up to March 2015.We included 31 studies, all of which were performed between 1976 and 2015, which enrolled 2621 patients. Patients receiving VDRAs had lower eGFR (weighted mean difference WMD -1.29 mL/min /1.73 m2, 95% CI -2.42 to -0.17 and elevated serum creatinine (WMD 7.03 μmol/L, 95% CI 0.61 to 13.46 in sensitivity analysis excluding studies with dropout rate more than 30%. Subgroup analysis of the 5 studies that not use SCr-based measures did not indicated lower GFR in the VDRAs group(WMD -0.97 mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI -4.85 to 2.92. Compared with control groups, there was no difference in all-cause mortality (relative risk RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.80, cardiovascular disease (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.71, and severe adverse events (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.77 for the VDRAs groups. Episodes of hypercalcemia (RR 3.29, 95% CI 2.02 to 5.38 were more common in the VDRAs group than in the control group.Administration of VDRAs increased serum creatinine levels. Subgroup analysis of studies that did not use SCr-based measures did not indicate a lower GFR in the VDRA group. Future studies with non-SCr-based measures are needed to assess whether the mild elevations of serum creatinine are of clinical significance.

  3. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Detection of Crohn's Disease Activity: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Kłopocka, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Reports on imaging of active Crohn's disease (aCD) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are encouraging. However, the statistical power of most published papers is limited due to the small size of the patient groups included. This study was performed to verify the diagnostic value of CEUS in detecting aCD. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers for articles on the test characteristics of CEUS for the identification of aCD. The quality of the analysed studies was evaluated using a quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2). Pooling was performed using a diagnostic random-effect model and bivariate analysis. Eight articles were included in the final analysis, with a total of 332 patients. There was no significant publication bias. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding CEUS methodology and sonographic definitions of aCD. In a bivariate analysis, pooled sensitivity was 0.94 (95% CI 0.87-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.88). Spearman correlation statistics presented no significant diagnostic threshold effect (r = 0.12, p > 0.9). Subgroup analysis showed that relative intestine wall enhancement had the highest diagnostic value (area under the curve 94%), while the presence of enhancement and analysis of the slope were less useful (area under the curve 91 and 90%, respectively). CEUS presents good sensitivity and moderate specificity in the detection of the aCD. Large-scale randomized trials with quantitative evaluation of CEUS images are necessary to promote this technique in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization and cytotoxic activity of two new organoruthenium(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA GRGURIC-SIPKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-cymene ruthenium(II complexes containing as additional ligands N-methylpiperazine ([(η6-p-cymeneRuCl2(CH3NH(CH24NH]PF6, complex 1 or vitamin K3-thiosemicarbazone ([(η6-p-cymeneRuCl2(K3tsc], complex 2 were synthesized starting from [(η6-p-cymene2RuCl2]2 and the corresponding ligand. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic absorption and NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structure determination of complex 1 revealed “piano-stool” geometry. The differences in the cytotoxic activity of the two complexes are discussed in terms of the ligand present.

  5. Antiviral activities of Radix Isatidis polysaccharide against type II herpes simplex virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei WANG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the antiviral activities of Radix Isatidis polysaccharide (RIP against type II herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 in vitro. RIP was prepared from the Radix Isatidis root. The toxicity of RIP on Vero cells was detected. The direct killing effect of RIP on HSV-2, inhibitory effect of RIP on HSV-2 replication and inhibitory effect of RIP on HSV-2 adsorption were determined. Results showed that, RIP in concentration range of 25-800 mg/L had no toxic effect on Vero cells. RIP with different concentrations could not directly inactivate the HSV-2. The effective rates on inhibition of HSV-2 replication and adsorption in 800 mg/L RIP group were 71.57% and 48.37%, respectively, which were the highest among different groups. In conclusion, RIP has the antiviral effect against HSV-2 in vitro. This effect mainly occurs in inhibiting the virus duplication and adsorption.

  6. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r = .15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  7. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  8. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  9. A Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents of Voluntary Turnover in Studies Involving Active Duty Military Member Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    JoAP 2007 N N The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown About Telecommuting : Meta-Analysis of Psychological Mediators and Individual Consequences Gavin, J...Work, nonwork, & family influences Shalley, C. E., Gilson, L. L., & Blum, T. C. ACMJ 2000 ? N Matching Creativity Requirements and the Work

  10. ABERRANT RESTING-STATE BRAIN ACTIVITY IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A META-ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Saskia B. J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of trauma-exposed individuals develop PTSD. Although a growing number of studies have investigated resting-state abnormalities in PTSD, inconsistent results suggest a need for a meta-analysis and a systematic review. We conducted a systematic literature search in four online databases

  11. When thinking that you are fat makes you feel worthless: Activation and application of meta-stereotypes when appearance matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, E.H.

    This research examined whether normal-weight people who believe they are overweight expect that other people negatively stereotype them when their appearance becomes relevant. Moreover, it was examined whether these negative "meta-stereotypes" in turn make people feel worthless. Indeed, the first

  12. Meditation-related activations are modulated by the practices needed to obtain it and by the expertise: an ALE meta-analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fregona, Sara; Skrap, Miran; Fabbro, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.). It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the subsets of studies involving meditation induced through exercising focused attention (FA). The network included clusters bilaterally in the medial gyrus, the left superior parietal lobe, the left insula and the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG). A second analysis addressed the studies involving meditation states induced by chanting or by repetition of words or phrases, known as “mantra.” This type of practice elicited a cluster of activity in the right SMG, the SMA bilaterally and the left postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the last analyses addressed the effect of meditation experience (i.e., short- vs. long-term meditators). We found that frontal activation was present for short-term, as compared with long-term experience meditators, confirming that experts are better enabled to sustain attentional focus, rather recruiting the right SMG and concentrating on aspects involving disembodiment. PMID:23316154

  13. Meditation related activations are modulated by the practices needed to obtain it and by the expertise:an ALE meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.. It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the subsets of studies involving meditation induced through exercising focused attention. The network included clusters bilaterally in the medial gyrus, the left superior parietal lobe, the left insula and the right supramarginal gyrus. A second analysis addressed the studies involving meditation states induced by chanting or by repetition of words or phrases, known as ‘mantra’. This type of practice elicited a cluster of activity in the right supramarginal gyrus, the SMA bilaterally and the left postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the last analyses addressed the effect of meditation experience (i.e., short- vs. long-term meditators. We found that frontal activation was present for short-term, as compared with long-term experience meditators, confirming that experts are better enabled to sustain attentional focus, rather recruiting the right supramarginal gyrus and concentrating on aspects involving disembodiment.

  14. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in arginase-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Rajapakse, Angana G; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2014-07-18

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-uncoupling links obesity-associated insulin resistance and type-II diabetes to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies have indicated that increased arginase is involved in eNOS-uncoupling through competing with the substrate L-arginine. Given that arginase-II (Arg-II) exerts some of its biological functions through crosstalk with signal transduction pathways, and that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38mapk) is involved in eNOS-uncoupling, we investigated here whether p38mapk is involved in Arg-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. Obesity was induced in wild type (WT) and Arg-II-deficient (Arg-II(-/-)) mice on C57BL/6 J background by high-fat diet (HFD, 55% fat) for 14 weeks starting from age of 7 weeks. The entire aortas were isolated and subjected to 1) immunoblotting analysis of the protein level of eNOS, Arg-II and p38mapk activation; 2) arginase activity assay; 3) endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotor responses; 4) en face staining of superoxide anion and NO production with Dihydroethidium and 4,5-Diaminofluorescein Diacetate, respectively, to assess eNOS-uncoupling. To evaluate the role of p38mapk, isolated aortas were treated with p38mapk inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L, 1 h) prior to the analysis. In addition, the role of p38mapk in Arg-II-induced eNOS-uncoupling was investigated in cultured human endothelial cells overexpressing Arg-II in the absence or presence of shRNA against p38mapk. HFD enhanced Arg-II expression/activity and p38mapk activity, which was associated with eNOS-uncoupling as revealed by decreased NO and enhanced L-NAME-inhibitable superoxide in aortas of WT obese mice. In accordance, WT obese mice revealed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine despite of higher eNOS protein level, whereas Arg-II(-/-) obese mice were protected from HFD-induced eNOS-uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction, which

  15. In Obesity, HPA Axis Activity Does Not Increase with BMI, but Declines with Aging: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Tenk

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. It involves numerous endocrine disorders as etiological factors or as complications. Previous studies strongly suggested the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity in obesity, however, to date, no consistent trend in obesity-associated alterations of the HPA axis has been identified. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce abnormalities of the HPA axis. Thus, the question arises whether obesity is correlated with peripheral indicators of HPA function in adult populations.We aimed to meta-analyze literature data on peripheral cortisol levels as indicators of HPA activity in obesity during aging, in order to identify possible explanations for previous contradictory findings and to suggest new approaches for future clinical studies.3,596 records were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Database. Altogether 26 articles were suitable for analyses.Empirical research papers were eligible provided that they reported data of healthy adult individuals, included body mass index (BMI and measured at least one relevant peripheral cortisol parameter (i.e., either morning blood cortisol or 24-h urinary free cortisol.We used random effect models in each of the meta-analyses calculating with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. Meta-regression was applied to explore the effect of BMI and age on morning blood and urinary free cortisol levels. To assess publication bias Egger's test was used.Obesity did not show any correlation with the studied peripheral cortisol values. On the other hand, peripheral cortisol levels declined with aging within the obese, but not in the non-obese groups.Our analysis demonstrated that obesity or healthy aging does not lead to enhanced HPA axis activity, peripheral cortisol levels rather decline with aging.

  16. In Obesity, HPA Axis Activity Does Not Increase with BMI, but Declines with Aging: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Judit; Mátrai, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Rostás, Ildikó; Garami, András; Szabó, Imre; Solymár, Margit; Pétervári, Erika; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Füredi, Nóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Zsiborás, Csaba; Balaskó, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. It involves numerous endocrine disorders as etiological factors or as complications. Previous studies strongly suggested the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in obesity, however, to date, no consistent trend in obesity-associated alterations of the HPA axis has been identified. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce abnormalities of the HPA axis. Thus, the question arises whether obesity is correlated with peripheral indicators of HPA function in adult populations. We aimed to meta-analyze literature data on peripheral cortisol levels as indicators of HPA activity in obesity during aging, in order to identify possible explanations for previous contradictory findings and to suggest new approaches for future clinical studies. 3,596 records were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Database. Altogether 26 articles were suitable for analyses. Empirical research papers were eligible provided that they reported data of healthy adult individuals, included body mass index (BMI) and measured at least one relevant peripheral cortisol parameter (i.e., either morning blood cortisol or 24-h urinary free cortisol). We used random effect models in each of the meta-analyses calculating with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. Meta-regression was applied to explore the effect of BMI and age on morning blood and urinary free cortisol levels. To assess publication bias Egger's test was used. Obesity did not show any correlation with the studied peripheral cortisol values. On the other hand, peripheral cortisol levels declined with aging within the obese, but not in the non-obese groups. Our analysis demonstrated that obesity or healthy aging does not lead to enhanced HPA axis activity, peripheral cortisol levels rather decline with aging.

  17. Cyclometalated Ruthenium(II) Anthraquinone Complexes Exhibit Strong Anticancer Activity in Hypoxic Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Huang, Huaiyi; Wang, Jinquan; Zhao, Donglei; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-10-19

    Hypoxia is the critical feature of the tumor microenvironment that is known to lead to resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Six novel ruthenium(II) anthraquinone complexes were designed and synthesized; they exhibit similar or superior cytotoxicity compared to cisplatin in hypoxic HeLa, A549, and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Their anticancer activities are related to their lipophilicity and cellular uptake; therefore, these physicochemical properties of the complexes can be changed by modifying the ligands to obtain better anticancer candidates. Complex 1, the most potent member of the series, is highly active against hypoxic HeLa cancer cells (IC50 =0.53 μM). This complex likely has 46-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 =24.62 μM) in HeLa cells. This complex tends to accumulate in the mitochondria and the nucleus of hypoxic HeLa cells. Further mechanistic studies show that complex 1 induced cell apoptosis during hypoxia through multiple pathways, including those of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the inhibition of DNA replication and HIF-1α expression, making it an outstanding candidate for further in vivo studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. SAFEPAQ-II, a new tool for the production of activation data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Activation data and inventory codes are a major input to much of the safety related work carried out on fusion devices. The inventory code recommended for European activation calculations is FISPACT-99; this requires a large amount of nuclear data, which is available in the European Activation File (EAF-99). The production of an EAF library uses new sources of data, both evaluated and calculated, differential measurements and integral data. In order to store, evaluate, and use all the various data sources an efficient software tool is required. Earlier versions of EAF have been produced using the tools SYMPAL and SAFEPAQ, which enabled a large degree of automation as compared with the original construction 'by hand'. However, these relied on the direct manipulation of the ENDF formatted text files using FORTRAN-77. This is not an efficient approach, as editing of the text files is inconvenient and liable to errors. It was decided to use relational databases to store the data, with data extraction carried out by standard queries written in SQL. Other objectives were the provision of a user-friendly graphical interface to allow data to be viewed and manipulated and a high level of QA by logging all data changes. These objectives have been realised by the SAFEPAQ-II application; this uses the ideas of the previous tools, but has been designed from scratch using new methods. Visual Basic is used to build the application running under Windows NT 4, which is linked to a series of ACCESS databases

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Leung, Peter CK

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the

  20. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  1. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  2. Optimizing Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution by magnetic nanoparticles immobilized on activated carbon using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi Zarandi, Mohammad Javad; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosravi, Morteza; Mansouriieh, Nafiseh; Davallo, Mehran; Khosravan, Azita

    2016-01-01

    This study synthesized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)) immobilized on activated carbon (AC) and used them as an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution. The effect of three parameters, including the concentration of Cu(II), dosage of Fe(3)O(4)/AC magnetic nanocomposite and pH on the removal of Cu(II) using Fe(3)O(4)/AC nanocomposite were studied. In order to examine and describe the optimum condition for each of the mentioned parameters, Taguchi's optimization method was used in a batch system and L9 orthogonal array was used for the experimental design. The removal percentage (R%) of Cu(II) and uptake capacity (q) were transformed into an accurate signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for a 'larger-the-better' response. Taguchi results, which were analyzed based on choosing the best run by examining the S/N, were statistically tested using analysis of variance; the tests showed that all the parameters' main effects were significant within a 95% confidence level. The best conditions for removal of Cu(II) were determined at pH of 7, nanocomposite dosage of 0.1 gL(-1) and initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg L(-1) at constant temperature of 25 °C. Generally, the results showed that the simple Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the Cu(II) removal experiments.

  3. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289.

  4. Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induces Neurological Side Effects Independent on Thrombolysis in Mechanical Animal Models of Focal Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Xue Dong

    Full Text Available Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA is the only effective drug approved by US FDA to treat ischemic stroke, and it contains pleiotropic effects besides thrombolysis. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA on cerebral infarction besides its thrombolysis property in mechanical animal stroke.Relevant studies were identified by two reviewers after searching online databases, including Pubmed, Embase, and ScienceDirect, from 1979 to 2016. We identified 6, 65, 17, 12, 16, 12 and 13 comparisons reporting effect of endogenous tPA on infarction volume and effects of rtPA on infarction volume, blood-brain barrier, brain edema, intracerebral hemorrhage, neurological function and mortality rate in all 47 included studies. Standardized mean differences for continuous measures and risk ratio for dichotomous measures were calculated to assess the effects of endogenous tPA and rtPA on cerebral infarction in animals. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable score. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity. Funnel plot, Trim and Fill method and Egger's test were obtained to detect publication bias.We found that both endogenous tPA and rtPA had not enlarged infarction volume, or deteriorated neurological function. However, rtPA would disrupt blood-brain barrier, aggravate brain edema, induce intracerebral hemorrhage and increase mortality rate.This meta-analysis reveals rtPA can lead to neurological side effects besides thrombolysis in mechanical animal stroke, which may account for clinical exacerbation for stroke patients that do not achieve vascular recanalization with rtPA.

  5. Preconcentration of Sn (II) using the methylene blue on the activated carbon and its determination by spectrophotometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Cham Kouri, Narges

    2014-04-05

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Sn (II) ion in soil sample was developed by using the methylene blue (MB) in the presence of activated carbon (AC) as the adsorbent Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of Sn (II) and then determined by UV-Vis. The Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-80ngmL(-1) of Sn (II) with the detection limits of 0.34ngmL(-1). The influence of type and volume of eluent, concentration of MB, pH, and amount of AC on sensitivity of spectrophotometric method were optimized. The method has been successfully applied for Sn (II) ion determination in soil sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sorption Studies of Chromium(VI and Mercury(II by High Temperature Activated Carbon from Syzygium Jambolanum Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sophie Beulah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature activated Syzygium Jambolanum nut carbon (HSJC has been effectively used for the removal of Cr(VI and Hg(II from aqueous solution by batch experiments. Effect of pH, carbon dose and equilibration time were determined. Adsorption followed Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic studies indicated that the removal process followed reversible first order equation. Desorption of Cr(VI was done with 1 M NaOH and 10% H2O2 mixture and Hg(II with 2% Na2S in 1% NaOH. The performance of HSJC was compared with a commercial activated carbon (CAC.

  7. Synthesis and biological activity of acetates of copper (II and iron (III for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica V. Nardeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to the synthesis of basic acetates of Cu (II and Fe(III against larvae of Aedes aegypti and Gram negative and Gram positive. The transition metal ions Cu (II and Fe (III have bactericidal activity and are toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in the eggs and larval stages of initial, precludes the eggs hatch and slow reproductive cycle of the insect. The theme investigates the importance of carboxyl groups in complex formation, transport and cellular internalization of the toxic ions. It is known that the bactericide or insecticide activity is due to metal ions and Cu (IIor Fe (III.

  8. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-01-01

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model

  9. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  10. Bioorthogonal Diversification of Peptides through Selective Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schischko, Alexandra; Ren, Hongjun; Kaplaneris, Nikolaos; Ackermann, Lutz

    2017-02-01

    Methods for the chemoselective modification of amino acids and peptides are powerful techniques in biomolecular chemistry. Among other applications, they enable the total synthesis of artificial peptides. In recent years, significant momentum has been gained by exploiting palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling for peptide modification. Despite major advances, the prefunctionalization elements on the coupling partners translate into undesired byproduct formation and lengthy synthetic operations. In sharp contrast, we herein illustrate the unprecedented use of versatile ruthenium(II)carboxylate catalysis for the step-economical late-stage diversification of α- and β-amino acids, as well as peptides, through chemo-selective C-H arylation under racemization-free reaction conditions. The ligand-accelerated C-H activation strategy proved water-tolerant and set the stage for direct fluorescence labelling as well as various modes of peptide ligation with excellent levels of positional selectivity in a bioorthogonal fashion. The synthetic utility of our approach is further demonstrated by twofold C-H arylations for the complexity-increasing assembly of artificial peptides within a multicatalytic C-H activation manifold. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. QM/MM simulations identify the determinants of catalytic activity differences between type II dehydroquinase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lence, Emilio; van der Kamp, Marc W; González-Bello, Concepción; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2018-05-16

    Type II dehydroquinase enzymes (DHQ2), recognized targets for antibiotic drug discovery, show significantly different activities dependent on the species: DHQ2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDHQ2) and Helicobacter pylori (HpDHQ2) show a 50-fold difference in catalytic efficiency. Revealing the determinants of this activity difference is important for our understanding of biological catalysis and further offers the potential to contribute to tailoring specificity in drug design. Molecular dynamics simulations using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential, with correlated ab initio single point corrections, identify and quantify the subtle determinants of the experimentally observed difference in efficiency. The rate-determining step involves the formation of an enolate intermediate: more efficient stabilization of the enolate and transition state of the key step in MtDHQ2, mainly by the essential residues Tyr24 and Arg19, makes it more efficient than HpDHQ2. Further, a water molecule, which is absent in MtDHQ2 but involved in generation of the catalytic Tyr22 tyrosinate in HpDHQ2, was found to destabilize both the transition state and the enolate intermediate. The quantification of the contribution of key residues and water molecules in the rate-determining step of the mechanism also leads to improved understanding of higher potencies and specificity of known inhibitors, which should aid ongoing inhibitor design.

  12. An Insight into the Anticancer Activities of Ru(II-Based Metallocompounds Using Docking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike organic molecules, reports on docking of metal complexes are very few; mainly due to the inadequacy of force fields in docking packages to appropriately characterize the metal atoms that consequentially hinder the rational design of metal-based drug complexes. In this study we have made used Molegro and Autodock to predict the anticancer activities of selected Ru(II complexes against twelve anticancer targets. We observed that introducing the quantum calculated atomic charges of the optimized geometries significantly improved the docking predictions of these anticancer metallocompounds. Despite several limitations in the docking of metal-based complexes, we obtained results that are highly correlated with the available experimental results. Most of our newly proposed metallocompounds are found theoretically to be better anticancer metallocompounds than all the experimentally proposed RAPTA complexes. An interesting features of a strong interactions of new modeled of metallocompounds against the two base edges of DNA strands suggest similar mechanisms of anticancer activities similar to that of cisplatin. There is possibility of covalent bonding between the metal center of the metallocompounds and the residues of the receptors DNA-1, DNA-2, HDAC7, HIS and RNR. However, the general results suggest the possibility of metals positioning the coordinated ligands in the right position for optimal receptor interactions and synergistic effects, rather than forming covalent bonds.

  13. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  14. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  15. Adsorption of As(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), in Multicomponent Aqueous Systems using Activated Carbons.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirilä, M.; Cruz, G.J.F.; Ainassaari, K.; Gómez, M.M.; Matějová, Lenka; Keiski, R.L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 9 (2017), s. 846-855 ISSN 1061-4303 Grant - others:NUT(PE) 0722-2014; PNCST(PE) 002/PE/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : activated carbon * agro-waste material * heavy metals adsorption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2016

  16. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Worseck, Gabor [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Crighton, Neil H. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lukić, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oñorbe, Jose, E-mail: tschmidt@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-17

    The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of t{sub Q} > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  17. Effectiveness of after-school interventions at increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in 5- to 18-year olds: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Ruth; Jago, Russell

    2016-05-24

    Physical activity in children improves cardiovascular, mental, metabolic and skeletal health. Many children fail to meet the national recommendation of at least 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After-school programmes provide an opportunity to engage children in physical activity. This systematic review and meta-analysis examine the effectiveness of after-school interventions at increasing MVPA levels in children and adolescents. Systematic review and meta-analyses. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases from January 1950 to April 2015. Inclusion criteria-Population: participants aged 5-18 years. an after-school programme in a school-based setting as the main component of an intervention to increase physical activity levels. individual-level measure of time spent in MVPA. quasi-experimental, pilot, non-randomised or randomised trials. conference abstracts, unpublished articles, dissertations and non-English language papers. 1387 records were identified through database searching. After removal of duplicates, there were 748 records. 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. 6 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and the pooled intervention effect at end point follow-up was 4.84 min/day of MVPA (95% CI -0.94 to 10.61). The effectiveness of after-school interventions varied considerably and comparisons between studies limited by different methodological study designs. Subgroup analyses within a small minority of studies revealed significant benefits in overweight/obese children and boys. There was a lack of convincing evidence that interventions based on theories of behaviour change were more effective than those with no underlying theory. After-school physical activity interventions to date have had mixed effectiveness on increasing MVPA levels. More robust evaluations of extracurricular physical activity interventions are required, particularly studies that use

  18. Antiplasmodial activity of iron(II and ruthenium(II organometallic complexes against Plasmodium falciparum blood parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolli Bellotti de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparumblood forms (W2 clone, chloroquine-resistant of tamoxifen-based compounds and their ferrocenyl (ferrocifens and ruthenocenyl (ruthenocifens derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity against HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Surprisingly with these series, results indicate that the biological activity of ruthenocifens is better than that of ferrocifens and other tamoxifen-like compounds. The synthesis of a new metal-based compound is also described. It was shown, for the first time, that ruthenocifens are good antiplasmodial prototypes. Further studies will be conducted aiming at a better understanding of their mechanism of action and at obtaining new compounds with better therapeutic profile.

  19. Syntheses, characterization and antifungal activity of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) bis(n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottega, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Garcia, Camila V.; Menezes, Daniele C.; Rubinger, Mayura M.M., E-mail: marcelor@ufv.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Zambolim, Laercio [Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Four new compounds with the general formula [Fe(phen){sub 3}][Zn(RSO{sub 2}N=CS{sub 2}){sub 2}], where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, R = 4-FC{sub 6}H{sub 4}(1), 4-ClC{sub 6}H{sub 4} (2), 4-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4} (3) and 4-IC{sub 6}H{sub 4} (4), respectively, were obtained by the reaction of the appropriate potassium N-R-sulfonyldithiocarbimate (RSO{sub 2}N=CS{sub 2}K{sub 2}) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) sulfate, with zinc(II) acetate dihydrate in dimethylformamide. The elemental analyses and the IR data were consistent with the formation of the expected complexes salts. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed the signals for the cationic iron(II) complex and dithiocarbamate moieties. The molar conductance data were consistent with the 1:1 cation:anion complexes in 1-4. The antifungal activities of the compounds were tested in vitro against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. (author)

  20. Arthrogenicity of type II collagen monoclonal antibodies associated with complement activation and antigen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koobkokkruad, Thongchai; Kadotani, Tatsuya; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Yoshino, Shin

    2011-11-04

    The collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model, which employs a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to type II collagen (CII), has been widely used for studying the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. In this model, not all mAbs to CII are capable of inducing arthritis because one of the initial events is the formation of collagen-antibody immune complexes on the cartilage surface or in the synovium, and subsequent activation of the complement by the complexes induces arthritis, suggesting that a combination of mAbs showing strong ability to bind mouse CII and activate the complement may effectively induce arthritis in mice. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the induction of arthritis by the combination of IgG2a (CII-6 and C2A-12), IgG2b (CII-3, C2B-14 and C2B-16) and IgM (CM-5) subclones of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of anti-bovine or chicken CII and the ability of mAbs to activate complement and bind mouse CII. DBA/1J mice were injected with several combinations of mAbs followed by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, the ability of mAbs to activate the complement and bind mouse CII was examined by ELISA. First, DBA/1J mice were injected with the combined 4 mAbs (CII-3, CII-6, C2B-14, and CM-5) followed by lipopolysaccharide, resulting in moderate arthritis. Excluding one of the mAbs, i.e., using only CII-3, CII-6, and C2B-14, induced greater inflammation of the joints. Next, adding C2A-12 but not C2B-16 to these 3 mAbs produced more severe arthritis. A combination of five clones, consisting of all 5 mAbs, was less effective. Histologically, mice given the newly developed 4-clone cocktail had marked proliferation of synovial tissues, massive infiltration by inflammatory cells, and severe destruction of cartilage and bone. Furthermore, 4 of the 6 clones (CII-3, CII-6, C2B-14, and C2A-12) showed not only a strong cross-reaction with mouse CII but also marked activation of the complement in vitro. The combination of 4 mAbs showing

  1. Arthrogenicity of type II collagen monoclonal antibodies associated with complement activation and antigen affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Nobuaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA model, which employs a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to type II collagen (CII, has been widely used for studying the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. In this model, not all mAbs to CII are capable of inducing arthritis because one of the initial events is the formation of collagen-antibody immune complexes on the cartilage surface or in the synovium, and subsequent activation of the complement by the complexes induces arthritis, suggesting that a combination of mAbs showing strong ability to bind mouse CII and activate the complement may effectively induce arthritis in mice. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the induction of arthritis by the combination of IgG2a (CII-6 and C2A-12, IgG2b (CII-3, C2B-14 and C2B-16 and IgM (CM-5 subclones of monoclonal antibodies (mAb of anti-bovine or chicken CII and the ability of mAbs to activate complement and bind mouse CII. Methods DBA/1J mice were injected with several combinations of mAbs followed by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, the ability of mAbs to activate the complement and bind mouse CII was examined by ELISA. Results First, DBA/1J mice were injected with the combined 4 mAbs (CII-3, CII-6, C2B-14, and CM-5 followed by lipopolysaccharide, resulting in moderate arthritis. Excluding one of the mAbs, i.e., using only CII-3, CII-6, and C2B-14, induced greater inflammation of the joints. Next, adding C2A-12 but not C2B-16 to these 3 mAbs produced more severe arthritis. A combination of five clones, consisting of all 5 mAbs, was less effective. Histologically, mice given the newly developed 4-clone cocktail had marked proliferation of synovial tissues, massive infiltration by inflammatory cells, and severe destruction of cartilage and bone. Furthermore, 4 of the 6 clones (CII-3, CII-6, C2B-14, and C2A-12 showed not only a strong cross-reaction with mouse CII but also marked activation of the

  2. Facile colorimetric assay of alkaline phosphatase activity using Fe(II)-phenanthroline reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Baojing; Dang, Pengyun; Li, Lianzhi; Kong, Jinming; Zhang, Xueji

    2017-01-15

    We report a versatile approach for the colorimetric assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity based on the distinctive metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption properties of Fe(II)-phenanthroline reporter. In the presence of ALP, the applied substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate is enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce ascorbic acid, which then reduces Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ . The complexation of Fe 2+ with the bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS) ligand generates a blood-red Fe(BPS) 3 4- reporter, which is characterized by an intense MLCT absorption band at 535 nm in the visible range. Under optimal conditions, the spectral output exhibits a good quantitative relationship with ALP activity over the range of 0-220 mU mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.94 mU mL -1 . Moreover, the activity of ALP can also be conveniently judged through naked-eye observations. Results indicate that it is highly selective and can be applied to the screening of ALP inhibitors. In addition, it has been successfully employed to detect the endogenous ALP level of undiluted human serum samples, with a detection limit of 1.05 mU mL -1 being achieved. This approach avoids any elaborately designed substrates and holds considerable simplicity and flexibility for reporter design. This study broadens the horizon of the applications of phenanthroline-based transition metal complexes. Furthermore, an efficient and practical method like this has the potential to be widely used in clinical applications and in the point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SAFEPAQ-II, a new tool for the production of activation data libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, R.A. E-mail: robin.forrest@ukaea.org.uk

    2001-04-01

    Activation data and inventory codes are a major input to much of the safety related work carried out on fusion devices. The inventory code recommended for European activation calculations is FISPACT-99; this requires a large amount of nuclear data, which is available in the European Activation File (EAF-99). The production of an EAF library uses new sources of data, both evaluated and calculated, differential measurements and integral data. In order to store, evaluate, and use all the various data sources an efficient software tool is required. Earlier versions of EAF have been produced using the tools SYMPAL and SAFEPAQ, which enabled a large degree of automation as compared with the original construction 'by hand'. However, these relied on the direct manipulation of the ENDF formatted text files using FORTRAN-77. This is not an efficient approach, as editing of the text files is inconvenient and liable to errors. It was decided to use relational databases to store the data, with data extraction carried out by standard queries written in SQL. Other objectives were the provision of a user-friendly graphical interface to allow data to be viewed and manipulated and a high level of QA by logging all data changes. These objectives have been realised by the SAFEPAQ-II application; this uses the ideas of the previous tools, but has been designed from scratch using new methods. Visual Basic is used to build the application running under Windows NT 4, which is linked to a series of ACCESS databases.

  4. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-11-28

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995-2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Oxidative Ce"3"+ sequestration by fungal manganese oxides with an associated Mn(II) oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Haisu; Tani, Yukinori; Naitou, Hirotaka; Miyata, Naoyuki; Tojo, Fuyumi

    2016-01-01

    Sequestration of Ce"3"+ by biogenic manganese oxides (BMOs) formed by a Mn(II)-oxidizing fungus, Acremonium strictum strain KR21-2, was examined at pH 6.0. In anaerobic Ce"3"+ solution, newly formed BMOs exhibited stoichiometric Ce"3"+ oxidation, where the molar ratio of Ce"3"+ sequestered (Ce_s_e_q) relative to Mn"2"+ released (Mn_r_e_l) was maintained at approximately two throughout the reaction. A similar Ce"3"+ sequestration trend was observed in anaerobic treatment of BMOs in which the associated Mn(II) oxidase was completely inactivated by heating at 85 °C for 1 h or by adding 50 mM NaN_3. Aerobic Ce"3"+ treatment of newly formed BMO (enzymatically active) resulted in excessive Ce"3"+ sequestration over Mn"2"+ release, yielding Ce_s_e_q/Mn_r_e_l > 200, whereas heated or poisoned BMOs released a significant amount of Mn"2"+ with lower Ce"3"+ sequestration efficiency. Consequently, self-regeneration by the Mn(II) oxidase in newly formed BMO effectively suppressed Mn"2"+ release and enhanced oxidative Ce"3"+ sequestration under aerobic conditions. Repeated treatments of heated or poisoned BMOs under aerobic conditions confirmed that oxidative Ce"3"+ sequestration continued even after most Mn oxide was released from the solid phase, indicating auto-catalytic Ce"3"+ oxidation at the solid phase produced through primary Ce"3"+ oxidation by BMO. From X-ray diffraction analysis, the resultant solid phases formed through Ce"3"+ oxidation by BMO under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions consisted of cerianite with crystal sizes of 5.00–7.23 Å. Such nano-sized CeO_2 (CeO_2_,_B_M_O) showed faster auto-catalytic Ce"3"+ oxidation than that on well-crystalized cerianite under aerobic conditions, where the normalized pseudo-first order rate constants for auto-catalytic Ce"3"+ oxidation on CeO_2_,_B_M_O was two orders of magnitude higher. Consequently, we concluded that Ce"3"+ contact with BMOs sequesters Ce"3"+ through two oxidation paths: primary Ce"3

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial activity evaluation of new tridentate Schiff bases and their Co(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh More

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Schiff base tridentate ligands and their respective Co(II complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, IR, NMR and UV–Visible spectra, thermal studies. The IR spectral data suggested that all the ligands acted as monobasic tridentate towards central Co(II ion with an ONO donor atoms sequentially. Analytical data and magnetic susceptibility revealed 1:2 metal to ligand stoichiometry and octahedral geometry for all Co(II complexes. All the prepared compounds were also screened for antimicrobial activity against 5 ESBL (Extended Spectrum β-lactamase and 5 MBL (Metallo β-lactamase producing uropathogens and for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv strain. Keywords: Schiff base, Antitubercular, Antimicrobial, ESBL, MBL, Metal complex, o-hydroxyl aldehyde, Aminothiophene

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An (Awassi × Merino × Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine ovine lactation curve characteristics. Derived milk traits for milk, fat, protein and lactose yield, as well as percentage composition and somatic cell score were used for single and two-QTL approaches using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. A total of 15 significant (P P http://crcidp.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/cgi-bin/gbrowse/oaries_genome/. Many of the QTL for milk production traits have been reported on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 16 and 20. Those on chromosomes 3 and 20 are in strong agreement with the results reported here. In addition, novel QTL were found on chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 14, 22 and 24. In a cross-species comparison, we extended the meta-assembly by comparing QTL regions of sheep and cattle, which provided strong evidence for synteny conservation of QTL regions for milk, fat, protein and somatic cell score data between cattle and sheep.

  8. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Bae [The Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changsoo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunmi [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chun [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague–Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0 ± 14.0 to 142.1 ± 18.4 ms (p = 0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/ml for 30 min, n = 5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p = 0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5 mmol/L, n = 3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/ml for 20 min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5 mmol/L, n = 5), nifedipine (10 μmol/L, n = 5), and active Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1 μmol/L, n = 5), but not by thapsigargin (200 nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10 μmol/L, n = 5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1 μmol/L, n = 5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5 μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► The ambient PM consistently prolonged repolarization. ► The ambient PM induced triggered activity and ventricular arrhythmia. ► These effects were prevented by antioxidants, I{sub CaL} blockade and CaMKII blockade. ► The ambient PM can induce

  9. Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review and subset meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel J H; Liossi, Christina; Moss-Morris, Rona; Schlotz, Wolff

    2013-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a psychoneuroendocrine regulator of the stress response and immune system, and dysfunctions have been associated with outcomes in several physical health conditions. Its end product, cortisol, is relevant to fatigue due to its role in energy metabolism. The systematic review examined the relationship between different markers of unstimulated salivary cortisol activity in everyday life in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fatigue assessed in other clinical and general populations. Search terms for the review related to salivary cortisol assessments, everyday life contexts, and fatigue. All eligible studies (n=19) were reviewed narratively in terms of associations between fatigue and assessed cortisol markers, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), circadian profile (CP) output, and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS). Subset meta-analyses were conducted of case-control CFS studies examining group differences in three cortisol outcomes: CAR output; CAR increase; and CP output. Meta-analyses revealed an attenuation of the CAR increase within CFS compared to controls (d=-.34) but no statistically significant differences between groups for other markers. In the narrative review, total cortisol output (CAR or CP) was rarely associated with fatigue in any population; CAR increase and DCS were most relevant. Outcomes reflecting within-day change in cortisol levels (CAR increase; DCS) may be the most relevant to fatigue experience, and future research in this area should report at least one such marker. Results should be considered with caution due to heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and the small number of studies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Pain, activities of daily living and sport function at different time points after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Lund, Bent; Naal, Florian D; Mechlenburg, Inger; Dalgas, Ulrik; Casartelli, Nicola C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate pain, activities of daily living (ADL) function, sport function, quality of life and satisfaction at different time points after hip arthroscopy in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Systematic review with meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences between preoperative and postoperative outcomes were calculated and used for meta-analysis. EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportsDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PEDro. Studies that evaluated hip pain, ADL function, sport function and quality of life before and after hip arthroscopy and postoperative satisfaction in patients with symptomatic FAI. Twenty-six studies (22 case series, 3 cohort studies, 1 randomised controlled trial (RCT)) were included in the systematic review and 19 in the meta-analysis. Clinically relevant pain and ADL function improvements were first reported between 3 and 6 months, and sport function improvements between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. It is not clear when quality of life improvements were first achieved. On average, residual mild pain and ADL and sport function scores lower than their healthy counterparts were reported by patients following surgery. Postoperative patient satisfaction ranged from 68% to 100%. On average, patients reported earlier pain and ADL function improvements, and slower sport function improvements after hip arthroscopy for FAI. However, average scores from patients indicate residual mild hip pain and/or hip function lower than their healthy counterparts after surgery. Owing to the current low level of evidence, future RCTs and cohort studies should investigate the effectiveness of hip arthroscopy in patients with FAI. CRD42015019649. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Sorption of Cu(II, Zn(II and Ni(II from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from olive stone waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Sharaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of olive stone activated carbon (OSAC for sorption of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions was investigated via batch technique. OSAC materials were prepared under different physially activation conditions. Olive stone waste was physically activated with N2 gas and steam gas at 900oC at 3.5h hold time (OSAC-3 was choice as the best one for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ removal. Characterization for OSAC-3 were performed under BET-surface area, SEM, density and FTIR-spectrum. Optimum adsorption conditions were specified as a function of agitation time, initial metal concentration, pH and temperature. Kinetic results were found to be fast and described well by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption capacities are 25.38mg/g (Cu2+, 16.95mg/g (Zn2+ and 14.65mg/g (Ni2+ which followed the sequence Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+. Spontaneous adsorption for all the studied cations, endothermic nature for both Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions and exothermic nature for Cu2+ ions were obtained. The results showed that OSAC-3 is a good economical material for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ remediation from weakly acidic contaminated effluents.

  12. Development of an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II management: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Rushton, Alison

    2016-09-14

    To develop an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for managing acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II using a modified Delphi method to develop consensus for the basic features of the ABPI. Modified Delphi study. Our systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating conservative management for acute WADII found that a combined ABPI may be a useful intervention to prevent patients progressing to chronicity. No previous research has considered a combined behavioural approach and active physiotherapy in the management of acute WADII patients. The ABPI was therefore developed using a rigorous consensus method using international research and local clinical whiplash experts. Descriptive statistics were used to assess consensus in each round. Online international survey. A purposive sample of 97 potential participants (aiming to recruit n=30) consisting of international research whiplash experts, UK private physiotherapists and UK postgraduate musculoskeletal physiotherapy students were invited to participate via electronic mail with an attached participant information sheet and consent form. 36 individuals signed and returned the consent form. In round 1, 32/36 participants (response rate=89%, mean age±SD=36.03±13.22 years) across 8 countries (Australia, Finland, Greece, India, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and UK) contributed to round 1 questionnaire. Response rates were 78% and 75% for rounds 2 and 3, respectively. Following round 3, 12 underlying principles (eg, return to normal function as soon as possible, pain management, encouragement of self-management, reduce fear avoidance and anxiety) achieved consensus. The treatment components reaching consensus included behavioural (eg, education, reassurance, self-management) and physiotherapy components (eg, exercises for stability and mobility). No passive intervention achieved consensus. Experts suggested and agreed the underlying principles and treatment components of the ABPI for the management

  13. Mediator, TATA-binding Protein, and RNA Polymerase II Contribute to Low Histone Occupancy at Active Gene Promoters in Yeast*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Suraiya A.; Paul, Emily; Sommer, Sebastian; Lieleg, Corinna; He, Qiye; Daly, Alexandre Z.; Rode, Kara A.; Barber, Wesley T.; Ellis, Laura C.; LaPorta, Erika; Orzechowski, Amanda M.; Taylor, Emily; Reeb, Tanner; Wong, Jason; Korber, Philipp; Morse, Randall H.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in eukaryotes requires the Mediator complex, and often involves chromatin remodeling and histone eviction at active promoters. Here we address the role of Mediator in recruitment of the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex and its role, along with components of the preinitiation complex (PIC), in histone eviction at inducible and constitutively active promoters in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that recruitment of the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex to the induced CHA1 promoter, as well as its association with several constitutively active promoters, depends on the Mediator complex but is independent of Mediator at the induced MET2 and MET6 genes. Although transcriptional activation and histone eviction at CHA1 depends on Swi/Snf, Swi/Snf recruitment is not sufficient for histone eviction at the induced CHA1 promoter. Loss of Swi/Snf activity does not affect histone occupancy of several constitutively active promoters; in contrast, higher histone occupancy is seen at these promoters in Mediator and PIC component mutants. We propose that an initial activator-dependent, nucleosome remodeling step allows PIC components to outcompete histones for occupancy of promoter sequences. We also observe reduced promoter association of Mediator and TATA-binding protein in a Pol II (rpb1-1) mutant, indicating mutually cooperative binding of these components of the transcription machinery and indicating that it is the PIC as a whole whose binding results in stable histone eviction. PMID:24727477

  14. Semisynthetic Lipopeptides Derived from Nisin Display Antibacterial Activity and Lipid II Binding on Par with That of the Parent Compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Timo; Wood, Thomas M.; 't Hart, Peter; Kleijn, Laurens H. J.; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Willems, Rob J. L.; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I.

    2015-01-01

    The lipid II-binding N-terminus of nisin, comprising the so-called A/B ring system, was synthetically modified to provide antibacterially active and proteolytically stable derivatives. A variety of lipids were coupled to the C-terminus of the nisin A/B ring system to generate semisynthetic

  15. The effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity participation in people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangelaji, Bahram; Smith, Catherin M; Paul, Lorna; Sampath, Kesava Kovanur; Treharne, Gareth J; Hale, Leigh Anne

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to illustrate whether people with multiple sclerosis engage in more physical activity following behaviour change interventions. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, EMBASE and PEDro were searched from their inception till 30 April 2015. Randomized and clinical controlled trials that used behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis were selected, regardless of type or duration of multiple sclerosis or disability severity. Data extraction was conducted by two independent reviewers and the Cochrane Collaboration's recommended method was used to assess the risk of bias of each included study. A total of 19 out of 573 studies were included. Focusing on trials without risk of bias, meta-analysis showed that behaviour change interventions can significantly increase physical activity participation (z = 2.20, p = 0.03, standardised main difference 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 1.22, 3 trials, I(2) = 68%) (eight to 12 weeks' duration). Behaviour change interventions did not significantly impact on the physical components of quality of life or fatigue. Behaviour change interventions provided for relatively short duration (eight to 12 weeks) may increase the amount of physical activity people with multiple sclerosis engage in, but appear to have no effect on the physical components of quality of life and fatigue. Further high quality investigations of the efficacy of behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity participation that focus on dose, long-term impact and method of delivery are warranted for people with multiple sclerosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Adsorption of Cd (II on Modified Granular Activated Carbons: Isotherm and Column Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez-Estupiñán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of cadmium Cd (II on activated carbons derived from different oxidation treatments (with either HNO3, H2O2, or NaOCl, corresponding to GACoxN, GACoxP, and GACoxCl samples are presented. The oxidation treatments determined an increase in the surface functional groups (mainly the acidic ones and a decrease in the pHPZC (except for the GACoxCl sample. A slight alteration of the textural parameters was also observed, which was more significant for the GACoxCl sample, in terms of a decrease of both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and micropore volume. Adsorption isotherms were determined for all the adsorbents and a significant increase in the adsorption performances of the oxidized samples with respect to the parent material was observed. The performances ranking was GACoxCl > GACoxP > GACoxN > GAC, likely due to the chemical surface properties of the adsorbents. Dynamic tests in a fixed bed column were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves at constant Cd inlet concentration and flow rate. GACoxCl and GACoxN showed a significantly higher value of the breakpoint time, likely due to the higher adsorption capacity. Finally, the dynamic tests were analyzed in light of a kinetic model. In the adopted experimental conditions, the results showed that mass transfer is controlled by internal pore diffusion, in which surface diffusion plays a major role.

  17. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  18. Adsorption of Cd (II) on Modified Granular Activated Carbons: Isotherm and Column Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Estupiñán, Paola; Erto, Alessandro; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2017-12-20

    In this work, equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of cadmium Cd (II) on activated carbons derived from different oxidation treatments (with either HNO₃, H₂O₂, or NaOCl, corresponding to GACoxN, GACoxP, and GACoxCl samples) are presented. The oxidation treatments determined an increase in the surface functional groups (mainly the acidic ones) and a decrease in the pH PZC (except for the GACoxCl sample). A slight alteration of the textural parameters was also observed, which was more significant for the GACoxCl sample, in terms of a decrease of both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller ( BET ) surface area and micropore volume. Adsorption isotherms were determined for all the adsorbents and a significant increase in the adsorption performances of the oxidized samples with respect to the parent material was observed. The performances ranking was GACoxCl > GACoxP > GACoxN > GAC, likely due to the chemical surface properties of the adsorbents. Dynamic tests in a fixed bed column were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves at constant Cd inlet concentration and flow rate. GACoxCl and GACoxN showed a significantly higher value of the breakpoint time, likely due to the higher adsorption capacity. Finally, the dynamic tests were analyzed in light of a kinetic model. In the adopted experimental conditions, the results showed that mass transfer is controlled by internal pore diffusion, in which surface diffusion plays a major role.

  19. Syndecan-2 regulates melanin synthesis via protein kinase C βII-mediated tyrosinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyejung; Chung, Heesung; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Sora; Han, Inn-Oc; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Syndecan-2, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is highly expressed in melanoma cells, regulates melanoma cell functions (e.g. migration). Since melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, which largely function to synthesize melanin, we investigated the possible involvement of syndecan-2 in melanogenesis. Syndecan-2 expression was increased in human skin melanoma tissues compared with normal skin. In both mouse and human melanoma cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of syndecan-2 was associated with reduced melanin synthesis, whereas overexpression of syndecan-2 increased melanin synthesis. Similar effects were also detected in human primary epidermal melanocytes. Syndecan-2 expression did not affect the expression of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, but instead enhanced the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase by increasing the membrane and melanosome localization of its regulator, protein kinase CβII. Furthermore, UVB caused increased syndecan-2 expression, and this up-regulation of syndecan-2 was required for UVB-induced melanin synthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that syndecan-2 regulates melanin synthesis and could be a potential therapeutic target for treating melanin-associated diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. DNA interaction, antioxidant activity, and bioactivity studies of two ruthenium(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing-Jie; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Li, Wei; Wang, Ji; Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Two new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb)2(dcdppz)](ClO4)2 (1) and [Ru(bpy)2(dcdppz)](ClO4)2 (2) were prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of the complex 2 was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a = 12.9622(14) Å, b = 17.1619(19) Å, c = 22.7210(3) Å, β = 100.930(2)°, R = 0.0536, Rω = 0.1111. The DNA-binding constants for complexes 1 and 2 were determined to be 1.92 × 105 (s = 1.72) and 2.24 × 105 (s = 1.86) M-1, respectively. The DNA-binding behaviors showed that complexes 1 and 2 interact with DNA by intercalative mode. The antioxidant activities of the ligand and the complexes were performed. Ligand, dcdppz, has no cytotoxicity against the selected cell lines. Complex 1 shows higher cytotoxicity than complex 2, but lower than cisplatin toward selected cell lines. The apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were investigated, and the apoptotic mechanism of BEL-7402 cells was studied by reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and western blot analysis. Complex 1 induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway and by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins.

  1. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  2. Structure-activity studies of dicationically substituted bis-benzimidazoles against Giardia lamblia: correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA binding affinity and giardial topoisomerase II inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C A; Dykstra, C C; Naiman, N A; Cory, M; Fairley, T A; Tidwell, R R

    1993-01-01

    Nine dicationically substituted bis-benzimidazoles were examined for their in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). The potential mechanisms of action of these compounds were evaluated by investigating the relationship among in vitro antigiardial activity and the affinity of the molecules for DNA and their ability to inhibit the activity of giardial topoisomerase II. Each compound demonstrated antigiardial activity, as measured by assessing the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine by giardial trophozoites exposed to the test agents. Three compounds exhibited excellent in vitro antigiardial activities, with 50% inhibitory concentrations which compared very favorably with those of two currently used drugs, quinacrine HCl and metronidazole. Putative mechanisms of action for these compounds were suggested by the strong correlation observed among in vitro antigiardial activity and the affinity of the molecules for natural and synthetic DNA and their ability to inhibit the relaxation activity of giardial topoisomerase II. A strong correlation between the DNA binding affinity of these compounds and their inhibition of giardial topoisomerase II activity was also observed. Images PMID:8109934

  3. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory active copper(II-lawsone complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Vančo

    Full Text Available We report in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a series of copper(II-lawsone complexes of the general composition [Cu(Law2(LNx(H2O(2-x]·yH2O; where HLaw = 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, x = 1 when LN = pyridine (1 and 2-aminopyridine (3 and x = 2 when LN = imidazole (2, 3-aminopyridine (4, 4-aminopyridine (5, 3-hydroxypyridine (6, and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (7. The compounds were thoroughly characterized by physical techniques, including single crystal X-ray analysis of complex 2. Some of the complexes showed the ability to suppress significantly the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB both by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and TNF-alpha (complexes 3-7 at 100 nM level in the similar manner as the reference drug prednisone (at 1 μM level. On the other hand, all the complexes 1-7 decreased significantly the levels of the secreted TNF-alpha after the LPS activation of THP-1 cells, thus showing the anti-inflammatory potential via both NF-κB moderation and by other mechanisms, such as influence on TNF-alpha transcription and/or translation and/or secretion. In addition, a strong intracellular pro-oxidative effect of all the complexes has been found at 100 nM dose in vitro. The ability to suppress the inflammatory response, caused by the subcutaneous application of λ-carrageenan, has been determined by in vivo testing in hind-paw edema model on rats. The most active complexes 1-3 (applied in a dose corresponding to 40 μmol Cu/kg, diminished the formation of edema simalarly as the reference drug indomethacine (applied in 10 mg/kg dose. The overall effect of the complexes, dominantly 1-3, shows similarity to anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen, known to induce intracellular pro-oxidative effects.

  4. A sensitive fluorescence biosensor for alkaline phosphatase activity based on the Cu(II)-dependent DNAzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Guo, Yajuan; Wang, Lixu [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Luo, Fang, E-mail: luofang0812@163.com [College of Biological Science and Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Lin, Cuiying, E-mail: lcuiying@fzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays an important role in phosphate metabolism processes; deviation from its normal level may indicate different kinds of diseases, so it is highly necessary to develop some simple and sensitive methods to monitor the ALP level. In this study, a simple, high selective, and sensitive fluorescent biosensor has been proposed for ALP activity determination. The Cu(II)-dependent DNAzyme (Cu-Enzyme) are divided into two parts: Cu-Enzyme 1 and Cu-Enzyme 2, and labelled with alkyne and azido groups, respectively. The Cu-substrate (Cu-Sub) is labelled with a FAM fluorophore (6-carboxyfluorescein) at the 3′-end and an additional quencher (BHQ1) at the 5′-end. The 5′-end of Cu-Enzyme 1 is labelled with BHQ1 as well. The hybridization of the Cu-Enzyme 1 and Cu-Enzyme 2 with Cu-Sub strand results in the low background fluorescence signal because the fluorescence from FAM is quenched. The addition of ALP can hydrolyze AA-P into AA, which can reduce Cu(II) into Cu(I) and in turn catalyze the cycloaddition of Cu-Enzyme 1 and Cu-Enzyme 2 to form a modified Cu-Enzyme. Then the modified Cu-Enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the Cu-Sub strands into two pieces. One piece containing FAM fluorophore can easily diffuse into solution and give off a strong fluorescence signal. The enhanced fluorescent intensity has a linear relationship with the ALP concentration in the range of 0.36–54.55 U L{sup −1} with the detection limit of 0.14 U L{sup −1} (S/N = 3). The proposed biosensor has been successfully applied to detect ALP in serum samples with satisfied results. - Highlights: • We have proposed a simple, high selective and sensitive fluorescent biosensor for ALP. • The biosensor combines the high selectivity and the click reaction and the high sensitivity of the fluorescence detection. • The biosensor has been successfully applied to detect ALP in serum samples with satisfied results.

  5. Study on the management of radioactive solid wastes for the KRR-I and II dismantling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, S. K.; Lee, B. J.; Jung, K. H.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    KRR-1(TRIGA Mark II) and KRR-2(TRIGA Mark-III) have been operated 33 years and 23 years, respectively, and now are about to be decommissioned as they reach the end of their useful lives. In the decommissioning of the reactors, the treatment of radioactive wastes is practical issues and, therefore, the plan on it has to be essentially established prior to the actual decontamination and decommissioning activities. In the present study, the classification, radiological status, classification criteria and package on the radioactive solid wastes in the TRIGA Mark-II and III are investigated for the investigated for the purpose of the effective management plan of them

  6. The differential impact of scientific quality, bibliometric factors, and social media activity on the influence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Gómez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J; Maestre-López, Beatriz; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luís; Hernández Romero, José Luís; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal's impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087-1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018-1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews.

  7. Physical activity attenuates the influence of FTO variants on obesity risk: a meta-analysis of 218,166 adults and 19,268 children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas O Kilpeläinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166 and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268.All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2>0.8] and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A- allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26, but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction  = 0.001. More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25 than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36. No such interaction was found in children and adolescents.The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.

  8. The differential impact of scientific quality, bibliometric factors, and social media activity on the influence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J.; Maestre-López, Beatriz; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luís; Hernández Romero, José Luís; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal’s impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087–1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018–1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews. PMID:29377889

  9. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  10. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set g