WorldWideScience

Sample records for active living study

  1. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  2. Risk Factors of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Mohammed; Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Fasil; Assegid, Sahilu; Duchateau, Luc; Colebunders, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest Ethiopia. Methods A case-control study was conducted from January to March, 2009 in South West Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 162 cases and 647 controls. Cases were adult people living with...

  3. Cohort study on living arrangements of older men and women and risk for basic activities of daily living disability: findings from the AGES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Murata, Chiyoe; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-08-16

    Living arrangements of older adults have changed worldwide with increasing solitary and non-spouse households, which could affect social care systems. However, the relationship between these households and disability onset has remained unclear. We examined the relationship between living arrangements and the onset of basic activities of daily living disability in older adults, with a focus on gender differences and cohabitation status of those without a spouse. Data from 6600 men and 6868 women aged 65 years or older without disability were obtained from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in Japan. Onset of disability was followed for 9.4 years. Disability was assessed based on Long-term Care Insurance System registration. A hierarchical Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to examine the risk of living alone and living only with non-spousal cohabitants compared to those living with spouses. Men living only with non-spousal cohabitants and those living alone were significantly more likely to develop disability after controlling for health and other covariates (hazard ratio = 1.38 and 1.45, respectively), while a significant difference was found only for women living alone (hazard ratio = 1.19). The risk of living with non-spousal cohabitants was marginally stronger in men, indicated by the interaction effect model (p = .08). A series of hierarchical analyses showed that social support exchange explained 24.4% and 15.8% of the excess risk of disability onset in men living alone and those living only with non-spousal cohabitants, respectively. A subsequent analysis also showed that support provision by older adults more greatly explained such excess risk than receiving support from others. Older men without spouses were more likely to develop disability onset regardless of cohabitants. Health professionals should consider programs that enhance social support exchange, particularly support provision by older adults who are at risk of

  4. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living There are many ways to maintain a good quality of life Make Text Smaller Make Text Larger You are ... these changes, there are ways to maintain a good quality of life. Review the tips on these pages to learn ...

  5. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  6. Ability to negotiate stairs predicts free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Matar Abdullah; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Which clinical measures of walking performance best predict free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke? Cross-sectional observational study. 42 community-dwelling stroke survivors. Predictors were four clinical measures of walking performance (speed, automaticity, capacity, and stairs ability). The outcome of interest was free-living physical activity, measured as frequency (activity counts) and duration (time on feet), collected using an activity monitor called the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity. Time on feet was predicted by stairs ability alone (B 166, 95% CI 55 to 278) which accounted for 48% of the variance. Activity counts were also predicted by stairs ability alone (B 6486, 95% CI 2922 to 10 050) which accounted for 58% of the variance. The best predictor of free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke was stairs ability.

  7. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Sánchez Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95% were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years and gender (female. The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are

  8. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Encarnación; Lázaro, Angelina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Antonio

    2009-07-07

    It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e) = 0.05, alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre.A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95%) were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years) and gender (female). The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered) with regard to the independence in ADLs. A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are independent enough to carry out ADLs is considerably

  9. Does where you live matter? Leisure-time physical activity among Canadian youth: a multiple cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Charles; Letarte, Laurence; Fratu, Ramona; Waygood, E Owen D; Lebel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the population-wide distribution in the practice of leisure-time physical activity among Canadian youth and how physical activity level is influenced by contextual features of the environment. We studied the self-reported leisure-time physical activity of 54 832 Canadians aged 12 to 17 years. Observations were structured according to a 4-level geographic hierarchy. The outcome studied was a dichotomous indicator that referred to achieving (or not) the recommended daily level of leisure-time physical activity. To investigate the influence of the contextual features, we conducted multilevel logistic regressions. For both girls and boys, significant variations were observed between health regions and between neighbourhoods within the provinces. Girls who lived in an urban setting showed lower odds of achieving the recommended physical activity level, as did those surveyed during the winter. Boys surveyed during the winter also showed lower odds of achieving the recommended level, but living in an urban setting had no effect on activity levels. Analysis of province-level residuals showed that girls living in Quebec were less likely to achieve the recommended activity level as compared with the national mean, and girls living in Ontario and British Columbia were more likely to achieve that threshold. Boys living in Ontario were more likely to achieve the recommended activity level as compared with the national mean. Youth had up to a 17% increased chance of achieving the recommended physical activity level if they lived in a context with a higher activity achievement level. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with environmental factors at multiple geographic scales among Canadian youth. The variation was more important at the neighbourhood level. The results provide rationale for further investigation into how leisure-time physical activity is promoted in different contexts.

  10. A generalizability study of the instrumental activities of daily living profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Carolina; Dassa, Clément; Rainville, Constant; Dutil, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    To establish generalizability estimates of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Profile when administered to persons with a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) within their home and community environment. Generalizability theory was used to estimate generalizability and dependability coefficients as well as the relative contribution of identified sources of measurement error to total measurement error. Decision studies were used to enable the investigators to determine the optimal measurement design. The IADL Profile was administered in subjects' homes and community environments. Convenience sample of adults with a moderate or severe TBI (N=30, aged 16-65y). Not applicable. IADL Profile scores include 6 factor scores (going to the grocery store/shopping for groceries, having a meal with guests/cleaning up, putting on outdoor clothing, obtaining information, making a budget, and preparing a hot meal) and 1 total score. The greatest sources of measurement error were the subject-item interactions (3-random-facet design) and the subject-rater interactions (2-random-facet design). One hundred percent of generalizability coefficients of factor scores indicated acceptable to excellent reliability. Indices of dependability confirmed that 1 evaluator could reliably score the tool on a single occasion after having received a 3-day training workshop. The IADL Profile administered to persons with a moderate or severe TBI provides occupational therapists with a reliable set of measures of IADL independence capable of both capturing and analyzing the complex interactions between personal and environmental factors.

  11. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  12. Strategies to support engagement and continuity of activity during mealtimes for families living with dementia; a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heather H; Martin, Lori Schindel; Dupuis, Sherry; Reimer, Holly; Genoe, Rebecca

    2015-10-09

    Mealtimes are an essential part of living and quality of life for everyone, including persons living with dementia. A longitudinal qualitative study provided understanding of the meaning of mealtimes for persons with dementia and their family care partners. Strategies were specifically described by families to support meaningful mealtimes. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the strategies devised and used by these families living with dementia. A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken to explore the meaning and experience of mealtimes for families living with dementia over a three-year period. 27 families [older person with dementia and at least one family care partner] were originally recruited from the community of South-Western Ontario. Individual and dyad interviews were conducted each year. Digitally recorded transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Strategies were identified and categorized. Strategies to support quality mealtimes were devised by families as they adapted to their evolving lives. General strategies such as living in the moment, as well as strategies specific to maintaining social engagement and continuity of mealtime activities were reported. In addition to nutritional benefit, family mealtimes provide important opportunities for persons with dementia and their family care partners to socially engage and continue meaningful roles. Strategies identified by participants provide a basis for further education and support to families living with dementia.

  13. Individual correlates of autonomy in activities of daily living of institutionalized elderly individuals: an exploratory study in a holistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Filippo; Zucchetti, Giulia; Magistro, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the individual correlates of autonomy in activities of daily living (ADL) of 40 institutionalized elderly individuals. Results showed that balance skill and perception of physical functioning were significantly associated with ADL. Interventions on the physical functioning, both perceived and real, might have positive influence on the autonomy of institutionalized elderly individuals.

  14. Comparative Study on Living Library Activities at Home and Abroad%国内外图书馆开展Living Library服务比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旻霞

    2011-01-01

    Living Library以“人”为书,是图书馆界一种崭新的读者服务活动.从活动举办者、活动主题和目的、活体图书等方面对国内外图书馆开展Living Library的现状进行比较分析,并对Living Library在中国的进一步开展策略进行了初步探讨.%Taking "person" as books, living library is a new service activity for reader in library. This paper compared and analyzed the current development situation of living library activities in library at home and abroad from organizers, titles, activity aims, books and so on. Moreover, some further development measures in China are explored preliminarily in this article.

  15. [Living environment and activation of early maladaptive schemas specific to the elderly: Comparative study among 80 individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, S; Kazour, F; Kazour, G

    2015-06-01

    Early maladaptive schemas described by Young may be identified in the elderly. They represent models and themes of emotions, memories, thoughts and bodily sensations experienced by the individual. This study aims to evaluate the activation of early maladaptive thoughts in the elderly depending on their living environment. The Young Schema Questionnaire--short form--was administered to 80 elderly individuals (40 living in a nursing home, and 40 in their own home with at least one person). The studied schemas that were most relevant to the elderly were the maladaptive schemas of abandonment, emotional deprivation, mistrust, exclusion, dependency, vulnerability and emotional overcontrol. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to eliminate dementia or depression among individuals. Individuals living in a nursing home, compared to their controls had increased activation of schemas of emotional deprivation (22.5% vs. 7.5%), abandonment (15% vs. 0%), mistrust (32.5% vs. 2.5%), exclusion (7.5% vs. 0%), and emotional overcontrol (25% vs. 2.5%). The activation of maladaptive schemas was significantly elevated in nursing homes for those 5 schemas, while there was no difference in activation between the 2 groups concerning the schemas of dependency and vulnerability. The activation of early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, exclusion, and emotional overcontrol is higher in individuals living in nursing homes compared to a control group of individuals living in their homes with at least one companion. This schema activation may be related to a lack of emotional and family support in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecological validity of virtual reality daily living activities screening for early dementia: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnanas, Ioannis; Schlee, Winfried; Tsolaki, Magda; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs; Nef, Tobias

    2013-08-06

    Dementia is a multifaceted disorder that impairs cognitive functions, such as memory, language, and executive functions necessary to plan, organize, and prioritize tasks required for goal-directed behaviors. In most cases, individuals with dementia experience difficulties interacting with physical and social environments. The purpose of this study was to establish ecological validity and initial construct validity of a fire evacuation Virtual Reality Day-Out Task (VR-DOT) environment based on performance profiles as a screening tool for early dementia. The objectives were (1) to examine the relationships among the performances of 3 groups of participants in the VR-DOT and traditional neuropsychological tests employed to assess executive functions, and (2) to compare the performance of participants with mild Alzheimer's-type dementia (AD) to those with amnestic single-domain mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls in the VR-DOT and traditional neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions. We hypothesized that the 2 cognitively impaired groups would have distinct performance profiles and show significantly impaired independent functioning in ADL compared to the healthy controls. The study population included 3 groups: 72 healthy control elderly participants, 65 amnestic MCI participants, and 68 mild AD participants. A natural user interface framework based on a fire evacuation VR-DOT environment was used for assessing physical and cognitive abilities of seniors over 3 years. VR-DOT focuses on the subtle errors and patterns in performing everyday activities and has the advantage of not depending on a subjective rating of an individual person. We further assessed functional capacity by both neuropsychological tests (including measures of attention, memory, working memory, executive functions, language, and depression). We also evaluated performance in finger tapping, grip strength, stride length, gait speed, and chair stands separately and

  17. Assistive devices in activities of daily living used by persons with age-related macular degeneration: a population study of 85-year-olds living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin Ivanoff, S; Sonn, U

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall use of assistive devices among persons with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and how it is related to dependence in daily activities. This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional population study of 85-year-olds. The most common category of assistive devices was bathing devices followed by mobility devices. The overall use of assistive devices was 82%, and around 80% of the device users were independent in activities of daily living. They were multiple device users (57%) and used more mobility devices and personal assistance in mobility. In conclusion, the ARMD group comprises very frequent users of assistive devices and uses assistive devices to remain independent. This implies that health services should provide assistive devices at an early stage in the disablement process to avoid the development of dependence and should consider the likelihood of multiple health problems when assessing the needs of assistive devices among persons with ARMD.

  18. Live birth after artificial oocyte activation using a ready-to-use ionophore: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Thomas; Montag, Markus; Montag, M; Van der Ven, K; Van der Ven, H; Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Oppelt, P; Hirchenhain, J; Krüssel, J; Maxrath, B; Gnoth, C; Friol, K; Tigges, J; Wünsch, E; Luckhaus, J; Beerkotte, A; Weiss, D; Grunwald, K; Struller, D; Etien, C

    2015-04-01

    Artificial oocyte activation has been proposed as a suitable means to overcome the problem of failed or impaired fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In a multicentre setting artificial oocyte activation was applied to 101 patients who were diagnosed with fertilization abnormalities (e.g. less than 50% fertilized oocytes) in a previous conventional ICSI cycle. Female gametes were activated for 15 min immediately after ICSI using a ready-to-use Ca(2+)-ionophore solution (A23187). Fertilization, pregnancy and live birth rates were compared with the preceding cycle without activation. The fertilization rate of 48% in the study cycles was significantly higher compared with the 25% in the control cycles (P splitting of the historical control group into failed (0%), low (1-30%) and moderate fertilization rate (31-50%) showed that all groups significantly benefitted (P embryo transfer cancelled compared with their previous treatments (1/101 versus 15/101). In total, 99% of the patients had an improved outcome with A23187 application resulting in a 28% live birth rate (35 babies). These data suggest that artificial oocyte activation using a ready-to-use compound is an efficient method.

  19. The association between ambient fine particulate air pollution and physical activity: a cohort study of university students living in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongjun; Yu, Miao; Gordon, Shelby Paige; Zhang, Ruiling

    2017-10-05

    Air pollution has become a substantial environmental issue affecting human health and health-related behavior in China. Physical activity is widely accepted as a method to promote health and well-being and is potentially influenced by air pollution. Previous population-based studies have focused on the impact of air pollution on physical activity in the U.S. using a cross-sectional survey method; however, few have examined the impact on middle income countries such as China using follow-up data. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on physical activity among freshmen students living in Beijing by use of follow-up data. We conducted 4 follow-up health surveys on 3445 freshmen students from Tsinghua University from 2012 to 2013 and 2480 freshmen completed all 4 surveys. Linear individual fixed-effect regressions were performed based on repeated-measure physical activity-related health behaviors and ambient PM2.5 concentrations among the follow-up participants. An increase in ambient PM2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (44.72 μg/m(3)) was associated with a reduction in 22.32 weekly minutes of vigorous physical activity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 24.88-19.77), a reduction in 10.63 weekly minutes of moderate physical activity (95% CI = 14.61-6.64), a reduction in 32.45 weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (95% CI = 37.63-27.28), and a reduction in 226.14 weekly physical activity MET-minute scores (95% CI = 256.06-196.21). The impact of ambient PM2.5 concentration on weekly total minutes of moderate physical activity tended to be greater among males than among females. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution significantly discouraged physical activity among Chinese freshmen students living in Beijing. Future studies are warranted to replicate study findings in other Chinese cities and universities, and policy interventions are urgently needed to reduce air

  20. Strategies to support engagement and continuity of activity during mealtimes for families living with dementia; a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Mealtimes are an essential part of living and quality of life for everyone, including persons living with dementia. A longitudinal qualitative study provided understanding of the meaning of mealtimes for persons with dementia and their family care partners. Strategies were specifically described by families to support meaningful mealtimes. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the strategies devised and used by these families living with dementia. Methods A longitudinal qua...

  1. Advocating for active living on the rural-urban fringe: a case study of planning in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sy; Dobson, Noelle; Fox, Karen Perl; Weigand, Lynn

    2008-06-01

    This case study is about the politics of incorporating active-living elements into a concept plan for a new community of about 68,000 people on the edge of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Development on the rural-urban fringe is ongoing in metropolitan areas around the United States. In this article, we evaluate the product of the concept-planning process from the standpoint of the extent to which environmental elements conducive to active living were included. We also analyze four issues in which challenges to the incorporation of active-living features surfaced: choices related to transportation facilities, the design and location of retail stores, the location of schools and parks, and the location of a new town center. Overall, the Damascus/Boring Concept Plan positions the area well to promote active living. Analyses of the challenges that emerged yielded lessons for advocates regarding ways to deal with conflicts between facilitating active living and local economic development and related tax-base concerns and between active-living elements and school-district planning autonomy as well as the need for advocates to have the capacity to present alternatives to the usual financial and design approaches taken by private- and public-sector investors.

  2. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  3. Physical Activity Measurement by Accelerometry Among Older Malay Adults Living in Semi-Rural Areas-A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

  4. Development and community-based validation of the IDEA study Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IDEA-IADL questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Collingwood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dementia diagnosis gap in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is large, partly due to difficulties in assessing function, an essential step in diagnosis. Objectives: As part of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA study, to develop, pilot, and validate an Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL questionnaire for use in a rural Tanzanian population to assist in the identification of people with dementia alongside cognitive screening. Design: The questionnaire was developed at a workshop for rural primary healthcare workers, based on culturally appropriate roles and usual activities of elderly people in this community. It was piloted in 52 individuals under follow-up from a dementia prevalence study. Validation subsequently took place during a community dementia-screening programme. Construct validation against gold standard clinical dementia diagnosis using DSM-IV criteria was carried out on a stratified sample of the cohort and validity assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve analysis. Results: An 11-item questionnaire (IDEA-IADL was developed after pilot testing. During formal validation on 130 community-dwelling elderly people who presented for screening, the AUROC curve was 0.896 for DSM-IV dementia when used in isolation and 0.937 when used in conjunction with the IDEA cognitive screen, previously validated in Tanzania. The internal consistency was 0.959. Performance on the IDEA-IADL was not biased with regard to age, gender or education level. Conclusions: The IDEA-IADL questionnaire appears to be a useful aid to dementia screening in this setting. Further validation in other healthcare settings in SSA is required.

  5. Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model in Detecting Activities of Daily Living in Wearable Videos for Studies of Dementia

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Svebor; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien; André-Obrecht, Régine; Gaëstel, Yann; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing activities of daily living in videos obtained from wearable cameras. In the context of dementia diagnosis by doctors, the videos are recorded at patients' houses and later visualized by the medical practitioners. The videos may last up to two hours, therefore a tool for an efficient navigation in terms of activities of interest is crucial for the doctors. The specific recording mode provides video data which are really difficult, being a single sequence shot where strong motion and sharp lighting changes often appear. Our work introduces an automatic motion based segmentation of the video and a video structuring approach in terms of activities by a hierarchical two-level Hidden Markov Model. We define our description space over motion and visual characteristics of video and audio channels. Experiments on real data obtained from the recording at home of several patients show the difficulty of the task and the promising results of our approach.

  6. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess change in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to changes in ADL...... participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased...

  7. Status of Daily Living Activities among Older People in Maku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abbasian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most popular methods for evaluating old people’s health condition is to assess their functional practice. The aim of this study was to assess the status of daily living activities among the older people of Maku, Iran. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was accomplished among 216 older people in Maku via simple random sampling. Participant’s subjective and demographic information were gathered and their daily living activities status was measured by the KATZ index. Results: The participants' mean age was 70.09±7.98. Most of the elderlies were men (59.3% and illiterate (38.4%. Of them, 10.6% were dependent, 6% needed help or were partially dependent, and 82.9% were independent in their daily living activities. Significant associations were observed between daily living activities and age, education level, marital status and living condition (p<0.001. Married old adults were more dependent than other ones living alone (p<0.001. Conclusion: Although most of the participants were independent, they needed assistance for few of their daily living activities. Also, since age was significantly correlated with daily living activities, it is necessary to implement educational health living programsfor older people suffering from functional restrictions. Also, providing suitable facilities, convenience and human resources should  be taken into consideration.

  8. Validation of Physical Activity Tracking via Android Smartphones Compared to ActiGraph Accelerometer: Laboratory-Based and Free-Living Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Grieco, Lauren; Rosenberger, Mary; Winter, Sandra J; Haskell, William; King, Abby C

    2015-04-15

    There is increasing interest in using smartphones as stand-alone physical activity monitors via their built-in accelerometers, but there is presently limited data on the validity of this approach. The purpose of this work was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 Android smartphones for measuring physical activity among midlife and older adults. A laboratory (study 1) and a free-living (study 2) protocol were conducted. In study 1, individuals engaged in prescribed activities including sedentary (eg, sitting), light (sweeping), moderate (eg, walking 3 mph on a treadmill), and vigorous (eg, jogging 5 mph on a treadmill) activity over a 2-hour period wearing both an ActiGraph and 3 Android smartphones (ie, HTC MyTouch, Google Nexus One, and Motorola Cliq). In the free-living study, individuals engaged in usual daily activities over 7 days while wearing an Android smartphone (Google Nexus One) and an ActiGraph. Study 1 included 15 participants (age: mean 55.5, SD 6.6 years; women: 56%, 8/15). Correlations between the ActiGraph and the 3 phones were strong to very strong (ρ=.77-.82). Further, after excluding bicycling and standing, cut-point derived classifications of activities yielded a high percentage of activities classified correctly according to intensity level (eg, 78%-91% by phone) that were similar to the ActiGraph's percent correctly classified (ie, 91%). Study 2 included 23 participants (age: mean 57.0, SD 6.4 years; women: 74%, 17/23). Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, PAndroid smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

  9. Physical activity and the built environment among 11-15 yr olds living in Denmark: cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Purpose: To investigate the association between odds of less than 7 hours/week of physical activity (PA) and opportunities for exercise (recreation facilities and green space). Methods: We measured self-reported hours of PA in boys and girls using the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2006...... survey (n = 6046). We conducted multi-level logistic analyses to examine the relationship between the odds of less 7 hours weekly PA and road connectivity, green space ratio, and number of recreation facilities surrounding each school (n = 80). We controlled for confounding variables at the individual...... hours of PA/week. Girls living in poor areas or of low affluence had greater odds (OR = 3.13 and 2.23) of not reaching PA recommendations. Fewer parks was significantly related to greater odds of not exercising daily for boys (OR = 1.35) but not for girls. Conclusions: The odds of exercising less than 7...

  10. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J

    2015-01-01

    ) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...... of patients has, despite their intellectual disabilities, a potential for continuous cognitive development, especially during childhood and early teenage years. This should be included and supported in the individual educational planning....... on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...

  11. Neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory deficits and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD gradually lose their cognitive competence, particularly memory, and the ability to perform daily life tasks. Neuropsychological rehabilitation is used to improve cognitive functions by facilitating memory performance through the use of external aids and internal strategies. The effect of neuropsychological rehabilitation through memory training - motor movements, verbal association, and categorization - and activities of daily living (ADL training was tested in a sample of 5 elderly out-patients (mean age: 77.4 ± 2.88 years, with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score: 22.20 ± 2.17 and their caregivers. All patients had been taking rivastigmine (6-12 mg/day for at least 3 months before being assigned to the rehabilitation sessions, and they continued to take the medication during the whole program. Just before and after the 14-week neuropsychological rehabilitation program all patients were assessed by interviewers that did not participate in the cognitive training, using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montgomery-Alsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Interview to Determine Deterioration in Functioning in Dementia, Functional Test, Memory Questionnaire of Daily Living for patient and caregiver, Quality of Life Questionnaire for patient and caregiver, and a neuropsychological battery. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in ADL measured by Functional Test (P = 0.04, and only a small improvement in memory and psychiatric symptoms. Our results support the view that weekly stimulation of memory and training of ADL is believed to be of great value in AD treatment, not only delaying the progress of the disease, but also improving some cognitive functions and ADL, even though AD is a progressively degenerative disease.

  12. Comparison of activities of daily living (ADLs) in two different one arm drive wheelchairs: a study of individuals/participants with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, Anne; Walton, Claire; Michaelis, Jon

    2015-03-01

    This pilot study measured activities of daily living performance in individuals/participants with hemiplegia propelling both a standard dual handrim Action 3 wheelchair and a standard Action 3 wheelchair with a Neater Uni-Wheelchair kit attachment. The kit consists of a steerable front. Does the use of the NUW affect the performance quality of activities of daily living in individuals/participants with hemiplegia. Is there a difference in the motor and process skills during activities of daily living performance, and in the time taken to complete the activities. Four individuals/participants with hemiplegia were used in a cross over, repeated measures trial. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills of users undertaking making a bed and laying a table "Swedish style", tasks were measured and time taken to complete each task were recorded. Bed making completion time was quicker in the Neater Uni-wheelchair (p Rehabilitation Inappropriate wheelchair provision can result in capacity limitation and poorer quality of ADL motor skill as well-lowered process performance skill. AMPS can help to explain motor and process skill differences in complex activities.

  13. A cross sectional observational study on the influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on activities of daily living: the COPD-Life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatlı, Mehmet; Bilgin, Cahit; Şaylan, Bengü; Başlılar, Şeyma; Toprak, Evren; Ergen, Hasan; Bakan, Nur Dilek; Kart, Levent; Kılıç, Zennur; Üstünel, Azize; Şengün, Ahmet; Varol, Yelda; Yılmaz, Adem; Ataol, Çağatay; Bulgur, Didem; Bozdoğan, Serap; Tunaboyu, İlknur; Özkan, Zehra Gülcihan; Uysal, Ekrem; Gülgösteren, Sevtap; Akın, Neşe; Selim, Yavuz; Irmak, Mustafa; Turgut, Erhan; Keskin, Olgun; Bektaş Uysal, Hilal; Sofuoğlu, Nevin; Yılmaz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on activities of daily living, life styles and needs in patients. Participants of this national, multi-centered, cross-sectional observational study included 497 stable COPD patients from 41 centers. The mean age (standard deviation; SD) was 63.3 (9.3) years with 59.0% of the patients under the age of 65, and 89.9% of the participants were male. Sociodemographic and COPD-related data were gathered at enrollment and during the 1-month telephone follow-up. The mean (SD) COPD duration was 7.3 (6.5) years in the overall population while 5.4 (4.6) years for patients who recieved COPD diagnosis at least one year after the onset of symptoms. Dyspnea was the most common (83.1%) symptom and walking up stairs (66.6%) was the most difficult activity to be performed. Majority of the patients were aware of COPD as a chronic disease (63.4%), requiring ongoing treatment (79.7%), mainly caused by smoking (63.5%). 59% of the patients were under the age of 65 years-old. In 84% of patients, graduation from at least a primary school was identified. Results revealed an average number of two dependants that were obliged to look after per patient, ability to go on an outing in 91% of the patients, and going grocery shopping with ease in more than two-thirds of the study population. There was no significant difference in regular use of medication device across different educational or age groups. The top three COPD treatment expectations of the patients were being able to breathe (24.1%), walking (17.1%), and walking up stairs (11.7%), while shortness of breath (43.3%) was the first priority treatment need. In contrast to the common view that COPD prevalance is higher in old age population, this study showed that the rate of the disease is higher among younger patients than expected; indispensability of out of the house activities in majority of patients; and use of regular medication device to

  14. Phillips CO-oxidation catalyts for long-lived CO2 lasers: Activity and initial characterization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolts, J. H.; Elliott, D. J.; Pennella, F.

    1990-01-01

    Four different catalysts have been developed specifically for use in sealed carbon dioxide lasers. The catalysts have been designed to be low dusting, stable to shock and vibration, have high activity at low temperatures and have long active lifetimes. Measured global CO oxidation rates range from 1.4 to 2.2 cc CO converted per minute per gram of catalyst at ambient temperature. The catalysts also retain substantial activity at temperatures as low as -35 C. The Phillips laser catalysts are prepared in a variety of different shapes to meet the different pressure drop and gas flow profiles present in the many different styles of lasers. Each catalyst has been tested in sealed TEA lasers and has been shown to substantially increase the sealed life of the laser. Activity measurements made on the precious metal catalysts which were prepared with and without activity promoters showed that the promoter materials increase catalyst CO oxidation activity at least an order of magnitude at ambient temperature. Initial studies using H2 and CO chemisorption, X ray diffraction (XRD) and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have shown that the activity promoters do not significantly affect the precious metal crystallite size or the electronic structure around the precious metal. In addition, the formation or lack of formation of solid solutions between the precious metal and promoters has also been shown not to affect the activity of the promoted catalyst.

  15. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horwath Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity with perceived quality of life (QOL in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139 from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively.

  16. Disability in activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life among older medical ICU survivors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani Margaret A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of quality of life in older ICU survivors is difficult but critical for understanding the long-term impact of our treatments. Activities of daily living (ADLs are important components of functional status and more easily measured than quality of life (QOL. We sought to determine the cross-sectional associations between disability in ADLs and QOL as measured by version one of the Short Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12 at both one month and one year post-ICU discharge. Methods Data was prospectively collected on 309 patients over age 60 admitted to the Yale-New Haven Hospital Medical ICU between 2002 and 2004. Among survivors an assessment of ADL's and QOL was performed at one month and one-year post-ICU discharge. The SF-12 was scored using the version one norm based scoring with 1990 population norms. Multivariable regression was used to adjust the association between ADLs and QOL for important covariates. Results Our analysis of SF-12 data from 110 patients at one month post-ICU discharge showed that depression and ADL disability were associated with decreased QOL. Our model accounted for 17% of variability in SF12 physical scores (PCS and 20% of variability in SF12 mental scores (MCS. The mean PCS of 37 was significantly lower than the population mean whereas the mean MCS score of 51 was similar to the population mean. At one year mean PCS scores improved and ADL disability was no longer significantly associated with QOL. Mortality was 17% (53 patients at ICU discharge, 26% (79 patients at hospital discharge, 33% (105 patients at one month post ICU admission, and was 45% (138 patients at one year post ICU discharge. Conclusions In our population of older ICU survivors, disability in ADLs was associated with reduced QOL as measured by the SF-12 at one month but not at one year. Although better markers of QOL in ICU survivors are needed, ADLs are a readily observable outcome. In the meantime, clinicians

  17. Implementing living room theatre activities in the care for people with dementia on nursing home wards: a process evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haeften-van Dijk, A.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Dröes, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A new communication method, the ‘Veder Method’, was implemented in the Netherlands. This method uses theatrical stimuli in combination with proven person-centred communication methods. Care staff was trained to apply the Veder Method in a ‘living room theatre activity’ for people with de

  18. Single-Molecule Studies in Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji

    2016-05-01

    Live-cell single-molecule experiments are now widely used to study complex biological processes such as signal transduction, self-assembly, active trafficking, and gene regulation. These experiments' increased popularity results in part from rapid methodological developments that have significantly lowered the technical barriers to performing them. Another important advance is the development of novel statistical algorithms, which, by modeling the stochastic behaviors of single molecules, can be used to extract systemic parameters describing the in vivo biochemistry or super-resolution localization of biological molecules within their physiological environment. This review discusses recent advances in experimental and computational strategies for live-cell single-molecule studies, as well as a selected subset of biological studies that have utilized these new technologies.

  19. Ultrasound study of the motion of the residual femur within a trans-femoral socket during daily living activities other than gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, P; Murray, K D

    2001-12-01

    This study analyses the residual femur motion of a single amputee within a transfemoral socket during a series of daily living activities. Two simultaneously transmitting, socket mounted transducers were connected to two ultrasound scanners. Displacement measurements of the ultrasound image of the femur were video recorded and measured on "paused" playback. Abduction/adduction and flexion/extension of the residual femur within the socket at any instant during these activities were estimated, knowing the relative positions of the two transducers and the position of the residual femur on the ultrasound image. Consistent motion patterns of the residual femur within the trans-femoral socket were noted throughout each monitored daily living activity of the single amputee studied. Convery and Murray (2000) reported that during level walking, relative to the socket, the residual femur extends 6 degrees and abducts 9 degrees by mid-stance while flexing 6 degrees and adducting 2 degrees by toe-off. Uphill/downhill, turning to the right and stepping up/down altered this reported pattern of femoral motion by approximately 1 degree. During the standing activity from a seated position the femur initially flexed 4 degrees before moving to 7 degrees extension, while simultaneously adducting 6 degrees. During the sitting activity from a standing position the femur moved from 7 degrees extension and 6 degrees adduction to 3 degrees flexion and 1 degree abduction. The activity of single prosthetic support to double support introduced only minor femoral motion whereas during the activity of prosthetic suspension the femur flexed 8 degrees while simultaneously adducting 9 degrees. Additional studies of more amputees are required to validate the motion patterns presented in this investigation.

  20. Obesity, Apolipoprotein E ε4, and Difficulties in Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults: a 6-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Steptoe, Andrew; Ku, Po-Wen

    2017-04-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased physical limitations among older adults, although few studies have adjusted for important covariates. There is limited information about the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and physical limitations, and the findings have been inconsistent. This study examined the longitudinal associations of obesity and APOE ε4 with difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs) over a 6-year follow-up period controlling for multiple covariates. Data were analyzed from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan collected in 2000 and 2006, involving a cohort of 639 participants (mean age = 66). Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity at a baseline, and the APOE genotype was classified into an APOE ε4 carrier and non-carrier status. The combination of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) was used to define impaired ADLs. APOE ε4 carriers had greater difficulties in combined ADLs (incident rate ratio; IRR = 1.87, 95 % CI = 1.40-2.51) than non-carriers. Obese but not overweight adults had greater difficulties in activities of daily living (IRR = 1.59, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.10) compared with the normal/underweight group. Obese older adults without APOE ε4 had greater subsequent difficulties in ADLs than non-obese non-carriers. Among APOE ε4 carriers, obesity was not a significant risk factor for the development of impaired ADLs in older adults, indicating an interaction between genotype and obesity. The interaction between genotype and obesity phenotype adds new information about the determinants of physical impairment.

  1. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  2. Losing the Ability in Activities of Daily Living in the Oldest Old: A Hierarchic Disability Scale from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Andrew; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Bond, John; Robinson, Louise; Jagger, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the order in which 85 year olds develop difficulty in performing a wide range of daily activities covering basic personal care, household care and mobility. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Setting Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside, UK. Participants Individuals born in 1921, registered with participating general practices. Measurements Detailed health assessment including 17 activities of daily living related to basic personal care, household care and mobility. Questions were of the form ‘Can you …’ rather than ‘Do you…’ Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to confirm a single underlying dimension for the items and Mokken Scaling was used to determine a subsequent hierarchy. Validity of the hierarchical scale was assessed by its associations with known predictors of disability. Results 839 people within the Newcastle 85+ study for whom complete information was available on self-reported Activities of Daily Living (ADL). PCA confirmed a single underlying dimension; Mokken scaling confirmed a hierarchic scale where ‘Cutting toenails’ was the first item with which participants had difficulty and ‘feeding’ the last. The ordering of loss differed between men and women. Difficulty with ‘shopping’ and ‘heavy housework’ were reported earlier by women whilst men reported ‘walking 400 yards’ earlier. Items formed clusters corresponding to strength, balance, lower and upper body involvement and domains specifically required for balance and upper/lower limb functional integrity. Conclusion This comprehensive investigation of ordering of ability in activities in 85 year olds will inform researchers and practitioners assessing older people for onset of disability and subsequent care needs. PMID:22355385

  3. Exploiting arm posture synergies in activities of daily living to control the wrist rotation in upper limb prostheses: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, Federico; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although significant technological advances have been made in the last forty years, natural and effortless control of upper limb prostheses is still an open issue. Commercially available myoelectric prostheses present limited Degrees of Freedom (DoF) mainly because of the lack of available and reliable independent control signals from the human body. Thus, despite the crucial role that an actuated wrist could play in a transradial prosthesis in terms of avoiding compensatory movements, commercial hand prostheses present only manually adjustable passive wrists or actuated rotators controlled by (unnatural) sequential control strategies. In the present study we investigated the synergies between the humeral orientation with respect to the trunk and the forearm pronation/supination angles during the execution of a wide range of activities of daily living, in healthy subjects. Our results showed consistent postural synergies between the two selected body segments for almost the totality of the activities of daily living under investigation. This is a promising result because these postural synergies could be exploited to automatically control the wrist rotator unit in transradial prostheses improving the fluency and the dexterity of the amputee.

  4. A longitudinal study of changes in asylum seekers ability regarding activities of daily living during their stay in the asylum center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to assess change in activities of daily living (ADL) ability amongst asylum seekers and if there were any difference between tortured and non-torture following a 10 months post-arrival period, and if self-reported health and exposure to torture were factors related to change in ADL-ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum center at the follow-up and 17 of them participated. ADL-ability was measured using Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and questionnaires about exposure to torture, self-reported mental health and pain. ADL motor and process measures, well-being and self-rated health declined from baseline to follow-up. Measures of pain and depression increased. Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers should be aware of ADL concerns and exposure to torture in this population to best address their needs within rehabilitation settings.

  5. Disability in activities of daily living: a multifactorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ouden, M.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Activities of daily living (ADL), such as bathing and doing groceries are essential for maintaining independence in the community. Previous longitudinal studies have shown that about 20 to 30% of older persons (70 years and older) experience ADL disability. Older persons who are ADL disabled have hi

  6. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem.

  7. Improvement in Activities of Daily Living among Danish Centenarians?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Høi; Thinggaard, Mikael; Højgaard, Majken Boris

    2017-01-01

    at investigating if the later born cohort had better functioning in terms of activities of daily living (ADL). Methods: Identification, methodology and assessment instruments were identical in the 1895-West and 1915-West Birth Cohort Studies: All persons living in the western part of Denmark and turning 100 years...... of the latest cohort used assistive devices than the former (statistically significant for the majority of assistive devices). Conclusion: This comparative study shows improvements in reported ADL in the later born cohort of centenarians, even though only significant among women. As women constitute...

  8. Nutritional Improvement Correlates with Recovery of Activities of Daily Living among Malnourished Elderly Stroke Patients in the Convalescent Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Emi; Yoshida, Tomomi; Mori, Natsumi; Watanabe, Riko

    2016-05-01

    Whether nutritional improvement correlates with functional recovery in convalescent stroke patients is unclear. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between nutritional improvement and recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly stroke patients in the convalescent stage. This study used a cross-sectional study design. One hundred seventy-eight malnourished stroke patients aged 65 years and older from convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan between April 2012 and December 2014 were included in the analyses. The participants were classified into three groups according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) score at discharge (0 to 7 as no improvement, 8 to 11 as lesser improvement, and 12 to 14 as greater improvement). The primary outcome was functional independence measure (FIM) efficiency (FIM gain/length of hospital stay). The secondary outcomes were FIM gain and discharge outcome. One-way analysis of variance, χ(2) test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for univariate analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, length of hospital stay, FIM (motor and cognitive) on admission, and lower-order items of MNA-SF. Binomial logistic analysis for discharge outcome (home/others) was performed to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, and FIM. Study participants included 85 men and 93 women with a mean age of 77 years. Based on MNA-SF, 16 were classified as no improvement, 113 as lesser improvement, and 49 as greater improvement. The median FIM efficiency and length of hospital stay were 0.27 points/day and 151.5 days, respectively. The greater improvement group had significantly higher FIM efficiency than the other groups (Pnutritional improvement such as maintenance of body weight is associated with the efficient recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly convalescent stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  9. The effect of a school-centered multicomponent intervention on daily physical activity and sedentaary behavior in primary school children : The Active Living study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, Dave Van; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Vries, N.K. de; Vries, S.I. (Sanne); Jansen, M.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a school-centered multicomponent PA intervention, called ‘Active Living’, on children's daily PA levels. A quasi-experimental design was used including 9 intervention schools and 9 matched control schools located in the Netherlands. T

  10. Are frailty components associated with disability in specific activities of daily living in community-dwelling older adults? A multicenter Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Béland, François; Demers, Louise; Desrosiers, Johanne; Bier, Nathalie; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Galand, Claude; Julien, Dominic; Fletcher, John D; Trottier, Lise; Hami, Benyahia

    2017-11-01

    Current studies show the relevance of geriatric prevention and rehabilitation programs to slow down the development of disability in community-dwelling older adults who are becoming frail. This evidence reveals the importance of improving knowledge on how individual components of frailty and specific disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) are related, to offer early, targeted, and tailored interventions. The objective was to examine the association between each of the five frailty phenotype components (weakness, slowness, exhaustion, low physical activity, weight loss) and disability in specific ADL pertaining to physical aspects (bathing, dressing, cutting toe nails, transportation, shopping, housekeeping, food purchasing, food preparation) and cognitive aspects (finances, telephone, medication). A cross-sectional design involving 1643 community-dwelling older adults (65+) from the longitudinal multi-center FRéLE study was used. Disability was defined as needing help or being unable to perform specific ADL. Multiple logistic regressions were adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables, and for 4 other frailty components. Results showed that low physical activity and slowness were significantly linked to disability in all physical and cognitive aspects of ADL (OR: 1.71-9.42; pdisability in the physical aspects of instrumental ADL (transportation, shopping, housekeeping, food purchasing, food preparation) (OR: 1.73-9.42; pdisability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between instrumental activities of daily living and white matter hyperintensities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Kim, Yong-Duk; Lee, Kee Ook; Na, Sang-Jun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Oh, Yoon-Sang; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Park, Kyung Won; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae-Hong; Choi, Seong Hye; Yang, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have supported the association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive impairment, whether WMH are associated with the impairments in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) remains unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated differences in basic ADLs and IADLs among different severity of WMH in a large, well-defined registry of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). 1,514 patients with aMCI were divided into three groups according to the degree of WMH (1,026 mild, 393 moderate, and 95 severe). We compared the total IADL scores and analyzed the prevalence of the impairment for each IADL item for each group. The severity of WMH was associated with the impairments in IADLs. Among 15 Seoul IADL items, "using public transportation", "going out (short distance)", "grooming" and "participating in leisure activities/hobbies" showed greater positive association with the severity of WMH. WMH in patients with aMCI were associated with the impairments in IADLs but not in basic ADLs. These findings are likely to be more obvious with respect to using public transportation, going out (short distances), shopping, grooming and participating in leisure activities/hobbies.

  12. A longitudinal study of change in asylum seekers Activities of Daily Living ability while in asylum centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract WFOT Title: Occupational performance amongst asylum seekers in Denmark Introduction: Increased health problems are reported among asylum seekers, often related to torture, but there is no knowledge regarding occupational performance and whether there are any changes in asylum seekers...... occupational performance during time spent in a centre. Objectives: Our aim was to assess if newly arrived asylum seekers had impaired occupational performance and if this was associated with previous exposure to torture and/or self-reported psychological symptoms and pain measures. We also wanted to evaluate...... changes in occupational performance and general health over time. Methods: At baseline 43 newly arrived asylum seekers, age 20-43, were consecutively enrolled in the study. All participants were assessed using AMPS and the questionnaires WHO-5, Major Depression Inventory, Pain Detect Questionnaire...

  13. Magnitude and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate antiretroviral drug potency is essential for obtaining therapeutic benefit, however, the behavioral aspects of proper adherence and readiness to medication, often determine therapeutic outcome. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA at Gondar University Teaching Hospital and Felege Hiwot Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and September 2008 using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. All consecutive adult outpatients who were receiving antiretroviral treatment for at least three months, seen at both hospitals during the study period and able to give informed consent were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with nonadherence and nonreadiness. Results A total of 504 study subjects were included in this study. The prevalence rates of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART were 87 (17.3% and 70 (13.9% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that medication adverse effects, nonreadiness to HAART, contact with psychiatric care service and having no goal had statistically significant association with nonadherence. Moreover, unwillingness to disclose HIV status was significantly associated with nonreadiness to HAART. Conclusions In this study the level of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART seems to be encouraging. Several factors associated with nonadherance and nonreadiness to HAART were identified. Efforts to minimize nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART should be integrated in to regular clinical follow up of patients.

  14. Impact of COPD severity on physical disability and daily living activities: EDIP-EPOC I and EDIP-EPOC II studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro, J M; de Lucas Ramos, P; Izquierdo Alonso, J L; López-Muñiz Ballesteros, B; Antón Díaz, E; Ribera, X; Martín, A

    2009-05-01

    The severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated to patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL). Physical impairment increasingly affects daily activities creating economic, social and personal burden for patients and their families. This burden should be considered in the management of COPD patients; therefore, we intended to assess the impact of the disease severity on physical disability and daily activities. Two epidemiological observational cross-sectional descriptive studies were carried out in 1596 patients with moderate COPD and 2012 patients with severe or very severe COPD in the routine clinical practice. Demographic and basic clinical-epidemiological data were collected and patients completed questionnaires to assess their physical disability because of COPD [Medical Research Council (MRC)], COPD repercussion on daily activities [London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL)], job, economy and family habits and their health status [EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS)]. In all, 37% of severe/very severe COPD patients and 10% of moderate (p < 0.0001) had MRC grades 4 and 5. Mean global LCADL was significantly higher in severe/very severe than in moderate patients [29.6 (CI 95%: 28.91-30.25) vs. 21.4 (CI 95%: 20.8-21.9); p < 0.0001]. COPD job impact and economic and family habits repercussions were significantly higher and health status significantly worse in severe/very severe cases than in patients with moderate COPD. COPD severity is highly associated with physical disability by MRC grading, with functionality on daily activities and with impairment of other social and clinical activities. Moderate COPD patients show already a significant degree of impairment in all these parameters.

  15. NMR Dynamic Studies in Living Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永彬; 范明杰; 罗雪春; 张日清

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can noninvasively monitor the intracellular concentrations and kinetic properties of numerous inorganic and organic compounds. These characteristics have made NMR a useful tool for dynamic studies of living systems. Applications of NMR to living systems have successfully extended to many areas, including studies of metabolic regulation, ion transport, and intracellular reaction rates in vivo. The major purpose of this review is to summarize the results that can be obtained by modern NMR techniques in living systems. With the advances of new techniques, NMR measurements of various nuclides have been performed for specific physiological purposes. Although some technical problems still remain and there are still discrepancies between NMR and traditional biochemical results, the abundant and unique information obtained from NMR spectra suggests that NMR will be more extensively applied in future studies of living systems. The fast development of these new techniques is providing many new NMR applications in living systems, as well as in structural biology.

  16. Effects of donepezil on activities of daily living: integrated analysis of patient data from studies in mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauthier, Serge; Lopez, Oscar Lopez; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to develop a standardization method to pool data recorded on different activities of daily living (ADL) scales in order to reduce variability of functional outcome data from Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials and to better evaluate the effect of donepezil treatment on function...

  17. Venus lives!. [evidence for active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Observational evidence which supports the contention that Venus is a volcanically and tectonically active planet is discussed. It is argued that, although there are no observations to date that would prove that Venus has been volcanically active during the last decade, planetological studies presented evidence for youthful volcanic mountains on Venus: the surface of the northern quarter of Venus is considered to be younger than 1 Gy, and some units are likely to be much younger. Because of the small sizes of likely volcanic manifestations and the long intervals expected between eruptions, it is unlikely that any direct evidence of eruptions will be detected with existing and planned spacecraft. It is suggested that future studies of the dynamics and the chemical mixing of the Venusian atmosphere might supply an unequivocal evidence for active volcanism on this planet.

  18. Opinions Toward Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Interventions to Stimulate Active Living During Early Retirement: A Qualitative Study in Recently Retired Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Mertens, Lieze; Cardon, Greet; De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB)and their determinants, and about recently retired adults' needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a 'forgotten group' and therefore having too few tailored PA initiatives available. Furthermore, participants were not aware of the negative health effects of SB and not motivated to decrease their SB. Concerning new PA interventions, very diverse ideas were put forward, reflecting the diversity of the target group. It seems that a dynamic intervention in which participants can choose which PA type they want to increase is preferable for recently retired adults.

  19. Developing obesity prevention interventions among minority ethnic children in schools and places of worship: The DEAL (DiEt and Active Living study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Annie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods/Design This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools and a targeted approach (in places of worship. We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc of the intervention. Discussion Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such

  20. eWall for Active Long Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Independent living of senior citizens is one of the main challenges linked to the ageing population, due to the impact on: (1) the life of the elderly people, (2) the national health systems, (3) the insurance companies, (4) the relatives and (5) the care-givers. Senior citizens may suffer from...... citizens may suffer from a decline of memory function, less ability to orientate and a declined ability to cope with complex situations. This paper describes work in progress and proposes a novel architecture design for eHealth services in support of independent living and compensating for prevailing age...

  1. Comparison of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometry in the assessment of physical activity among adolescents under free-living conditions: the HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhelst Jérémy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different types of devices are available and the choice about which to use depends on various factors: cost, physical characteristics, performance, and the validity and intra- and interinstrument reliability. Given the large number of studies that have used uniaxial or triaxial devices, it is of interest to know whether the different devices give similar information about PA levels and patterns. The aim of this study was to compare physical activity (PA levels and patterns obtained simultaneously by triaxial accelerometry and uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents in free-living conditions. Methods Sixty-two participants, aged 13-16 years, were recruited in this ancillary study, which is a part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA. All participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M®, Pensacola, FL and a triaxial accelerometer (RT3®, Stayhealthy, Monrovia, CA simultaneously for 7 days. The patterns were calculated by converting accelerometer data output as a percentage of time spent at sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous PA per day. Analysis of output data from the two accelerometers were assessed by two different tests: Equivalence Test and Bland & Altman method. Results The concordance correlation coefficient between the data from the triaxial accelerometer and uniaxial accelerometer at each intensity level was superior to 0.95. The ANOVA test showed a significant difference for the first three lower intensities while no significant difference was found for vigorous intensity. The difference between data obtained with the triaxial accelerometer and the uniaxial monitor never exceeded 2.1% and decreased as PA level increased. The Bland & Altman method showed good agreement between data obtained between the both accelerometers (p Conclusions Uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers do not differ in their measurement of PA in population studies, and either could be used in such

  2. Providing Daily Oral Infection Control to Persons Dependent on others for Activities of Daily Living: A Semi-Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Dinsmore, Rebecca R; Meckstroth, Richard; Marshall, William

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate caregiver assessment of the ease of use of a specially designed toothbrush for providing daily oral infection control (toothbrushing) to persons dependent upon others for activities of daily living. Method Eighty-eight caregivers accepted surveys and multi-surface toothbrushes to provide daily oral infection control to the person to whom they assisted. They were asked to evaluate the ease of use of the multi-surface toothbrush, and provide comments about it. Results There were 30 surveys returned (34.1% response rate). In terms of the ease of use, 90.0% of the caregivers agreed (63.3% strongly agreed, and 26.7% agreed) that the multi-surface toothbrush was easier to use than their previous toothbrush. Comments about the toothbrush were predominantly positive. Conclusion It is difficult to provide daily oral infection control to another individual. Having an efficient oral health aid which makes it easier to do so is important to caregivers. With the overwhelming positive response to the multi-surface toothbrush, it is important to disseminate the information about its ease of use. PMID:28191548

  3. Activate Omaha: the journey to an active living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Dodge, Tammie; Peterson, Kerri; Balluff, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Omaha, an urban Nebraska community, represents 26% of the state's population. Activate Omaha, formed in 2003, addressed the obesity epidemic caused by physical inactivity and poor infrastructure to support active living in the community. Activate Omaha's efforts focused on a strategic social-marketing campaign, using baseline and annual data for guidance. Complementary programming was implemented parallel to the marketing campaigns. Safe Routes to School infrastructure projects were federally funded, and 20 miles of on-street bicycle facilities were funded privately. The mayor's Bicycle Pedestrian Advisory Committee was formed, including directors from city planning and public works. The initiative became recognized by the community as the lead resource promoting physical activity. This enabled the initiative to be instrumental in infrastructure changes and programming targeting the underserved. The initiative leveraged an additional $1,475,000 over 5 years. These funds created opportunities to invest in shared community resources such as providing bicycles for underserved youth, building infrastructure through Safe Routes to School initiatives, and successful worksite programming. Partners should be utilized in a strategic manner, where they are engaged purposefully and serve a role in assuring successful outcomes. Community readiness should determine the focus on policy, physical projects, and promotional and programmatic strategies, as well as the integration of these strategies. Activate Omaha grew into a credible organization moving public policy and leveraging new public-private relationships through multilevel strategies. This approach ultimately led to sustainable changes in the community infrastructure and the behavior of its citizens.

  4. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia K. Perry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities.

  5. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundsli K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kari Sundsli,1,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, 2Centre for Caring Research, Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway, 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active.Methods: Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi.Results: Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They

  6. Fluorescent observations of calcium ion activity in living benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, T.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Kitazato, H.

    2009-04-01

    Foraminifera are one of the main sources of marine biogenic carbonate and are commonly used to reconstruct paleoenvironments. However, little is known about the intracellular control on elements. In particular, knowledge on calcium ion activities in living foraminiferal cells is of great interest, since it may have implications for many studies in paleoceanography. Recently, fluorescent calcium indicators have been developed that can be used to observe calcium ion activities within a living foraminiferal cell directly. In this study, we applied the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-3 AM to observe intracellular calcium ion mobility within one species of a shallow water benthic foraminifers. We show that with this fluorescent calcium indicator is possible to 1) perform real time calcium observations, and 2) study intracellular calcium ion distribution of foraminifera during calcification. We incubate living foraminiferal specimens under two conditions, one under Fluo-3 AM solution in normal filtrated seawater and the other Fluo-3 AM solution in calcium-free artificial seawater. Fluorescence was seen all over foraminiferal cell in specimens incubated in Fluo-3 AM/normal seawater, while there are no fluorescence was observed in individuals that were incubated with Fluo-3 AM in calcium-free artificial seawater, though the specimens extend their pseudopodia actively under both conditions. Therefore the observed fluorescence should be indicated the calcium ion existence. This method may allow us detailed real-time observation of in-vivo calcium activities in foraminiferal cell. It may be over the many limitations of the existing methods to trace calcium uptake of foraminifera.

  7. A biomechanical study of activities of daily living using neck and upper limbs with an optical three-dimensional motion analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, Shunichi; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Masatomi, Takashi; Oda, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    In activities of daily living such as eating meals, the neck and upper limbs move in coordination. However, no methods have been established to analytically and quantitatively capture motion of the neck and limbs during these activities. We used a Vicon 512 system to simultaneously measure ranges of motion (ROMs) for the cervical spine, shoulders, elbows, and forearms. Correlations between the motion analyzer and the universal goniometer were >0.76. Repeatability of measurements using this analyzer were activity, at 261 degrees for shampooing, 207 degrees for washing the face, and 185 degrees for eating a meal.

  8. Interindividual synchronization of brain activity during live verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Ohlendorf, Sabine; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Weiller, Cornelius; Hennig, Jürgen; Berger, Mathias; Tüscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Verbal social interaction plays an important role both in the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the neural basis of social interaction has primarily been studied in the individual brain, neglecting the inter-individual perspective. Here, we show inter-individual neuronal coupling of brain activity during live verbal interaction, by investigating 11 pairs of good female friends who were instructed to speak about autobiographical life events during simultaneous fMRI acquisition. The analysis revealed that the time course of neural activity in areas associated with speech production was coupled with the time course of neural activity in the interlocutor's auditory cortex. This shows the feasibility of the new methodology, which may help elucidate basic reciprocal mechanisms of social interaction and the underpinnings of disordered communication. In particular, it may serve to study the process of psychotherapy on a neuronal level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent......) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female...

  10. The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Crawford, J D; Kochan, N A; Slavin, M J; Trollor, J N; Draper, B; Sachdev, P S

    2011-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Asylum Seekers Ability Regarding Activities of Daily Living During Their Stay in the Asylum Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    2015-01-01

    -ability. The study was a combined baseline, follow-up correlational study amongst individuals from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria, living in Danish asylum centers. Forty-three persons aged 20-50, were invited and participated in the baseline study. Twenty-two were still in asylum center at the follow-up and 17 of them....... Exposure to physical torture and change in ADL motor (r = 0.525) measures were associated, as well as change in current pain and change in ADL process (r = 0.525) measures. Due to preponderance of torture survivors analysis of group difference was not applicable. Health care workers should be aware of ADL...

  12. Imaging proteolytic activity in live cells and animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Galbán

    Full Text Available In addition to their degradative role in protein turnover, proteases play a key role as positive or negative regulators of signal transduction pathways and therefore their dysregulation contributes to many disease states. Regulatory roles of proteases include their hormone-like role in triggering G protein-coupled signaling (Protease-Activated-Receptors; their role in shedding of ligands such as EGF, Notch and Fas; and their role in signaling events that lead to apoptotic cell death. Dysregulated activation of apoptosis by the caspase family of proteases has been linked to diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity and inflammation. In an effort to better understand the role of proteases in health and disease, a luciferase biosensor is described which can quantitatively report proteolytic activity in live cells and mouse models. The biosensor, hereafter referred to as GloSensor Caspase 3/7 has a robust signal to noise (50-100 fold and dynamic range such that it can be used to screen for pharmacologically active compounds in high throughput campaigns as well as to study cell signaling in rare cell populations such as isolated cancer stem cells. The biosensor can also be used in the context of genetically engineered mouse models of human disease wherein conditional expression using the Cre/loxP technology can be implemented to investigate the role of a specific protease in living subjects. While the regulation of apoptosis by caspase's was used as an example in these studies, biosensors to study additional proteases involved in the regulation of normal and pathological cellular processes can be designed using the concepts presented herein.

  13. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-28

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  14. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  15. Theoretical Studies of Long Lived Plasma Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    We construct the model of a long lived plasma structure based on spherically symmetric oscillations of electrons in plasma. Oscillations of electrons are studied in frames of both classical and quantum approaches. We obtain the density profile of electrons and the dispersion relations for these oscillations. The differences between classical and quantum approaches are discussed. Then we study the interaction between electrons participating in spherically symmetric oscillations. We find that this interaction can be attractive and electrons can form bound states. The applications of the obtained results to the theory of natural plasmoids are considered.

  16. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) ability impairment in newly arrived Danish asylum seekers. It was hypothesized that exposure to trauma and torture would negatively influence ADL performance and that measures of ADL ability would...... be lower in individuals exposed to torture as compared to the non-tortured. SUBJECTS: Forty-three newly arrived asylum seekers aged 20-50 years, from Iran, Afghanistan and Syria, were consecutively included in the study. METHOD: ADL ability was assessed with the observation-based test Assessment of Motor...... significant ADL ability impairment in tortured as well as non-tortured newly arrived asylum seekers. Implementation of performance-based evaluation of ADL ability as part of the initial medical screening of this particular population should be considered....

  17. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  18. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older…

  19. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  20. Poverty and impairment in activities of living among elderly Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T V; Williams, L F

    1998-01-01

    This study employed data from a prior national survey of elderly Hispanics to examine the relationship between poverty and functionally impaired status, i.e., impairment in activities of daily living (IADL). The sample for this study consists of 1,685 Hispanics age 65 and older, representing four ethnic groups: Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanics. Ethnic comparisons based on personal characteristics, poverty status and IADL found there were differences among the groups analyzed in terms of marital status, language, religion, age, education, poverty, and IADL. Logistic regression findings revealed that elderly Hispanics who were married, bilingual, and had higher educational achievement were more likely to live above the poverty level than were their counterparts. Findings from an ordinary least squares regression analysis revealed that poor elderly Hispanics had more IADL problems; that men had more IADL problems than women; that IADL problems tended to increase with age; that more educated people had fewer IADL problems; that Cubans had fewer IADL problems than other Hispanics; and that Puerto Ricans had more IADL problems than all other Hispanics. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  1. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  2. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  3. Predictors of Recovery in Activities of Daily Living Among Disabled Older Persons Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas M; Robison, Julie T.; Tinetti, Mary E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that predict recovery in activities of daily living (ADLs) among disabled older persons living in the community. DESIGN Prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up. SETTING General community. PARTICIPANTS 213 men and women 72 years or older, who reported dependence in one or more ADLs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS All participants underwent a comprehensive home assessment and were followed for recovery of ADL function, defined as requiring no personal assistance in any of the ADLs within 2 years. Fifty-nine participants (28%) recovered independent ADL function. Compared with those older than 85 years, participants aged 85 years or younger were more than 8 times as likely to recover their ADL function (relative risk [RR] 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7, 26). Several factors besides age were associated with ADL recovery in bivariate analysis, including disability in only one ADL, self-efficacy score greater than 75, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 28 or better, high mobility, score in the best third of timed physical performance, fewer than five medications, and good nutritional status. In multivariable analysis, four factors were independently associated with ADL recovery—age 85 years or younger (adjusted RR 4.1; 95% CI 1.3, 13), MMSE score of 28 or better (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), high mobility (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0, 2.9), and good nutritional status (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0, 2.5). CONCLUSIONS Once disabled, few persons older than 85 years recover independent ADL function. Intact cognitive function, high mobility, and good nutritional status each improve the likelihood of ADL recovery and may serve as markers of resiliency in this population. PMID:9436895

  4. Predictors of recovery in activities of daily living among disabled older persons living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T M; Robison, J T; Tinetti, M E

    1997-12-01

    To identify the factors that predict recovery in activities of daily living (ADLs) among disabled older persons living in the community. Prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up. General community. 213 men and women 72 years or older, who reported dependence in one or more ADLs. All participants underwent a comprehensive home assessment and were followed for recovery of ADL function, defined as requiring no personal assistance in any of the ADLs within 2 years. Fifty-nine participants (28%) recovered independent ADL function. Compared with those older than 85 years, participants aged 85 years or younger were more than 8 times as likely to recover their ADL function (relative risk [RR] 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7, 26). Several factors besides age were associated with ADL recovery in bivariate analysis, including disability in only one ADL, self-efficacy score greater than 75, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 28 or better, high mobility, score in the best third of timed physical performance, fewer than five medications, and good nutritional status. In multivariable analysis, four factors were independently associated with ADL recovery-age 85 years or younger (adjusted RR 4.1; 95% CI 1.3, 13), MMSE score of 28 or better (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), high mobility (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0, 2.9), and good nutritional status (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0, 2.5). Once disabled, few persons older than 85 years recover independent ADL function. Intact cognitive function, high mobility, and good nutritional status each improve the likelihood of ADL recovery and may serve as markers of resiliency in this population.

  5. [Physical activity of elderly people living in district Koprzywnica (Poland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Majkowski, Marek; Majkowska, Lucyna

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has good influence on health. The physical activity of elderly people may decrease, because of the health problems or think that with aging sport activity should be reduced. The aim of the study was to assess a physical activity and energy expenditure of people in age 60 and more in the Koprzywnica district (Poland). 95 persons in age 60 and more (51 women and 44 men) participated in the study. All participants live alone or with family. The following data: total energy expenditure, active energy expenditure, physical activity duration (MET > 3,0), vigorous physical activity duration (MET > 6,0), number of steps, lying down duration were collected using SenseWear Pro3 Armband, Body Media Pittsburgh, USA. The measurement was conducted for 24 hours. Physical activity was also classified on the basis of the number of steps. The median of the age of participants was 71 years. The median of BMI was 27,1 kg/m2. Age was correlated with BMI (R = -0,28, p = 0,005). Participants made on average 6335 steps daily, 42% of them made less than 5000 steps and 31,5% more than 10000 steps a day. The median of the total energy expenditure was 33,1 kcal/kg of body mass a day (2522 kcal a day), while the median of the active energy expenditure was 5,7 kcal/kg of body mass a day (482 kcal a day). The median of the physical activity duration was 1 hour and 22 minutes, and in most cases it was the moderate physical activity. In case of 17 women (33%) and 20 men (45,5%) the vigorous physical activity was detected, and duration of this physical activity was 1-22 minutes. The median of the lying down duration was 8 hours and 44 minutes. Older persons had shorter physical activity duration, made less steps and at the same time had lower active energy expenditure and total energy expenditure than younger ones. There were no differences between younger and older participants in the sedentary energy expenditure and lying down duration. Simultaneously participants with higher

  6. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I ADL] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1 ADL, 2 (I ADL, 3 self-reported health status, 4 functional capacity, and 5 factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence; 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291; social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258, area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061 and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men’s independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees

  7. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  8. Preventing Loss of Basic Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Elderly: Identification of Individual Risk Factors in a Holistic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Filippo; Zucchetti, Giulia; Ortega, Enrique; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Magistro, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical functioning and activities of daily living (ADL) of elderly people, taking into account the role of cognitive, psychological, and social factors. We administered physical, cognitive, psychological, and social instruments to investigate the level of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL). The analysis showed that physical functioning was the only individual factor that was significantly linked with the level of BADL and IADL. This study underlines that physical functioning is the main individual characteristic directly associated with the level of BADL and IADL in old age.

  9. The effects of video observation of chewing during lunch on masticatory ability, food intake, cognition, activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in older adults with dementia : a study protocol of an adjusted randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Masticatory functioning alters with age. However, mastication has been found to be related to, for example, cognitive functioning, food intake, and some aspects of activities of daily living. Since cognitive functioning and activities of daily living show a decline in older adults with d

  10. The effects of video observation of chewing during lunch on masticatory ability, food intake, cognition, activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in older adults with dementia : a study protocol of an adjusted randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Masticatory functioning alters with age. However, mastication has been found to be related to, for example, cognitive functioning, food intake, and some aspects of activities of daily living. Since cognitive functioning and activities of daily living show a decline in older adults with

  11. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...... and the expatriates had the same working hours in the same subsidiary. Results show that a Danish national group was established and maintained. This in-group dominated life in the compound and at work it may have contributed to the perceptual bias and discriminatory behaviour demonstrated by the Danish expatriates......In certain countries, closed expatriate compounds have developed.  They serve to provide resident expatriates and accompanying family members with a comfortable and safe environment. Unfortunately, not much is known about compound life since associated empirical research is scarce. Through...

  12. [Activity of daily living and life quality of patients with Hansen's disease in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Ling; Cheng, Shun-Ping; Lee, Nie-Sue; Chen, I-Ju

    2010-10-01

    Hansen's Disease incidence in Taiwan has declined to the goal set by the World Health Organization. However, this population does not receive adequate attention due to the stigma attached to the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic characteristics, activities of daily living, and quality of life of patients with Hansen's Disease in Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used. A structured questionnaire that incorporated a personal data survey form, basic activity of daily living (BADL) form, instrument ability of daily activity of living (IADL) form and quality of life (QOL) survey was used to collect data. Patients with Hansen's Disease in Taiwan who lived in the institution, rural villages, and communities were invited to participate. Four hundred and ninety-seven participants with an average age of 71.93 (± 12.8) years participated in this study. Institutionalized participants (76.97 ± 7.41) were older than those in the other two groups. Participants were found to have in general more than one chronic disease (2.05 ± 1.33), with more chronic diseases found amongst institutionalized subjects (2.70 ± 1.23). Activities of daily living scores were generally higher for urban community dwellers than those who were institutionalized. Relatively low BADL scores for personal hygiene, bathing, walking and climbing stairs were noted, as were poor IADL scores for cooking, shopping, washing clothes and riding public transportation. Results found that activities of daily living declined with participant age (p Hansen's Disease patients with age. In order to promote quality of life among patients with Hansen's Disease, several suggestions for health policy with regard to Hansen's Disease patients are raised in this paper, including helping maintain daily living activity functions in Hansen's Disease patients, hiring more assistants and nurses to help Hansen's Disease patients maintain daily living activities and personal hygiene, and

  13. Water activity in dry foods containing live probiotic bacteria should be carefully considered: a case study with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterlund, Satu; Salminen, Kari; Salminen, Seppo

    2012-07-02

    This study evaluated the effect of water activity on the long-term storage stability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in a dry food matrix. Viability of LGG was further studied in a crushed flaxseed matrix - a new possible product matrix to deliver probiotics - as well as in reference matrices as maltodextrin. Three different water activities (a(w)=0.11, 0.22 and 0.43) were used, and preparations were stored at room temperature for up to 14months. The viability of LGG was less dependent on the matrix used, but strongly dependent on the water activity. Viability in flaxseed was lost rapidly with a(w) 0.43: with a(w) 0.22 the reduction was 2.4 log(10) units and with a(w) 0.11 the reduction of viability was only 0.29 log(10) units during the entire storage time. Taken together, regulating water activity to a low value may offer possibilities for extending the shelf life of dry probiotic products.

  14. Happier People Live More Active Lives: Using Smartphones to Link Happiness and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathia, Neal; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Mascolo, Cecilia; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity, both exercise and non-exercise, has far-reaching benefits to physical health. Although exercise has also been linked to psychological health (e.g., happiness), little research has examined physical activity more broadly, taking into account non-exercise activity as well as exercise. We examined the relationship between physical activity (measured broadly) and happiness using a smartphone application. This app has collected self-reports of happiness and physical activity from over ten thousand participants, while passively gathering information about physical activity from the accelerometers on users' phones. The findings reveal that individuals who are more physically active are happier. Further, individuals are happier in the moments when they are more physically active. These results emerged when assessing activity subjectively, via self-report, or objectively, via participants' smartphone accelerometers. Overall, this research suggests that not only exercise but also non-exercise physical activity is related to happiness. This research further demonstrates how smartphones can be used to collect large-scale data to examine psychological, behavioral, and health-related phenomena as they naturally occur in everyday life. PMID:28052069

  15. Happier People Live More Active Lives: Using Smartphones to Link Happiness and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathia, Neal; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Mascolo, Cecilia; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity, both exercise and non-exercise, has far-reaching benefits to physical health. Although exercise has also been linked to psychological health (e.g., happiness), little research has examined physical activity more broadly, taking into account non-exercise activity as well as exercise. We examined the relationship between physical activity (measured broadly) and happiness using a smartphone application. This app has collected self-reports of happiness and physical activity from over ten thousand participants, while passively gathering information about physical activity from the accelerometers on users' phones. The findings reveal that individuals who are more physically active are happier. Further, individuals are happier in the moments when they are more physically active. These results emerged when assessing activity subjectively, via self-report, or objectively, via participants' smartphone accelerometers. Overall, this research suggests that not only exercise but also non-exercise physical activity is related to happiness. This research further demonstrates how smartphones can be used to collect large-scale data to examine psychological, behavioral, and health-related phenomena as they naturally occur in everyday life.

  16. Marshall Islands: a study of diet and living patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J. R.; Greenhouse, N. A.; Knight, G.; Craighead, E. C.

    1980-07-01

    This study summarizes information on diet and living patterns for the Marshallese. The data was derived from literature, answers to questionnaires, personal observations while living with the Marshallese for periods extending from months to years, and from direct participation in their activities. The results reflect the complex interactions of many influences, such as, the gathering of local foods the receipt of food aid through programs, such as, school-lunch, typhoon-relief, food distributed to populations displaced as a result of nuclear testing, and in recent times the availability of cash for the purchase of imported foods. The results identify these influences and are therefore restricted to local food diets while recognizing that the living patterns are changing as local food gathering is replaced by other food supplies. The data will therefore provide the necessary information for input into models that will assess the radiological impacts attributable to the inhabitation of the Marshall Islands. It is recommended that this study should be continued for at least two to three years in order to more accurately identify trends in local food consumption and living patterns.

  17. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Los Angeles, CA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-05

    Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about active living and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroom—like teaching fun dances and yoga classes.  Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/5/2013.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of achieving recommended physical activity levels among children living in rural South Asia-A multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Millett, Christopher; Laverty, Anthony A; Alam, Dewan; Dias, Amit; Williams, Joseph; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-08-02

    We report the prevalence of recommended physical activity levels (RPALs) and examine the correlates of achieving RPALs in rural South Asian children and analyse its association with anthropometric outcomes. This analysis on rural South Asian children aged 5-14 years (n = 564) is a part of the Chronic Disease Risk Factor study conducted at three sites in India (Chennai n = 146; Goa n = 218) and Bangladesh (Matlab; n = 200). Data on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors (physical activity (PA); diet) were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaires, along with objective anthropometric measurements. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine whether RPALs (active travel to school (yes/no); leisure-time PA ≥ 1 h/day; sedentary-activity ≤ 2 h/day) were associated with socio-demographic factors, diet and other forms of PA. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate associations between RPALs and anthropometrics (BMI- and waist z-scores). The majority of children (71.8 %) belonged to households where a parent had at least a secondary education. Two-thirds (66.7 %) actively travelled to school; 74.6 % reported ≥1 h/day of leisure-time PA and 55.7 % had ≤2 h/day of sedentary-activity; 25.2 % of children reported RPALs in all three dimensions. Older (10-14 years, OR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.3, 3.0) and female (OR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.1, 2.5) children were more likely to travel actively to school. Leisure-time PA ≥ 1 h/day was more common among boys (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI: 1.5, 4.0), children in Matlab, Bangladesh (OR = 3.0; 95 % CI: 1.6, 5.5), and those with higher processed-food consumption (OR = 2.3; 95 % CI: 1.2, 4.1). Sedentary activity ≤ 2 h/day was associated with younger children (5-9 years, OR = 1.6; 95 % CI: 1.1, 2.4), children of Goa (OR = 3.5; 95 % CI: 2.1, 6.1) and Chennai (OR = 2.5; 95 % CI: 1.5, 4.3) and low household education

  19. A 10-year follow-up study on subjective well-being and relationships to person-environment (P-E) fit and activity of daily living (ADL) dependence of older Swedish adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Werngren-Elgström, Monica; Carlsson, Gunilla; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate how well-being and ill health is affected by the process of aging, the main aim was to investigate these self-perceived aspects of health over a 10-year period among older Swedish adults. The aim was also to study how these aspects correlated with objectively assessed functional limitations, use of mobility device, person-environment (P-E) fit (also denoted accessibility), problems in housing, and activity of daily living (ADL) dependence. Using the Swedish national po...

  20. Estimates of adherence and error analysis of physical activity data collected via accelerometry in a large study of free-living adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer David J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity monitors (AM are small, electronic devices used to quantify the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA. Unfortunately, it has been demonstrated that data loss that occurs when AMs are not worn by subjects (removals during sleeping and waking hours tend to result in biased estimates of PA and total energy expenditure (TEE. No study has reported the degree of data loss in a large study of adults, and/or the degree to which the estimates of PA and TEE are affected. Also, no study in adults has proposed a methodology to minimize the effects of AM removals. Methods Adherence estimates were generated from a pool of 524 women and men that wore AMs for 13 – 15 consecutive days. To simulate the effect of data loss due to AM removal, a reference dataset was first compiled from a subset consisting of 35 highly adherent subjects (24 HR; minimum of 20 hrs/day for seven consecutive days. AM removals were then simulated during sleep and between one and ten waking hours using this 24 HR dataset. Differences in the mean values for PA and TEE between the 24 HR reference dataset and the different simulations were compared using paired t-tests and/or coefficients of variation. Results The estimated average adherence of the pool of 524 subjects was 15.8 ± 3.4 hrs/day for approximately 11.7 ± 2.0 days. Simulated data loss due to AM removals during sleeping hours in the 24 HR database (n = 35, resulted in biased estimates of PA (p Conclusion Although estimated adherence was good, measurements of PA can be improved by relatively simple imputation of missing AM data.

  1. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  2. Antiretroviral effect of lovastatin on HIV-1-infected individuals without highly active antiretroviral therapy (The LIVE study: a phase-II randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Carlos J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy produces a significant decrease in HIV-1 replication and allows an increase in the CD4 T-cell count, leading to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost, side effects and complexity of antiretroviral regimens have underscored the immediate need for additional therapeutic approaches. Statins exert pleiotropic effects through a variety of mechanisms, among which there are several immunoregulatory effects, related and unrelated to their cholesterol-lowering activity that can be useful to control HIV-1 infection. Methods/design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, single-center, phase-II clinical trial. One hundred and ten chronically HIV-1-infected patients, older than 18 years and naïve for antirretroviral therapy (i.e., without prior or current management with antiretroviral drugs will be enrolled at the outpatient services from the most important centres for health insurance care in Medellin-Colombia. The interventions will be lovastatin (40 mg/day, orally, for 12 months; 55 patients or placebo (55 patients. Our primary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on viral replication. The secondary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on CD4+ T-cell count in peripheral blood. As tertiary aims we will explore differences in CD8+ T-cell count, expression of activation markers (CD38 and HLA-DR on CD4 and CD8 T cells, cholesterol metabolism, LFA-1/ICAM-1 function, Rho GTPases function and clinical evolution between treated and not treated HIV-1-infected individuals. Discussion Preliminary descriptive studies have suggested that statins (lovastatin may have anti HIV-1 activity and that their administration is safe, with the potential effect of controlling HIV-1 replication in chronically infected individuals who had not received antiretroviral medications. Considering that there is limited clinical data available on

  3. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs.

  4. The evaluation of daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Gökçen; Mucuk, Salime

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors. This was a descriptive study. The study was conducted at a rehabilitation center with 188 individuals participating in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire form, Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS) and Braden Risk Assessment Scale (BRAS). Among the participants, 48.9% were dependent according to activities of daily living and 71.8% were dependent on instrumental activities of daily living. It was noted that 4.8% had pressure sores and 38.8% were at high risk. A strong and positive correlation was found among ADLS, IADLS, and BRAS scores (p pressure sores (p pressure sores. Individuals who are treated at rehabilitation centers should be periodically assessed in terms of risk. Pressure sore development can be prevented with appropriate nursing interventions. To reduce the risk of developing pressure sores, nurses should describe the individual's degree of dependency according to ADLS and IADLS and initiate preventive nursing care. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  5. Performance of Activity Classification Algorithms in Free-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Hickey, Amanda M; Staudenmayer, John W; John, Dinesh; Kent, Jane A; Freedson, Patty S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare activity type classification rates of machine learning algorithms trained on laboratory versus free-living accelerometer data in older adults. Thirty-five older adults (21 females and 14 males, 70.8 ± 4.9 yr) performed selected activities in the laboratory while wearing three ActiGraph GT3X+ activity monitors (in the dominant hip, wrist, and ankle; ActiGraph, LLC, Pensacola, FL). Monitors were initialized to collect raw acceleration data at a sampling rate of 80 Hz. Fifteen of the participants also wore GT3X+ in free-living settings and were directly observed for 2-3 h. Time- and frequency-domain features from acceleration signals of each monitor were used to train random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) models to classify five activity types: sedentary, standing, household, locomotion, and recreational activities. All algorithms were trained on laboratory data (RFLab and SVMLab) and free-living data (RFFL and SVMFL) using 20-s signal sampling windows. Classification accuracy rates of both types of algorithms were tested on free-living data using a leave-one-out technique. Overall classification accuracy rates for the algorithms developed from laboratory data were between 49% (wrist) and 55% (ankle) for the SVMLab algorithms and 49% (wrist) to 54% (ankle) for the RFLab algorithms. The classification accuracy rates for SVMFL and RFFL algorithms ranged from 58% (wrist) to 69% (ankle) and from 61% (wrist) to 67% (ankle), respectively. Our algorithms developed on free-living accelerometer data were more accurate in classifying the activity type in free-living older adults than those on our algorithms developed on laboratory accelerometer data. Future studies should consider using free-living accelerometer data to train machine learning algorithms in older adults.

  6. A STUDY ON DISABILITIES AMONGST THE ELDERLY IN THE URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN THE KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM BASED ON THE ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADL AND FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhankar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health problems are a major concern for the elderly and they are prone to diseases and disabilities more than the younger age groups which can make them physically and economically dependent. The increasing number of elderly in the country means that they are going to make contributions to the economy. Elderly persons, being one of the most vulnerable groups of the society have more chances of chronic disease, infections, as well as disabilities. Disability has been defined as a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.[1] It reflects how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Disability in elderly can be grouped in three large groups. First - who can manage in their daily activities with the help of mechanical devices. Second - who have multiple health problems and severe limitations in mental and/or physical functioning who require very intensive levels of care. Third-in between above two groups, they are functionally disabled in one or two ADLs, or have mild cognitive impairments.[2] OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1. To assess disability related to Activities of Daily Living(ADL amongst the elderly in the urban and rural area. 2. To determine the use of physical aids by the elderly in both the urban and rural areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 60 years and above, in urban and rural areas in the Kamrup district, Assam. In the study, 400 no.s of elderly are under study of which 200 are from the urban area and 200 from the rural areas. The urban area is from the Guwahati city which consists of 60 municipalty blocks. Out of the sixty municipalty blocks, 10 no.s of blocks are randomly selected and 20 elderly are chosen from each block totaling a mark of 200.The kamrup rural area of Rani Community Development block is choosen from where 20 no.s of villages are

  7. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: "Movement," "Movement with cognition," and "Cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of "Movement" and "Movement with cognition." Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls.

  8. Study on data acquisition system for living environmental information for biofication of living spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Norihisa; Mita, Akira

    2008-03-01

    In Japan's rapidly aging society, the number of elderly people living alone increases every year. Theses elderly people require more and more to maintain as independent a life as possible in their own homes. It is necessary to make living spaces that assist in providing safe and comfortable lives. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is proposed with the concept of creating save and pleasant living environments. It implies learning from biological systems, and applying to living spaces features such as high adaptability and excellent tolerance to environmental changes. As a first step towards realizing "Biofied Spaces", a system for acquisition and storing information must be developed. This system is similar to the five human senses. The information acquired includes environmental information such as temperature, human behavior, psychological state and location of furniture. This study addresses human behavior as it is the most important factor in design of a living space. In the present study, pyroelectric infrared sensors were chosen for human behavior recognition. The pyroelectric infrared sensor is advantageous in that it has no limitation on the number of sensors put in a single space because sensors do not interfere with each other. Wavelet analysis was applied to the output time histories of the pyroelectric infrared sensors. The system successfully classified walking patterns with 99.5% accuracy of walking direction (from right or left) and 85.7% accuracy of distance for 440 patterns pre-learned and an accuracy of over 80% accuracy of walking direction for 720 non-learned patterns.

  9. Moving Real Exergaming Engines on the Web: The webFitForAll Case Study in an Active and Healthy Ageing Living Lab Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Bamparopoulos, Giorgos; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-05-01

    Exergames have been the subject of research and technology innovations for a number of years. Different devices and technologies have been utilized to train the body and the mind of senior people or different patient groups. In the past, we presented FitForAll, the protocol efficacy of which was proven through widely taken (controlled) pilots with more than 116 seniors for a period of two months. The current piece of work expands this and presents the first truly web exergaming platform, which is solely based on HTML5 and JavaScript without any browser plugin requirements. The adopted architecture (controller application communication framework) combines a unified solution for input devices such as MS Kinect and Wii Balance Βoard which may seamlessly be exploited through standard physical exercise protocols (American College of Sports Medicine guidelines) and accommodate high detail logging; this allows for proper pilot testing and usability evaluations in ecologically valid Living Lab environments. The latter type of setups is also used herein for evaluating the web application with more than a dozen of real elderly users following quantitative approaches.

  10. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbasan Bülent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p p p p p = 0.002 between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  11. Men's experiences of living with ankylosing spondylitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Kim Vilbek; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2015-03-01

    The majority of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are male, although potential gender differences have not been investigated in relation to disease management. Moreover, men's perceptions of experiencing AS have not been reported in the literature. This study sought to develop an understanding of how men experience AS and the challenges related to living with AS as a chronic disease. A purposive sample of 13 men diagnosed with AS, with a median age of 44 years (range 32-58) was recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic. The median duration of disease was 12 years (range 0.3-28 years), and the median time from the first symptom to final diagnosis was seven years (range 2-20 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and the interviews were analysed using content analysis inspired by Graneheim qualitative methodology. The analysis revealed four categories: (1) 'Approaching a diagnosis'; (2) 'Ill in a social context'; (3) 'Challenged as a man'; and (4) 'The importance of remaining physically well'. Based on these categories, the overall category of 'An invisible companion for life' emerged, which captures the experience of living with an invisible, life-long disease. These findings demonstrate that AS impacts men's perceptions of themselves as men, relationships as a partner and father, social lives, and masculine identity. Physical activity was highlighted as an important part of being a man, and not being able to exercise challenged the men's masculine identity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effectiveness of interventions influencing activities of daily living on visually impaired patients: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, E.; Mistiaen, P.; Hickox, S.; Wagner, C.

    2003-01-01

    Visually impaired patients have difficulty in performing the activities of daily living (ADL). For example, one study found that 21% of the participants had trouble with dressing or undressing, 25 % with mobility at home, and 31 % with eating and drinking. Another study showed that 27,5% experience

  13. The environment can explain differences in adolescents' daily physical activity levels living in a deprived urban area: cross-sectional study using accelerometry, GPS, and focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Helen Joy; Nixon, Catherine A; Lake, Amelia A; Douthwaite, Wayne; O'Malley, Claire L; Pedley, Claire L; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Routen, Ashley C

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that many contemporary urban environments do not support healthy lifestyle choices and are implicated in the obesity pandemic. Middlesbrough, in the northeast of England is one such environment and a prime target for investigation. To measure physical activity (PA) levels in a sample of 28 adolescents (aged 11 to 14 years) and describe the environmental context of their activity and explore where they are most and least active over a 7-day period, accelerometry and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology were used. Twenty-five of these participants also took part in focus groups about their experiences and perceptions of PA engagement. Findings indicated that all participants were relatively inactive throughout the observed period although bouts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were identified in 4 contexts: school, home, street, and rural/urban green spaces, with MVPA levels highest in the school setting. Providing access to local facilities and services (such as leisure centers) is not in itself sufficient to engage adolescents in MVPA. Factors influencing engagement in MVPA were identified within and across contexts, including 'time' as both a facilitator and barrier, perceptions of 'gendered' PA, and the social influences of peer groups and family members.

  14. The path to active living: physical activity through community design in Somerville, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Noreen M; Chomitz, Virginia R; Rioles, Nicole A; Winslow, Stephen P; Brukilacchio, Lisa B; Baker, Jessie C

    2009-12-01

    Somerville, Massachusetts, an ethnically diverse, urban community northwest of Boston, presents opportunities and challenges for active living. With a dense street grid, well-maintained sidewalks, neighborhood parks, and existing Community Path, Somerville is very walkable. However, two major surface arteries traverse and bisect neighborhoods, creating pedestrian safety and environmental justice issues. Major goals included promoting increased collaboration and communication among existing active-living efforts; managing the Community Path extension project; encouraging Portuguese-speaking adults to incorporate daily physical activity; leveraging existing urban planning work to establish secure, attractive walking/biking corridors; and embedding active-living messages in everyday life. The Somerville Active Living by Design Partnership (ALbD) successfully created a robust task force that was integrated with citywide active-living efforts, secured resources to increase infrastructure and support for active living, including city-level coordinator positions, and changed decision-making practices that led to incorporation of pedestrian and bicycle transportation priorities into city planning and that influenced the extension of the Community Path. Partnerships must employ sustainability planning early on, utilize skilled facilitative leaders to manage leadership transitions, and engage new partners. Identifying, cultivating, and celebrating champions, especially those with political power, are critical. Working closely with research partners leads to rich data sources for planning and evaluation. Changing the built environment is difficult; working toward smaller wins is realistic and achievable. The synergy of ALbD and other community interventions created a foundation for short-term successes and accelerated political-cultural changes already underway with respect to active living.

  15. Relationship between cognitive status and activities of daily living among the elderly of nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiman Nazari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increased life expectancy has caused the emergence of aging phenomenon in Iran. This study was conducted on 79 elderly in nursing homes. Data were collected by the demographic questionnaire, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTs and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL Index. The mean score of AMT was 4.06 (SD: 3.05 and the mean of Barthel Index was 66.15 (SD: 33.27. Results indicated a significantly positive correlation between cognitive status and activities of daily living (P=0.001, r=0.354. Accordingly, cognitive status can be a good predictor of functional independence in activities of daily living for the elderly.

  16. Impact of marine pollution on living resources - Case studies on the effect of mining activity and organic enrichment of benthic fauna

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Shirwaikar, P.

    Mine rejects, organic effluents and domestic sewage are the three main items discharged in the Mandovi Estuary, Goa, India. Their impact on the benthic life was studied. Benthic samples in this estuary were collected at monthly intervals using van...

  17. Using cadence to study free-living ambulatory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Rowe, David A

    2012-05-01

    The health benefits of a physically active lifestyle across a person's lifespan have been established. If there is any single physical activity behaviour that we should measure well and promote effectively, it is ambulatory activity and, more specifically, walking. Since public health physical activity guidelines include statements related to intensity of activity, it follows that we need to measure and promote free-living patterns of ambulatory activity that are congruent with this intent. The purpose of this review article is to present and summarize the potential for using cadence (steps/minute) to represent such behavioural patterns of ambulatory activity in free-living. Cadence is one of the spatio-temporal parameters of gait or walking speed. It is typically assessed using short-distance walks in clinical research and practice, but free-living cadence can be captured with a number of commercially available accelerometers that possess time-stamping technology. This presents a unique opportunity to use the same metric to communicate both ambulatory performance (assessed under testing conditions) and behaviour (assessed in the real world). Ranges for normal walking cadence assessed under laboratory conditions are 96-138 steps/minute for women and 81-135 steps/minute for men across their lifespan. The correlation between mean cadence and intensity (assessed with indirect calorimetry and expressed as metabolic equivalents [METs]) based on five treadmill/overground walking studies, is r = 0.93 and 100 steps/minute is considered to be a reasonable heuristic value indicative of walking at least at absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e. minimally, 3 METs) in adults. The weighted mean cadence derived from eight studies that have observed pedestrian cadence under natural conditions was 115.2 steps/minute, demonstrating that achieving 100 steps/minute is realistic in specific settings that occur in real life. However, accelerometer data collected in a large

  18. Disability, Activities of Daily Living and Self Efficacy in Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Mollaoglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD and continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, to examine the relationship between them. Material and Methods: This study was carried with 152 patients as sample group. In this study, three instruments were used: Personal Information Form, Brief Disability Questionnaire, Katz\\'s Activity\\'s of Daily Living Index and Lawton and Brody\\'s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index and Self-efficacy Assessment Form. Data collected from the study was analyzed using percent, mean, Tukey test, significance test of two means, One-way variant analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The study results demonstrate that while there is a correlation between self-care ability and age, education level, marital status and additional health problems, factors such as age, gender, education level, work status, income level, social insurance status and frequency of hemodialysis application determine self-efficacy. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between patients’ disability and activities of daily living , self-efficacy. It was determined that as the level of disability increases self-efficiacy level decreases. Conclusions: Dialysis application affects patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy levels. In view of this study’s results, it is recommended to organize education programs to increase self-efficacy levels of dialysis patients and prepare comprehensive plans including patients’ families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 181-186

  19. Early Prediction of Outcome of Activities of Daily Living After Stroke A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janne M.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    Background and Purpose-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables

  20. Engaging Youth in Learning about Healthful Eating and Active Living: An Evaluation of Educational Theater Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Cahill, Carol; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Edmiston, John; Johnson, Sarah; Davis, Larry; Robbins, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare knowledge gains and knowledge retention of healthful eating and active living behaviors in elementary school children participating in Educational Theatre Programs (ETP). Methods: The study sample included 47 schools (2,915 third- or fourth-grade students) in 8 Kaiser Permanente regions. Children's knowledge of 4 healthful…

  1. Early Prediction of Outcome of Activities of Daily Living After Stroke A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janne M.; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables t

  2. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, B.M.; Munster, B.C. van; Korevaar, J.C.; Haan, R.J. de; Rooij, S.E. de

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of

  3. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdorp, E.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Claassen, J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test

  4. The combined effect of neuropsychological and neuropathological deficits on instrumental activities of daily living in older adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdorp, E.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test

  5. The combined effect of neuropsychological and neuropathological deficits on instrumental activities of daily living in older adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdorp, E.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test perf

  6. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdorp, E.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Claassen, J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test perf

  7. The effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with sub-acute stroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Çekok, Kübra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nintendo Wii(TM)-based balance and upper extremity training on activities of daily living and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. 42 adults with stroke (mean age (SD) = 58.04 (16.56) years and mean time since stroke (SD) = (55.2 ± 22.02 days (∼8 weeks)) were included in the study. Participants were enrolled from the rehabilitation department of a medical center (a single inpatient rehabilitation facility). Participants were randomly assigned to Nintendo Wii group (n = 20) or Bobath neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) (n = 22). The treatments were applied for 10 weeks (45-60 minutes/day, 3 days/week) for both of two groups. Nintendo Wii group used five games selected from the Wii sports and Wii Fit packages for upper limb and balance training, respectively. The patients in Bobath NDT group were applied a therapy program included upper extremity activites, strength, balance gait and functional training. The functional independence in daily life activities and health-related quality of life was assessed with Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), respectively. Participant's treatment satisfaction was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale. A second evaluation (FIM and NHP) occurred after 10 weeks at the end of rehabilitative treatment (post-training). Treatment satisfaction was measured after 10 sessions. There were significant difference between FIM and NHP values in NDT and Nintendo Wii group (p 0.05). The patients in Nintendo Wii group were detected to be better satisfied from the therapy (p Bobath NDT on daily living functions and quality of life in subacute stroke patients.

  8. A STUDY OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV-AIDS [PLHA] ON FIRST LINE HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY [HAART] WITH IMMUNOLOGICAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Kandasamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Follow-up of patients with First line antiretroviral therapy, Cluster Differentiation (CD4 counts are done every 6 months. Viral load is not possible in resource poor settings like India. Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO’s, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV treating physicians and international guidelines recommend viral load as the follow-up method for first line failure, so to study the impact of national program with immunological criteria and its sensitivity to identify virological failure is needed at this juncture. METHODS A total of 170 patients from northern districts of Tamilnadu referred to Government Hospital for Thoracic Medicine (GHTMTambaram Sanatorium State AIDS Clinical Expert Panel (SACEP committee with suspected first line ART failure were included in the study [after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria]. Viral load done for these patients were compared with Immunological criteria for concordance or discordance. RESULTS In our study we conclude that Virological discordance was noted in 51% of all cases. CD4 falling greater than 50% of on treatment peak value has the highest sensitivity to detect virological failure. The ODD’s ratio for immunological criteria CD4 falling more than 50% was three times more than other criteria with significant P-value 0.002. Immunological criteria CD4 persistently below 100 had highest specificity. CONCLUSION Immunological criteria CD4 falling more than 50% had highest sensitivity. 2. Immunological criteria CD4 persistently below 100 had had highest specificity. 3. The ODD’s ratio for immunological criteria CD4 falling more than 50% of on treatment peak value was three times more than other criteria with significant P-value 0.002. 4. Immunological and virological discordance was 51% of all cases. 5. Differences in age and duration of ART was not associated with virological failure between males and females. 6. An economical lab test with low cost to detect the viral

  9. Activities of daily living and lesion position among multiple sclerosis patients by Bayes network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Pan; Hongtao Lu; Qi Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and T2-weighted images can reveal lesions in the cerebral white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord. However, the lesions have a poor correlation with measurable clinical disability. In this study, we performed a large-scale epidemiological survey of 238 patients with multiple sclerosis in eleven districts by network member hospitals in Shanghai, China within 1 year. The involved patients were scanned for position and size of lesions by MRI. Results showed that lesions in the cerebrum, spinal cord, or supratentorial position had an impact on the activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients, as assessed by the Bayes network. On the other hand, brainstem lesions were very unlikely to influence the activities of daily living, and were not associated with the position of lesion, patient's gender, and patient's living place.

  10. The association of leisure-time physical activity and active commuting with measures of socioeconomic position in a multiethnic population living in the Netherlands: results from the cross-sectional SUNSET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most European origin populations measures of socioeconomic position are positively associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA, this is unclear for active commuting. In addition, these associations have scarcely been studied in ethnic minority groups, who often have a high cardiovascular disease risk. Because of the expected public health potential, we assessed the relationship of active commuting and LTPA with measures of socioeconomic position across two large ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands as compared to the European-Dutch population. Methods We included South Asian-Surinamese (n = 370, African-Surinamese (n = 689, and European-Dutch (n = 567 from the cross-sectional population-based SUNSET study (2001–2003. Active commuting and LTPA were assessed by the SQUASH physical activity questionnaire and calculated in square-root-transformed metabolic equivalents of task-hours/week (SQRTMET. Socioeconomic position was indicated by level of education (low/high and occupational class (low/high. We used age-adjusted linear regression models to assess the association between physical activity and socioeconomic position. Results Compared to the European-Dutch men, South Asian-Surinamese men engaged in lower levels of commuting activity and LTPA, and South Asian-Surinamese women engaged in lower levels of LTPA than their European-Dutch counterparts. Differences between the African Surinamese and the European-Dutch were small. We observed a positive gradient in active commuting activity for education in European-Dutch men (beta high education was 0.93, 95%CI: 0.45-1.40 SQRTMET higher versus low education, in South Asian-Surinamese men (beta: 0.56, 0.19-0.92, but not in African-Surinamese men (−0.06, -0.45-0.33, p for ethnicity-interaction = 0.002. In women we observed a positive gradient in active commuting activity and occupational class in European-Dutch women, and less strongly in South Asian

  11. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  12. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities : Results of the HA-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of t

  13. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  14. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING: THE INTERNSHIP AND LIVE-CASE STUDY RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Robert D.; Farideh A. Farazmand

    2012-01-01

    Educators are increasingly using experiential learning pedagogy to improve learning (knowledge and skills). Two highly effective experiential methods are live-case study projects and internships. This study examines the learning outcomes of courses with live-case study projects for students who have had a prior internship experience and those who have not as well as correlation analysis for each group. The results find that prior internship experience does improve applied project learning out...

  15. Rising Price of Opioid OD Antidote Could Cost Lives: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162410.html Rising Price of Opioid OD Antidote Could Cost Lives: Study Investigators identify strategies for ... called attention to skyrocketing prices for the lifesaving antidote, noting: Hospira (a Pfizer Inc. company) charges $142 ...

  16. Automatic Recognition of Activities of Daily Living utilizing Insole Based and Wrist Worn Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Bries, Matthew; Swibas, Tracy; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Automatic recognition of activities of daily living (ADL) is an important component in understanding of energy balance, quality of life and other areas of health and well-being. In our previous work, we had proposed an insole based activity monitor - SmartStep, designed to be socially acceptable and comfortable. The goals of the current study were: first, validation of SmartStep in recognition of a broad set of ADL; second, comparison of the SmartStep to a wrist sensor and testing these in combination; third, evaluation of SmartStep accuracy in measuring wear non-compliance and a novel activity class (driving); fourth, performing the validation in free living against a well-studied criterion measure (ActivPAL, PAL Technologies); and fifth, quantitative evaluation of the perceived comfort of SmartStep. The activity classification models were developed from a laboratory study consisting of 13 different activities under controlled conditions. Leave-one-out cross validation showed 89% accuracy for the combined SmartStep and wrist sensor, 81% for the SmartStep alone, and 69% for the wrist sensor alone. When household activities were grouped together as one class, SmartStep performed equally well compared to the combination of SmartStep and wrist-worn sensor (90% vs 94%) whereas the accuracy of the wrist sensor increased marginally (73% from 69%). SmartStep achieved 92% accuracy in recognition of non-wear and 82% in recognition of driving. Participants then were studied for a day in free-living conditions. The overall agreement with ActivPAL was 82.5% (compared to 97% for the laboratory study). The SmartStep scored the best on the perceived comfort reported at the end of the study. These results suggest that insole-based activity sensors may present a compelling alternative or companion to commonly used wrist devices.

  17. Health smart home for elders - a tool for automatic recognition of activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xuan Hoa Binh; Di Mascolo, Maria; Gouin, Alexia; Noury, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Elders live preferently in their own home, but with aging comes the loss of autonomy and associated risks. In order to help them live longer in safe conditions, we need a tool to automatically detect their loss of autonomy by assessing the degree of performance of activities of daily living. This article presents an approach enabling the activities recognition of an elder living alone in a home equipped with noninvasive sensors.

  18. Home humidity increased risk of tuberculosis in children living with adult active tuberculosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Lestari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the countries with the largest number of tuberculosis (TB cases in the world. Environmental factors play significant roles in infection and disease development in children living with adult active TB cases. The aim of this study was to explore the environmental factors affecting TB risk in children, including humidity and number of people living in the same house with the children.  Using a cross-sectional study design, children living with active TB adults for at least 8 weeks were recruited. The subjects underwent clinical examination, tuberculin skin test (TST and radiological investigations. Home visits were conducted three times daily, namely in the morning, at midday, and in the evening, to measure humidity by digital hygrometer and to observe home conditions. Of 56 index cases living with active TB adults in an urban low socio-economic setting, 64 contact TB children were recruited. These children were classified as class I with negative TST and no clinical signs, class II with positive TST and no clinical signs, and class III with both positive TST and clinical signs. There were 32 (50% class I, 10 (15.6% class II and 22 (34.3% class III children. However, a sub-sample of 43 showed positive results for Mtb 16S rRNA, indicating that all children were infected. The humidity cut-off point was set at 75%, p=0.04 and EP 2.09 (CI= 1.32-3.29, signifying that children living in houses with a humidity higher than 75%, were twice more likely to be tuberculin positive. Environmental conditions playing a role in disease development were humidity and number of people living in the house.

  19. New Lives: Some Case Studies in Minamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Kazuko

    Three case studies of young Japanese adults who fell ill with Minamata disease (a form of methyl-mercury poisoning) are presented and the adjustment of the individuals to the disease is analyzed in terms of a model of creativity. The model distinguishes three types of creativity: identificational (in which one identifies with old ideas and…

  20. Both deterioration and improvement in activities of daily living are related to falls: a 6-year follow-up of the general elderly population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenhagen M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Stenhagen, Henrik Ekström, Eva Nordell, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Objectives: To determine the relationship between long-term change in activities of daily living (ADL and falls in the elderly and to identify characteristics of groups at risk for falls.Methods: This was a 6-year, prospective cohort study using data from the Good Aging in Skåne study in southern Sweden, involving 1,540 elderly subjects, including the oldest-old (age, 60–93 years. The subjects were recruited from the general population. ADL was measured at a baseline and follow-up assessment, using Sonn and Åsberg’s revised scale and the ADL staircase. Falls were recorded in a period of 6 months before the follow-up assessment. The association between falls and change in ADL was calculated using adjusted, multiple logistic regression analysis and presented in odds ratios (ORs.Results: Thirteen percent of the study population reported one or several falls in the measured period. Over the course of 6 years, one in four participants changed their ADL status, and parts of this category had an increased risk for falls compared with those who stayed independent in ADL or who had no change in the ADL staircase. Groups with different characteristics had a prominent risk for falls: those with a reduction of two to eight steps in the ADL staircase (OR, 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–10.11 and those becoming independent from dependency in instrumental ADL (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.89–9.00. The former group had advanced age with a greater burden of cognitive impairment, gait disability, arrhythmia, and fall risk medications. The latter group had a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease and low walking speed. Conclusion: Both deterioration and improvement in ADL over the course of 6 years increased the risk for falls in a general elderly population

  1. Investigating walking environments in and around assisted living facilities: a facility visit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    This study explores assisted living residents' walking behaviors, locations where residents prefer to walk, and walking environments in and around assisted living facilities. Regular walking is beneficial to older adults' physical and psychological health. Yet frail older residents in assisted living are usually too sedentary to achieve these benefits. The physical environment plays an important role in promoting physical activity. However, there is little research exploring this relationship in assisted living settings. The researcher visited 34 assisted living facilities in a major Texas city. Methods included walk-through observation with the Assisted Living Facility Walking Environment Checklist, and interviews with administrators by open- and close-ended questions. The data from 26 facilities were analyzed using descriptive statistics (for quantitative data) and content analysis (for qualitative data). The results indicate that (a) residents were walking both indoors and outdoors for exercise or other purposes (e.g., going to destinations); (b) assisted living facility planning and design details-such as neighborhood sidewalk conditions, facility site selection, availability of seating, walking path configuration (e.g., looped/nonlooped path), amount of shading along the path, presence of handrails, existence of signage, etc.-may influence residents' walking behaviors; and (c) current assisted living facilities need improvement in all aspects to make their environments more walkable for residents. Findings of the study provide recommendations for assisted living facilities to improve the walkability of environments and to create environmental interventions to promote regular walking among their residents. This study also implies several directions for future research.

  2. Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) study: Methodology and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an occupation-based diabetes management intervention for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carandang, Kristine; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Sequeira, Paola A; Wood, Jamie R; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Whittemore, Robin; Peters, Anne L

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the study protocol used to evaluate the Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) intervention and reports on baseline characteristics of recruited participants. REAL Diabetes is an activity-based intervention designed to address the needs of young adults diagnosed with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) from low socioeconomic status or racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. The REAL intervention incorporates tailored delivery of seven content modules addressing various dimensions of health and well-being as they relate to diabetes, delivered by a licensed occupational therapist. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, participants are assigned to the REAL Diabetes intervention or an attention control condition. The study's primary recruitment strategies included in-person recruitment at diabetes clinics, mass mailings to clinic patients, and social media advertising. Data collection includes baseline and 6-month assessments of primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, and hypothesized mediators of intervention effects, as well as ongoing process evaluation assessment to ensure study protocol adherence and intervention fidelity. At baseline, participants (n=81) were 51% female, 78% Latino, and on average 22.6years old with an average HbA1c of 10.8%. A majority of participants (61.7%) demonstrated clinically significant diabetes distress and 27.2% reported symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder. Compared to participants with T1D, participants with T2D had lower diabetes-related self-efficacy and problem-solving skills. Compared to participants recruited at clinics, participants recruited through other strategies had greater diabetes knowledge but weaker medication adherence. Participants in the REAL study demonstrate clinically significant medical and psychosocial needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. myMoves Program: Feasibility and Acceptability Study of a Remotely Delivered Self-Management Program for Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults With Acquired Brain Injury Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Taryn M; Dear, Blake F; Hush, Julia M; Titov, Nickolai; Dean, Catherine M

    2016-12-01

    People living with acquired brain injury (ABI) are more likely to be physically inactive and highly sedentary and, therefore, to have increased risks of morbidity and mortality. However, many adults with ABI experience barriers to participation in effective physical activity interventions. Remotely delivered self-management programs focused on teaching patients how to improve and maintain their physical activity levels have the potential to improve the overall health of adults with ABI. The study objective was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a remotely delivered self-management program aimed at increasing physical activity among adults who dwell in the community and have ABI. A single-group design involving comparison of baseline measures with those taken immediately after intervention and at a 3-month follow-up was used in this study. The myMoves Program comprises 6 modules delivered over 8 weeks via email. Participants were provided with regular weekly contact with an experienced physical therapist via email and telephone. The primary outcomes were the feasibility (participation, attrition, clinician time, accessibility, and adverse events) and acceptability (satisfaction, worthiness of time, and recommendation) of the myMoves Program. The secondary outcomes were objective physical activity data collected from accelerometers, physical activity self-efficacy, psychological distress, and participation. Twenty-four participants commenced the program (20 with stroke, 4 with traumatic injury), and outcomes were collected for 23 and 22 participants immediately after the program and at a 3-month follow-up, respectively. The program required very little clinician contact time, with an average of 32.8 minutes (SD=22.8) per participant during the 8-week program. Acceptability was very high, with more than 95% of participants being either very satisfied or satisfied with the myMoves Program and stating that it was worth their time. All participants stated

  4. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  5. Identification and super-resolution imaging of ligand-activated receptor dimers in live cells

    CERN Document Server

    Winckler, Pascale; Giannone, Gregory; De Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions are key to many chemical and biological processes like protein function. In many signaling processes they occur in sub-cellular areas displaying nanoscale organizations and involving molecular assemblies. The nanometric dimensions and the dynamic nature of the interactions make their investigations complex in live cells. While super-resolution fluorescence microscopies offer live-cell molecular imaging with sub-wavelength resolutions, they lack specificity for distinguishing interacting molecule populations. Here we combine super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule F\\"orster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to identify dimers of receptors induced by ligand binding and provide super-resolved images of their membrane distribution in live cells. By developing a two-color universal-Point-Accumulation-In-the-Nanoscale-Topography (uPAINT) method, dimers of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) activated by EGF are studied at ultra-high densities, revealing preferential cell-edge sub-...

  6. Cognitive Functioning and Walking Speed in Older Adults as Predictors of Limitations in Self-Reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living: Prospective Findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuma Makizako

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine whether baseline measures of cognitive functioning, walking speed, and depressive status are independent predictors of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL in older adults. The cross-sectional study involved 1329 community-dwelling adults, aged 75 years or older. At baseline, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST, Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS, and a word list memory task were completed, and self-reported IADLs and walking speed were recorded. The longitudinal study involved 948 participants without baseline IADL limitation, which was assessed at baseline and 15-month follow up, using the three Kihon Checklist subitems. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with IADL limitation demonstrated greater GDS scores, slower walking speeds, and lower MMSE, word list memory task, and SDST (only for women scores relative to those without IADL limitation. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline walking speed (men: OR 0.98; women: OR 0.97, p < 0.05 and word list memory task scores (men: OR 0.84; women: OR 0.83, p < 0.05 in both sexes and SDST scores in women (OR 0.96, p = 0.04 were independent predictors of subsequent IADL limitation. Walking speed, memory, and processing speed may be independent predictors of IADL limitation in older adults.

  7. Assessment of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among people living with HIV at Debrebrihan Referral Hospital and Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketema AK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abush Kebede Ketema,1 Zewdu Shewangizaw Weret21Regional Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, Management Sciences for Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arbaminch University, Arbaminch, EthiopiaAbstract: Patient adherence to antiretroviral combination therapy is a critical component to successful treatment outcome. Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is a major challenge to AIDS care, and the risks associated with it are extensive. The intention of this study was to determine prevalence and associated factors with adherence to highly active ART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA at the Debrebrihan Referral Hospital and Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design with systematic random sampling conducted by the use of a structured, pretested self-rating adherence questionnaire was used to conduct the study among 422 respondents from the Debrebrihan Referral Hospital and Health Center. A single population proportion formula at 95% CI with 5% of marginal error at 50% of prevalence of occurrence was used to determine sample size. Adherence was defined as not missing a single ART dose during the 30-day period prior to filling out the self-report. Adherence was measured by self-reports by the patients. These results were then used in binary logistic regression analysis. Covariates were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression with SPSS statistical software. The total number of respondents in this study was 422; their median age was 35 years. Among the participants, 95.5% were taking their medication without missing a dose. Factors such as having emotional or practical support positively encouraged ART adherence (adjusted odds ratio 0.16 [95% CI 0.05–0.49]. However, users of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM (adjusted odds ratio 4.7 [95% CI 1.06–21.22] had nearly a five times higher risk for ART nonadherence (P<0.05 than those not using

  8. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf

    2016-06-01

    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function.

  9. SALSA: SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (=50;=42 years who participated were overweight (BMI=29.7 kg/m2; bodyfat=38.5% and reported low levels of leisure time PA (=10.7 MET-min/wk and FV consumption (=4.2 servings/day. All were randomized to a four-week (1 semiweekly Latin dance group or (2 internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (=10.7 MET-min/wk to follow up (=34.0 MET-min/wk, <.001, and FV consumption increased over time by group (=.02. Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color.

  10. Load along the femur shaft during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2013-08-09

    A comprehensive knowledge of the loads applied during activities of daily living to the femur shaft is necessary to the design of direct attachments of relevant prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate the three components of the forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the full femur shaft. Twenty healthy young volunteers were analyzed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stairs ascending and descending, squat, rising from a chair and sitting down. Average load patterns, after normalisation for body weight and height, were calculated over subjects for each point, about the three anatomical axes, and for each motor task. These patterns were found consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes and tasks. In general, the moments were observed limitedly influenced by the progression speed, and higher for more proximal points. The moments were also higher in abd/adduction (8.1% body weight*height on average), nearly three times larger than those in flex/extension (2.6) during stair descending. The largest value over all moments was 164.8 N m, abd/adduction in level walking at high speed. The present results should be of value also for a most suitable level for amputation in transfemoral amputation, for in-vitro mechanical tests and for finite element models of the femur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Load along the tibial shaft during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2014-03-21

    External load at the tibia during activities of daily living provides baseline measures for the improvement of the design of the bone-implant interface for relevant internal and external prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate three-dimensional forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the tibial shaft. Twenty young and able-bodied volunteers were analysed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, in a straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stair ascending and descending, squatting, rising from a chair and sitting down. Moment and force patterns were normalised to the percentage of body weight per height and body weight, respectively, and then averaged over all subjects for each point, about the three tibial anatomical axes, and for each task. Load patterns were found to be consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes, tasks and points. Generally, moments were higher in the medio/lateral axis and influenced by walking speed. In all five walking tasks and in ascending stairs with alternating feet, the more proximal the point was the smaller the mean moment was. For the remaining tasks the opposite trend was observed. The overall largest value was observed in the medio/lateral direction at the ankle centre in level walking at high speed (9.1% body weight * height on average), nearly three times larger than that of the anterior/posterior axis (2.9) during level walking with a sidestep turn. The present results should be of value also for in-vitro mechanical tests and finite element models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; la Cour, Karen

    2015-01-01

    capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observations-based assessment of activities...

  13. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Alaine Souza Lima; Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; Ludmila Remígio de Almeida; Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F. de; Samara Barreto Cunha; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified acc...

  14. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Liam; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2005-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psycholo...

  15. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCo...

  16. 居住环境内儿童活动空间的设计研究%Study on the Design of Children's Activity Space in the Living Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙语聪; 孙丽丽; 杨洪雁

    2016-01-01

    Children activity space is a very important part of modern children’s growth environment, lively is the nature of children, space diversity is the inevitable requirement to realize the healthy growth of children. Therefore, a good indoor activity space in the living environment is indispensable for children. How to ensure the children’s safety in the process of indoor activities, and fully meet the needs of children’s physical and mental aspects has become the key consideration elements of the living environment design and planning. This article will expand the analysis and discussion for the environment and living space for children in the design of this issue.%儿童活动空间是现代儿童成长环境中十分重要的一个组成部分,活泼好动是儿童的天性之一,因此空间的多样性是儿童实现健康成长的必然要求。因此,在居住环境中良好的室内活动空间对于儿童来说是不可或缺的。而如何能够保证儿童在室内活动过程中的安全性,并充分满足儿童身心方面的需求,也成为了居住环境设计与规划中要重点考量的要素,本文针对居住环境及儿童活动空间的设计这一问题展开分析与探讨。

  17. Relationship between perinatal characteristics and later activities of daily living in Chinese elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHANG Zhen-xin; HAN Shao-mei; XIAO Xin-hua; GONG Xiao-ming; CHEN Xia; HU Hong-tao; WANG Zi-shi; LIU Ai-min

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no reports on the association between perinatal characteristics and comprehensive physical function in Chinese elderly people. In this study, we traced 875 subjects who were born at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) of China from 1921 to 1941. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of perinatal characteristics on activities of daily living (ADL) function in the geriatric period. Methods Birth data of 875 subjects were obtained from obstetric birth records of PUMCH. Adulthood data collection was conducted in the outpatient clinics of PUMCH. During the clinic visits, trained research staff administered physical examinations, activities of daily living scale and a demographic questionnaire. ADLs of all subjects were assessed with the activities of daily living scale.Results There were 101 subjects whose ADL function was limited and the rate of ADL limitation was 11.5%. Binary logistic regression analyses results showed that the main influencing factors of ADL were age, maternal age at birth, occupation, daily exercise and chronic disease. Subjects whose maternal age at their birth exceeded 35 years were at 2.202 times (1.188-4.083) greater risk of ADL limitation when we applied multivariate logistic regression models. Conclusions This study validated the relationship between perinatal characteristics and ADL in the geriatric period. An older maternal age at birth could predict a higher ADL limitation rate in the geriatric period.

  18. Relationships between event-related potentials (P300) and activities of daily living in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Itakura, Toru; Komai, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Ueyoshi, Akitaka

    2002-01-01

    The correlation between event-related potentials (P300) and activities of daily living was studied in Parkinson's disease. The P300 of 30 patients with Parkinson's disease and 118 normal subjects were recorded. All patients were evaluated by the Mini-Mental State, Kana-hiroi Test, word fluency, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Osaka Memory Scale, revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, self-rating depression scale, state-trait anxiety inventory, and Functional Independence Measure. Eight patients showed prolonged P300 latencies. P300 latency showed relationships to the Mini-Mental State (p Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (p < 0.01) and motor items of the Functional Independence Measure (p < 0.05). It was concluded that P300 should be useful in predicting difficulties with activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  19. Environmental stressors: the mental health impacts of living near industrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Van Willigen, Marieke

    2005-09-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the US. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals' perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities.

  20. Living With Cluster Headache: A Qualitative Study of Patients' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Talavera, Blanca; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Palacios-Ceña, María; Arias, José A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the views and experiences of a group of Spanish men suffering from cluster headache (CH). CH has considerable effects on patients' quality of life, impairs everyday activities, and can modify lifestyle. This is the first time the experience of patients with CH is examined in a clinical study using a qualitative, phenomenological approach. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study exploring how 20 male patients with CH, followed at the Headache Unit of a Spanish hospital, perceived their disease. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, researchers' field notes and patients' personal letters. A systematic text condensation analysis was performed following appropriate guidelines for qualitative research. Mean age was 41.15 years (standard deviation, 11.25). Seventeen patients had episodic CH and three patients had chronic CH. Five main themes describing the significance of suffering CH emerged: (a) meaning of disease, (b) experience of attacks, (c) meaning of treatment, (d) healthcare, and (e) social and family interaction. Patients with CH often live in fear and uncertainty because of their condition. Intensity and frequency of attacks, the use of ineffective treatments, skepticism perceived from social and workplace environments and physician unawareness play a significant role. Qualitative research offers insight into the way CH patients experience their disease, and may be helpful in establishing a fruitful relationship with these patients. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  1. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  2. Entrepreneurial university activity can field or living labs be supportive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geenhuizen, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    „Field labs‟ („living labs‟) are explored to determine their role in bringing new knowledge from university to market. The case is the Netherlands, a country facing an innovation system in which much new knowledge is created by universities but small amounts are brought to market, apparently caused

  3. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  4. Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED has become a popular urban planning approach to preventing crime and mitigating fear of crime through the improvement of physical neighborhood environments. CPTED is widely used to improve deteriorated neighborhoods that suffer from crime. However, few studies have empirically examined the complex relationships among CPTED, fear of crime, and active living. Our study, therefore, investigated the effects of CPTED measures on walking frequency and fear of crime, analyzing behavioral data of residents living in participatory neighborhood regeneration areas and matched neighborhoods. We analyzed survey data from 12 neighborhoods that implemented CPTED approaches and 12 matched neighborhoods in Seoul, Korea, using structural equation modeling, which could consistently estimate complex direct and indirect relationships between a latent variable (fear of crime and observable variables (CPTED measures and walking frequency. We designed the survey instrument as a smartphone app. Participants were recruited from 102 locations within the 24 selected neighborhoods; in total, 623 individuals returned surveys. The results revealed that sufficient closed-circuit television, street lighting, and maintenance played a significant role in mitigating fear of crime. This study has implications for planning and policy issues related to CPTED, mental health, and active living.

  5. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  6. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  7. Lived Experience of Women Suffering from Vitiligo: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borimnejad, Leili; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2006-01-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease, which through change of appearance and body image, exerts a devastating effect on people, especially women. The objective of this study is to explore lived experience of women with Vitiligo by the hermeneutic phenomenology method. The purposive sample consisted of 16 Iranian women. Data analysis followed…

  8. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  9. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  10. The Role of Psychogeriatrics in Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Enrico; Spatola, Chiara; Pietrabissa, Giada; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    A healthy and active life is a key issue for elderly citizens, above all when psychological complications such as depression and anxiety disorders, late delusion or loneliness can be observed. Moreover, medical pathologies in elderly patients often have a multi-factorial etiology and many psychopathological dimensions and psychosocial risk factors are underestimated. From the perspective of clinical health psychology, psychogeriatrics could play an important role in promoting active ageing and a healthy lifestyle in elderly persons through tailored clinical approaches based on specific research and advanced professional training in this area. More research is needed in order to study which determinants affect the process of an active and functional ageing. Possible research ageing areas are: 1) evaluation of psychosocial risk-protective factors related to the individual's biography and personality. 2) Evaluation of enrichment programs and clinical protocols focused on the management of different topics such as health system areas, behavioral areas, social and physical environment areas, psychological factors and economic determinants. The goal of Psychogeriatrics endeavors to develop and evaluate interventions designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as to reduce loneliness among older citizens. 3) Evaluation of self-management programs in chronic disease conditions (such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking), that could enhance risk factors for health in elderly citizens. Typical key elements of self-management, such as decision making, problem solving, motivation, self-efficacy, resource utilization, and citizen's empowerment have to be studied.

  11. Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C; Howard, R

    2014-02-01

    Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis: a BARFOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Sidona-Valentina; Samuelson, Karin; Hagell, Peter; Fridlund, Bengt; Forslind, Kristina; Svensson, Björn; Thomé, Bibbi

    2017-09-01

    To describe and understand the meaning of living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis. A considerable number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis live with an ongoing active and symptomatic illness despite access to potent antirheumatic treatment. There is, however, a lack of knowledge about the meaning of living with this severe long-term illness, defined as persistent rheumatoid arthritis. A descriptive design based on a hermeneutic phenomenological method was used. Ten adults with persistent rheumatoid arthritis and at least five years disease duration were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to van Manen's method. Living with persistent rheumatoid arthritis revealed four overall themes: an existence dominated by painful symptoms and treatment, radical changes and limitations in one's life, a continual struggle to cope with one's life and to master the illness, and a dependency on those who are close by and the world around. The lifeworld was affected to a varying extent and in various ways by the illness but also by the dependence on its treatment and care that was not experienced as sufficiently meeting needs in terms of security, access to and coordination of care as well as team and rehabilitation services. Persistent rheumatoid arthritis and its treatment entail a radical effect on the person's life and quality of life. Current ordinary rheumatology care does not seem to meet the individual needs of the person with persistent rheumatoid arthritis in an optimal way. A greater knowledge about and understanding of the person who lives with persistent rheumatoid arthritis is important for facilitating the development of care and the relief of suffering. A holistic alternative to conventional clinical practice, such as person-centred care, could be tested as an innovative model of care. Our findings might serve as material for educational and counselling purposes for healthcare professionals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Occupational therapy for adults with problems in activities of daily living after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Lynn A; Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Drummond, Avril; Langhorne, Peter

    2017-07-19

    participants who had deteriorated or were dependent in personal activities of daily living and performance in activities of daily living at the end of follow-up. We included nine studies with 994 participants in this update. Occupational therapy targeted towards activities of daily living after stroke increased performance scores (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 0.31, P = 0.02; 7 studies; 749 participants; low-quality evidence) and reduced the risk of poor outcome (death, deterioration or dependency in personal activities of daily living) (odds ratio (OR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96; P = 0.03; 5 studies; 771 participants; low-quality evidence). We also found that those who received occupational therapy were more independent in extended activities of daily living (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.37); P = 0.005; 5 studies; 665 participants; low-quality evidence). Occupational therapy did not influence mortality (OR: 1.02 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.61); P = 0.93; 8 studies; 950 participants), or reduce the combined odds of death and institutionalisation (OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.32); P = 0.55; 4 studies; 671 participants), or death and dependency (OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.23); P = 0.47; 4 trials; 659 participants). Occupational therapy did not improve mood or distress scores (OR 0.08 (95% CI -0.09 to 0.26); P = 0.35; 4 studies; 519 participants; low-quality evidence). There were insufficient data to determine the effects of occupational therapy on health-related quality of life. We found no studies of consenting carers prior to study participation and therefore there were no carer-related outcomes in our review. There were insufficient data to determine participants' and carers' satisfaction with services.Using GRADE, the quality of evidence was low. The major limitation was the number of studies at unclear risk of selection bias and an inevitable high risk of performance and detection bias, as both participants and occupational therapists could not

  14. Active mechanics reveal molecular-scale force kinetics in living oocytes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Verlhac, Marie-Helene; Gov, Nir S; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frederic; Betz, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Unlike traditional materials, living cells actively generate forces at the molecular scale that change their structure and mechanical properties. This nonequilibrium activity is essential for cellular function, and drives processes such as cell division. Single molecule studies have uncovered the detailed force kinetics of isolated motor proteins in-vitro, however their behavior in-vivo has been elusive due to the complex environment inside the cell. Here, we quantify active force generation in living oocytes using in-vivo optical trapping and laser interferometry of endogenous vesicles. We integrate an experimental and theoretical framework to connect mesoscopic measurements of nonequilibrium properties to the underlying molecular-scale force kinetics. Our results show that force generation by myosin-V drives the cytoplasmic-skeleton out-of-equilibrium (at frequencies below 300 Hz) and actively softens the environment. In vivo myosin-V activity generates a force of $F \\sim 0.4$ pN, with a power-stroke of len...

  15. Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.

  16. Validation of Katz index of independence in activities of daily living in Turkish older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Gunes; Varan, Hacer Dogan; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Karabulut, Erdem; Kara, Ozgur; Kilic, Mustafa Kemal; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Sumer, Fatih; Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Yesil, Yusuf; Halil, Meltem; Cankurtaran, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale (Katz ADL) is a widely used tool to assess the level of independency in older adults. The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the six item Katz ADL in geriatric patients aged 65 years and older. The participants were recruited in a geriatric medicine outpatient clinic (n=211). The Katz ADL was translated to Turkish and it was administered with the Barthel index (BI) and SF-36 physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF) which are already validated in Turkish. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency, interrater and test-retest analysis. Construct validity was assessed by Spearman correlations between the Katz ADL and other functional status indices. The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α=0.838). The test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability were excellent (ICC 0.999 [0.999-1.000 95% CI]). Regarding the convergent validity strong associations between Katz ADL, BI and SF-36 PF were demonstrated (rs=0.988, pKatz ADL-six item version in the geriatric population living in Turkey. Turkish version of the Katz ADL is a valid and reliable scale to detect the disability status in the basic activities of daily living in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein nonenzymatic modifications and proteasome activity in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat and long-lived pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero-Otín, Manel; Requena, Jesús R; Bellmunt, Maria Josep; Ayala, Victoria; Pamplona, Reinald

    2004-10-01

    What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to similar size mammalian counterparts. Since oxidative stress is causally related to the basic aging process, markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins (glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine; N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine and dinitrophenylhydrazyne-reactive protein carbonyls, peptidase activities of the proteasome, and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition were identified and measured in skeletal muscle from the short-lived rat (maximum life span, 4 years) and compared with the long-lived pigeon (maximum life span, 35 years). Skeletal muscle from pigeon showed significantly higher levels of glutamic semialdehyde, protein carbonyls (by western blot), N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine. No differences were observed for aminoadipic semialdehyde, whereas the lipoxidation marker N(epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine displayed a significant low steady-state level, probably related with their significantly lower membrane unsaturation. The amino acid compositional analysis revealed that arginine, serine, threonine and methionine showed significantly lower levels in pigeon. Finally, pigeon samples showed also significantly lower levels of the peptidase activities of the proteasome. These results reinforces the role of structural components such as membrane unsaturation and protein composition in determining the longer maximum life span showed by birds compared with mammals of similar body size.

  18. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  19. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (∼20 cells), medium (∼100 cells), and large (∼400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  20. A Comparison of Two Motion Sensors for the Assessment of Free-Living Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Cuberek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the daily step counts recorded by two different motion sensors in order to estimate the free-living physical activity of 135 adolescent girls. Each girl concurrently wore a Yamax pedometer and an ActiGraph accelerometer (criterion measure every day for seven consecutive days. The convergent validity of the pedometer can be considered intermediate when used to measure the step counts in free-living physical activity; but should be considered with caution when used to classify participants’ step counts into corresponding physical activity categories because of a likelihood of ‘erroneous’ classification in comparison with the accelerometer.

  1. The Influence of Climacteric Symptoms on Women’s Lives and Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we performed an analysis of the influence of climacteric symptoms on women’s lives and activities, i.e. their quality of life (QoL. The study was performed between October 2011 and February 2012. It included 148 women aged 44–62. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instrument was the Blatt-Kupperman index. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, quality of life, and the influence of climacteric symptoms on life and its various aspects. The respondents experiencing moderate or severe climacteric symptoms also had stronger feelings of failure (p = 0.005, feeling that opportunities are still available (p = 0.002, of losing their youth and beauty (p < 0.0001, compared to those who had slight or no symptoms. The intensity of climacteric symptoms significantly affects women’s lives and activities, i.e., their QoL. The reported intensity of climacteric symptoms is influenced by the respondents’ education, residence, marital status and professional activity. The more severe the climacteric symptoms, the lower the women’s quality of life, as evidenced for example by the feeling of failure and of losing one’s youth, beauty and opportunities.

  2. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain.

  3. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  4. Lived experiences of elderly home residents: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing elderly population has been lead to increased number of hospices and their customers. However, the lived experiences of elderly home residents have been less noticed. This study aimed to investigate the lived experiences of elderly residents of Kashan's Golabchi elderly hospice.Methods: In this qualitative study based on phenomenological approach data collected using purposive sampling and deep open interview, narrative collection method until data saturation was obtained. Data were analyzed using Van Manen’s six step method.Results: Fifteen elderly with age range 65-73 years and average length of stay of 2.5 years participated in the study. Five items were extracted from data, including of "rejection and isolation", "feel failure and disgrace", "adaptation", "satisfaction" and "being monotonous and waiting". Most of the participants felt that were rejected by their families and the community. Their life was tedious and this had reduced their life passion and they were waiting for the end of life. Conclusion: Most of the elderly had not positive experiences of living in the hospice. Inattention of the family and the condition of the hospice environment made them a feel of “isolation and being rejected” along with a “feel of failure and disgrace”. Improving the validity of elderly home residents, may be achieved by improving communication culture of this population, elderly hospices condition and appropriate training of geriatric nurses.

  5. O desempenho de idosos institucionalizados com alterações cognitivas em atividades de vida diária e mobilidade: estudo piloto Performance in daily living activities and mobility among institutionalized elderly people with cognitive impairments: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DLC Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    and Go" (TUG test, and daily living activities (DLA via the Katz Index. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between mobility assessed by TUG and performance in the MMSE (Pearson's r = 0.234; p = 0.232. A positive association was detected between the elderly people's performance in the TUG test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal tasks measured by the Katz Index (p = 0.039; p = 0.000; p = 0.001, respectively; ANOVA. There was no significant association between cognitive impairment detected by MMSE and the elderly people's performance in the five activities of the Katz Index (bathing: p= 0.774; dressing: p = 0.567; hygiene: p = 0.857; transferal: p = 0.824; continence: p= 0.947; ANOVA. Increasing age did not demonstrate any significant correlation with performance in any of the tests (TUG: p = 0.466, r = 0.144; MMSE: p = 0.841, Pearson's r = 0.040. Conclusion: The cognitive impairment of these elderly people, detected via the MMSE, did not have any association with their performance in the mobility and DLA tests. However, there was a significant association between their performance in the mobility test and their achievement in bathing, dressing and transferal activities.

  6. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  7. User Modeling for Activity Recognition and Support in Ambient Assisted Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Shabbir; Valente, Pedro Ricardo da Nova; Hallenborg, Kasper;

    intelligent technologies to support people with special demands to live longer periods in their proffered environment [2]. The prime challenges of the AAL are recognition of the assisted person’s current activity and providing appropriate support to the person [3]. But these systems need extensive studies...... on user modeling to be more efficient to adapt the changes of user capabilities and preferences which is strongly correlated with the prime challenges of AAL. In this paper, a user model has been proposed that tends to be used in the autonomous and reliable recognition....

  8. Human activity understanding for robot-assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated the problem of understanding human activities, at different levels of granularity and taking into account both the variability in activities and annotator disagreement. To be able to capture the large variations within each of the action classes, we propose a model that uses

  9. Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Råback Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association. Methods The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility, sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions, and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers. Results Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23 higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05. The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11 and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14. Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors. Conclusions These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.

  10. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  11. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Reinders

    Full Text Available Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  12. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor

  13. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuropsychological benefits of a narrative cognitive training program for people living with dementia: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Batini; Giulia Toti; Marco Bartolucci

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many areas in the cortex are active during reading of narrative material, and these activations in the brain produce significant changes in connectivity. Following previous results showing cognitive benefits in memory domains of a narrative training program in nursing home patients living with dementia, the aim of the present study was to perform a more in depth investigation of the effects of this training on memory domains and other cognitive areas. Methods: An experimental group ...

  15. U.S. congregations' provision of programs or activities for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2013-06-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. congregations, this study estimates the proportion of congregations that provide programs or activities that serve people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and examines the effects of congregational characteristics on the likelihood of having them. The analysis finds that 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.034-0.078) of U.S. congregations (roughly 18,500 (95% CI, 11,300-25,800) congregations) provide programs or activities to PLWHA. Numerous congregational characteristics increase the likelihood that congregations provide them: the presence of openly HIV positive people in the congregation, having a group that assesses their community's needs, religious tradition, and openness to gays and lesbians. By building on previous research, this study provides further information about the scope of religious congregations' involvement with PLWHA and also insight into which congregations may be willing to collaborate with other organizations to provide care for PLWHA.

  16. Children’s drawing activities and narratives from their everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    In the Scandinavian countries it has become common to make children’s perspectives on their own lives in family and child care part of research in these areas. This raises questions about what methods to use when we study young children. In this session the presenter will – together with Grethe...... Kragh-Müller and Dorte Kousholt – discuss drawing activities as a research method in the study of young children. This presentation focus on how children’s interaction and visual experiences contribute to the construction and transformation of meanings and narratives as they are mediated in children....... In the drawing activity and situation in the specific context various events and material tools and artefacts may appeal to the drawing child in ways that affect the drawing. This is important to take into consideration in research. The presentation includes examples from two research projects that aimed...

  17. Physical activity and sleep of persons living with HIV/AIDS: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this academic work is to present the evidences available in literature about the relation between physical activity and sleep in regards to individuals living with HIV/AIDS. The databases: Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science direct, Bireme, Scopus and EBSCO, were used to identify four articles, published until September 2015 to be included in this systematic review. According to the analyzed studies, interventions with physical activity for persons living with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with the quality of sleep, total sleep time, efficiency, decreased of number of awakenings during sleep and improvement of sleeping disorders (insomnia. Therefore, the results presented in this research paper makes evident that physical activity has a relation with the quality of sleep amongst this specific population group, causing benefits to the quality of life of the patients. Nonetheless, it has been noticed that there is a necessity for more research and investigation in regards to the topic presented.

  18. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-07

    Making communities bike-friendly can help reduce traffic congestion and increase the physical activity of residents. Learn how one Philadelphia resident worked with his community to make Philadelphia a more bike-friendly city.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  19. School Physical Education, Extracurricular Sports, and Lifelong Active Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarro, Jason; Kanters, Michael A.; Casper, Jonathan; Forrester, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of school-based extracurricular initiatives in facilitating immediate and long-term positive impact on physical activity, healthy behavior, and obesity in children. A critique of the role of various sports-related initiatives that have been developed to address the obesity epidemic currently…

  20. Making Health Easier: Active Living in Austin, TX PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-07

    A local Austin, Texas, woman started a walking group to make physical activity fun for herself and community.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  1. Quantitative impedimetric NPY-receptor activation monitoring and signal pathway profiling in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Kamp, Verena; Lindner, Ricco; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Krinke, Dana; Kostelnik, Katja B; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2015-05-15

    Label-free and non-invasive monitoring of receptor activation and identification of the involved signal pathways in living cells is an ongoing analytic challenge and a great opportunity for biosensoric systems. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based system for the activation monitoring of NPY-receptors in living cells. Using an optimized interdigital electrode array for sensitive detection of cellular alterations, we were able for the first time to quantitatively detect the NPY-receptor activation directly without a secondary or enhancer reaction like cAMP-stimulation by forskolin. More strikingly, we could show that the impedimetric based NPY-receptor activation monitoring is not restricted to the Y1-receptor but also possible for the Y2- and Y5-receptor. Furthermore, we could monitor the NPY-receptor activation in different cell lines that natively express NPY-receptors and proof the specificity of the observed impedimetric effect by agonist/antagonist studies in recombinant NPY-receptor expressing cell lines. To clarify the nature of the observed impedimetric effect we performed an equivalent circuit analysis as well as analyzed the role of cell morphology and receptor internalization. Finally, an antagonist based extensive molecular signal pathway analysis revealed small alterations of the actin cytoskeleton as well as the inhibition of at least L-type calcium channels as major reasons for the observed NPY-induced impedance increase. Taken together, our novel impedance spectroscopy based NPY-receptor activation monitoring system offers the opportunity to identify signal pathways as well as for novel versatile agonist/antagonist screening systems for identification of novel therapeutics in the field of obesity and cancer.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  4. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  5. Study on the relationship between individual activities of daily living and self-rated health among elderly people in Beijing%老年人生活自理能力与健康自评的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 孙菲; 汤哲; 刁丽军

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解北京市老年人生活自理能力状况及其与健康自评之间的相关关系。方法采取分层整群抽样方法,抽取来自北京市城区和农村的2411名60岁及以上的老年人进行问卷调查。问卷包括人口学资料、家庭与经济状况、卫生行为、躯体健康及生活活动能力等多个维度的内容。结果在接受健康自评调查的2335名老年人中,分别有6.38%和40.21%的人认为自己的健康状况为“很好”或“好”,17.26%和2.01%的老年人认为自己的健康状况为“差”或“很差”。农村老年人在日常活动中的非完全自理比例均明显高于城区老年人。女性老年人“洗澡”、“自己乘车”、“上街购物”、“走半里路”、“剪脚趾甲”和“上下一层楼”等项目的非完全自理比例明显高于男性老年人。 Logistic回归分析结果显示老年人的生活自理能力与健康状态之间存在明显的相关关系,生活非完全自理的老年人的健康自评结果明显较自理老年人差。在各因素中,进食( OR=7.51,95%CI:3.55~15.89)和室内活动(OR=7.36,95%CI:4.29~12.64)是与健康自评有关的、主要的、独立的影响因素。结论生活自理能力是老年人的自评健康状态的重要影响因素。%Objective To investigate both the prevalence of functional disability in each activity of basic activities of daily living ( ADL) item and instrumental activities of daily living ( IADL) item scales, then the association between each ADL and IADL item and the self-rated health was also explored among the elderly in Beijing. Methods The sample population consisted of 2 411 elderly people over 60, which were taken samples from urban and rural district in Beijing by stratified cluster sampling method. The investigations were completed by trained staff using questionnaires concerning demographic characteristics, living conditions and health status, and activities of

  6. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992. Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category. This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of

  7. Direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke

    2014-10-01

    To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pnutritional status through physical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pnutritional status on activities of daily living was observed (b=0.058, P=0.258). The present study identified the complex pathway from nutritional status to the activities of daily living through physical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Screen Time in Obese and Overweight Children Living in Different Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raistenskis, Juozas; Sidlauskiene, Aurelija; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Burokiene, Sigita; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Buckus, Raimondas

    2015-11-01

    To assess the relationship of children's physical activity and sedentary screen time with overweight and obesity in children living in different environments (town and city) in Lithuania. An analysis of anthropometric data from 532 children living in town and city areas was performed. A youth physical activity questionnaire (YPAQ) was conducted to evaluate physical activity and sedentary screen time. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the children was 25.5% in the town and 18.6% in the city. Children living in the town on average engaged 9.3 min/day less in moderate to vigorous physical activity (p=0.050) and had 33.2 MET-min/day lower energy expenditure than children living in the city. Sedentary screen time was extremely high on weekends in both town and city children. A higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was found in children living in the town compared to children living in the city. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  9. Translating active living research into policy and practice: one important pathway to chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F; Sugiyama, Takemi; Frank, Lawrence D; Lowe, Melanie; Owen, Neville

    2015-05-01

    Global concerns about rising levels of chronic disease make timely translation of research into policy and practice a priority. There is a need to tackle common risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and harmful alcohol use. Using evidence to inform policy and practice is challenging, often hampered by a poor fit between academic research and the needs of policymakers and practitioners--notably for active living researchers whose objective is to increase population physical activity by changing the ways cities are designed and built. We propose 10 strategies that may facilitate translation of research into health-enhancing urban planning policy. Strategies include interdisciplinary research teams of policymakers and practitioners; undertaking explicitly policy-relevant research; adopting appropriate study designs and methodologies (evaluation of policy initiatives as 'natural experiments'); and adopting dissemination strategies that include knowledge brokers, advocates, and lobbyists. Conducting more policy-relevant research will require training for researchers as well as different rewards in academia.

  10. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic activities in live mammalian hippocampal tissues with stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Wei, Lu; Morrison, Barclay; Min, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Brain is an immensely complex system displaying dynamic and heterogeneous metabolic activities. Visualizing cellular metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids in brain with chemical specificity has been a long-standing challenge. Recent development in metabolic labeling of small biomolecules allows the study of these metabolisms at the global level. However, these techniques generally require nonphysiological sample preparation for either destructive mass spectrometry imaging or secondary labeling with relatively bulky fluorescent labels. In this study, we have demonstrated bioorthogonal chemical imaging of DNA, RNA, protein and lipid metabolism in live rat brain hippocampal tissues by coupling stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with integrated deuterium and alkyne labeling. Heterogeneous metabolic incorporations for different molecular species and neurogenesis with newly-incorporated DNA were observed in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus at the single cell level. We further applied this platform to study metabolic responses to traumatic brain injury in hippocampal slice cultures, and observed marked upregulation of protein and lipid metabolism particularly in the hilus region of the hippocampus within days of mechanical injury. Thus, our method paves the way for the study of complex metabolic profiles in live brain tissue under both physiological and pathological conditions with single-cell resolution and minimal perturbation.

  11. Evaluation of An Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606

  12. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway.

  13. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement desi

  14. Decrease in heart rate after longitudinal participation in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen; Scherder, Erik; Stewart, Roy; King, Abby; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement

  15. Longitudinal changes in heart rate after participating in the Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) recreational sports programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Scherder; Abby King; Roy Stewart; Dr. Johan de Jong; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in heart rate during submaximal exercise as an index of cardiovascular function in older adults participating in the Groningen Active Living Model recreational sports programme who were sedentary or underactive at baseline. A repeated measurement

  16. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  17. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  18. Mechanical and free living comparisons of four generations of the Actigraph activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried-Larsen Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More studies include multiple generations of the Actigraph activity monitor. So far no studies have compared the output including the newest generation and investigated the impact on the output of the activity monitor when enabling the low frequency extension (LFE option. The aims were to study the responses of four generations (AM7164, GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ of the Actigraph activity monitor in a mechanical setup and a free living environment with and without enabling the LFE option. Methods The monitors were oscillated in a mechanical setup using two radii in the frequency range 0.25-3.0 Hz. Following the mechanical study a convenience sample (N = 20 wore three monitors (one AM7164 and two GT3X for 24 hours. Results The AM7164 differed from the newer generations across frequencies (p -1 were attenuated (p > 0.05 for differences between generations thus attenuated the difference in mean PA (p > 0.05 when the LFE option was enabled. However, it did not attenuate the difference in time spend in vigorous PA and it introduced a difference in time spend in moderate PA (+ 3.0 min (95% CI 0.4 to 5.6 between the generations. Conclusion We observed significant differences between the AM7164 and the newer Actigraph GT-generations (GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ in a mechanical setup and in free-living. Enabling the LFE option attenuated the differences in mean PA completely, but induced a bias in the moderate PA intensities.

  19. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods.

  20. Impact of rehabilitation on activities of daily living of stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Lun Fan; Hai-Yan Chen; Yi-Bin Ou; Jiao-Hong Li; Fei Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of rehabilitation intervention on activities of daily living of stroke patients tracking.Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-blind study was conducted from January 2014 through December 2015, 60 cases of hospitalized patients with stroke as the observation group, using track rehabilitation intervention from January to December in 2015; and 60 hospitalized patients with stroke as the control group, using conventional rehabilitation interventions from January to December in 2014. Their ADL was assessed by using modified Barthel index and compared.Results:Before the intervention, the two groups showed no significant difference in MBI score; after the intervention, the difference between the two groups MBI score and before treatment were significant (P <0.05), compared the BMI between observation group (81.42 ± 14.28) and control group (59.23 ± 12.37), the difference between the two groups was significant (P <0.01)Conclusions:The track rehabilitation intervention is more effective in improving activities of daily living in stroke patients.

  1. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: Numerical Activities of Daily Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eSemenza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL, designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148 and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175, with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities.

  2. Parenting experiences of couples living with human immunodeficiency virus: a qualitative study from rural Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombachika, Belinda Chimphamba; Sundby, Johanne; Chirwa, Ellen; Malata, Address

    2014-01-01

    The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed couples living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live longer and healthier lives. The reduction in the mother-to-child transmission of HIV has encouraged some people living with HIV (PLWH) to have children. However, little is known about the parenting experiences of couples living with HIV (CLWH). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe parenting experiences of seroconcordant couples who have a child while living with HIV in Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 14 couples purposively sampled in matrilineal Chiradzulu and patrilineal Chikhwawa communities from July to December 2010. The research findings shows that irrespective of kinship organization, economic hardships, food insecurity, gender-specific role expectations and conflicting information from health institutions and media about sources of support underpin their parenting roles. In addition, male spouses are directly involved in household activities, childcare and child feeding decisions, challenging the existing stereotyped gender norms. In the absence of widow inheritance, widows from patrilineal communities are not receiving the expected support from the deceased husband relatives. Finally, the study has shown that CLWH are able to find solutions for the challenges they encounter. Contrary to existing belief that such who have children depend solely on public aid. Such claims without proper knowledge of local social cultural contexts, may contribute to stigmatizing CLWH who continue to have children. The study is also relevant to PLWH who, although not parents themselves, are confronted with a situation where they have to accept responsibility for raising children from their kin. We suggest the longer-term vision for ART wide access in Malawi to be broadened beyond provision of ART to incorporate social and economic interventions that support the rebuilding of CLWH social and economic lives. The

  3. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    Published online: 13 Feb 2014. To cite this article: J.M. Frantz .... convenient sample of people attending the clinic was approached to participate in the study ... household activi- ties; walking to and from work; shopping, school and church; as.

  4. Experience of living with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhari Azad F

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease. Addition to various clinical manifestations it has spiritual, psycho-social and economic consequences. The present research was conducted aimed to describe the lived experiences of patients living with systemic lupus erythematosus.  Materials and Method: A qualitative study, using phenomenology approach was used. Ten patients with SLE who referred to rheumatology clinic in Bandar Abbas were selected through purposive sampling in 2012. Data generation was done through in-depth unstructured interview. Colaizzi's method of data analysis was used for analysis.  Results: The results of study demonstrated four main themes including Mental-emotional consequences, pain of recurrence of disease, forgotten socio-economic needs and inability to perform duties.  Conclusion: According to results, patients experience the wide range of problems and they need to take care of family and society concerning the physical aspects and receiving psychological support in psychological aspects. Because of the medical expenses and work-related disability, economic pressures propel them to dependence and challenge in meeting the needs of health care. Some of their needs remain unanswered

  5. Factors associated with functional limitations in the daily living activities of Japanese hip osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kyoko; Jingushi, Seiya; Ohfuji, Satoko; Sofue, Muroto; Itoman, Moritoshi; Matsumoto, Tadami; Hamada, Yoshiki; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Takatori, Yoshio; Yamada, Harumoto; Yasunaga, Yuji; Ito, Hiroshi; Mori, Satoshi; Owan, Ichiro; Fujii, Genji; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Inui, Miki; Takahashi, Shinji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-12-10

    As society ages, there is a vast number of elderly people with locomotive syndrome. In this study, the factors associated with functional limitations in daily living activities evaluated by female hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients were investigated. This study was a cross-sectional study. The subjects were 353 female patients who were newly diagnosed with hip OA at an orthopedic clinic with no history of hip joint surgery. Outcome indices were functional limitations in two daily living activities obtained from a questionnaire completed by the patients: (i) standing up (standing from a crouched position) and (ii) stair-climbing (climbing and/or descending stairs). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for explanatory variables using the proportional odds model in logistic regression to evaluate their associations with functional limitations. Functional limitations in standing up were associated with heavy weight (third tertile vs. first tertile: 1.91, 1.11-3.27), participation in sports at school (0.62, 0.40-0.98), parity (vs. nullipara: 1.96, 1.08-3.56), old age and OA stage. Associations with functional limitations in stair-climbing were seen with short height (weight, parity, shorter height and bilateral OA were associated with functional limitations in standing up and/or stair-climbing, whereas participation in sports such as club activities in school maintained standing up. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases published by Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bente Skovsby; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    the seven-step procedure of the Joanna Briggs Institute and was published in a protocol. Six databases were searched using keywords and index terms. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in cited citations up until March 2015. The selected studies underwent quality appraisal in the Joanna...

  7. (Instrumental) activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence Of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were m

  8. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  9. Validity of physical activity monitors in adults participating in free-living activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, S; Hageberg, R; Aandstad, A

    2010-01-01

    Background For a given subject, time in moderate to very vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) varies substantially among physical activity monitors. Objective In the present study, the primary objective, whether time in MVPA recorded with SenseWear Pro(2) Armband (Armband; BodyMedia...

  10. Activity of daily living performance amongst Danish asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona;

    2014-01-01

    be lower in individuals exposed to torture as compared to the non-tortured. SUBJECTS: Forty-three newly arrived asylum seekers aged 20-50 years, from Iran, Afghanistan and Syria, were consecutively included in the study. METHOD: ADL ability was assessed with the observation-based test Assessment of Motor...... and Process Skills (AMPS). Interviews were based on questionnaires about torture exposure, WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Major Depression Inventory and Pain Detect Questionnaire. All participants were interviewed and tested using a linguistic interpreter. RESULTS: Thirty three (77%) participants reported exposure...

  11. Changes in Policy Maker Attitudes Toward Active Living Communities Issues in Hawaii, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Meghan; Maddock, Jay

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and lack of physical activity are major public health problems in the United States. Well-designed, active living communities (ALCs) can help support physically active lifestyles. This study assessed attitudes of Hawaii decision makers in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities toward ALCs changed. Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys both years. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, which included 1 obesity variable and 5 ALC variables. The survey was completed by 126 (70.4%) respondents in 2007 and 117 (60.9%) in 2013. Among the specific problems, only obesity increased in rank from 14th to ninth place. Three variables fell more than 2 places: increasing traffic (fifth to seventh place), poorly planned development and sprawl (seventh to 11th place) and pedestrian safety (12th to 17th place). The other 2 stayed relatively the same: lack of pedestrian walkways, sidewalks, and crosswalks (16th to 15th place) and lack of recreational activities (22nd to 23rd place). Across years, obesity concerns have increased but do not appear to be tied to increases in concern for ALC variables. More education for policymakers on the link between obesity, physical activity, and the built environment is necessary.

  12. "Active Living" Related to the Rural-Urban Continuum: A Time-Use Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the degree to which "active living" varies along the rural-urban continuum, within the county-sized regional municipality of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods: Time-diary data from the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project were used to compute daily participation rates (PRs) and time durations, at various…

  13. The Groningen Active Living Model, an example of successful recruitment of sedentary and underactive older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Martin; de Jong, Johan; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Many physical activity interventions do not reach those people who would benefit the most from them. The Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) was successful in recruiting sedentary and underactive older adults. Method. In the fall of 2000 older adults in three municipalities in the Nether

  14. Physical Education and Physically Active Lives: A Lifelong Approach to Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Dawn; Jess, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the relationship between physical education and interests in enabling more people to establish and maintain "active and healthy lives" from a curriculum development perspective. Twin and inter-linked concepts of "lifelong learning" and "lifelong physical activity" are presented as a conceptual basis for curriculum…

  15. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  16. Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ≤ 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms.

  17. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living.

  18. Activities of daily living for old persons in primary health care with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Eva-Britt; Boman, Kurt; Löfgren, Britta

    2008-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common condition among Europe's aging population. Findings indicate that CHF patients must make significant changes in many aspects of daily life. Previous studies of older primary health-care participants and their activities of daily living (ADL)-ability are rare. The aim of this study was to describe ADL-ability in older people with CHF syndrome. The factors considered were dependence on others, perceived strain, quality of performance, and the association between The New York Heart Association classification (NYHA) and ADL-ability. The participants, recruited from a primary health-care centre, had symptoms indicating CHF and were diagnosed by a cardiologist. Forty persons over 65 years (mean age 81), participated in the study and self-reported co-morbidity was frequent. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) and the Staircase of ADL were used to describe ADL-ability. Most participants were independent with respect to personal activities of daily living (PADL), and 75% were dependent in one or more instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), usually shopping. Most participants perceived strain, and only three could perform all ADL without strain. Age had a significant impact on ADL performance (motor measures: OR 7.11, CI 1.19-42.32, p = 0.031 and process measures: OR 8.49, CI 1.86-38.79, p = 0.006). However, participants showed lower ADL motor and process ability in AMPS compared with well persons of the same age. Participants in NYHA III/IV (adjusted for age), had significantly increased effort (under motor cut-off) when performing ADL-tasks (OR: 15.5, CI 2.40-100.1, p = 0.004) compared to those in NYHA I/II. Older persons in primary health care with CHF exhibit a high amount of dependence, perceived strain and increased effort during performance of ADL. There is an association between NYHA class III/IV and a decreased ADL-ability (AMPS motor ability) even when adjusted for age.

  19. Patterns of physical activity in free-living adults in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, M S; Acra, S; Majchrzak, K M; Sun, M; Chen, K Y

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the amount and patterns of physical activity (PA), body fatness, and age in a heterogeneous adult population in the free living. Cross-sectional study of the amount of PA over a 1-week period. The amount of body movements during PA (PA counts*10(3)) and time spent on various PA intensity categories were calculated from a triaxial accelerometer and compared with subject characteristics, including body fat from hydrodensitometry. Adult healthy men (n=48) and women (n=72) were recruited from the Nashville, Tennessee area and their PA was monitored in their free-living environment. The average weekday PA counts (176.5+/-60.3, P=0.002, r(2)=0.294), PA counts day-to-day variability (47.3+/-32.7, P=0.002, r(2)=0.286), daily maximum PA counts (241.9+/-89.2, P=0.001, r(2)=0.327), minute-to-minute variability on weekdays (0.281+/-0.091, P=0.001, r(2)=0.362), and the difference between maximum and minimum daily PA counts (130.6+/-78.3, P=0.008, r(2)=0.243) were significantly and negatively correlated with body fatness. During awake time, both men and women spent 10-12 h on low intensity (1.0-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)) PA, approximately 1 h on moderate (3.0-5.9 MET), and less than 10 min on vigorous (>6.0 MET) PA each day. On weekends, men and women spent more time at rest (1 MET), less time on low-intensity PA, and men spent more time on moderate PA than on weekdays. In adults living in the Southern US the amount of free-living PA was negatively correlated with body fatness. Both men and women spent the majority of active time on low and moderate PA. PA patterns on weekends were different than on weekdays and were related to sex and age, but not to body fatness. National Institutes of Health, US.

  20. Living with HIV postdiagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2013-05-03

    To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18 years or older. People living with HIV have divergent experiences surrounding HIV diagnosis. Postdiagnosis, there are multiple phases of identity transition, including status (non-)disclosure, and attempts at identity repair and normalcy. For some people, this process involves a transition to a new self-identity, incorporating both HIV and antiretroviral treatment (ART) into their lives. For others, it involves a partial transition, with some aspects of their prediagnosis identity persisting, and for others it involves a rejection of HIV identity. Those people who were able to incorporate HIV/AIDS in their identity, without it being disruptive to their biography, were pursuing safer sexual and reproductive lives. By contrast, those people with a more continuous biography continued to reflect their prediagnosis identity and sexual behaviour. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) had to rework their sense of identity following diagnosis in the context of living in a slum setting. Men and women living with HIV in slums are poorly supported by health systems and services as they attempt to cope with a diagnosis of HIV. Given the availability of ART, health services and professionals need to support the rights of PLWHA to be sexually active if they want to and achieve their fertility goals, while minimising HIV transmission risk.

  1. Active Living: development and quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-centered physical activity intervention for primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Jansen, M.W.J.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The worldwide increase in the rates of childhood overweight and physical inactivity requires successful prevention and intervention programs for children. The aim of the Active Living project is to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior of Dutch primary school children

  2. Active Living: development and quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-centered physical activity intervention for primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Jansen, M.W.J.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The worldwide increase in the rates of childhood overweight and physical inactivity requires successful prevention and intervention programs for children. The aim of the Active Living project is to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior of Dutch primary school children

  3. Excitotoxic insult results in a long-lasting activation of CaMKIIα and mitochondrial damage in living hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Otmakhov

    Full Text Available Over-activation of excitatory NMDA receptors and the resulting Ca2+ overload is the main cause of neuronal toxicity during stroke. CaMKII becomes misregulated during such events. Biochemical studies show either a dramatic loss of CaMKII activity or its persistent autonomous activation after stroke, with both of these processes being implicated in cell toxicity. To complement the biochemical data, we monitored CaMKII activation in living hippocampal neurons in slice cultures using high spatial/temporal resolution two-photon imaging of the CaMKIIα FRET sensor, Camui. CaMKII activation state was estimated by measuring Camui fluorescence lifetime. Short NMDA insult resulted in Camui activation followed by a redistribution of its protein localization: an increase in spines, a decrease in dendritic shafts, and concentration into numerous clusters in the cell soma. Camui activation was either persistent (> 1-3 hours or transient (~20 min and, in general, correlated with its protein redistribution. After longer NMDA insult, however, Camui redistribution persisted longer than its activation, suggesting distinct regulation/phases of these processes. Mutational and pharmacological analysis suggested that persistent Camui activation was due to prolonged Ca2+ elevation, with little impact of autonomous states produced by T286 autophosphorylation and/or by C280/M281 oxidation. Cell injury was monitored using expressible mitochondrial marker mito-dsRed. Shortly after Camui activation and clustering, NMDA treatment resulted in mitochondrial swelling, with persistence of the swelling temporarily linked to the persistence of Camui activation. The results suggest that in living neurons excitotoxic insult produces long-lasting Ca2+-dependent active state of CaMKII temporarily linked to cell injury. CaMKII function, however, is to be restricted due to strong clustering. The study provides the first characterization of CaMKII activation dynamics in living neurons

  4. Associations between active living-oriented zoning and no adult leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F; Thrun, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Nearly one-third of adults report no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Governmental and authoritative bodies recognize the role that community design through zoning code changes can play in enabling LTPA. This study examined the association between zoning and no adult LTPA in the U.S. This study was conducted between 2012 and 2016, with analyses occurring in 2015-2016. Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for jurisdictions located in the 495 most populous U.S. counties and were evaluated for pedestrian-oriented code reform zoning, 11 active living-oriented provisions (e.g., sidewalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, mixed use, bike lanes) and a summated zoning scale (max=12). Individual-level LTPA data were obtained from the 2012 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). County-aggregated, population-weighted zoning variables were constructed for linking to BRFSS. Log-log multivariate regressions (N=147,517 adults), controlling for individual and county characteristics and with robust standard errors clustered on county, were conducted to examine associations between zoning and no LTPA. Relative risks (RR) compared predicted lack of LTPA at 0% and 100% county-level population exposure to each zoning predictor. Zoning code reforms were associated with a 13% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). Except for crosswalks, all zoning provisions were associated with an 11-16% lower probability of no LTPA. Having all 12 zoning provisions was associated with a 22% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.83). The results suggest that active living-oriented zoning is a policy lever available to communities seeking to reduce rates of no LTPA.

  5. A Study on Activities of Daily Living and Its Risk Factors of the Aged in the Rural Areas%农村老年人日常生活活动能力及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小青; 董斌; 周武; 李跃军; 刘军; 王松鹤; 江志琴

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查浙江省农村老年人的体能状况和卫生保健及养老需求,分析老年人日常生活活动能力(ADL)受损的主要危险因素并评价其危险程度.方法 采用问卷调查法,调查农村老年人800人,应用老年人日常生活活动能力量表测评其ADL得分现状及有关的影响因素.结果 不同年龄组、不同慢性病的ADL值差异有统计学意义,不同性别、不同生活方式的ADL差异无统计学意义.结论 针对导致ADL受损的主要危险因素,采取有效预防对策,以提高老年人的健康水平及生活质量.%Objective Through investigating the physical stamina and health care requirement of the aged, to explore main risk factors which lead to ADL damage, and evaluate the degree of risk. Methods 800 old people were selected in the suburban county of Ningbo and Jiangshan. Elderly activities of daily living scale were adopted to get the information of ADL scoring status and related factors.Results ADL value among different age groups and different chronic disease groups was significantly different; there were no significant differences among groups of different sex and groups with different life modes. Conclusion To improve the health level of the elderly and their quality of life, effective countermeasure must be adopted according to main risk factors of ADL damage.

  6. "I Live Quite a Good Balanced Life": A Pilot Study on the Life Experiences of Ageing Individuals Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Nobre, Nuno; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    An ageing population is accompanied by an increased number of older adults living with HIV. So far, our knowledge regarding the life experiences of older adults living with HIV is still poor and under researched. The purpose of this study is to present new knowledge by interviewing nine Finnish HIV-positive individuals of 50 years of age and older. The data were analysed by inductive content analysis. Living with HIV is shaped by unique personal life experiences. These experiences played an important role on how the interviewees assessed their lives and their future as HIV positive individuals. Most of the participants reacted negatively to their HIV-positive diagnosis. However, throughout time they had found meaning in their lives and had developed a degree of positive attitude towards life and future which was articulated in terms of a good overall balanced life. Since caring is the tenor of the nursing profession, nurses should be able to identify and implement methods for assessing how successfully older adults living with HIV age and intervene in an informed way whenever needed.

  7. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conradsson M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care

  8. Using Rasch Analysis to Evaluate Accuracy of Individual Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for Disability Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bruce; Li, Yanen

    2015-01-01

    Our study objectives were to examine the accuracy of individual activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) for disability measurement, and determine whether dependence or difficulty is more useful for disability measurement. We analyzed data from 499 patients with 2+ ADLs or 3+ IADLs who participated in a home visiting nurse intervention study, and whose function had been assessed at study baseline and 22 months. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate accuracy of 24 individual ADL and IADL items. The individual items differed in the amount of information provided in measuring functional disability along the range of disability, providing much more information in (usually) one part of the range. While nearly all of the Item Information Curves (IICs) for the ADL dependence, IADL difficulty, and IADL dependence items were unimodal with one information peak each, the IICs for ADL difficulty exhibited a bimodal pattern with two peaks. Which of the individual items performed better in disability measurement varied by the extent of functional disability (i.e., by how disabled the patients were). The information peaks of most ADLs and many IADLs rise or drop steeply in a relatively short distance. Thus, whether dependence or difficulty is superior often changes very quickly along the disability continuum. There was considerable heterogeneity in which individual items provided the most and the least information at the three points of interest examined across the disability range (-2 SD units, mean, +2 SD units). While the disability region (low, medium, and high disability) for which each individual item provided the most information remained quite stable between baseline and 22 months for ADL difficulty, IADL difficulty, and IADL dependence, relatively large shifts occurred for ADL dependence items. At the disability mean dependence items offered more information for assessment than difficulty. While ADLs also provided more information at -2 and +2 SD

  9. Need satisfaction of older persons living in the community and in institutions, part 2. Role of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, L S; Yerxa, E J

    1981-10-01

    A descriptive study was conducted in order to examine the types of need satisfaction older persons gained from activities they performed in their living environments. This is the second of two articles that examines the relationships among need satisfaction, environment, and activity. Subjects included 20 community and 21 institutionalized older persons. It was found that the subjects' most important activities were visiting and being involved in church functions. Using Maslow's need hierarchy as the theoretical framework, both of these activities were found to be associated with satisfying belongingness/love needs. The implications the findings have for occupational therapy intervention with older persons are included.

  10. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  11. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abilities to perform activities of daily living. [Results] Paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities were significantly different between the mirror therapy and sham therapy groups. Intervention in the mirror therapy group was more effective than in the sham therapy group for improving the ability to perform activities of daily living. Self-care showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy is effective in improving paretic upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients.

  12. A "client-centred activities of daily living" intervention for persons with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidetti, Susanne; Ranner, Maria; Tham, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes regarding perceived participation, independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and life satisfaction between 3, 6 and 12 months after inclusion in a study of a client-centred ADL intervention and usual ADL intervention after stroke. DESIGN: A multicentre...... randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Sixteen rehabilitation units were randomly assigned to provide client-centred ADL intervention or usual ADL intervention. Eligible participants were persons ≤ 3 months after stroke who had been treated in a stroke unit, were dependent in two ADL domains, had not been...... diagnosed with dementia, and were able to understand instructions. Data collection was performed by blinded assessors. The primary outcome, perceived participation, was assessed with the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0, domain 8. The secondary outcomes, participation, independence in ADL, and life satisfaction...

  13. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairment Is Associated with Increased Amyloid Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Olson, Lauren E.; Frey, Meghan T.; Maye, Jacqueline; Becker, J. Alex; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment in Alzheimer's disease has been associated with global amyloid deposition in postmortem studies. We sought to determine whether IADL impairment is associated with increased cortical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) retention. Methods Fifty-five subjects (19 normal older controls, NC, and 36 with mild cognitive impairment, MCI) underwent clinical assessments and dynamic PiB positron emission tomography imaging. Results A linear multiple regression model showed that greater IADL impairment was associated with greater global PiB retention in all subjects (R2 = 0.40; unstandardized partial regression coefficient, β = 5.8; p = 0.0002) and in MCI subjects only (R2 = 0.28; β = 6.1; p = 0.003), but not in NC subjects only. Conclusion These results suggest that daily functional impairment is related to greater amyloid burden in MCI. PMID:21778725

  14. Activities of Daily Living Indexing by Hierarchical HMM for Dementia Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Svebor; Dartigues, Jean-François; Gaëstel, Yann; Mégret, Rémi; Pinquier, Julien

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for indexing human ac- tivities in videos captured from a wearable camera being worn by patients, for studies of progression of the dementia diseases. Our method aims to produce indexes to facilitate the navigation throughout the individual video recordings, which could help doctors search for early signs of the dis- ease in the activities of daily living. The recorded videos have strong motion and sharp lighting changes, inducing noise for the analysis. The proposed approach is based on a two steps analysis. First, we propose a new approach to segment this type of video, based on apparent motion. Each segment is characterized by two original motion de- scriptors, as well as color, and audio descriptors. Second, a Hidden-Markov Model formulation is used to merge the multimodal audio and video features, and classify the test segments. Experiments show the good properties of the ap- proach on real data.

  15. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagar, Tomaz [Reactor Physics Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: tomaz.zagar@ijs.si; Bozic, Matjaz [Nuklearna elektrarna Krsko, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia); Ravnik, Matjaz [Reactor Physics Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived ({gamma} emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. {sup 133}Ba, {sup 41}Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  16. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia...

  17. Extending Agent Based Telehealth Platform with Activities of Daily Living Reasoning Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper; Demazeau, Yves

    it will influence his or her everyday live. Therefore we believe that a telehealth system shall adapt its behavior so that it will not be a burden for the patient/resident to use. To this aim we have extended an existing telehealth platform to reason about activities of daily living in a smart home scenario......In the future patients will have a more active role in strengthening and maintaining their own health. Telehealth can empower and motivate patients by giving them the chance to stay in their own homes instead of going to the hospital. A telehealth system is deployed in a patient’s home hence...

  18. Extending Agent Based Telehealth Platform with Activities of Daily Living Reasoning Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper; Demazeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    In the future patients will have a more active role in strengthening and maintaining their own health. Telehealth can empower and motivate patients by giving them the chance to stay in their own homes instead of going to the hospital. A telehealth system is deployed in a patient’s home hence...... it will influence his or her everyday live. Therefore we believe that a telehealth system shall adapt its behavior so that it will not be a burden for the patient/resident to use. To this aim we have extended an existing telehealth platform to reason about activities of daily living in a smart home scenario...

  19. Concurrent Validity of Wearable Activity Trackers Under Free-Living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Skyler M; An, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Noble, John M; Berg, Kris E; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Brooke, SM, An, H-S, Kang, S-K, Noble, JM, Berg, KE, and Lee, J-M. Concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers under free-living conditions. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1097-1106, 2017-The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers in energy expenditure (EE) and sleep period time (SPT) under free-living conditions. Ninety-five (28.5 ± 9.8 years) healthy men (n = 34) and women (n = 61) participated in this study. The total EE and SPT were measured using 8 monitors: Nike+ FuelBand SE (NFB), Garmin VivoFit (VF), Misfit Shine (MF), Fitbit Flex (FF), Jawbone UP (JU), Polar Loop (PL), Fitbit Charge HR (FC), and SenseWear Armband Mini (SWA) (criterion measures: SWA for EE and a sleep log for SPT). The mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for EE was 13.0, 15.2, 15.5, 16.1, 16.2, 22.8, and 24.5% for PL, MF, FF, NFB, FC, JU, and VF, respectively. Mean absolute percent errors were calculated for SPT to be 4.0, 8.8, 10.2, 11.5, 12.9, 13.6, 17.5, and 21.61% for VF, FF, JU, FC, MF, SWA laying down, PL, and SWA, respectively. Concurrent validity was examined using equivalence testing on EE (equivalence zone: 2,889.7-3,531.9 kcal); 2 trackers fell short of falling in the zone: PL (2,714.4-3,164.8 kcal) and FC (2,473.8-3,066.5 kcal). For SPT (equivalence zone: 420.6-514.0 minutes), several monitors fell in the zone: PL (448.3-485.6 minutes), MS (442.8-492.2 minutes), and FF (427.7-486.7 minutes). This study suggests that the PL and FC provide a reasonable estimate of EE under free-living conditions. The PL, FC, and MF were the most valid monitors used for measuring SPT.

  20. Seasonal Short-Lived Radium Activity in the Venice Lagoon: The Role of Residence Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaglia, J.; Ferrarin, C.; Zaggia, L.; Umgiesser, G.; Zuppi, G.; Manfe', G.

    2008-12-01

    Radium is considered to be an excellent tracer of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and, therefore, has been used in many studies of this process in the past decade. Comprehensive surveys of excess 223,224Ra activity were completed in the surface waters of the Venice Lagoon over 6 seasons in order to quantify seasonal variation of SGD into the lagoon. The mass balance of radium found that SGD was 5-26 times greater than total river discharge (35.5 m3 s-1), and that total SGD could differ by almost an order of magnitude pending season. Several possible parameters, which may cause the seasonal variation, were tested. These included precipitation events, average tidal elevation, average tidal excursion, wind speed and direction, yet none provided a satisfactory explanation for the difference. Residence time based on a hydrodynamic model, however, was very strongly correlated with the observed variation. When the average residence time in the lagoon was low (5 days) the SGD was calculated to be 930 m3 s-1 and when the average residence time was high (9 days) the SGD was quantified as 160 m3 s-1. Radioactive decay is already accounted for in the mass balance model and therefore this correlation must be explained by another process. The Venice Lagoon is characterized by low residence time during periods of spring tides and bora or northerly winds, both of which create exceptionally strong currents in the Venice Lagoon. The currents as well as the large tidal excursion which occurs at spring tides drive a recirculation of seawater through the surface sediments, which greatly increases short-lived Ra activity in the surface waters. This evidence suggests, therefore, that short-lived Ra mass balance studies, which are based on a single survey, may under or overestimate the mean annual SGD pending the hydrodynamics of the investigated location.

  1. Strategies to increase living kidney donation: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinal, H.; Durand, C.; Larrivee, S.; Verhave, J.C.; Paquet, M.R.; Fortin, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Living kidney transplantation (LKT) offers the best medical outcomes for organ recipients. Historically, our centre had a low rate of LKT. In 2009, in an effort to increase living organ donation (LOD), a dedicated team was created. Its mandate was to promote LOD at our centre and at refe

  2. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  3. Activities of daily living, quality of life, social support and depression levels of elderly individuals in Turkish society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsar, Serap; Dindar, Ilknur; Kurt, Seda

    2015-06-01

    To determine activities of daily living, quality of life, social support and depression levels of elderly individuals and the factors affecting each of these items. The cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2009 to June 2012 in Edirne, Turkey, and included elderly individuals over 60 years of age. Data was collected using a survey form, the Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data was analysed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Of the 912 subjects in the study, 509(55.8%) were females and 402(44.2%) were males, with an overall mean age of 68.05 ± 6.6 years (range: 60-94 years). Besides, 644(70.6%) of the subjects were married and 595(65.2%) were living with their spouse. The levels of social support and activities of daily living of elderly individuals with a high quality of life were higher, and their levels of depression were lower (pelderly to ensure that they maintain a better quality of life.

  4. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants’ reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Methods Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Results Cronbach’s alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = –0.587, p IADL (r = –0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = –0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812–0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. Conclusion The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD. PMID:27851810

  5. Validity of questions about activities of daily living to screen for dependency in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rebouças

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the criterion validity of the activities of daily living present in functionality questionnaires in older adults for population surveys and to identify which activities are valid to quantify the real daily need for help of this population. METHODS This is a population sample of older adults stratified by levels of functionality, according to self-perception of dependency in the activities of daily living. Self-perception was compared with the gold standard – direct observation of these activities in the household of older adults by a trained professional, blinded to the answers in the questionnaire. At the visit, it was decided if the older adult needed help to perform any of the activities of daily living for the research. The sensitivity of each activity of daily living was greater when the self-assessment that there was no need for help coincided with the assessment of the professional. Specificity indicates coincidence regarding the need for help in the activities of daily living – coefficients of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were considered as indicative of good validity. RESULTS Self-assessments showed better sensitivity than specificity – older adults and observers agreed more on daily independency than on dependency. All activities showed sensitivity above 70%. Some activities had low (go shopping: 55% or very low specificity (brush the hair: 33%. The best specificities were to take a shower and dress up (95.8% for both, among the personal ones, and to use transportation and perform banking transactions (78% for both, among the instrumental ones. CONCLUSIONS Activities of daily living can be valid indicators of functional dependence. The best coefficients of validity were generally obtained for personal activities. Some activities with good sensitivities and specificities – walk 100 meters, take a shower, and lie down in and get out of the bed – can be used to classify older adults into

  6. Living with an unfixable heart: a qualitative study exploring the experience of living with advanced heart failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Marie

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses working with patients with advanced heart failure need knowledge that will help us to help patients cope with their situations of chronic illness. However, our knowledge bank is deficient due to the scarcity of inquiry that takes the affected person\\'s point of view as its central focus. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients\\' experiences of living with advanced heart failure. METHODS: The study sample (N=9) consisted of male (N=6) and female (N=3) patients with advanced (NYHA classes III-IV) heart failure. The design was qualitative and open unstructured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim during 2006. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: Living in the Shadow of Fear; Running on Empty; Living a Restricted life; and Battling the System. The experience of living with advanced heart failure was described as a fearful and tired sort of living characterised by escalating impotence and dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there may be an illogical but enduring ethos of \\'cure\\' pervading health care worker\\'s attitudes to advanced heart failure care. This mindset might be working to hinder the application of additional or alternative therapies, which might better palliate the physical and psychosocial distress of patients.

  7. An inducible transgene reports activation of macrophages in live zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Leslie E; Chien, An-Tzu; Astin, Jonathan W; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Hall, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are the most functionally heterogenous cells of the hematopoietic system. Given many diseases are underpinned by inappropriate macrophage activation, macrophages have emerged as a therapeutic target to treat disease. A thorough understanding of what controls macrophage activation will likely reveal new pathways that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit. Live imaging fluorescent macrophages within transgenic zebrafish larvae has provided a valuable window to investigate macrophage behavior in vivo. Here we describe the first transgenic zebrafish line that reports macrophage activation, as evidenced by induced expression of an immunoresponsive gene 1(irg1):EGFP transgene. When combined with existing reporter lines that constitutively mark macrophages, we reveal this unique transgenic line can be used to live image macrophage activation in response to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide and xenografted human cancer cells. We anticipate the Tg(irg1:EGFP) line will provide a valuable tool to explore macrophage activation and plasticity in the context of different disease models.

  8. Variability in measuring (instrumental) activities of daily living functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Buurman, B. M.; van Munster, B.C.; Korevaar, J. C.; de Haan, R. J.; de Rooij, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study instruments used and definitions applied in order to measure (instrumental) activities of daily living (I [ADL]) functioning and functional decline in hospitalized older medical patients. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 to January 2010. Articles were included if they (1) focused on acute hospitalization for medical illness in older patients; (2) described the instrument used to measure func...

  9. Toward the processing speed theory of activities of daily living in healthy aging: normative data of the Functional Activities Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Martinec Novakova, Lenka; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe an instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) measure: Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), which is often used in clinical settings as a self- or informant-based measure of IADL. However, the FAQ's relationship with age or education in healthy aging has not been investigated. FAQ and a neuropsychological battery were administered to old and very old Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders. FAQ is significantly dependent on age and education, but not gender. Younger subjects and those with higher education have the lowest scores in the FAQ and show a higher degree of functional independence. FAQ moderately correlates with speed of processing, visual-perceptual and executive functions measures (Trail Making Tests, Stroop Test) and depressive symptoms, but not with episodic memory (WMS-III logical memory). We present normative percentile values for different age groups from 60 to 96 years of age. The present study shows conclusively that IADL measures, such as FAQ, should not be used without appropriate normative data, especially in very old adults. Thus, it has the ability to differentiate functional dependence due to age-related decline from neurodegenerative disease.

  10. The Lived Experiences of Participating in Physical Activity among Young People with Mental Health Problems. A Recovery-Oriented Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staal Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing understanding that psychiatric treatment is more than psychotherapy and medication, and that people themselves can be active in preventing and handling mental health problems. This brings non-medical solutions into play. Physical activity (in terms of exercise, sport, and fitness becomes an important contribution in this particular context. The perceived mental and physical benefits of physical activity (both preventative and therapeutic for people experiencing mental health problems are well documented. Typically, this kind of research focuses narrowly on “size of effect” or “most successful type of intervention” or “exercise versus other treatment.” Less research has explored the lived experience of physical activity and the meaning and relevance it has for individuals in their everyday lives. This article suggests that sport and exercise can play a valuable role in and contribute to the recovery process for young people with mental health problems. Results from an evaluation study of a developmental project in Denmark shows how physical activity affects a person‟s lived experiences, relationships, and pursuits. The findings is discussed in relation to the concept of recovery, especially focusing on exercise as a form of self-care strategy, as an opportunity to create social relationships, and as a way to become part of a meaningful social activity.

  11. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  12. The technology - activities of daily living questionnaire: a version with a technology-related subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L; Riveros, Rodrigo; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled the Technology version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30 years). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = -0.70; FAB: r = -0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = -0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p technology items in the T-ADLQ did not improve the performance of the scale, which may reflect the lack of widespread use of technology by elderly individuals. Thus, although it appeared reasonable to add technology use questions to the ADLQ, our experience suggested that this has to be done cautiously, since the sensitivity of these additional items could vary in different populations. The T-ADLQ needs to be validated in a different population of dementia subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention for people with stroke: one year follow-up of caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; Eriksson, Gunilla; Ekstam, Lisa; Tham, Kerstin; Andersson, Magnus; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Ulla

    2016-08-01

    Compare caregiver burden, provision of informal care, participation in everyday occupations and life satisfaction of caregivers to people with stroke, who either had received a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention or usual activities of daily living interventions. A multicentre cluster randomized controlled trial in which 16 rehabilitation units were randomly assigned to deliver a client-centred, activities of daily living intervention or usual activities of daily living interventions. Caregiver outcomes were compared cross-sectionally at 12 months and changes in outcomes between three and 12 months after people with stroke were included in the study. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Caregivers of people with stroke enrolled in the trial. A client-centred, activities of daily living intervention aiming to increase agency in daily activities and participation in everyday life for people after stroke. Caregiver Burden Scale, Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, LiSat-11. There were no differences in outcomes between caregivers in the client-centred, activities of daily living (n = 88) and the usual activities of daily living (n = 95) group at 12 months. The caregiver burden score was 42.7 vs. 41.8, p = 0.75, mean occupational gaps were 3.5 vs. 4.0, p = 0.52 and satisfaction with life was 53% vs. 50%, p = 0.87. There were no differences in changes between three and 12 months. However, within groups there were significant differences in caregiver burden, factor general strain, for caregivers in the client-centred, activities of daily living group, and in provision of informal care for the usual activities of daily living group. The client-centred intervention did not bring about any difference between caregiver-groups, but within groups some difference was found for caregiver burden and informal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Oral temperatures of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira

    This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body temperature in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of daily living (ADL). Oral temperatures were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Oral temperatures in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (Pelderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient temperature.

  15. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyan, M. N.; Tay, Francis E. H.; Manimaran, M.; Seah, K. H. W.

    2006-04-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance.

  16. Mirror movements in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: Specific negative impact on bimanual activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Berweck, Steffen; Lidzba, Karen; Becher, Thomas; Staudt, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Mirror movements are involuntary movements of the other hand during voluntary unimanual movements. Some, but not all children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) show this phenomenon. In this observational study, we investigated whether these mirror movements have a specific negative impact on bimanual activities of daily living. Eighteen children (six girls; age range, 6-16 years; mean age, 12 years 1 month; SD, 3 years 3 month) with USCP, nine with and nine without mirror movements, underwent the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test (unimanual capacity) and the Assisting Hand Assessment (bimanual performance). In addition, we measured the time the participants needed for the completion of five activities we had identified as particularly difficult for children with mirror movements. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mirror movements indeed have a specific negative impact on bimanual performance (Assisting Hand Assessment) and on the time needed for the completion of these five particularly difficult activities. This effect was independent from unimanual capacity. Functional therapies in children with USCP and mirror movements should address this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the decreasing pattern of activities of daily living in patients with dementia%痴呆患者日常生活能力下降模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金煜; 倪姣娜; 吴炯

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解痴呆患者日常生活能力(ADL)下降的情况和模式. 方法 收集痴呆患者204例,其中阿尔茨海默病(AD)106例,血管性痴呆(VD) 54例,其他类型痴呆44例;根据简易智能状态检查表(M MSE),轻、中、重度痴呆患者分别为42例、37例、125例.采用Barthel指数(BI)对患者ADL进行测评,比较不同认知程度、AD和VD痴呆及不同文化程度痴呆患者的日常生活能力.结果 痴呆患者ADL保留最多项目的是大便(48.5%)、小便(44.1%)和梳洗(40.2%)三项,能力保留最少的项目是上楼梯(25.5%)和洗澡(18.1%);随着认知损害的加重,痴呆患者的BI得分也是明显下降,其中重度(23.2±29.3)分、中度(65.5±26.4)分、轻度痴呆(87.4±22.7)分,其差异有统计学意义(x2=99.686,P=0.000);AD与VD比较,日常活动能力保留率(16.98%~53.77%)明显高于VD患者(1.85%~33.33%);不同文化程度痴呆患者BI得分小学及以下(40.1±39.0)分、中学组(45.3±39.6)分、大专及以上组(53.1±37.7)分,其差异无统计学意义(x2=3.653,P=0.161). 结论 中国痴呆患者最易丧失的日常生活功能是洗澡、上楼梯,最易保留的是大便、小便和梳洗.日常生活能力受痴呆程度和类型影响,但与文化程度无明显相关性.%Objective To investigate the decreasing pattern of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with dementia. Methods A total of 204 patients with dementia were collected,among which 106 cases were with Alzheimer's diseases(AD),54 cases with vascular dementia(VD),44 cases with other types of dementia.According to the scores of mini-mental state examination(MMSE),mild,moderate and severe dementia were 42 cases,37 cases and 125 cases,respectively.All of them were assessed by Barthel index(BI) and compared among degrees of dementia,between AD and VD,and levels of education. Results The most reserved items were bowel movement (48.5 %),urination (44.1 %) and grooming (40.2

  18. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, N E; Britt, L D; Sullivan, C J

    2014-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-l-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-l-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-l-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-l-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-l-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane stabilization

  19. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, N.E.; Britt, L.D.; Sullivan, C.J., E-mail: sullivcj@evms.edu

    2014-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane

  20. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of Live Versus Dead Bacterial Cells and Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle; Verceles, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a coupled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent staining technology for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology, and live versus dead), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from an environmental sample.

  1. Subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living in patients with mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Postat, Annemette; Poulsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with mild stroke. Methodology: Data was generated from January – December 2011 and consisted of 41 individual ADL-I interviews with patients in hospital and another 41...

  2. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic r

  3. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  4. Behavioral intention to use a virtual instrumental activities of daily living system among people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Allison; Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world-based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Effects of urban particulate deposition on microbial communities living in bryophytes: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Bernard, N; Moskura, M; Toussaint, M L; Denayer, F; Gilbert, D

    2010-10-01

    Our previous in situ study showed that bryophyte-microorganism complexes were affected by particulate atmospheric pollution. Here, the effect of urban particulate wet deposits on microbial communities living in bryophytes was studied under controlled conditions. An urban particulate solution was prepared with particles extracted from analyzer' filters and nebulized on bryophytes in treatments differing in frequency and quantity. The bryophytes did not accumulate metallic trace elements, which were present in very weak concentrations. However, in treated microcosms the total microbial biomass and the biomasses of cyanobacteria, active testate amoebae and fungi significantly decreased in response to the deposition of particles. These results confirm that microbial communities living in terrestrial bryophytes could be more sensitive indicators of atmospheric pollution than bryophytes. Moreover, they suggest that unicellular predators--such as testate amoebae--could be especially useful microbial indicators, since they seem to be both directly and indirectly affected by pollution.

  6. [Evaluation of the instrumental activities of daily living following a stroke by means of the Lawton and Brody scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Caballero, Pedro Enrique; López-Espuela, Fidel; Portilla-Cuenca, Juan Carlos; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego; Jiménez-Gracia, M Antonia; Lavado-García, Jesús M; Casado-Naranjo, Ignacio

    2012-09-16

    The instrumental activities of daily living are activities that are somewhat more complex than basic activities of daily living, and being able to perform them allows a person to be independent within a community. They include housework, tasks involving mobility, managing the home and property; catching the bus; cooking meals and going shopping, among other things. To evaluate these activities using the Lawton and Brody scale following an ischaemic stroke or intraparenchymatous haemorrhage and to analyse the factors that have an influence on the functional status at six months. We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted to the stroke unit between September 2010 and June 2011 diagnosed with ischaemic strokes and spontaneous intraparenchymatous haemorrhages. A series of clinical and demographic variables were collected. In the follow-up visit at six months, the patients were re-evaluated by measuring their score on the Lawton and Brody scale again. The percentages of the Lawton and Brody scale at six months were as follows: 28.9% of patients were highly dependent, 45.4% were moderately dependent and 25.6% were dependent. There were differences according to age, severity and the type of stroke, and also depending on the presence of aphasia or hemiparesis. Patients who have suffered an ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage present a poorer score in instrumental activities of daily living when age is more advanced, the stroke is more severe and when aphasia or hemiparesis are present.

  7. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Beom; Kim, Young-Dong

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia.

  8. SECI and Knowledge-based Streaming Living Library Activities%基于SECI和知识流的Living Library活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璇璇

    2013-01-01

    基于SECI模型和知识流的Living Library活动,着重从SECI模型和知识流动角度探讨Living Library活动的意义,提出活动不仅实现了SECI模型中隐性知识和显性知识的转化,而且活动中知识流的作用产生了知识增值效用,为社会创造利润。%Based on the SECI model and knowledge flow Living Library activities, meaning of Living Library's activity was discussed, tacit and explicit knowledge transformation was realized, value-added utility of knowledge was produced, profits were created.

  9. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...

  11. Standardized training tools for the UPDRS activities of daily living scale: newly available teaching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; LeWitt, Peter A; Weidenman, Meredith

    2003-12-01

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is the most widely used scale for evaluation of clinical impairment in PD. Whereas the motor section has been studied intensively for clinimetric properties and has an associated training tape, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) section has been studied less rigorously. In preparation for a multicenter study that planned to use the UPDRS ADL score as an outcome, the authors reviewed the UPDRS ADL scale and designed a teaching program to provide a uniform technique for data acquisition without changing any wording of the primary scale. The teaching program is composed of four components: overall guidelines, clarifying points, recommended strategies, and a teaching videotape. The videotape shows examples of interviewers assessing each ADL item with patients of different disability levels and provides a complete ADL assessment of a single patient. Systematic training and utilization of this teaching program offer the potential for more uniformity in results of ADL assessments conducted in clinical practice and multicenter, international studies of PD. The written materials and videotape belong to the Movement Disorder Society and are available by contacting the MDS central office.

  12. Health Locus of Control Predicts Free-living, but Not Supervised, Physical Activity: A Test of Exercise-Specific Control and Outcome-Expectancy Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Steinhardt, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a study that compared internal health locus of control (IHLOC) with internal exercise locus of control for predicting college students' activity. Results indicate an independent influence of IHLOC on free-living physical activity and suggest that testing adjust for fitness, barriers to physical activity, and outcome-expectancy values.…

  13. More Active Living-oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity-United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.

  14. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.

  15. Can activities of daily living contribute to EMG normalization for gait analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwan, Aseel; Forrest, Sarah M; Holt, Cathy A; Whatling, Gemma M

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine alternative methods of normalization that effectively reflect muscle activity as compared to Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC). EMG data recorded from knee flexion-extension muscles in 10 control subjects during the stance phase of the gait cycle were examined by adopting different approaches of normalization: MVC, Mean and Peak Dynamic during gait cycles, (MDM and PDM, respectively), Peak Dynamic during activities of daily living (ADLs), (*PDM), and a combination of ADLs and MVC(**PDM). Intra- and inter-individual variability were calculated to determine reliability and similarity to MCV. **PDM showed excellent reliability across subjects in comparison to MVC, where variance ratio ranged from 0.43-0.99 for **PDM and 0.79-1.08 for MVC. Coefficient of variability showed a similar trend to Variance Ratio, ranging from 0.60-1.25 for **PDM and 1.97-3.92 for MVC. Both MVC and **PDM, and to some extent *PDM, demonstrated good-to-excellent relative amplitude's matching; i.e. root mean square difference and absolute difference were both around 0.08 for Vastus medialis to about 4 for Medial gastrocnemius. It was concluded that **PDM and *PDM were reliable, **PDM mirrored MVC and thus could be used as an alternative to MVC for subjects who are unable to provide the required effort for MVC testing. Where MVC testing is not possible, *PDM is the next preferred option.

  16. Efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion program following diet modification for fat loss in Japanese obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Miki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkubo, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the efficiency of a free-living physical activity promotion (PAP) program following a diet modification program for fat loss. Fifty obese men, aged 51.4±7.0 y, received a 6-mo regimen consisting of 2 phases. Weekly 90-min free-living PAP sessions were provided for 3 mo immediately after a 3-mo diet modification phase. Fat mass (FM) was measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6 using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was monitored by a validated single-axis accelerometer. The total energy intake of all participants was assessed at baseline and during weeks 9 and 10 of both the diet modification and PAP programs. The change (Δ) in FM was -1.4±1.9 kg (pdiet modification program (-4.3±2.9 kg, pdiet modification program.

  17. A Study of Daily Living Dependency Status among Elderly in an Urban Slum area of Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ohri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method:  A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.

  18. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Nourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.

  19. Evaluation of an activity monitor for the objective measurement of free-living physical activity in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kit Tzu; Richardson, Alison M; Maxwell, Douglas; Spence, William D; Stansfield, Benedict W

    2013-12-01

    To explore the use of an activity monitor (AM) to objectively characterize free-living physical activity (F-LPA) in children with mobility impairment resulting from cerebral palsy (CP). First, a validation study compared outcomes from the AM with video evidence. Second, multiday F-LPA was characterized. Relationships between laboratory measures and F-LPA were explored. The evaluation study was conducted in a laboratory environment. F-LPA monitoring was conducted in the participants' free-living environment. Convenience sample of ambulatory children (N=15; 11 boys, 4 girls) aged 5 to 17 years with CP undergoing gait analysis. Not applicable. Accuracy of the AM for sitting/lying time, upright time, stepping time, and strides taken. Daily volumes of F-LPA of children with CP. AM outcomes in comparison with video-based analysis were (mean ± SD) 97.4%±2.7%, 101.1%±1.5%, 99.5%±6.6%, 105.6%±15.8%, and 103.8%±10.1% for sitting/lying time, upright time, standing time, stepping time, and stride count, respectively. Participants' daily F-LPA demonstrated considerable variation: mean standing time ± SD, 2.33±.96h/d; mean stepping time ± SD, 1.68±.86h/d; mean steps per day ± SD, 8477±4528; and mean sit-to-stand transitions per day ± SD, 76±49. Laboratory-measured cadence and mobility level were related to F-LPA, but not directly. The AM demonstrated excellent ability to determine sitting/lying and upright times in children with CP. Stepping time and stride count had lower levels of agreement with video-based analysis but were comparable to findings in previous studies. Crouch gait and toe walking had an adverse effect on outcomes. The F-LPA data provided additional information on children's performance not related to laboratory measures, demonstrating the added value of using this objective measurement technique. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine Souza Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL in female adolescent students.METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05.RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001; interference in ADL (p<0.001; medication use (p<0.001; age (p=0.045 and seek for medical care (p<0.022.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance.

  1. Impact of spinal pain on daily living activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Saran, Tomasz; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-22

    Postmenopausal women working in agriculture suffer from spinal pain for two overlapping reasons, the first is related to the menopause and the second to the specificity of rural work, which includes lifting heavy objects and changing weather conditions. Spinal pain affects the daily life of women as well as their ability to work. The objective of the study was to analyse the impact of spinal pain on activities of daily life in Polish postmenopausal women performing agricultural work. The study was conducted in 2016 in Poland and included 1,119 post-menopausal women living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The women assessed the severity of spinal pain in 3 sections: neck, thorax and lumbar. Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Low Back Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires were used to assess the impact of spinal pain on daily life activities. Generalized linear models were estimated in statistical analyses. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture suffered most often from pain in the lumbar spine, less frequently in the neck, and the least in the thoracic. The most common was an isolated pain in only one section of the spine. Spinal pain disturbed the most the women's rest, standing, lifting objects, while sleep, concentration, and walking the least. The impact of spinal pain on the activities of daily life, on average, was moderate, and increased with greater pain severity, the earlier the age the pain started, the higher the body weight, the lower education level and if there was a co-existing pain in any of the other spine sections. The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities did not depend on age between 45-65, WHR, age at last menstruation, parity, and number and types of births. The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture was assessed as moderate, on average, and depended mainly on spinal pain-related characteristics, such as severity, age at onset and co-existence of pain in any

  2. UPDRS ACTIVITY OF DAILY LIVING SCORE AS MARKER OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE PROGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Madaline B.; Wylie, Scott A.; Frysinger, Robert C.; Patrie, James T.; Huss, Diane S.; Currie, Lillian J.; Wooten, G. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    The Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscore of the UPDRS captures the impact of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a su...

  3. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of non-living, heat-killed form of lactobacilli including Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-15

    Some strains of lactic acid bacteria are reported to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and proposed to be useful to support so-called triple therapy for H. pylori. Although most strains must be alive to exert their anti-H. pylori activity, some lactobacilli strains are effective even when dead. One possible underlying mechanism of such an activity of non-living lactobacilli is reportedly co-aggregation with H. pylori. In this study, we found that a non-living heat-killed form of Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088 (HK-LJ88) and also that of some other lactobacilli inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Furthermore, the number of H. pylori in the infected stomach of germ-free mice was significantly decreased by the repeated oral administration of HK-LJ88. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that no co-aggregation had occurred between H. pylori and HK-LJ88; instead, deformations of H. pylori (e.g. disappearance of spiral, bending of cell body, coccoid formation, degradations, etc.) appeared after incubation for 24 h with HK-LJ88. These results suggest that HK-LJ88 inhibited H. pylori activity probably not by co-aggregation but by some unknown mechanism involving HK-LJ88's cell surface molecules and that even non-living lactobacilli are possibly useful to support H. pylori eradication therapy. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. THE IMPACT OF PENSIONS SAVING AND EDUCATION DEFICIT ON THE LIVING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA, IN THE POST-ACTIVITY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts with the study on the annual pension deficit in the EU member states, elaborated by AVIVA and DELOITTE companies in 2010. The paper analyzes the impact of pensions saving and education deficit on the living standards in Romania, in the post-activity period. It comprises the following sections: an introduction to the analysis, several definitions and the calculation method employed in the above-mentioned study, comparisons between Romania and other EU members states, focusing on the pension deficit, as well as a brief overview on the pension systems in Romania. In the end of the paper, we propose a debate on good financial planning that can make the difference between poverty and a decent standard of living at the time of retirement.

  6. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake J Lawrence

    Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  8. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICA L ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequencyof metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationshipwithphysical activityin Chilean immigrants living inRío Gallegos, SantaCruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165womenand 149men were interviewed in RioGallegos in2010,with healthy status in medical records(2000.Anthropometry,blood pressurecontrol,blood testto measureglucose,triglycerides andHDL cholesterol weredetermined.Metabolic syndromewasestablished bycriteria of theNCEPATPIII.Themetabolic syndromehad anoverall prevalenceof 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34.Metabolicsyndromeprevalence was larger in women(32.1%than in men(25.5%.The prevalence ofits componentswere:abdominalobesity56%,low levels ofHDL cholesterol 48.3%, highlevels of triglycerides68.1%,hypertension46.1%and high levels of glucose 72.5%.Inadequate physical activitywas 66.2% (95%CI:60.1 to 71.5.Immigrantshadmorelikelihoodof metabolic syndromeliving in Río Gallegos for 15 yearsormore(β:5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73,p=0.000and withinadequate physical activity(β:3.36,95%CI:1.57to7.21,p=0.002.The prevalenceof metabolic syndrome inChileanimmigrantsliving in RíoGallegosis higherthan that reportedin Argentina andChile.

  9. Mediator-assisted simultaneous probing of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox activity in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Spégel, Christer; Kostesha, Natalie; Lindahl, Sofia; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Emnéus, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This work describes an electron transfer mediator-assisted amperometric flow injection method for assessing redox enzyme activity in different subcellular compartments of the phosphoglucose isomerase deletion mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EBY44. The method is demonstrated using the ferricyanide-menadione double mediator system to study the effect of dicoumarol, an inhibitor of cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidoreductases and an uncoupler of the electron transport chain. Evaluation of the role of NAD(P)H-producing pathways in mediating biological effects is facilitated by introducing either fructose or glucose as the carbon source, yielding either NADH or NADPH through the glycolytic or pentose phosphate pathway, respectively. Respiratory noncompetent cells show greater inhibition of cytosolic menadione-reducing enzymes when NADH rather than NADPH is produced. Spectrophotometric in vitro assays show no difference between the cofactors. Respiratory competent cells show cytosolic inhibition only when NADPH is produced, whereas production of NADH reveals uncoupling at low dicoumarol concentrations and inhibition of complexes III and IV at higher concentrations. Spectrophotometric assays only indicate the presence of cytosolic inhibition regardless of the reduced cofactor used. This article shows the applicability of the amperometric method and emphasizes the significance of determining biological effects of chemicals in living cells.

  10. The Activity Chain Safety and Liveness Specification of Composite Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Xiaomei

    Web service composition is most impressing method for development and deployment of e-business. Description and modeling the behavior requirements of composite Web services for users and verifying composite Web service compliance to specific requirements is an important key in design of services. But most work does not address the issue of how to model the requirements that the BPEL4WS processes are supposed to satisfy. The specifications in verification works are general temporal relation based on activity or scenario in essence. Distinguish with these work, we propose a novel concept of behavior specification based on activity chain in which granularity is between activity and scenario. Chain existence mode, chain absence mode are designed to express such behavioral requirements based on activity chain that is similar with safety or liveness specification based on activity respectively. Encode them on Labeled Transition System LTS and then give them exact operation semantics. Finally, an example is illustrated.

  11. Design and methods of a multi-component physical activity program for adults with intellectual disabilities living in group homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bik C. Chow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID often live a sedentary lifestyle and have higher rates of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods of a multi-component physical activity (PA intervention program that aims to increase PA levels in adults with ID who live in group homes. The study employed a multi-component delayed treatment control group design involving adults with ID who lived in two group homes. Interventions included 30 exercise sessions in groups over a 10-week period and three educational lessons based on social cognitive theory that aimed to improve self-efficacy and social support for PA in the participants. In addition, staff training in exercise and advice on institutional PA policies were provided to the caregivers working in the group homes. Outcome measures on three aspects were collected: (1 physical fitness, (2 PA as assessed by an ActiGraph accelerometer, and (3 self-efficacy and social support for PA. Our major objective was to develop the intervention protocol, and the successful completion of this study will provide valuable evidence on how to promote active lifestyles in adults with ID.

  12. Memory performance, health literacy, and instrumental activities of daily living of community residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others.

  13. Intergenerational Living - A Pilot Study in a University Setting. Final Report. Student Originated Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater.

    Results of a feasibility study to integrate the elderly into the university community are reported. The program occurred during the 1975 summer session at Oklahoma State University. Twenty retired persons attended classes, participated in other phases of campus life, and lived in a university dormitory. Twenty-three students acted as surrogate…

  14. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  15. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Salyers, Michelle P; Wright, Eric R

    2015-09-01

    Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N = 401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with 0 partners, 1 partner, or multiple partners over the past 3 months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions on the basis of consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A pilot study of a smoking cessation intervention for women living with HIV: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sun S Kim, Sabreen Darwish, Sang A Lee, Rosanna F DeMarco Department of Nursing, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, USA Background: Prevalence of cigarette smoking is substantially higher among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV than the general population in the USA. Women living with HIV (WLHIV who smoke are at higher risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and have a higher mortality rate than nonsmoking WLHIV. Compared to men, women generally require more intensive counseling for smoking cessation. The primary aim of this study is to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention that is tailored to the specific needs of WLHIV. Methods: A total of 50 WLHIV will be randomized at a ratio of 1:1 to either a videoconferencing or a telephone counseling arm. Both arms have the same cessation intervention, that is, eight weekly individualized counseling sessions of 30-minute cognitive behavioral therapy plus active nicotine patches for 8 weeks. The only difference between the two arms is the delivery mode of the counseling, that is, telephone video call vs. telephone voice call. Data collection is scheduled at baseline and three follow-up points: 1, 3, and 6 months from the target quit day. Data will be analyzed using STATA 14. The primary outcome is a 6-month prolonged abstinence. Home-based salivary cotinine test will be conducted to verify self-reported smoking abstinence using a NicAlert® test strip, while a research coordinator monitors the whole process by a telephone video call. Conclusion: The study is a two-arm parallel-group pilot clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention. It attempts to examine whether videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention will be acceptable and feasible for WLHIV and will yield a better cessation outcome than telephone counseling intervention. Findings may have the

  17. Experiences of women living with fibromyalgia: an exploratory study of their information needs and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Daraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women living with fibromyalgia consistently report experiencing a change in their lives in terms of stigma, inability to work, isolation from society and difficulty in managing their illness. Lack of understanding and knowledge about their disease has been linked to compromised health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of information use of women living with fibromyalgia. A descriptive phenomenology was used for this study. Participants were identified through gatekeepers for women living with fibromyalgia across Canada. Data was collected via taperecorded interviews. The study was conducted in Canada between 2009-2010. Ten women (18 or older participated in the research. Three essential themes emerged from the analysis that were vital to understand the unique experiences of women: i understanding the need for information required to live with fibromyalgia, ii struggling to meet vital and fundamental information needs and iii transforming themselves to improve health and quality of life. Women living with fibromyalgia have vital and specific information needs and struggle to find and access appropriate information. They use diverse strategies in overcoming some of the challenges in accessing information. Most significantly, women draw on the information to make changes and to begin to coordinate their lives to live with fibromyalgia. For women living with fibromyalgia, the phenomenon of information use has a significant effect on their lives. Healthcare providers are perceived as an important source of information and need to be better informed, more prepared and dedicated to assisting women with their information needs.

  18. CD8+ regulatory T cells, and not CD4+ T cells, dominate suppressive phenotype and function after in vitro live Mycobacterium bovis-BCG activation of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Mardi C; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Joosten, Simone A; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (M. bovis BCG), the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis, has been reported to induce regulatory T cells in humans. The activity of regulatory T cells may not only dampen immunogenicity and protective efficacy of tuberculosis-vaccines, but also hamper diagnosis of infection of tuberculosis, when using immune (e.g. IFNγ-release) assays. Still, in settings of infectious diseases and vaccination, most studies have focused on CD4+ regulatory T cells, and not CD8+ regulatory T-cells. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the suppressive phenotype and function of CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells after in vitro live BCG activation of human cells. Moreover, as BCG is administered as a (partly) live vaccine, we also compared the ability of live versus heatkilled BCG in activating CD4+ and CD8+ regulatory T cell responses. BCG-activated CD8+ T cells consistently expressed higher levels of regulatory T cell markers, and after live BCG activation, density and (co-)expression of markers were significantly higher, compared to CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, selection on CD25-expression after live BCG activation enriched for CD8+ T cells, and selection on co-expression of markers further increased CD8+ enrichment. Ultimately, only T cells activated by live BCG were functionally suppressive and this suppressive activity resided predominantly in the CD8+ T cell compartment. These data highlight the important contribution of live BCG-activated CD8+ Treg cells to immune regulation and emphasize their possible negative impact on immunity and protection against tuberculosis, following BCG vaccination.

  19. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  20. Re: Perioperative Complications after Living Kidney Donation: A National Study

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    Serkan Akıncı

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors have investigated the perioperative complications after donor nephrectomy integrating the US transplant registry with administrative records from an academic hospital consortium (97 centers, 2008-2012. 14.964 patients were verified as live donors through linkage with the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry. Overall, 16.8% of donors experienced a perioperative complication, including Clavien grade 2 or higher events in 8.8%, Clavien grade 3 or higher in 7.3%, and Clavien grade 4 or higher events in 2.5%. The most common complications were gastrointestinal (4.4%, bleeding (3.0%, respiratory (2.5%, and surgical/anesthesia-related injuries (2.4%. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, African American donors were 26% more likely to experience any perioperative complication and 56% more likely to experience the most severe complications. Other factors associated with increased risk of any perioperative complication, and with the most severe complications included predonation hematologic and psychiatric conditions and more recent years of donation. Donation at centers with the highest annual volume of living donor nephrectomies (>50 cases/year was associated with approximately 45% lower risk of any perioperative complication and of the most severe complications. Donors who underwent robotic nephrectomy were twice as likely to experience severe perioperative complications (adjusted odds ratio 2.07 for Clavien grade 4 or higher events. To conclude, the authors found that while one in six US living kidney donors experienced a perioperative complication, the most severe complications were infrequent, affecting only 2.5% of donors.

  1. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Hoa-Cuc Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory.

  2. Influences of patient informed cognitive complaints on activities of daily living in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Träger, Conny; Decker, Lone; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience debilitating cognitive deficits, with risk of impaired occupational and psychosocial functioning. However, knowledge of how these deficits impact the patients' ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL), tasks related to self-care and d......Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience debilitating cognitive deficits, with risk of impaired occupational and psychosocial functioning. However, knowledge of how these deficits impact the patients' ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL), tasks related to self...... Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment questionnaire (COBRA)) were included. Objective neurocognitive function was evaluated with a short comprehensive cognitive test battery and ADL ability was evaluated with the performance-based Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in the homes...... of the patients. Our findings indicate that low processing speed correlated with decreased ADL ability, and processing speed as measured by the cognitive test battery thus seems to be significantly related to patients' ability to live independently in the community. Overall, adding a performance based test...

  3. The physical activity levels among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving high active antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, J M; Murenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    The accessibility of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is improving in Rwanda. It is well known that this therapy is associated with serious adverse effects, such as metabolic and morphologic changes. One of the recommended preventive modalities for these complications is participation in physical activity. The current study aims to determine the anthropometric profile and physical activity levels among people living with HIV and receiving HAART in Kigali, Rwanda. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative survey. The participant's levels of physical activity participation and their association with anthropometric profiles were measured, using a structured self-administered questionnaire for 407 clients passing through the clinics. Of the participants, approximately 70% were inactive and in addition, 40% were obese and 43% overweight. Obesity was found to be strongly associated with inactivity. Lack of motivation, and time as well as fear of worsening the disease were found to be barriers to participation in physical activity.

  4. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Nortje1_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1410 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Nortje1_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LiveDiverse - Sustainable... (LEDET), ? Limpopo Tourism and Parks (LTP), ? Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) ? Vhembe Biosphere Committee ? South African Heritage Resource Agency (SAHRA). Stakeholders with technical background University of Venda Popular articles...

  5. Daily living pain assessment in children with autism: Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A; Michelon, C; Rattaz, C; Zabalia, M; Baghdadli, A

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to broaden knowledge about pain expression and assessment in daily life situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The goals are to provide a description of the responses of the GED-DI, the French version of the NCCPC, and to test the internal structure validity of this scale. Thirty five children with ASD were included in this study (mean age=58months; mean developmental age=32months). The French version of the NCCPC was filled in by parents. Descriptive analysis of responses shows that children with ASD express pain through varied and common behaviours, related to different expressive markers (vocal, facial, activity, etc.). Behaviours more specific to the symptomology and disturbances of ASD are also displayed. A four-factor solution (negative emotional reaction, idiosyncratic expression, hyper-vigilance reaction, pain expression) emerges from an exploratory factor analysis that explains 54.4% of the total variance. Correlation coefficients show good psychometric qualities in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity and discriminant validity. This study provides new data about pain expression in daily life situations and shows that the French version of NCCPC adjusted to ASD children is relevant to assess pain in daily life situations.

  6. The Role of Social Work Services in Improving the Living Standards of the Elderly in Kuwait: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhafiri, Abdulwahab Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: To what extent is there a significant difference between the elderly's demographic data and their attitudes toward the role of social welfare services in improving their lives? Employed Method: This study used a descriptive method to investigate the activities/services and programs provided by social care homes for the elderly, both…

  7. Acid base activity of live bacteria: Implications for quantifying cell wall charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Jacqueline; van Lith, Yvonne; Laverman, Anniet M.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    To distinguish the buffering capacity associated with functional groups in the cell wall from that resulting from metabolic processes, base or acid consumption by live and dead cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens was measured in a pH stat system. Live cells exhibited fast consumption of acid (pH 4) or base (pH 7, 8, 9, and 10) during the first few minutes of the experiments. At pH 5.5, no acid or base was required to maintain the initial pH constant. The initial amounts of acid or base consumed by the live cells at pH 4, 8, and 10 were of comparable magnitudes as those neutralized at the same pHs by intact cells killed by exposure to gamma radiation or ethanol. Cells disrupted in a French press required higher amounts of acid or base, due to additional buffering by intracellular constituents. At pH 4, acid neutralization by suspensions of live cells stopped after 50 min, because of loss of viability. In contrast, under neutral and alkaline conditions, base consumption continued for the entire duration of the experiments (5 h). This long-term base neutralization was, at least partly, due to active respiration by the cells, as indicated by the build-up of succinate in solution. Qualitatively, the acid-base activity of live cells of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis resembled that of S. putrefaciens. The pH-dependent charging of ionizable functional groups in the cell walls of the live bacteria was estimated from the initial amounts of acid or base consumed in the pH stat experiments. From pH 4 to 10, the cell wall charge increased from near-zero values to about -4 × 10 -16 mol cell -1 and -6.5 × 10 -16 mol cell -1 for S. putrefaciens and B. subtilis, respectively. The similar cell wall charging of the two bacterial strains is consistent with the inferred low contribution of lipopolysaccharides to the buffering capacity of the Gram-negative cell wall (of the order of 10%).

  8. Harnessing Technology and Citizen Science to Support Neighborhoods that Promote Active Living in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Salvo, Deborah; Winter, Sandra J; Cortes, David; Rivera, Juan; Rodriguez, Nicole M; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living. We pilot tested this approach in Cuernavaca, Mexico with adults and adolescents. This community-engaged and participatory approach is driven by residents, who utilize a GPS-enabled electronic tablet-based application with simple audio-based instructions to take photographs and record audio narratives of facets of their neighborhood that promote or hinder active living. After collecting these data, the citizen scientists come together in a community meeting and use their data to prioritize realistic, multi-level changes for promoting active living in their neighborhoods. A survey assessed participants' acceptability of the approach. Participating citizen scientists included 32 adults and 9 adolescents. The citizen scientists rated the acceptability of five of the nine acceptability survey items with an average of 4.0 or higher out of 5.0, indicating they thought it was "fun," were comfortable carrying the tablet, were likely to use it again, and would recommend it to friends and family. Items with average scores of less than 4 were all related to safety concerns. The most common barriers reported by citizen scientists using the tablet were poor sidewalk quality, presence of trash, negative characteristics of the streets, unpleasant aesthetics (e.g., graffiti), and presence of parks and recreational facilities. The Our Voice

  9. Observation of Serum Bactericidal Activity of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs Combined with Brucella abortus RB51 Live Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Gholizadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: vaccination is vital against brucellosis. Although current vaccines have low efficiency, some cell wall compartments such as Outer Membrane Proteins could be used as an immunogenic candidate in vaccine development. By this mean, our aim in this study was to evaluate the humoral immunity of the combination of Brucella abortus RB51 OMPs with the Brucella abortus RB51 live attenuated vaccine, by Serum Bactericidal Acitivity test. Materials and Methods: In this project, first Brucella abortus RB51 was cultivated in brucella agar. The OMPs were extracted by Sodium N-Lauryl Sarcosinate method, then added to the RB51 live attenuated vaccine. Immunization was done by injection of the vaccine to mice and rabbits. The blood was drawn on days 0, 15,30, and 45 from the rabbits and the sera were seperated. Brucella abortus 544 was also injected as challenge. Spleen colony count was also performed. Results: The data from Serum Bactericidal Assay has showed, there was a very high Humoral immunity and response as a bactericidal titre of the serum against Rb51 Live vaccine. There was a significant decrease of colonies in the group vaccinated with the combined vaccine in the Spleen colony count test. Statistical analysis of groups variances showed a significant difference between groups (P<0.05.Conclusions: The Serum Bactericidal Assay results showed despite previous studies, both the combine and live vaccine are capable to stimulate the Humoral immunity. greater activity of combined vaccine to boost the humoral activity might be due to the synergistic effect of this vaccine.

  10. The meaning of activity and participation in everyday life when living with hand osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromann Bukhave, Elise; la Cour, Karen; Huniche, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is, first, to advance the understanding of participation and its relationship to activity; second, to add to discussions or understandings of the ICF by contributing an empirically derived understanding of participation and its relationship to activity connected to the conduct of everyday life in people with hand osteoarthritis (hand OA). Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 31 men and women living with hand OA because existing research on this group and the challenges they encounter in their everyday life is sparse. The analytical process was inspired by Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis and informed by critical psychology and social practice theory as interpretive frameworks. Our empirical findings indicate that persons with hand OA experience participation restrictions in their everyday lives and activity limitations as aspects of participation. This indicates that activity and participation are experienced as interrelated across social contexts. Participation in everyday life seems complex: what to participate in, how to participate and with whom seem of importance for subjective meaning-making. Implications are discussed in relation to methodology, the empirical findings, and clinical practice.

  11. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings.

  12. Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Improving Cognitive Function and Activities of Daily Living among Elderly Patients with Stroke at Assiut University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…

  13. Executive function and instrumental activities of daily living in MCI and AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Frey, Meghan T.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) leads to early loss in productivity and adds significant burden to caregivers. Executive dysfunction is thought to be an important contributor to functional impairment. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between executive function and IADL in a large cohort of well characterized normal older controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, separately as well as across the entire sample, while accounting for demographic, cognitive, and behavioral factors. Methods Subjects with baseline clinical datasets (n=793) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study (228 NC, 387 MCI, 178 AD) were included in the analyses. A multiple regression model was used to assess the relationship between executive function and IADL. Results A multiple regression model, including diagnosis, global cognitive impairment, memory performance, and other covariates demonstrated a significant relationship between executive dysfunction and IADL impairment across all subjects (R2=0.60, p<0.0001 for model; Digit Symbol, partial β=−0.044, p=0.005; Trailmaking Test B – A, quadratic relation, p=0.01). An analysis using MCI subjects only also yielded a significant relationship (R2=0.16, p<0.0001 for model; Digit Symbol, partial β=−0.08, p=0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that executive dysfunction is a key contributor to impairment in IADL. This relationship was evident even after accounting for degree of memory deficit across the continuum of cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21575871

  14. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  15. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON FATIGUE, ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING AND AEROBIC FITNESS IN POST GASTRECTOMY INDIVIDUALS UNDERGOING CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivaprasad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer among men and third most among women in world wide. For over 100 years, gastric cancer has remained one of the most important malignant diseases with significant, geographical, ethnic and socio-economic differences in distribution. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of supervised aerobic exercises on severity of fatigue, activities of daily living and aerobic fitness in post gastrectomy individuals undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: Total sixty patient’s age 30 to 68 years post gastrectomy individuals undergoing chemotherapy included for study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=30, which underwent a 4- weeks training programme of supervised aerobic exercises & control group (n=30 that received standard care and unsupervised aerobic exercise protocol. Primary outcome was change in fatigue levels as determined by fatigue severity scale in before and after the intervention program. Secondary outcomes were activities of daily living and aerobic fitness as assessed by the dukes activity status index and six minute walk test by using cahalin formula. Paired sample t- test was used to analyse changes from before and after intervention programme. Result: There is a statistically significant (p<.000 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise proved to be effective in improving aerobic fitness, activities of daily living and decreasing the fatigue in post gastrectomy individuals undergoing chemotherapy

  17. Effects of visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the effects of a visual perceptual intervention on visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy as subjects. [Methods] This study was conducted with 56 children who were diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. The visual perceptual intervention was implemented for 8 weeks, 3 times a week, for 30 minutes per session, for a total of 24 sessions. All children were assessed using the VMI and WeeFIM to evaluate visual motor integration and activities of daily living skills, immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. [Results] The VMI and WeeFIM scores of all of the 56 children with CP who participated in the study improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Visual perceptual intervention had a positive influence on the visual-motor integration and activities of daily living performance of children with cerebral palsy.

  18. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan, E-mail: Ramanujanv@csmc.edu

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  19. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Compensation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living – Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

  20. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  1. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  2. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

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    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  3. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London—Olympic Park cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Participants Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Findings to date Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. Future plans The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a ‘natural experiment’, provided by the building and rapid occupation of East

  4. Human and Drosophila cryptochromes are light activated by flavin photoreduction in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Hoang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants, animals, and humans that control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In plant cryptochromes, light activation is proposed to result from photoreduction of a protein-bound flavin chromophore through intramolecular electron transfer. However, although similar in structure to plant cryptochromes, the light-response mechanism of animal cryptochromes remains entirely unknown. To complicate matters further, there is currently a debate on whether mammalian cryptochromes respond to light at all or are instead activated by non-light-dependent mechanisms. To resolve these questions, we have expressed both human and Drosophila cryptochrome proteins to high levels in living Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus-derived expression system. Intact cells are irradiated with blue light, and the resulting cryptochrome photoconversion is monitored by fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate that light induces a change in the redox state of flavin bound to the receptor in both human and Drosophila cryptochromes. Photoreduction from oxidized flavin and subsequent accumulation of a semiquinone intermediate signaling state occurs by a conserved mechanism that has been previously identified for plant cryptochromes. These results provide the first evidence of how animal-type cryptochromes are activated by light in living cells. Furthermore, human cryptochrome is also shown to undergo this light response. Therefore, human cryptochromes in exposed peripheral and/or visual tissues may have novel light-sensing roles that remain to be elucidated.

  5. Evaluation of a complex intervention to improve activities of daily living of disabled cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; la Cour, Karen

    2014-01-01

    on the intervention varied considerably, but for the majority of patients, time consumption was between 1-3 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Despite difficulties with recruitment, participation was considered feasible and the intervention was accepted among patients. Missing data in the follow-up period were mostly due to death......BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients have problems performing activities of daily living (ADL). A randomised controlled trial was designed to examine the effects of an ADL intervention in addition to standard treatment and care in a hospital setting. The objective of this article was to present...

  6. Subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living in patients with mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Post, A; Poulsen, T.E.;

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with mild stroke. Methodology: Data was generated from January – December 2011 and consisted of 41 individual ADL-I interviews with patients in hospital and another 41...... and risk of accidents. Conclusion: It is important to view the patients with mild stroke as heterogeneous, and consider post-stroke fatigue and emotional reactions when evaluating rehabilitation needs. Therefore, it is important to look further into structured tools, which examine how well the participant...

  7. Activating people to address their health care needs: learning from people with lived experience of chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2014-08-01

    One of the primary goals of health care reform is improving the quality and reducing the costs of care for people with co-morbid mental health and physical health conditions. One strategy is to integrate primary and behavioral health care through care coordination and patient activation. This qualitative study using community based participatory research methods informs the development of integrated care by presenting the perspectives of those with lived experience of chronic illnesses and homelessness. Themes presented include the internal and external barriers to addressing health needs and the key role of peer support in overcoming these barriers.

  8. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernandes Bolina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. Methods: this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012, carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05. Results: there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007 and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005. Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034. Conclusion: the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed.

  9. Study of "zero consumption" in Sports and Leisure Activity in the Elderly Living in the Yangtze River Delta Region%长三角地区老年人运动休闲的"零消费"现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡任; 张建国; 钱佳佳

    2015-01-01

    调查长三角地区老年人运动休闲的"零消费"现状,分析其特征及产生原因. 使用问卷调查、访谈等方法获取有关长三角地区老年人运动休闲消费的相关数据. 结果表明:老年人运动休闲的"零消费"是我国长三角地区中较为普遍存在的一种社会现象,它不仅是经济收入水平制约的结果,而且也是年龄增长、体力水平下降等多种因素作用下形成的一种消费趋势. 老年人运动休闲的"零消费"对老年人参与运动休闲活动本身并无明显影响,但是会在一定程度上影响运动休闲活动的多样化发展. 就目前我国老年人的运动休闲活动参与现状而言,尚无法像发达国家一样对休闲产业的发展起到举足轻重的引领作用.%The paper investigates the Yangtze River Delta region the elderly sports "zero consumption" situation and analyzes its characteristics and causes. It uses questionnaires, interviews and other methods to obtain information about the Yangtze River Delta region of elderly leisure sports consumption related data. Conclusion: the elderly sports "zero consumption" is China's Yangtze River Delta region in the more widespread the phenomenon of a kind of society, it is not only economic income level constraints results, but also the age, physical decline and other factors contributed to a trend in consumption. The elderly sports "zero consumption" for the elderly participation in recreational sports activities is not significantly affected, but will be affected to a certain extent sports leisure activity diversification development. Current our country older sports leisure activity participation situation is concerned, is not as developed as the leisure industry and the development to play a decisive role in the leading role.

  10. Physical activity among Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Ferketich, Amy K; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Harley, Amy; Reiter, Paul L; Paskett, Electra D; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2012-04-01

    To understand the behavioral lifestyle factors that may contribute to lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish population, this study evaluated differences in physical activity (PA) levels between Amish and non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia. Amish (n = 134) and non-Amish (n = 154) adults completed face-to-face interviews as part of a cancer-related lifestyle study. Self-report of PA level was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and by a diary of steps/day (pedometer: Digi-Walker SW-200). Total metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes was calculated from the IPAQ and average number of steps/day from a pedometer diary. Amish males walked more steps/day (mean ± standard error (SE): 11,447 ± 611 vs. 7,605 ± 643; P < 0.001) and had a higher IPAQ score (MET min/week) (mean ± SE: 8,354 ± 701 vs. 5,547 ± 690; P < 0.01) than non-Amish males. In addition, Amish farmers walked significantly more steps/day than Amish non-farmers (mean ± SE: 15,278 ± 1,297 vs. 10,742 ± 671; P < 0.01). There was a trend for Amish females to walk more steps/day (mean ± SE: 7,750 ± 477 vs. 6,547 ± 437; P = 0.06) and to have higher IPAQ scores (mean ± SE: 4,966 ± 503 vs. 3,702 ± 450; P = 0.06) compared to non-Amish females. Two measures of PA demonstrated a higher PA level among Amish males, especially farmers, and a trend for higher PA level among Amish females. Higher levels of PA warrants further investigation as one factor potentially contributing to lower cancer incidence rates documented among the Amish.

  11. Effects of resistance training on the performance of activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuffi, Marcelo; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Hernández, Salma Sthephany Soleman; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; dos Santos, Julimara Gomes; Stella, Florindo

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training in activities of daily living performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. An exploratory and longitudinal study, lasting for 16 weeks, with the participation of 34 patients divided equally in: the training group (TG), who participated in a resistance training protocol (three sets of 20 repetitions in five exercises); and the social gathering group (SGG), who participated in a social interaction protocol (i.e. group dynamics, writing and reading activities). We observed significant differences between the groups in moving around the house, climbing stairs, standing up from the floor and putting on socks tests. This study showed that resistance training improves agility, lower limb strength, balance and flexibility in AD patients, while SGG protocol is important to improve the agility. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Predictive Factors of Dependency in Activities of Daily Living Following Limb Trauma in the Elderly

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    Safa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Traumatic injuries in the elderly often lead to permanent disabilities and long-term treatments that can adversely influence their activities of daily of living (ADL. The effect on ADL is an important outcome in elderly trauma. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate the predictive factors of dependency in ADL following limb trauma in elderly referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 200 traumatic patients admitted to the trauma emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in 2013. The questionnaire used in this study had three parts: demographic data, information related to trauma, and an independence scale of ADL (ISADL. The ISADL was completed in the emergency ward to declare pre-traumatic status; it was also completed one and three months after trauma. Statistical analysis was conducted by the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The repeated measure was used to study the trend of the ISADL and other demographic variables. The multiple regression analysis was also used to declare the predictive variables related to the ISADL. Results The study population consisted of 81 males (40.5% and 119 females (59.5%. The participants’ average age was 70.57 ± 9.05 years. In total, 80.5% of the elderly were completely independent in ADL before trauma; this decreased to 13.5% one month after trauma. The repeated measure analysis showed a significant improvement in the ISADL three months after trauma. Gender, age, and education had significant interaction with the ISADL. The multiple regression analysis showed that type of trauma and location of injured organ had predictive values related to the ISADL, one and three months after trauma. The place and cause of trauma, and having surgery showed a significant relationship with the ISADL three months after trauma. Conclusions Many factors, such as gender, age, education, type of trauma, and location of

  13. Offering architects insights into experiences of living with dementia: A case study on orientation in space, time, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenwinkel, Iris; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Heylighen, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Due to memory loss, people with dementia are increasingly disorientated in space, time, and identity, which causes profound experiences of insecurity, anxiety, and homesickness. In the case study presented in this article, we explored how architecture can support people in coping with this challenge. We took a novel approach to offer architects insights into experiences of living with dementia. Starting from a critical realist and constructionist approach, we combined ethnographic techniques with an architectural analysis. This case study offers insights into the experiences and activities of a woman living with dementia within the architectural context of her home. We describe how the physical and social environment provided her guidance through sequences of day-to-day activities. This study highlights how architecture can support people with dementia in orientating by accommodating places for (1) everyday activities and (2) privacy and togetherness.

  14. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion [Nanobiophotonics Center, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Nanobioscience, Babes-Bolyai University, Treboniu Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela [Department of Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Manastur 3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian, E-mail: sanda.boca@phys.ubbcluj.ro, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Electron Microscopy Center, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Babes-Bolyai University, Clinicilor 5-7, 400006, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-02-04

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.

  15. Flower-shaped gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and their application as SERS-active tags inside living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Sanda; Rugina, Dumitrita; Pintea, Adela; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Astilean, Simion

    2011-02-01

    The detection of Raman signals inside living cells is a topic of great interest in the study of cell biology mechanisms and for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of flower-shaped gold nanoparticles and demonstrates their applicability as SERS-active tags for cellular spectral detection. The particles were synthesized by a facile, rapid new route that uses ascorbic acid as a reducing agent of gold salt. Two triarylmethane dyes which are widely used as biological stains, namely malachite green oxalate and basic fuchsin, were used as Raman-active molecules and the polymer mPEG-SH as capping material. The as-prepared SERS-active nanoparticles were tested on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability together with SERS sensitivity down to picomolar particle concentrations.

  16. Determining the relationship between body compositions and nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gümüş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data’s were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as “bad” for 80.9% (n=86 as “medium” and for 3.5% (n=6 as “good”. It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in orphanages.

  17. [Study of "living" radical polymerization by FTIR in situ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Hua, F; Qiu, J; Yang, Y

    2001-02-01

    Three types of living radical polymerization processes were monitored by means of FTIR spectrometer with handful diamond detector called as Dicomp in situ. It was found that both styrene and styrene/hydroxylpropyl methyacrylate (HPMA) could polymerize according to stable free radical polymerization (SFRP) mechanism in presence of 4-hydroxyl tetramethypiperidiyl-1-oxy(HTEMPO). For styrene/HPMA system, the styrene and HPMA conversion monitored by FTIR were linear with increase of molecular weight, but it gave longer induction period compared with that for St bulk polymerization. It was related to the hydrogen-transfer reaction between the propagating radicals with the end HPMA unit and HTEMPO. Furthermore, This following method in situ could be introduced into monitoring heterogeneous polymerization of styrene during atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The apparent kinetics was found to be about zero order and not 1.0 order, due to propagating on the complex including radicals, CuX and bpy in heterogeneous interface. The polymerization rate will be not related to the St in bulk St phase.

  18. An Empirical Typology of Residential Care/Assisted Living Based on a Four-State Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…

  19. An Ethnographic Study of Stigma and Ageism in Residential Care or Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Debra; Eckert, J. Kevin; Rubinstein, Bob; Keimig, Lynn; Clark, Leanne; Frankowski, Ann Christine; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored aspects of stigmatization for older adults who live in residential care or assisted living (RC-AL) communities and what these settings have done to address stigma. Design and Methods: We used ethnography and other qualitative data-gathering and analytic techniques to gather data from 309 participants (residents, family…

  20. Groningen active living model (GALM) : Stimulating physical activity in sedentary older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M; Lemmink, KAPM; de Greef, NHG; Rispens, P; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Background A significant number of Dutch older adults can be considered sedentary when it comes to regular participation in leisure-time physical activity. Sedentariness is considered a potential public health burden-all the more reason to develop a strategy for stimulating older adults toward becom

  1. The lived experience of fibromyalgia in female patients, a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuytack Francesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome with no cure. A thorough understanding of the illness experience is therefore key in the palliative care of patients with this condition. In search for supportive treatments fibromyalgia patients often attend a chiropractor or other manual therapist. Knowledge of the meaning and reality of living with this condition to the patient could be considered essential to any health care practitioner playing a role in the management. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the subjective experience of fibromyalgia, focusing on the personal, occupational and social impact of the condition on patients' lives. This included exploring the patients' views about the future. Methods This study employed descriptive phenomenology and adopted Husserl's concept of transcendental subjectivity or "bracketing". This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews and was undertaken to obtain rich data that reflected the essence of the participants' experience. Participants consisted of six female volunteers, diagnosed with fibromyalgia by the University Hospital Gent, Belgium. Data were analysed using a thematic framework. Results Fibromyalgia pervaded all aspects of life. Four main themes arose from data analysis, namely; the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' occupational and personal life, the impact on their future and aspects of social interaction. Nearly all participants had stopped working, giving rise to feelings of uselessness and loss of identity. Leisure activities were also greatly affected. Fibromyalgia was said to alter family bonds, some of which were reinforced, others were broken. The diagnosis was seen as a relief, marking an end to a period of uncertainty. Participants reported ambivalence in interaction. Despite some positive encounters, frustration arising from perceived incomprehension dominated. Consequently patients preferred not to share their experiences. Conclusions The

  2. Comparison of three generations of ActiGraph activity monitors under free-living conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, May; Hansen, Bjørge Herman; Ried-Larsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    + in children in free-living conditions. The generations GT1M and GT3X+ provided comparable outputs. The differences between the old and the newer monitors were more complex when investigating time spent at different intensities. Comparisons of data assessed by the AM7164 with data assessed by newer generations......BACKGROUND: A recent review concludes that the agreement of data across ActiGraph accelerometer models for children and youth still is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of three generations of ActiGraph accelerometers in children in a free-living condition. METHODS......: Sixteen 9-year-olds wore the ActiGraph AM7164, GT1M and GT3X+ simultaneously for three consecutive days. We compared mean counts per minute (mcpm) and time spent at different intensities from the three generations of monitors, and the agreement of outputs were evaluated by intra-class correlation...

  3. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  4. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY IN CHILDREN WITH RENAL DISEASES LIVING IN REGIONS WITH UNFAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kudin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Seventy-nine children participated in the study including 33 children living in region with developed cement industry (12 with glomerulonephritis, and 21 with obstructive pyelonephritis. A group of comparison consisted of 46 children living in Moscow, including 17 subjects with glomerulonephritis and 29 children with obstructive pyelonephritis, and control group of 26 healthy children. ELISA method was used to perform immunological studies. The levels of sCD4, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, sICAM-1, TNFα were evaluated in blood sera. The data obtained show significant increase of TNFα levels and decreased IL-6 levels (p < 0,05 in children with nephropathy living in regions with unfavorable environmental conditions as compared with control group. A seven-fold increase in TNFα levels, along with more than twofold decrease in IL-6 was revealed among children with obstructive pyelonephritis, as compared with control group (p < 0,05. In children with glomerulonephritis and obstructive pyelonephritis, a distinct increase of sCD4 , as well as decreased IL-2 level (p < 0,05 was registered, as compared with control group. Meanwhile, IL-10 contents in this group of patients was 22,4 times less than the in controls (p < 0,05. In the main group, no enhanced sICAM synthesis was found, both in children with glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis. In children affected by adverse environmental pathogens, we have shown a prevailing immune inflammation due to hyperproduction of TNFα, IL-6, and activation of sCD4 helpers. Adverse environmental effects inhibit cytokine synthesis, thus reducing production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. A living thick nanofibrous implant bifunctionalized with active growth factor and stem cells for bone regeneration

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    Eap S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandy Eap,1,2,* Laetitia Keller,1–3,* Jessica Schiavi,1,2 Olivier Huck,1,2 Leandro Jacomine,4 Florence Fioretti,1,2 Christian Gauthier,4 Victor Sebastian,1,3,5 Pascale Schwinté,1,2 Nadia Benkirane-Jessel1,21INSERM, UMR 1109, Osteoarticular and Dental Regenerative Nanomedicine Laboratory, FMTS, Faculté de Médecine, Strasbourg, France; 2Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Aragon Nanoscience Institute, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 4CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research, ICS (Charles Sadron Institute, Strasbourg, France; 5Networking Research Center of Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Zaragoza, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: New-generation implants focus on robust, durable, and rapid tissue regeneration to shorten recovery times and decrease risks of postoperative complications for patients. Herein, we describe a new-generation thick nanofibrous implant functionalized with active containers of growth factors and stem cells for regenerative nanomedicine. A thick electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone nanofibrous implant (from 700 µm to 1 cm thick was functionalized with chitosan and bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7 as growth factor using layer-by-layer technology, producing fish scale-like chitosan/BMP-7 nanoreservoirs. This extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold enabled in vitro colonization and bone regeneration by human primary osteoblasts, as shown by expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein (BSPII, 21 days after seeding. In vivo implantation in mouse calvaria defects showed significantly more newly mineralized extracellular matrix in the functionalized implant compared to a bare scaffold after 30 days’ implantation, as shown by histological scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microscopy study and calcein injection. We have as well bifunctionalized our BMP-7

  6. HUBUNGAN TINGKAT PENDIDIKAN DAN ACTIVITY DAILY LIVING DENGAN DEMENSIA PADA LANJUT USIA DI PANTI WERDHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Siti Maryam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Jumlah kasus dan kejadian demensia di Indonesia pada tahun 2000 sebanyak 606.100 orang dan 191.400 orang. Pada tahun 2020 diprediksikan akan meningkat sebanyak 1.016.800 orang dan 314.100 orang (Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2006. Peningkatan jumlah kasus dan kejadian demensia menjadi tantangan bagi pemberi pelayanan kesehatan melihat dampak yang ditimbulkannya. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi demensia pada lansia. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah non-eksperimental (observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Analisis multivariat menggunakan regresi linear ganda. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh lansia yang ada di Panti Sosial Tresna Werdha Wilayah DKI Jakarta dengan sampel berjumlah 120 responden. Hasil: Ada hubungan bermakna antara tingkat pendidikan dengan demensia (p=0,012 dan ada hubungan bermakna antara Activity Daily Living dengan demensia (p=0,038. Model multivariat menunjukkan nilai koefisien determinasi 0,101 artinya kedua faktor tersebut yaitu tingkat pendidikan dan Activity Daily Living dapat menjelaskan variasi variabel demensia sebesar 10,1 % dan pada uji F menunjukkan kedua variabel tersebut secara signifikan dapat memprediksi variabel demensia. Faktor yang paling besar pengaruhnya terhadap demensia adalah tingkat pendidikan (Beta = 0,258. Kesimpulan: Untuk tetap meningkatkan dan mempertahankan fungsi mental lansia dapat dilakukan kegiatan mengingat, berbicara, berpikir, berperilaku dan melakukan berbagai pekerjaan agar lansia dapat tetap mandiri dan produktif.

  7. Raman microspectroscopic study of biomolecular structure inside living adhesive cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 杨红英; 许以明; 张志义

    2002-01-01

    Cells adhesion is very important for many physiological processes. Using advanced Raman microspectroscopic technique, we selected T Leukemia cells (Jurkat) as the materials and obtained simultaneously conformation information of various biomolecules inside the whole living cells. By comparing the Raman microspectroscopic spectra of single and adhesive cancer cells, we found for the first time that when cells adhered, the conformation of the biomolecules (DNA, protein, carbohydrates and lipids) inside the cells had different changes: (i) the backbone of double-stranded DNA maintained orderly B-form or modified B-form conformation, whereas the groups of its deoxyribose and bases were modified; (ii) the conformational changes of the main chain and the side chain in the protein were obviously variant. The lines intensity belonging to α-helix andβ-sheet decreased, while that ofβ-turn increased. Tyrosine and tryptophane residues of the protein changed from "buried state" to "exposed state"; the lines intensity of its sulfhydryl group also increased; the conformation of its disulfide bond changed from two kinds to three kinds. These facts suggest that the cells adhesion causes changes in H-bonds organization of the main chain and environment of the side chain in the protein; (iii) the groups of the carbohydrates were also modified simultaneously; (iv) the conformation of the lipids bilayers of the membranes changed obviously; the order parameter for lateral interaction between chains decreased gradually with the increase of number of the adhesive cells. So cells adhesion resulted in an increase in fluidity of the membrane and ion permeability on the membrane.

  8. The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on Cognition, Depression, and Activities of Daily Living for Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru Aşiret, Güler; Kapucu, Sevgisun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, conducted with experimental design, to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on cognition, depression, activities of daily living of institutionalized mild and moderate Alzheimer patients. The study was conducted with a total of 62 patients (31 intervention group and 31 control group) in four home care in Ankara, Turkey. Study was done between the July 1, 2013 and December 20, 2014. Reminiscence therapy sessions were held with groups consists of 4-5 patients, once a week with 30-35 minute duration for 12 weeks. Standardized Mini Mental Test was used in sample selection. Patients were listed through their mini mental test scores, and randomized as odd numbers to control group and even numbers to intervention group. Data were collected with forms developed by researcher 'Data Sheet' and 'Activities of Daily Living Follow-up Form' as well as scales 'Standardized Mini Mental Test' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U test, variance analyses in repeated measures and Bonferroni tests were used for analysis. The increase in mean Standardized Mini Mental Test score and the decrease in mean Geriatric Depression Scale score of the individuals in the intervention group compared to the control group at the end of the reminiscence therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the end of reminiscence therapy sessions, increase in cognition and decrease in depression were found statistically significant in intervention group.

  9. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  10. Managing and resisting stigma: a qualitative study among people living with HIV in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living with HIV is of daily concern for many South Africans and poses challenges including adapting to a chronic illness and continuing to achieve and meet social expectations. This study explored experiences of being HIV-positive and how people manage stigma in their daily social interactions. Methods: Using qualitative methods we did repeat interviewed with 42 HIV-positive men and women in Cape Town and Mthatha resulting in 71 interviews. Results: HIV was ubiquitous in our informants’ lives, and almost all participants reported fear of stigma (perceived stigma, but this fear did not disrupt them completely. The most common stigma experiences were gossips and insults where HIV status was used as a tool, but these were often resisted. Many feared the possibility of stigma, but very few had experiences that resulted in discrimination or loss of social status. Stigma experiences were intertwined with other daily conflicts and together created tensions, particularly in gender relations, which interfered with attempts to regain normality. Evidence of support and resistance to stigma was common, and most encouraging was the evidence of how structural interventions such as de-stigmatizing policies impacted on experiences and transference into active resistance. Conclusions: The study showed the complex and shifting nature of stigma experiences. These differences must be considered when we intensify stigma reduction with context- and gender-specific strategies focussing on those not yet on ARV programmes.

  11. Social aspects of living with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative descriptive study in Soweto, South Africa – a low resource context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabile Esther

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic illness with important functional, social and employment consequences. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, to investigate the personal and social consequences of RA in women, living under largely impoverished conditions. Methods A qualitative case study design was used with a convenience sample of 60 women with RA living in Soweto, South Africa. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to cover a range of experiences including onset of disease, treatment, environmental barriers and facilitators, employment, and social inclusion in family and community life. The outcomes are described according the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability framework at the body, person and societal levels and looking at both personal and environmental factors. Results The main features of living with RA were pain, muscle stiffness at the body level, difficulties in doing various activities such as mobility, washing, dressing, domestic activities, using transport and obtaining and maintaining employment at the person level. At the societal level the participants described difficulties moving around, interacting socially and taking part in community activities, fulfilling social roles and earning a living. Environmental facilitators such as assistive devices and health care services improved functioning. Barriers such as physical environments, lack of transport and basic services, such as electricity, and attitudes of others lead to social exclusion, loss of a sense of self and independence. Low income, lack of sufficient public transport, and sparse basic services were poverty features that exacerbated negative experiences. Conclusion The experiences of living with RA in a low resource context are similar to those in mid- and high resource contexts, but are exacerbated by

  12. Sleep in a live-in mining operation: the influence of start times and restricted non-work activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Baker, Angela A; Lamond, Nicole; Kennaway, David J; Dawson, Drew

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sleep obtained between shifts is influenced by numerous factors including the length of work and rest periods, the timing of the rest period relative to the endogenous circadian cycle and personal choices about the use of non-work time. The current study utilised a real-world live-in mining environment to examine the amount of sleep obtained when access to normal domestic, family and social activities was restricted. Participants were 29 mining operators (26 male, average age 37.4 ± 6.8 years) who recorded sleep, work and fatigue information and wore an activity monitor for a cycle of seven day shifts and seven night shifts (both 12h) followed by either seven or fourteen days off. During the two weeks of work participants lived on-site. Total sleep time was significantly less (pvalue than sleep associated with day shifts (p<0.01). While on-site, participants obtained only 6h of sleep indicating that the absence of competing domestic, family and social activities did not convert to more sleep. Factors including shift start times and circadian influences appear to have been more important. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853 and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254 and IADL (n = 1162 were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results: During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94, decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21, and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55 compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions: Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults.

  14. Validity of questions about activities of daily living to screen for dependency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Monica; Coelho-Filho, João Macedo; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2017-09-04

    To determine the criterion validity of the activities of daily living present in functionality questionnaires in older adults for population surveys and to identify which activities are valid to quantify the real daily need for help of this population. This is a population sample of older adults stratified by levels of functionality, according to self-perception of dependency in the activities of daily living. Self-perception was compared with the gold standard - direct observation of these activities in the household of older adults by a trained professional, blinded to the answers in the questionnaire. At the visit, it was decided if the older adult needed help to perform any of the activities of daily living for the research. The sensitivity of each activity of daily living was greater when the self-assessment that there was no need for help coincided with the assessment of the professional. Specificity indicates coincidence regarding the need for help in the activities of daily living - coefficients of sensitivity and specificity above 70% were considered as indicative of good validity. Self-assessments showed better sensitivity than specificity - older adults and observers agreed more on daily independency than on dependency. All activities showed sensitivity above 70%. Some activities had low (go shopping: 55%) or very low specificity (brush the hair: 33%). The best specificities were to take a shower and dress up (95.8% for both), among the personal ones, and to use transportation and perform banking transactions (78% for both), among the instrumental ones. Activities of daily living can be valid indicators of functional dependence. The best coefficients of validity were generally obtained for personal activities. Some activities with good sensitivities and specificities - walk 100 meters, take a shower, and lie down in and get out of the bed - can be used to classify older adults into low, average, and high need for help depending on the affected activities

  15. Live eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) extraction, in vitro culture, and transfer for experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Soliz, L A; Brightman, A; Rollins, D; Fedynich, A M; Kendall, R J

    2015-02-01

    Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ) have experienced a dramatic decline in West Texas over the last 3 yr, and investigations are underway to evaluate the role of parasites in this decline. One of the key parasites being investigated is the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi). Live eyeworms were extracted from both live and dead northern bobwhites, and in vitro survival was tested using 10 liquid media. Eyeworms placed in an egg white and physiological saline solution lived for at least 36 days. Live O. petrowi placed into the eyes of uninfected pen-raised bobwhites were monitored for 21 days to demonstrate successful transfer. Eyeworm behavior during feeding, mating, and development were monitored. This study is important to research that requires "banking" of live O. petrowi from wild-captured definitive hosts for life history studies and assessing the impact of O. petrowi on host individuals.

  16. Differences in the Access to Sterilization between Women Living and Not Living with HIV: Results from the GENIH Study, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Cristiane da Silva; do Lago, Tania di Giacomo; Pinho, Adriana de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries, young women of reproductive age have been especially affected by the HIV epidemic, which have fostered research to better understand how HIV infection influences and shapes women´s fertility and reproductive and sexual decisions. In Brazil, few studies have focused on the impact of the HIV epidemic on contraceptive choices among women living with HIV (WLHIV). Objective This study evaluates the impact HIV infection may have in the access to female sterilization in Brazil, using a time-to-event analysis. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study (GENIH study) was conducted between February 2013 and April 2014 in the city of São Paulo, comparing two probabilistic samples of 975 WLHIV and 1,003 women not living with HIV (WNLHIV) aged 18 to 49. Sexual and reproductive data was collected retrospectively in order to reconstruct women's reproductive trajectories. Given the objectives of this study, the analysis was restricted to women with parity one or more and, in case of WLHIV, to those sterilized after HIV diagnosis and not infected through vertical transmission. The final sample analysis included 683 WNLHIV and 690 WLHIV. A series of multivariable-adjusted Cox models estimated the probability of being sterilized after HIV diagnosis, compared with WNLHIV. Models were adjusted for schooling, race/color, and stratified by parity at last delivery (1–2, 3+). Hazard ratios were calculated for female sterilization, and separately for interval and postpartum procedures (performed in conjunction with caesarean section or immediately after vaginal delivery). Additionally, information regarding unmet demand for female sterilization was also explored. Findings No statistical difference in the overall risk of sterilization between WLHIV and WNLHIV in the two parity-related groups is observed: HR = 0.88 (0.54–1.43) and 0.94 (0.69–1.29), respectively, among women with 1–2 children and those with three and more. However, significant

  17. Risk factors associated with malnutrition in older adults living in Italian nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papparotto, Carla; Bidoli, Ettore; Palese, Alvisa

    2013-07-01

    Malnutrition is a significant problem among older adults living in nursing homes: Malnourished residents are at increased risk of hospitalization and mortality. Multiple factors determine malnutrition, and the extant literature has focused attention on individual factors such as aging, sex, and dependence in activities of daily living. However, little evidence is available on factors influenced by nursing care. Exploring the relationship between the nutritional status of nursing home residents and certain individual factors, including those potentially influenced by nursing care, was the aim of this cross-sectional study. A total of 186 nursing home residents was enrolled in the study; in addition, 18 nurses were involved in the data collection process. Twenty-one percent of the residents had an adequate nutritional status, 43% were at risk of malnutrition, and 36% were malnourished. Multivariate analysis revealed that those independent factors associated with malnutrition, once adjusted for age, sex, and dependence in activities of daily living, were: having had a stroke, being dependent in activities of daily living, eating half or less of food provided at mealtimes, and having their weight checked only every 3 months or longer. Nursing care projects may be effective in reducing the risk of malnutrition among nursing home residents. However, further research is needed to develop knowledge of the factors associated with malnutrition and those influenced by care delivered in nursing homes.

  18. Effects of the Otago exercise program on fall efficacy, activities of daily living and quality of life in elderly stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the Otago exercise program on fall efficacy, activities of daily living, and quality of life in elderly stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eight subjects performed the Otago exercise program three times per week, for 8 weeks. The outcome measures were the Fall Efficacy Scale score for fall efficacy, modified Barthel index for activities of daily living, and EQ-5D for quality of life. [Results] In our comparison of the results before and after the intervention, we found that the Otago exercise program improved fall efficacy significantly as well as the score for activities of daily living and quality of life, though not significantly. [Conclusion] We consider that the Otago exercise program is an effective method for improving fall efficacy in elderly stroke patients. PMID:26957755

  19. Shallow Encoding and Forgetting Are Associated with Dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults Living with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Doyle, Katie L.; Scott, J. Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J.; Morgan, Erin E.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul; Hampton Atkinson, J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Sherman, Melanie; Ellis, Ronald J.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund; Schrier, Rachel; Rosario, Debra; LeBlanc, Shannon; Heaton, Robert K.; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Morgan, Erin E.; Dawson, Matthew; Jernigan, Terry; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah L.; Hesselink, John; Annese, Jacopo; Taylor, Michael J.; Masliah, Eliezer; Achim, Cristian; Everall, Ian; Richman, Douglas; Smith, David M.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Achim, Cristian; Lipton, Stuart; Hampton Atkinson, J.; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cushman, Clint; Abramson, Ian; Vaida, Florin; Deutsch, Reena; Umlauf, Anya

    2014-01-01

    Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence. PMID:24695591

  20. Shallow encoding and forgetting are associated with dependence in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults living with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pariya L; Doyle, Katie L; Scott, J Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-05-01

    Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence.

  1. Rapid activation of Rac GTPase in living cells by force is independent of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Chuin Poh

    Full Text Available It is well known that mechanical forces are crucial in regulating functions of every tissue and organ in a human body. However, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical activities and biological responses at the cellular and molecular level. Using the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, we applied local mechanical stresses to living human airway smooth muscle cells with a magnetic bead bound to the cell surface via transmembrane adhesion molecule integrins. The temporal and spatial activation of Rac, a small guanosine triphosphatase, was quantified using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET method that measures changes in Rac activity in response to mechanical stresses by quantifying intensity ratios of ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein as a donor and YPet (a variant yellow fluorescent protein as an acceptor of the Rac biosensor. The applied stress induced rapid activation (less than 300 ms of Rac at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF induced Rac activation at a much later time (>30 sec. There was no stress-induced Rac activation when a mutant form of the Rac biosensor (RacN17 was transfected or when the magnetic bead was coated with transferrin or with poly-L-lysine. It is known that PDGF-induced Rac activation depends on Src activity. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of the cells with specific Src inhibitor PP1 or knocking-out Src gene had no effects on stress-induced Rac activation. In addition, eliminating lipid rafts through extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane did not prevent stress-induced Rac activation, suggesting a raft-independent mechanism in governing the Rac activation upon mechanical stimulation. Further evidence indicates that Rac activation by stress depends on the magnitudes of the applied stress and cytoskeletal integrity. Our results suggest that Rac activation by mechanical forces is rapid, direct and does not depend on Src

  2. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Göran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. Methods The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Results The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. Conclusion HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  3. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Association of BODE index to daily living activities and upper limb strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukadevi Mahadevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive disease that reduces the functional capacity and the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL. Aims: To determine the correlation between the BODE index (B - body mass index; O - airflow obstruction; D - dyspnea; and E - exercise capacity with ADL and grip strength in COPD patients. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at JSS Hospital, Mysore. It was a correlational study. Subjects and Methods: Sixty-six COPD subjects were recruited by convenience sampling. Forced expiratory volume, body mass index, Six-Minute Walk Test, and Medical Research Council scale were assessed. The BODE index was calculated. The total score of London Chest Activities of Daily Living (LCADL and grip strength were compared between the patients of the four quartiles of the BODE index. The association between LCADL and grip Strength with BODE index was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Eta coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the analysis of variance were used. Results: The Eta coefficients showed the strength or the measure of associations of BODE index with age, grip strength, and LCADL. Spearman's correlation coefficient shows that there is an inverse association with grip strength and LCADL, and it was statistically significant as theP<0.05. Conclusions: ADL limitation and hand grip strength test have a strong association with the BODE index in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

  5. 'A tale of two cases:' the health, illness, and physical activity stories of two children living with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moola, Fiona J; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-01-01

    Storytelling is perennial, and central to the human condition. Although illness may shatter identity and one's role and place in the broader social world, narrative may aid in the process of self-reparation. Despite the merits of the narrative approach, it has been underutilized with children who are living with cystic fibrosis (CF). The role that illness narratives may play in influencing CF youths' physical activity also remains poorly investigated. This article drew on the qualitative case study methodological tradition to narrate the stories of two children living with CF at a children's hospital in Canada. The findings beg researchers to consider (a) how children with life-limiting diseases borrow multiple illness narrative types, (b) the role of development in influencing the kinds of stories that children can tell, and (c) the impact of illness narratives on physical activity. By rendering the tales of two CF youth in this study, we respond to Aurthur Frank's call; taking a multiple narrative turn, we listen to stories of a different kind of suffering.

  6. Relationship between risk factors and activities of daily living using modified Shah Barthel Index in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, W.; Rachmayanti, S.; Werdhani, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors of stroke. The study aimed to determine the relationship between hypertension and diabetes mellitus risk factors and dependence on assistance with activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. The study used an analytical observational cross-sectional design. The study’s sample included 44 stroke patients selected using the quota sampling method. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the bivariate chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. Based on the chi-squared test, the relationship between the Modified Shah Barthel Index (MSBI) score and hypertension and diabetes mellitus as stroke risk factors, were p = 0.122 and p = 0.002, respectively. The logistic regression results suggest that hypertension and diabetes mellitus are stroke risk factors related to the MSBI score: p = 0.076 (OR 4.076; CI 95% 0.861-19.297) and p = 0.007 (OR 22.690; CI 95% 2.332-220.722), respectively. Diabetes mellitus is the most prominent risk factor of severe dependency on assistance with activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients.

  7. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  8. Motor function and activities of daily living capacity of patients with fractures sustained during the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-long; HE Hong-chen; LIN Hai-dan; LUO Qing-lu; XIA Lu; LI Sha-sha; HE Cheng-qi

    2011-01-01

    Background On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it' s important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment.Methods We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients);cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P <0.05), compared with the male fracture patients who did not show any relative improvement (P >0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P >0.05).Conclusions Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to

  9. New nanocomposites for SERS studies of living cells and mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarycheva, A. S.; Brazhe, N. A.; Baizhumanov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    molecules. The SERS spectra of functional mitochondria are sensitive to the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, thus making the method a novel label-free approach to monitor the redox state and conformation of cytochromes in their natural cell environment. The developed nanocomposites......A great enhancement in Raman scattering (SERS) from heme-containing submembrane biomolecules inside intact erythrocytes and functional mitochondria is demonstrated for the first time using silver–silica beads prepared using a new method involving aerosol pyrolysis with aqueous diamminesilver...

  10. Neither single, nor in a couple. A study of living apart together in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Regnier-Loilier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Among living arrangements, living apart together relationships arouse curiosity on the part of sociologists, demographers and even the media. From a scientific point of view, how have noncohabiting relationships evolved in recent decades? How can we recognise these relationships, and who are the populations concerned? The present study provides an overall view into noncohabiting relationships in France, shedding light on the characteristics of both the individuals concerned and their relationships. There has been no recent increase in the prevalence of this living arrangement. It competes with cohabiting relationships both among students and among people with cohabiting children. Four main groups of living apart relationships are described: "Young adults", "Out of a family", "Seniors." The reasons for living apart as well as future intentions vary considerably across these groups.

  11. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  12. A pharmacological study of NLP-12 neuropeptide signaling in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Lise; Janssen, Tom; De Haes, Wouter; Beets, Isabel; Meelkop, Ellen; Grant, Warwick; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-03-01

    NLP-12a and b have been identified as cholecystokinin/sulfakinin-like neuropeptides in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are suggested to play an important role in the regulation of digestive enzyme secretion and fat storage. This study reports on the identification and characterization of an NLP-12-like peptide precursor gene in the rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. The S. ratti NLP-12 peptides are able to activate both C. elegans CKR-2 receptor isoforms in a dose-dependent way with affinities in the same nanomolar range as the native C. elegans NLP-12 peptides. The C-terminal RPLQFamide sequence motif of the NLP-12 peptides is perfectly conserved between free-living and parasitic nematodes. Based on systemic amino acid replacements the Arg-, Leu- and Phe- residues appear to be critical for high-affinity receptor binding. Finally, a SAR analysis revealed the essential pharmacophore in C. elegans NLP-12b to be the pentapeptide RPLQFamide.

  13. Studying the laws of software evolution in a long-lived FLOSS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barahona, Jesus M; Robles, Gregorio; Herraiz, Israel; Ortega, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Some free, open-source software projects have been around for quite a long time, the longest living ones dating from the early 1980s. For some of them, detailed information about their evolution is available in source code management systems tracking all their code changes for periods of more than 15 years. This paper examines in detail the evolution of one of such projects, glibc, with the main aim of understanding how it evolved and how it matched Lehman's laws of software evolution. As a result, we have developed a methodology for studying the evolution of such long-lived projects based on the information in their source code management repository, described in detail several aspects of the history of glibc, including some activity and size metrics, and found how some of the laws of software evolution may not hold in this case. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25893093

  14. EFFECTS OF BURN ON THE MOBILITY OF UPPER LIMB/S, FUNCTIONS OF HAND /S & ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera M M N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn is an injury cause destruction of skin and underling tissue. Post burns complications are severe. Objective of this study is to identify the effects on the Active Range of Motion (AROM of upper limb/s, hand functions and Activities of Daily Living (ADL who attend the physical therapy department of burns unit. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at out-patient physical therapy department of burns unit of National Hospital of SriLanka (NHSL. Fifty subjects recruited into the study. Interviewer assisted self administered questionnaire Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder,Hand Questionnaire (DASH, AROM of nine movements of shoulder and elbow joints and hand function assessment Signals of Functional, Impairements of hand (SOFI was used to collect data. Results: Study results showed that Flame burns were the most common burn type and majority of the victims were females. Study population had affected AROM in almost all the movements at the joint, which had affected to the ADL significantly. “Keeping an object shelf above head” and “engaging in heavy work”, showed significant correlation with movements of shoulder. SOFI score for the right hand showed significant correlation with selected Activities of Daily Living (ADL (“writing”,” using knife to cut food” opening a jar” etc ;. Conclusion: patient with burn injury including upper limb joints may encounter disabilities. Even though it is mild AROM restrictions at a joint, This restriction affects to persons’ independency in ADL s. This emphasizes the need of intensive medical care as well as long term physical therapy rehabilitation programme for burns patients. Limitations: Each subject’s AROM was not measured at their discharge which was already stated to be a limitation.

  15. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: A longitudinal comparison study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Janki (Shiromani); K.W.J. Klop (Karel); F.F.P. Kimenai; J. van de Wetering (Jacqueline); W. Weimar (Willem); E.K. Massey (Emma); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Rizopoulos (Dimitris); H. Völzke (Henry); A. Hofman (Albert); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The "LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation" (LOVE

  16. Studying and Living in China Offers Interesting Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JAM-PACKED and alive with culture and commerce, China’s capital lures foreign students by the thousands each year—to explore the mysterious Orient, or to learn the centuries-old culture. According to the State Education Commission, the number of foreign students who have studied or are studying in China is

  17. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-05-23

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel.

  18. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions–a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY505/515, and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  19. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. de Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  20. Assistive technology for the promotion of activity of daily living with children in hospital contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moniz da Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to characterize the routine of a pediatric nursing ward in relation tothe performance of their users on the Activity of Daily Living - ADL: personal hygiene, bathing and feeding, aswell as point out the possible uses of assistive technology concerning the ADL performance. The participants werethe following; 10 members of a nursing team, 12 caretakers and their hospitalized children with ages betweensix and twelve. The characterization of the pediatric nursing was made through semi-structured interviews andobservation developed by the researchers. Results showed that 100% (n = 10 of professionals, members ofthe nursing staff, reported performing guidance and/or supervision and/or performance of the following ADL:personal hygiene, bathing and feeding of children under their responsibility. Children remained in hospital fromthree to forty-five days and 75% (n = 9 of them reported ADL dependence in personal care, 83.3% (n = 10in the bathing activity and 16.6 % (n = 2 in the feeding activity. Children also reported that they were helpedwith personal care, bathing and feeding by their caretakers. Caretakers identified differences in the performanceof the children’s personal hygiene (41.6%, n = 5, bathing (66.6%, n = 8 and feeding (50%, n = 6 activities.Except for slight differences in the reports of the children, parents reported similar data and the bathing activitypresented the highest level of assistance. Recommendations on the use of technology in hospital contexts wereelaborated based on these results.

  1. Achieving built-environment and active living goals through Music City Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omishakin, Adetokunbo A; Carlat, Jennifer L; Hornsby, Shannon; Buck, Tracy

    2009-12-01

    Nashville, Tennessee, formed Music City Moves (MCM), an interdisciplinary, countywide partnership to implement its vision for the community: a metropolitan region where routine physical activity is a fundamental part of daily life for all residents. Music City Moves' main focus was the pursuit of changes in community planning policies to help shape Nashville's built environment and facilitate walking and bicycling. To complement this focus, MCM developed a suite of health programs to support physical activity in high-risk populations and a countywide promotional campaign designed to increase awareness and get people active through event participation. Nashville made considerable strides in improving policies and regulations related to building and site design to improve the built environment for pedestrians and cyclists, including passage of (1) specific plan zoning; (2) revised subdivision regulations that introduced a "walkable subdivision" option for developers; and (3) a community-character manual that will guide future land-use planning. Programs and promotions have increased awareness and participation, and the Tour de Nash bike/walk event showcases yearly changes in the built environment. Political leadership has been critical to MCM's success. Leadership of the partnership by the planning department facilitated regulatory changes in planning policies. Music City Moves has accelerated Nashville's movement to improve the built environment and encourage active living. The beneficial impact of policy changes will continue to be manifested in coming years; however, ongoing political support and education of stakeholders in the planning process will be necessary to ensure that planning policies are fully implemented.

  2. Effects of filter choice in GT3X accelerometer assessments of free-living activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Miriam; Martin, Brian W; Meier, Flurina; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kriemler, Susi

    2013-01-01

    ActiGraph accelerometers are widely used devices to objectively assess physical activity. The GT3X version has two filter options to be selected before data assessment (normal and low-frequency extension filter option). It is not clear whether the resulting physical activity levels differ depending on the choice of the filter. The aims were to compare GT3X data collected using the different filter options during free-living activities and to establish correction factors if the results were not comparable. Sixty-five participants of the population-based SAPALDIA-cohort (50.8% women, age range = 40-80 yr) wore two GT3X accelerometers with different filter selections simultaneously during 8 d. Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, McNemar tests, scatter plots, and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the data. Correction factors were established using linear regression models. Although Spearman correlations were high (r ≥ 0.93), there were significant differences in minutes per day between filter options for nonwearing time and time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (all P Mean counts per minute and steps per day were significantly higher using the low-frequency extension filter (P filter option and to specify the filter choice in publications. The correction factors can be used to make data assessed using the low-frequency extension filter comparable to data assessed using the normal filter option.

  3. [Effect of immune modulation on immunogenic and protective activity of a live plague vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karal'nik, B V; Ponomareva, T S; Deriabin, P N; Denisova, T G; Mel'nikova, N N; Tugambaev, T I; Atshabar, B B; Zakarian, S B

    2014-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the effect of polyoxidonium and betaleukin on immunogenic and protective activity of a live plague vaccine in model animal experiments. Plague vaccine EV, polyoxidonium, betaleukin, erythrocytic antigenic diagnosticum for determination of F1 antibodies and immune reagents for detection of lymphocytes with F1 receptors (LFR) in adhesive test developed by the authors were used. The experiments were carried out in 12 rabbits and 169 guinea pigs. Immune modulation accelerated the appearance and disappearance of LFR (early phase) and ensured a more rapid and intensive antibody formation (effector phase). Activation by betaleukin is more pronounced than by polyoxidonium. The more rapid and intensive was the development of early phase, the more effective was antibody response to the vaccine. Immune modulation in the experiment with guinea pigs significantly increased protective activity of the vaccine. The use of immune modulators increased immunogenic (in both early and effector phases of antigen-specific response) and protective activity of the EV vaccine. A connection between the acceleration of the first phase of antigen-specific response and general intensity of effector phase of immune response to the EV vaccine was detected. ,

  4. Validity of the Acti4 method for detection of physical activity types in free-living settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemland, Ingunn; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Christiansen, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the Acti4 software for identifying physical activity types from accelerometers during free-living with different levels of movement complexity compared with video observations. Nineteen aircraft cabin cleaners with ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer at the thigh...... during non-standardised conditions with normal level of movement complexity. The Acti4 software may be a useful tool for researchers and practitioners in the field of ergonomics, occupational and public health. Practitioner Summary: Being inexpensive, small, water-resistant and without wires, the Acti......Graph GT3X+ by applying the Acti4 software may be a useful tool for long-term field measurements of physical activity types for researchers and practitioners in the field of ergonomics, occupational and public health....

  5. Doing it Live! Planning and Preparing for a Live Drama Episode: A Case Study of 'The Bill' (ITV, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna MacDonnell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a move towards live episodes of popular television dramas and soap operas in the UK being used to celebrate programme and channel anniversaries. This paper, written by a member of the production team is focused on the ‘behind the scenes’ preparation and subsequent broadcast of the live episode of British police drama The Bill on September 22nd 2005. This live episode became a landmark broadcast as it was the first time that dramatic stunt sequences had been performed live. This article will be supported with examples from the original planning documentation and rehearsal photographs and will examine the production culture in the planning and preparation of the episode. It will also reveal some of the trickery used to execute the stunts, will discuss the difficulties experienced during the live episode and how problems were overcome. 

  6. "NGAPATI" DALAM TRADISI MASYARAKAT BANYUURIP Studi Living Hadits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Su'adi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to determine the understanding of Banyuurip society leaders towards human creation hadith and other hadiths pertaining to Ngapati tradition and to know its implementation on Ngapati tradition among Banyuuripsociety in Pekalongan city. This qualitative study uses interview, observation and documentation to collect and interprete data. This study concludes that 1 the tradition is in line with Islamic teachings (hadith according to Banyuurip society leaders and 2 society makes creation towards hadith texts, then implemented in the form of action in this case is Ngapati tradition.

  7. Drug Extends Lives of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for all the advanced prostate cancer patients, James said. "We think this is one of the biggest survival gains ever reported in a trial in adults with solid tumor," he said. Both studies reported side effects in abiraterone similar ...

  8. Frail Institutionalized Older Persons A Comprehensive Review on Physical Exercise, Physical Fitness, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality-of-Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2011-01-01

    Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study

  9. Where and How People Live. Language Arts around the World, Volume IV. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of where and how people live. The units in the book reach diverse…

  10. Improvement of a questionnaire measuring activity limitations in rising and sitting down in patients with lower-extremity disorders living at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, LD; Molenaar, IW; Lankhorst, GJ; Bouter, LM

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve a self-administered questionnaire that includes 42 dichotomous items and measures activity limitations in rising and sitting down (R&S) in patients with lower-extremity disorders who live at home. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient clinics of secondary and

  11. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; Bleijenberg, Nienke; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limi

  12. Validity, Reliability, and Responsiveness of the Dutch Version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale in Patients With Severe COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Peter; Legemaat, Monique; Beelen, Anita; Keimpema, Anton van; Garrod, Rachel; Bergsma, Mirella; Paterson, Bill; Stuijfzand, Andrew; van Stel, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Dutch version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL).The English LCADL version was translated into Dutch and then back-translated to English to check if the translation was conceptually equivalent to the

  13. Measuring activity limitations in walking : Development of a hierarchical scale for patients with lower-extremity disorders who live at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, LD; Roebroeck, ME; van Tilburg, T; Molenaar, IW; Lankhorst, GJ; Bouter, LM

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a hierarchical scale that measures activity limitations in walking in patients with lower-extremity disorders who live at home. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Orthopedic workshops and outpatient clinics of secondary and tertiary care centers. Participants: Patients (N=

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Barthel Index for Measuring Activities of Daily Living Outcome After Ischemic Hemispheric Stroke Does Early Poststroke Timing of Assessment Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, Gert; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Harmeling-van der Wel, Barbara C.; van Wegen, Erwin; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Harmeling-van der Wel, BC

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the Barthel Index (BI) in 206 stroke patients, measured within 72 hours, for activities of daily living at 6 months and determined whether the timing of BI assessment during the first days affects the accuracy of predicting ac

  15. A systematic review of instruments for assessment of capacity in activities of daily living in children with developmental co-ordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to systema

  16. A scale for measuring the activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with craniomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, T; Helkimo, M

    1995-01-01

    A rating scale based on methods used in medical and behavioral science was modified for specific assessment of the function of the masticatory system. Eleven common activities of daily living were recorded on a scale rated from 0 to 10. Thirty-one patients (23 women and 8 men) who had exhibited facial pain and/or headache for a duration of at least one year participated. Test-retest coefficients of reliability for the patients' assessment of pain and discomfort on two different occasions two weeks apart were high and varied (with the exception of one question) between r = 0.67 and r = 0.92. The correlations between the patients' own estimations and that which one member of the family made were high and varied (with the exception of one question) between r = 0.78 and r = 0.92.

  17. Functional correlates of instrumental activities of daily living in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Neelesh K; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Black, Sandra E

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) includes the integration of task-initiation, -planning, and -performance. Little is known on the cerebral perfusion correlates of these subcomponents of IADL in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 121 AD patients, cerebral perfusion, using single-photon emission computed tomography, in 13 bilateral regions of interest (ROI) and the perfusion correlates of IADL subcomponents, rated on the Disability Assessment in Dementia scale, were explored. Significant correlations were observed between IADL initiation and multiple bilateral prefrontal-striatal-anterior cingulate ROI (p IADL planning and right occipital ROI (p IADL performance and right parietal ROI (p IADL-initiation (R = 0.6, R(2) = 0.39, F(4,117) = 17.8, SE = 1.56; p IADL-planning (R = 0.6, R(2) = 0.34, F(4,117) = 19.5, SE = 1.47; p IADL.

  18. Nutritional care and support among adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Zelalem; Birhan, Yifru; Abebe, Hiwot

    2013-11-01

    Background Improving nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is an integral part of comprehensive HIV treatment according to the National Nutritional Strategy of Ethiopia. However, there is no adequate published study that assesses the nutritional care and support services for adult people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLHIV) in this setting. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the existing nutritional care and support services and determine the challenges facing adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was carried out using focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and participant observation. Four FDGs were held and five in-depth interviews were conducted. A two-week participant observation was also conducted by trained nurses. All interviews and FDGs were tape-recorded and transcribed; those conducted in Amharic were translated back to English. Finally thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results Most of the FDG participants were unsatisfied with their nutritional care and support services and expressed difficulty with disclosing their HIV status for fear of stigma and discrimination. The in-depth interviews and participant observation showed results similar to those of the FDG. Some key informants expressed a fear that such poor nutritional care and support may threaten the quality of life of people living with HIV and suggested that all stakeholders work on improving the services. Conclusion Current nutritional care and support services for people living with HIV are not well coordinated. They focus mainly on monthly supplementation of antiretroviral drugs and occasional handouts of food. The need to provide health education on antiretroviral drugs and nutrition, and to emphasise strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of peoples living with HIV is critical. Furthermore, the study recommended strengthening the initiatives of some

  19. A Novel Visual Method for Studying Complex Health Transitions for Older People Living With Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Parke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complexity of health services for older people living with dementia is a challenging research endeavor. We discuss a novel research approach that combines photographic methods with storyboarding techniques to understand the views of older people living with dementia who encounter the emergency department. A social ecological theoretical position was taken to study relationships between health care systems and processes and the social arrangements of those receiving care. The research approach uncovers complex contextual factors in health care systems that are amenable to change. The approach strengthens the contribution of older people living with dementia to have their voice included in research endeavors.

  20. Live imaging of cysteine-cathepsin activity reveals dynamics of focal inflammation, angiogenesis, and polyp growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 30% of detectable polyps in patients regress spontaneously. One major challenge in the evaluation of effective therapy of cancer is the readout for tumor regression and favorable biological response to therapy. Inducible near infra-red (NIR fluorescent probes were utilized to visualize intestinal polyps of mice hemizygous for a novel truncation of the Adenomatous Polyposis coli (APC gene. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in live mice allowed visualization of cathepsin activity in richly vascularized benign dysplastic lesions. Using biotinylated suicide inhibitors we quantified increased activities of the Cathepsin B & Z in the polyps. More than (3/4 of the probe signal was localized in CD11b(+Gr1(+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC and CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages infiltrating the lesions. Polyposis was attenuated through genetic ablation of cathepsin B, and suppressed by neutralization of TNFalpha in mice. In both cases, diminished probe signal was accounted for by loss of MDSC. Thus, in vivo NIR imaging of focal cathepsin activity reveals inflammatory reactions etiologically linked with cancer progression and is a suitable approach for monitoring response to therapy.

  1. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: A longitudinal comparison study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel; Kimenai, F.F.P.; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans,Jan

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The "LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation" (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmu...

  2. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: a longitudinal comparison study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel W. J.; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods The “LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation” (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmus University M...

  3. LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation (LOVE) study: a longitudinal comparison study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Janki, Shiromani; Klop, Karel W. J.; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K; Dehghan, Abbas; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Völzke, Henry; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The benefits of live donor kidney transplantation must be balanced against the potential harm to the donor. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to study the long-term consequences of kidney donation. Methods: The “LOng-term follow-up after liVE kidney donation” (LOVE) study is a single center longitudinal cohort study on long-term consequences after living kidney donation. We will study individuals who have donated a kidney from 1981 through 2010 in the Erasmus University...

  4. Genetic correlation between days until start of luteal activity and milk yield, energy balance, and live weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Gaast, van der H.J.; Werf, van der J.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among fertility and measures of energy balance, dry matter intake, and live weight (change). Data from 622 first lactation cows (fed ad libitum a complete ration) included milk, fat, and protein yields; energy balance; and live weights

  5. Women's experiences of sexual health when living with Rheumatoid Arthritis - an explorative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefsson Kristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICF core sets for patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA acknowledge sexual function and intimate relationships as important since the patients' sexual health can be affected by the disease. About 36-70% of all RA-patients experience a reduced sexual health, and their perceived problems are directly or indirectly caused by their disease. Physiotherapy is often used as non-pharmacological treatment for RA. Mobility treatment, pain reduction, and physical activities are often included in physiotherapy for patients with RA. The aim of the study was to explore sexual health in relation to physiotherapy in women living with RA. Method An explorative qualitative interview study with a phenomenological approach was performed. The study consisted of ten interviews with women with RA. The analysis was performed according to Giorgi. Results The main theme that emerged in the material was that the body and the total life situation affected sexual health. Three categories were included in the theme: 1 sexual health - physical and psychological dimensions, 2 Impacts of RA, and 3 Possibilities to increase sexual health - does physiotherapy make a difference? Conclusions Sexual health was affected by RA in different ways for the informants. Possibilities to improve sexual health were improved partner communication and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can play an active role in improving sexual health for patients with RA.

  6. Quantitative studies of subdiffusion in living cells and actin networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Emilia-Laura; Olsen, Anja Lea; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija

    2006-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a versatile tool in biophysics and have matured from a tool of manipulation to a tool of precise measurements. We argue here that the data analysis with advantage can be developed to a level of sophistication that matches that of the instrument. We review methods of analysis...... of optical tweezers data, primarily baed on the power spectra of time series of postions for trapped spherical objects. The majority of precise studies in the literature are performed on in vitro systems, whereas in the present work, an example of an in vivo system is presented for which precise power...

  7. Living with myotonic dystrophy; what can be learned from couples? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wilt Gert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular diseases, yet very little is known about how MD1 affects the lives of couples and how they themselves manage individually and together. To better match health care to their problems, concerns and needs, it is important to understand their perspective of living with this hereditary, systemic disease. Methods A qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of five middle-aged couples, including three men and two women with MD1 and their partners. Fifteen in-depth interviews with persons with MD1, with their partners and with both of them as a couple took place in the homes of the couples in two cities and three villages in the Netherlands in 2009. Results People with MD1 associate this progressive, neuromuscular condition with decreasing abilities, describing physical, cognitive and psychosocial barriers to everyday activities and social participation. Partners highlighted the increasing care giving burden, giving directions and using reminders to compensate for the lack of initiative and avoidant behaviour due to MD1. Couples portrayed the dilemmas and frustrations of renegotiating roles and responsibilities; stressing the importance of achieving a balance between individual and shared activities. All participants experienced a lack of understanding from relatives, friends, and society, including health care, leading to withdrawal and isolation. Health care was perceived as fragmentary, with specialists focusing on specific aspects of the disease rather than seeking to understand the implications of the systemic disorder on daily life. Conclusions Learning from these couples has resulted in recommendations that challenge the tendency to treat MD1 as a condition with primarily physical impairments. It is vital to listen to couples, to elicit the impact of MD1, as a multisystem disorder that influences every aspect of their life together

  8. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  9. Living with myotonic dystrophy; what can be learned from couples? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cup, Edith H C; Kinébanian, Astrid; Satink, Ton; Pieterse, Allan J; Hendricks, Henk T; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; van Engelen, Baziel G M

    2011-07-13

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular diseases, yet very little is known about how MD1 affects the lives of couples and how they themselves manage individually and together. To better match health care to their problems, concerns and needs, it is important to understand their perspective of living with this hereditary, systemic disease. A qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of five middle-aged couples, including three men and two women with MD1 and their partners. Fifteen in-depth interviews with persons with MD1, with their partners and with both of them as a couple took place in the homes of the couples in two cities and three villages in the Netherlands in 2009. People with MD1 associate this progressive, neuromuscular condition with decreasing abilities, describing physical, cognitive and psychosocial barriers to everyday activities and social participation. Partners highlighted the increasing care giving burden, giving directions and using reminders to compensate for the lack of initiative and avoidant behaviour due to MD1. Couples portrayed the dilemmas and frustrations of renegotiating roles and responsibilities; stressing the importance of achieving a balance between individual and shared activities. All participants experienced a lack of understanding from relatives, friends, and society, including health care, leading to withdrawal and isolation. Health care was perceived as fragmentary, with specialists focusing on specific aspects of the disease rather than seeking to understand the implications of the systemic disorder on daily life. Learning from these couples has resulted in recommendations that challenge the tendency to treat MD1 as a condition with primarily physical impairments. It is vital to listen to couples, to elicit the impact of MD1, as a multisystem disorder that influences every aspect of their life together. Couple management, supporting the self-management skills of both

  10. Study on the Curcumin dynamics and distribution through living biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana T.; Dovigo, Lívia N.; Rastelli, Alessandra N. S.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2013-03-01

    Human oral cavity is colonized by a wide range of microorganisms, often organized in biofilms. These biofilms are responsible for the pathogenesis of caries and most periodontal diseases. A possible alternative to reduce biofilms is the photodynamic inactivation (PDI). The success of the PDI depends on different factors. The time required by the PS to remain in contact with the target cells prior to illumination is determinant for the technique's efficacy. This study aimed to assess the interaction between the PS and the biofilm prior to the PDI. We used confocal microscopy and FLIM to evaluate the interaction between the PS and the biofilm's microorganism during the pre-irradiation time (PIT). The study of this dynamics can lead to the understanding of why only some PSs are effective and why is necessary a long PIT for some microorganisms. Our results showed that are differences for each PIT. These differences can be the determinate for the efficacy of the PDI. We observed that the microorganism needs time to concentrate and/or transport the PS within the biofilm. We presented preliminary results for biofilms of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in the presence of Curcumin and compared it with the literature. We observed that the effectiveness of the PDI might be directly correlated to the position of the PS with the biofilm. Further analyses will be conducted in order to confirm the potential of FLIM to assess the PS dynamics within the biofilms.

  11. Unintended pregnancies among young women living in urban slums: evidence from a prospective study in Nairobi city, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    Full Text Available Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health (SRH challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15-22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in 2007-2010. In total, 849 young women aged 15-22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2.About two thirds of sexually experienced young women (69% have ever been pregnant by Wave 2. For 41% of adolescents, the pregnancies were unintended, with 26% being mistimed and 15% unwanted. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience. In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women.Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements. This provides greater impetus for addressing reproductive behaviors among young women living in resource-poor settings such as slums.

  12. The role of art-making in identity maintenance: case studies of people living with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, F; Prior, S

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand why some people with cancer take up art as a leisure activity, and how visual art-making in daily life might support identity maintenance/reconstruction. The study forms part of a larger project with people who view art-making as a resource for living with chronic illness. In order to provide a detailed, holistic analysis, the paper focuses on the accounts and artwork of three participants, two women (aged 47 and 59 years) each with breast cancer, and a man (aged 51 years) with stomach and lung cancer. The participants turned to art after a process of reflection but did not necessarily reject their pre-illness lifestyles or selves. Rather, art-making afforded many opportunities to retain familiar personal and social identities, and to resist being dominated by labels related to their illness. A practical implication is that people coping with cancer may need not only cognitive and emotional support, but opportunities to find meaningful activities. Such activities can be understood to have a powerful role in maintaining a familiar, positive identity in cancer, and providing a resource for coping.

  13. Profinteg: A Tool for Real-Life Assessment of Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anselme

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many instruments for assessing activities of daily living (IADL in brain injured patients, few instruments specifically target cognitive impairment and its impact on IADL. The present study presents the development of the Profinteg instrument, a tool for real-life assessment as well as rehabilitation of IADL in patients with cognitive impairment. This two-stage instrument covers over 90 activities. Psychometric properties of the different Profinteg measures were explored in twenty-five patients with mild to severe cognitive difficulties and twenty-five caregivers. The feasibility of the Profinteg rehabilitation procedure was explored in three patients. Excellent interrater reliability ('r' > 0.90,' ''p' < 0.01 was observed for all measures. Good sensitivity to changes in IADL disability over time was also observed ('T' = 2.37, 'p' < 0.02. Significant improvement of IADL functioning was found after rehabilitation guided by Profinteg assessment. The Profinteg instrument detects with precision the difficulties patients encounter in their real-life setting via (1 assessment of a large number of activities and (2 detailed decomposition of activities into sub-activities. The Profinteg tool also provides promising results for guidance of IADL rehabilitation in the patient's real-life environment.

  14. Living and working with sickness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzanne; Gabbay, Mark

    2007-06-01

    To explore patients' views and experiences of long-term sickness absence, and their attitudes with regard to return to work. The study design and analysis were guided by a narrative psychology perspective. In-depth, biographical narrative interviews were conducted with 26 individuals, aged between 30 and 65 years, who had been certified absent for longer than 6 weeks. Follow-up data were collected at 12 months. The narrative analysis techniques used were holistic content, holistic form, categorical content, and categorical form. This paper illustrates our findings obtained mainly using the holistic-form approach. Long-term absence reduces attachment to work and impacts on work identity. Three distinct narrative patterns emerged from the data analysis. The first was 'uncomplicated absence', usually triggered by an acute event with an uncomplicated resolution; the second, 'complicated absence', typically involved gradually deteriorating health and social complications with a less predictable recovery; the third pattern, 'sustained absence', was associated with chronic deterioration in health, often complex and multidimensional in nature. These three patterns offer an insight into how well individuals are coping with their underlying health condition. Narrative analysis tools could be developed to help identify those patients who would: (1) respond favourably to 'return to work' interventions; or (2) benefit from additional health service support.

  15. A qualitative study of police interactions as perceived by people living with mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Police officers are often the first responders to individuals in crises. Understanding the dynamic interaction between police and persons living with mental illness is critical to developing interventions and appropriate services for this population. Using procedural justice theory, this study involves a qualitative thematic analysis of interviews conducted with 60 people living with mental illness regarding their interactions with police officers. The results indicate that common factors ...

  16. Living with HIV post-diagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    OpenAIRE

    Eliud Wekesa; Ernestina Coast

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV post-diagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting: Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants: 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18 years or older Results: People living with HIV have divergent experiences surr...

  17. Living with HIV postdiagnosis: a qualitative study of the experiences of Nairobi slum residents

    OpenAIRE

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the experiences of heterosexual men and women living with HIV postdiagnosis and explain these experiences in relation to their identity and sexuality. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a theoretically informed biographic disruption theory. Setting Interviews were conducted in two Nairobi slums (Kenya). Participants 41 HIV-infected heterosexual men and women aged 18?years or older. Results People living with HIV have divergent experiences surroun...

  18. Changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunhwan; Kim, Jinhee; Han, Eun Sook; Chae, Songi; Ryu, Mikyung; Ahn, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity may be beneficial in preserving cognition in late life. This study examined the association between baseline and changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older people. Data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, with 2605 aged 65 years and older subjects interviewed in 2006 and followed up for 2 years. Cognitive decline was defined by calculating the Reliable Change Index using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Physical activity levels were categorized as sedentary, low, or high. Changes in physical activity were classified as inactive, decreaser, increaser, or active. Logistic regression analysis of baseline and changes in physical activity with cognitive decline was performed. Compared with the sedentary group at baseline, both the low and high activity groups were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The active (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.68) and increaser (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI 0.27-0.74) group, compared with the inactive counterpart, demonstrated a significantly lower likelihood of cognitive decline. Older adults who remained active or increased activity over time had a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Engagement in physical activity in late life may have cognitive health benefits.

  19. Psychosocial Well-Being Associated With Activity of Daily Living Stages Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Na PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activity of daily living (ADL stages demonstrated ordered associations with risk of chronic conditions, hospitalization, nursing home use, and mortality among community-living elderly. This article explores the association of stages with psychosocial well-being. We hypothesized that higher ADL stages (greater ADL limitation are associated with more restricted social networks, less perceived social support, greater social isolation, and poorer mental health. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project ( N = 3,002 were analyzed in regression models and latent factor models. Results: Although ADL stages had a nearly monotonic relationship with most mental health measures (e.g., Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D], only the complete limitation stage (Stage IV showed significant disadvantage in the majority of social network measures. Discussion: The study may aid clinicians and policy makers to better understand the social and mental health needs of older adults at different ADL stages and provide well-planned social and mental health care.

  20. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  1. Effects of training using video games on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyuchang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional occupational therapy for 6 weeks (1 hour/day, 3 days/week), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy only for 6 weeks (30 min/day, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, the participants were measured for muscle strength, muscle tone, and performance of activities of daily living. [Results] There were significant differences pre- and post-test in muscle strength of the upper extremities, except the wrist, and performance of activities of daily living in the experimental group. There were no significant differences between the two groups at post-test. [Conclusion] The training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect had a positive effect on the motor function and performance of activities of daily living. This study showed that training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect may be an effective intervention for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  2. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gümüş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found in the study that 13.9% of boys and 31.3% of girls had health problems. It was also found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI (Healthy eating index score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as "bad" for 80.9% (n=86 as "medium" and for 3.5% (n=6 as "good". It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in

  3. Evaluation of physical projects and policies from the Active Living by Design partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Sallis, James F; Handy, Susan L; Bell, Rich; Brennan, Laura K

    2012-11-01

    Between 2003 and 2008, a total of 25 partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) program worked to change built environments and policies in communities to help citizens be active in their daily routines. This paper systematically summarized the scope of ALbD physical projects and policy changes, described resources generated by the partnerships, and highlighted supports and barriers to the process. Using a mixed-methods approach, multiple data sources, including key informant interviews, focus groups, and a web-based tracking system, were used to collect data during project implementation. Qualitative results were analyzed using systematic coding procedures to identify themes, ideas, and concepts derived from the data. Data analysis occurred in 2008-2010. Most of the 25 partnerships documented physical projects and policy changes in each of the following sectors: urban planning (n=16); active transportation (n=23); trails/parks/recreation/open space (n=22); communities (n=22); and schools (n=18). ALbD community partnerships were successful at generating ≈ $256 million in resources beyond their initial grant, mostly through policy changes. Challenges included creating and sustaining political will and community support as well as securing technical expertise and resources. Planning and relationship building were critical to success in changing policy and implementing projects. Although there is more to understand about how these change processes affect physical activity and health across populations and settings, as well as how social, cultural, and psychosocial factors influence community responses to the policy changes and physical projects, findings from this initiative provide a foundation for subsequent research and practice. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  5. [Structured review of activities of daily living measures in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañero-Martínez, M José; Cabrero-García, Julio; Richart-Martínez, Miguel; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carmen Luz

    2008-01-01

    the present article evaluates the evidence relating to the conceptual adaptation, applicability and psychometric properties of activities of daily living measures in Spanish elderly people. to obtain original documents, electronic searches were carried out in Spanish (IME and ISOC) and international databases (MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL and EMBASE). Manual searches and reference searches were also conducted. 34 articles relating to 4 instruments met the inclusion criteria: the Barthel Index, the Katz Index, the Red Cross Scale of Physical Disability and the Subscale of Personal Care Activities from the OARS. Overall, the results show a large number of versions for each instrument with weak transcultural adaptation processes and without standards for their administration or interpretation. The most frequently evaluated reliability measure was interrater reproducibility. The evidence on predictive validity is extensive, but the evidence on concurrent validity and responsiveness is almost nil. one version of the Barthel index and another one of the Katz index are the two versions about which the largest quantity of information has been obtained.

  6. An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David A

    2012-01-01

    Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper examined the cognitive processes that underlie IADL performance and concluded that the accurate and reliable execution of IADL likely draws upon the integrity of a wide range of cognitive processes. This review examined IADL in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) because of the controversial nature of distinguishing a significant decline in functional abilities in those with MCI versus dementia or MCI versus cognitively normal aging. The challenges of investigating IADL empirically were explored, as well as some of the reasons for the inconsistent findings in the literature. A review of questionnaire-based assessments of IADL indicated that: MCI can be distinguished statistically from healthy older adults and dementia, individuals with multiple domain MCI are more impaired on IADL than those with single domain MCI, mild IADL changes can be predictive of future cognitive decline, and the ability to manage finances may be among the earliest IADL changes in MCI and a strong predictor of conversion to dementia. This paper concluded with recommendations for more sensitive and reliable IADL questionnaires.

  7. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. A performance study of live VM migration technologies: VMotion vs XenMotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Jianxiong; Luo, Xuan; Jin, Yaohui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of flexible resource management for cloud computing services, researches on live virtual machine migration have attained more and more attention. Live migration of virtual machine across different hosts has been a powerful tool to facilitate system maintenance, load balancing, fault tolerance and so on. In this paper, we use a measurement-based approach to compare the performance of two major live migration technologies under certain network conditions, i.e., VMotion and XenMotion. The results show that VMotion generates much less data transferred than XenMotion when migrating identical VMs. However, in network with moderate packet loss and delay, which are typical in a VPN (virtual private network) scenario used to connect the data centers, XenMotion outperforms VMotion in total migration time. We hope that this study can be helpful in choosing suitable virtualization environments for data center administrators and optimizing existing live migration mechanisms.

  9. The Lived Experience of Nursing Students Who Study Abroad: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michelle Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Nurse Researchers need to explore study abroad programs and identify their impact on the development of cultural competence and global perspectives in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of nursing students who study abroad and to identify benefits and impediments that may be used to spawn future…

  10. The Lived Experience of Nursing Students Who Study Abroad: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michelle Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Nurse Researchers need to explore study abroad programs and identify their impact on the development of cultural competence and global perspectives in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of nursing students who study abroad and to identify benefits and impediments that may be used to spawn future…

  11. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  12. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  13. Effect of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined the effects of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living and depressive disorder status of Parkinson's disease patients. [Subjects] Twenty patients were assigned either the experimental group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopment treatment and 15 minutes of functional electrical stimulation 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 30 minutes of dance exercise. Balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status were assessed before and after the 6-week treatment period using the Berg balance scale, the Modified Barthel Index, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The paired t-test was used to detect differences before and after treatment, and the independent t-test was used to detect differences between the treatment groups. [Results] The values for balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status significantly differed between before and after treatment in the experimental group, and significantly differed between the experimental group and control group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality dance exercise has a positive effect on balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson's disease patients.

  14. Systematic review of the effects of exercise on activities of daily living in people with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ashwini K; Chou, Aileen; Bursley, Brett; Smulofsky, Jaclyn; Jezequel, Joel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in a loss of independence in activities of daily living (ADLs), which in turn affects the quality of life of affected people and places a burden on caretakers. Limited research has examined the influence of physical training (aerobic, balance, and strength training) on ADL performance of people with AD. METHOD. Six randomized controlled trials (total of 446 participants) fit the inclusion criteria. For each study, we calculated effect sizes for primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS. Average effect size (95% confidence interval) for exercise on the primary outcome (ADL performance) was 0.80 (p Exercise had a moderate impact on the secondary outcome of physical function (effect size = 0.53, p = .004). CONCLUSION. Occupational therapy intervention that includes aerobic and strengthening exercises may help improve independence in ADLs and improve physical performance in people with AD. Additional research is needed to identify specific components of intervention and optimal dosage to develop clinical guidelines.

  15. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  16. Magnetic particle motions within living cells. Measurement of cytoplasmic viscosity and motile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, P A; Feldman, H A

    1987-01-01

    Submicrometer magnetic particles, ingested by cells and monitored via the magnetic fields they generate, provide an alternative to optical microscopy for probing movement and viscosity of living cytoplasm, and can be used for cells both in vitro and in vivo. We present methods for preparing lung macrophages tagged with magnetic particles for magnetometric study. Interpretation of the data involves fitting experimental remanent-field decay curves to nonlinear mechanistic models of intracellular particle motion. The model parameters are sensitive to mobility and apparent cytoplasmic viscosity experienced by particle-containing organelles. We present results of parameter estimation for intracellular particle behavior both within control cells and after (a) variable magnetization duration, (b) incubation with cytochalasin D, and (c) particle twisting by external fields. Magnetometric analysis showed cytoplasmic elasticity, dose-dependent motion inhibition by cytochalasin D, and a shear-thinning apparent viscosity. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:3676436

  17. Knee pain during activities of daily living and its relationship with physical activity in patients with early and severe knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Naoto; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Hiraoka, Masakazu; Miyanobu, Kazuyuki; Jinnouchi, Masashi; Kaneda, Eishi; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether knee pain during various activities of daily living (ADLs) is associated with physical activity in patients with early and severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that the painful ADLs associated with decreased physical activity differ according to disease severity. This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients with medial knee OA, assigned to either the early (Kellgren Lawrence [K/L] grade 1-2) or the severe group (K/L grade 3-4). Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer. Knee pain during six ADLs (waking up in the morning, walking on a flat surface, ascending stairs, etc.) was evaluated using a questionnaire. We performed multiple regression and quantile regression analysis to investigate whether knee pain during each ADL was associated with physical activity. In the early group, the more knee pain they experienced while ascending stairs, the lower their physical activity was (75th regression coefficient = -1033.70, P = 0.018). In the severe group, the more knee pain they experienced while walking on a flat surface or bending to the floor or standing up, the lower their physical activity was (unstandardized coefficients = -1850.87, P = 0.026; unstandardized coefficients = -2640.35, P = 0.010). Knee pain while ascending stairs and while walking on a flat surface or bending to the floor or standing up was a probable limiting factor for physical activity in early and severe knee OA, respectively. These findings suggested that a reduction in task-specific knee pain according to disease severity could improve physical activity levels.

  18. Neuropsychological benefits of a narrative cognitive training program for people living with dementia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Batini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many areas in the cortex are active during reading of narrative material, and these activations in the brain produce significant changes in connectivity. Following previous results showing cognitive benefits in memory domains of a narrative training program in nursing home patients living with dementia, the aim of the present study was to perform a more in depth investigation of the effects of this training on memory domains and other cognitive areas. Methods: An experimental group of eight patients underwent auditory narrative training of 60 hours. At the beginning and end of the training, subjects were tested with a neuropsychological battery to quantify any improvements in individual performance. Results: The results showed a statistically significant improvement in the list learning task (immediate memory and list learning recognition for single tasks, and a statistically significant improvement in overall cognitive area scores for immediate and delayed memory. Conclusion: Results replicate and expand our previous findings, indicating that this type of intervention can increase performance on memory-related tests.

  19. Establishing the soundness of administrative spatial units for operationalising the active living potential of residential environments: an exemplar for designing optimal zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Mylène

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health and place research, definitions of areas, area characteristics, and health outcomes should ideally be coherent with one another. Yet current approaches for delimiting areas mostly rely on spatial units "of convenience" such as census tracts. These areas may be homogeneous along socioeconomic conditions but heterogeneous along other environmental characteristics. This heterogeneity can lead to biased measurement of environment characteristics and misestimation of area effects on health. The objective of this study was to assess the soundness of census tracts as units of analysis for measuring the active living potential of environments, hypothesised to be associated with walking. Results Starting with data at the smallest census area level available, zones homogeneous along three indicators of active living potential, i.e. population density, land use mix, and accessibility to services were designed. Delimitation of zones ensued from statistical clustering of the smallest areas into seven clusters or "types of environment". Mapping of clusters into a GIS led to the delineation of 898 zones characterised by one of seven types of environment, corresponding to different levels of active living potential. Homogeneity of census tracts along indicators of active living potential varied. A greater proportion (83% of variation in accessibility to services was attributable to differences between census tracts suggesting within-tract homogeneity along this variable. However, census tracts were heterogeneous with respect to population density and land use mix where a greater proportion of the variation was attributable to within-tract differences. About 55% of tracts were characterised by a combination of three or more "types of environment" suggesting substantial within-tract heterogeneity in the active living potential of environments. Conclusion Soundness of census tracts for measuring active living potential may be limited

  20. Highly fluorescent semiconductor core shell CdTe CdS nanocrystals for monitoring living yeast cells activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Menezes, F. D.; Brasil, A. G., Jr.; Ferreira, R.; Motta, M. A.; Castro-Neto, A. G.; Vieira, A. A. S.; Silva, D. C. N.; Fontes, A.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals in quantum confinement regime (quantum dots) present several well-known features which make them very useful tools for biological labeling purposes. Low photobleaching rates, high chemical stability and active surface allowing conjugation to living cells explain the success of this labeling procedure over the commonly used fluorescent dyes. In this paper we report the results obtained with highly fluorescent core shell CdTe CdS (diameter=3 7 nm) colloidal nanocrystals synthesized in aqueous medium and conjugated to glucose molecules. The conjugated nanocrystals were incubated with living yeast cells, in order to investigate their glucose up-take activity in real time, by confocal microscopy analysis.

  1. L3 Study Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team

    2017-01-01

    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.

  2. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  3. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nursing home residents are extremely inactive and deterioration in health and an increasing dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) are common. Physical activity and exercise play a major role in the preservation of physical function and quality of life late in life. However......, evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods......: In this single-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel groups, nursing home residents 1 64 years of age from three Nordic countries were included. The intervention group (IG) was assigned to individually tailored physical and daily activities, while the control group (CG) received ordinary care. Primary...

  4. Promoting Physical Activity among Children: The “Great Live and Move Challenge”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgues, Marion; Gourlan, Mathieu; Coste, Olivier; Fregeac, Bruno; Mora, Lucile; Cousson-Gélie, Florence

    2016-06-08

    Objective: The “Great Live and Move Challenge” (GLMC) is an intervention designed to promote physical activity (PA) in schools and the community among 6- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and their families.Method: This project, implemented in the Montpellier and Pays Coeur d’Hérault regions since 2013, encourages children to quantify their daily PA level by illustrating each 15 minutes of exercise by an “energy cube”. Based on collaboration between pilots, teachers and policymakers, this project is implemented over a 6-week period in schools, municipalities and recreation centres. “Great Challenge” events are organized to promote PA. The GLMC is also a theory-based intervention based on the tenets of the planned behaviour theory.Results: Since the 2014-2015 edition, 2,243 children have taken part in the GLMC and have accumulated 391,102 “energy cubes”. In addition, more than 30 “Great Challenge” events have been organized. Since its launch during the 2012-2013 school year, the numbers of children who have taken part in the GLMC have been multiplied by 5.58. The mean number of daily “energy cubes” accumulated by children has increased from 4.04 in the first year to 6.22 in 2014-2015.Conclusion: The “energy cube” can provide a measure of the commitment of children and their surrounding community in a comprehensive approach to PA promotion.

  5. UPDRS activity of daily living score as a marker of Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Madaline B; Wylie, Scott A; Frysinger, Robert C; Patrie, James T; Huss, Diane S; Currie, Lillian J; Wooten, G Frederick

    2009-01-30

    The activities of daily living (ADL) subscore of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) captures the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a subset of patients with multiple examinations. Independent of medication status and across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, ADL subscores showed a stronger and more stable association with disease duration than other UPDRS subscores after adjusting for age of disease onset. The association between disease duration and the motor subscore depended on medication status. The strong association between ADL subscore and disease duration in PD suggests that this measure may serve as a better marker of disease progression than signs and symptoms assessed in other UPDRS sections.

  6. ICT services for active ageing and independent living: identification and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, Christophoros; Kleanthous, Styliani; Georgiadis, Dimosthenis; Cereghetti, Donato M; Andreou, Panayiotis; Wings, Cindy; Christodoulou, Eleni; Samaras, George

    2016-09-01

    Based on the demographic changes and the rapid increase of older population in Europe, major challenges are expected to rise, both in the economy as well as the society, whether the dominant care model for supporting elderly in living independently at home continues to rely on informal and formal caregivers' assistance. To respond to the above challenges, assistive technologies are called to develop Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services for supporting seniors to remain active and independent, for as long as possible, in their chosen home environment. The work described in this Letter is based on the Miraculous-Life project and it emphasises the identification and assessment of a set of services that an ICT system for Ageing Well should support, in an actual end-users setting. The outcome of this work may inform fellow researchers and other projects in the area of Ageing Well in: (i) understanding which ICT services can be the most valuable for end-users' Quality of Life, (ii) prioritising the development of related ICT services and (iii) facilitating better recourse allocation in order to reduce any risks associated to implementation failures of these services within their respective projects. A final trial phase is planned, aiming to validate the Miraculous Life prototype longitudinally in a naturalistic environment with a larger sample size. During this trial, it will be investigated if perceived usefulness, satisfaction and motivation could be predicted by sociodemographic variables and personality.

  7. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  8. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-04-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs.

  9. Comparison of cell-specific activity between free-living and attached bacteria using isolates and natural assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, H.P.; Tang, K.W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    to model aggregates (agar spheres) had threefold higher BPP and two orders of magnitude higher protease activity than their free-living counterpart. These observations could be explained by preferential colonization of the agar spheres by bacteria with inherently higher metabolic activity and/or individual......Marine snow aggregates are microbial hotspots that support high bacterial abundance and activities. We conducted laboratory experiments to compare cell-specific bacterial protein production (BPP) and protease activity between free-living and attached bacteria. Natural bacterial assemblages attached...... bacteria increasing their metabolism upon attachment to surfaces. In subsequent experiments, we used four strains of marine snow bacteria isolates to test the hypothesis that bacteria could up- and down-regulate their metabolism while on and off an aggregate. The protease activity of attached bacteria...

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Cabri, Jan; Pinheiro, João Páscoa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Portuguese version of the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS). This version was obtained with forward/backward translations, consensus panels and pre-testing. The Portuguese KOS-ADLS and Medical Outcomes Study, 36-item Short Form (SF-36) questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS) of pain, disability and discomfort, and a form for patient’s characteristics were administered to 168...

  11. Ability to perform activities of daily living is the main factor affecting quality of life in patients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Kjeld

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia is a chronic illness associated with a progressive loss of cognitive and intellectual abilities, such as memory, judgment and abstract thinking. The objective of this study was to assess the health utilities of patients with dementia in Europe and identify the key factors influencing their Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQol. Methods This study used cross-sectional data from the Odense study; a Danish cohort of patients aged 65–84 living in Odense, Denmark. A total of 244 patients with mild to severe dementia were interviewed together with a caregiver about their health status and activities of daily living (ADL. Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable dementia. Vascular dementia and other types of dementia were diagnosed according to the DSM-IIIR criteria. Severity of dementia was defined by score intervals on the Mini Mental State Examination score: mild (MMSE 20–30, moderate (MMSE 10–19, and severe (MMSE 0–9. Based on the ADL information, the patients' dependency level was defined as either dependent or independent. Questions from the Odense Study were mapped into each of the five dimensions of the EQ-5D in order to assess patients' HRQol. Danish EQ-5D social tariffs were used to value patients' HRQol. A regression analysis of EQ-5D values was conducted with backward selection on gender, age, severity, ADL level and setting in order to determine the main factor influencing HRQoL. Results The EQ-5D weight in patients independent upon others in ADL was 0.641 (95% CI: [0.612–0.669], and in those dependent upon others was 0.343 (95% CI: [0.251–0.436]. Conclusion Dependency upon others to perform ADL was the main factor affecting HRQoL.

  12. Impact of estradiol-valerate dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiak R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radoslaw Wasiak,1 Anna Filonenko,2 David J Vanness,3 Kim U Wittrup-Jensen,2 Donald E Stull,1 Steven Siak,1 Ian Fraser41Centre for Health Economics and Science Policy, United BioSource Corporation, London, United Kingdom; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 3University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of estradiol valerate-dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia® on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding.Methods: Women aged 18–54 years with a confirmed diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding and no recognizable pathology were recruited across nine European countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, UK, and Ukraine and Australia. The women were randomized to receive either E2V/DNG (n = 149 or placebo (n = 82 for seven treatment cycles (196 days. The outcomes assessed included work productivity (ie, productivity while at work and activities of daily living, measured on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (with higher values denoting higher impairment levels at baseline and at the end of the third and seventh cycles (days 84 and 196. The equivalent monetary value associated with the changes in work productivity and activities of daily living was also calculated.Results: Across all the countries, greater improvements from baseline to the end of treatment were observed with E2V/DNG treatment than placebo in work productivity (46.0% versus 15.1% and activities of daily living (55.6% versus 30.8%. In 2008, savings associated with improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement were estimated to be between US$22–62 and US$18–56 per month (in purchasing power

  13. Healthy active living: a residence community-based intervention to increase physical activity and healthy eating during the transition to first-year university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Bray, Steve R; Beatty, Kevin R; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the HAL community or no-treatment control residence and completed questionnaire measures at the beginning and end of the academic year. Students living in the HAL community reported significantly more MVPA (F[1, 58]=19.93, puniversity students appears to be effective in preserving or enhancing health behaviors and cognitions during their transition into university life.

  14. Regional fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism and instrumental activities of daily living across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kamolika; Pepin, Lesley C.; Philiossaint, Marlie; Lorius, Natacha; Becker, J. Alex; Locascio, Joseph J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) begins as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. IADL impairment in AD dementia has been associated with inferior parietal, inferior temporal, and superior occipital hypometabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Objective To investigate the relationship between regional FDG metabolism and IADL in clinically normal (CN) elderly, MCI, and mild AD dementia subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods One hundred and four CN, 203 MCI, and 95 AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent clinical assessments every 6 to 12 months for up to three years and baseline FDG PET. The subjective, informant-based Functional Activities Questionnaire was used to assess IADL. General linear models and mixed effects models were used, covarying for demographics, cogniton, and behavior. Results The cross-sectional analysis revealed middle frontal and orbitofrontal hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater IADL impairment. Additionally, the interaction of diagnosis with posterior cingulate and with parahippocampal hypometabolism showed a greater decline in IADL performance as metabolism decreased for the AD dementia relative to the MCI group, and the MCI group relative to the CN group. The longitudinal analysis showed that baseline middle frontal and posterior cingulate hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater rate of increase in IADL impairment over time. Conclusion These results suggest that regional synaptic dysfunction, including the Alzheimer-typical medial parietal and less typical frontal regions, relates to daily functioning decline at baseline and over time across the early AD spectrum. PMID:24898635

  15. Toward real time detection of the basic living activity in home using a wearable sensor and smart home sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Sunlee; Kim, Minho; Song, Sa-Kwang; Park, Soo-Jun

    2008-01-01

    As the elderly people living alone are enormously increasing recently, we need the system inferring activities of daily living (ADL) for maintaining healthy life and recognizing emergency. The system should be constructed with sensors, which are used to associate with people's living while remaining as non intrusive views as possible. To do this, the proposed system use a triaxial accelerometer sensor and environment sensors indicating contact with subject in home. Particularly, in order to robustly infer ADLs, we present component ADL, which is decided with conjunction of human motion together, not just only contacted object identification. It is an important component in inferring ADL. In special, component ADL decision firstly refines misclassified initial activities, which improves the accuracy of recognizing ADL. Preliminary experiments results for proposed system provides overall recognition rate of over 97% over 8 component ADLs, which can be effectively applicable to recognize the final ADLs.

  16. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G; Gleason, Lauren J; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Saczynski, Jane S; Gross, Alden L; Bean, Jonathan F; Brown, Cynthia J; Fick, Donna M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Inouye, Sharon K

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Expert panel survey. Web-based platform. Eleven experts from 8 academic medical centers and 300 community-dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery from 2 academic medical centers. Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychologic tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, whereas walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychologic performance (r = 0.13-0.23, P < .05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r = 0.15-0.46, P < .05). Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, postacute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning Social Studies via Objects in Museums: Investigation into Turkish Elementary School Students' Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya; Filiz, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Based on a descriptive phenomenological research design, this study investigated Turkish elementary school students' experiences in learning social studies via objects in museums. After students visited four different museums during the teaching of three thematic units at sixth grade level, their lived experiences were elicited. Purposeful…

  18. Quantification of free-living activity patterns using accelerometry in adults with mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Justin J.; Roberts, James A.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is disrupted in many psychiatric disorders. Advances in everyday technologies – such as accelerometers in smart phones – opens exciting possibilities for non-intrusive acquisition of activity data. Successful exploitation of this opportunity requires the validation of analytical methods that can capture the full movement spectrum. The study aim was to demonstrate an analytical approach to characterise accelerometer-derived activity patterns. Here, we use statistical methods to characterize accelerometer-derived activity patterns from a heterogeneous sample of 99 community-based adults with mental illnesses. Diagnoses were screened using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and participants wore accelerometers for one week. We studied the relative ability of simple (exponential), complex (heavy-tailed), and composite models to explain patterns of activity and inactivity. Activity during wakefulness was a composite of brief random (exponential) movements and complex (heavy-tailed) processes, whereas movement during sleep lacked the heavy-tailed component. In contrast, inactivity followed a heavy-tailed process, lacking the random component. Activity patterns differed in nature between those with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a primary psychotic disorder. These results show the potential of complex models to quantify the rich nature of human movement captured by accelerometry during wake and sleep, and the interaction with diagnosis and health. PMID:28266563

  19. Where they live, how they play: Neighborhood greenness and outdoor physical activity among preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigsby-Toussaint Diana S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging empirical evidence suggests exposure to "green" environments may encourage higher levels of physical activity among children. Few studies, however, have explored this association exclusively in pre-school aged children in the United States. We examined whether residing in neighborhoods with higher levels of greenness was associated with higher levels of outdoor physical activity among preschoolers. In addition, we also explored whether outdoor playing behaviors (e.g., active vs. quiet were influenced by levels of neighborhood greenness independent of demographic and parental support factors. Results Higher levels of neighborhood greenness as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was associated with higher levels of outdoor playing time among preschool-aged children in our sample. Specifically, a one unit increase in neighborhood greenness increased a child's outdoor playing time by approximately 3 minutes. A dose-response relationship was observed between increasing levels of parental support for physical activity (e.g., time spent playing with children and child outdoor physical activity (p Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, neighborhood greenness influences physical activity behavior. However, for preschoolers, parental involvement may be more critical for improving physical activity levels.

  20. Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas J; Diniz, Breno S; Bicalho, Maria A; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer's disease dementia) with low formal education (∼4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity.