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Sample records for active life gained

  1. Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression.

    Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean

    2014-09-01

    Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.

  2. Length of life gained with surgical treatment of prostate cancer

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus; Rusch, Ea

    2015-01-01

    cohort of 6489 men who underwent RP between 1995 and 2011. Risk of mortality was calculated using a competing risk model. Relative survival, excess mortality rate (EMR) and gain in life expectancy in men undergoing RP were calculated using a matched cohort Danish population based on date of birth......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse relative survival, excess mortality and gain in life expectancy in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) between 1995 and 2011 in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population comprised the complete......-risk patients. EMR was -9.34 (95% CI -10.56, -8.13) after 10 years, i.e. nine men would die in excess of the general population. Overall, the gain in life expectancy in men undergoing RP compared with the general population was 0.41 years. CONCLUSION: This population-based study demonstrated that the gain...

  3. Gain and loss learning differentially contribute to life financial outcomes.

    Brian Knutson

    Full Text Available Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt. In a community sample of healthy adults (n = 75, rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes.

  4. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  5. Gaining Cultural Intelligence through Second Life Learning Interventions

    Sarah Ellin Siegel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Companies’ investment in international assignments remains essential, but is affordable for only relatively few employees. In today’s global economy, many employees must gain cultural intelligence. Encyclopedic web sites and smart game simulations are ill-equipped to offer the live, authentic immersive experience of Virtual World environments; learning from colleagues who are country-natives through interacting with them in a Virtual World like Second Life is the next best thing to being there, and it requires no travel. Virtual world learning sessions with local ambassadors are affordable on a massive scale compared with international assignments. In addition, through Virtual World experiences, international assignees can be more effective with colleagues from their assigned countries prior to boarding planes, even prior to Day 1 of the assignment. This research proposal, including a literature review and a research design, asks, and begins to answer: What can cultural intelligence learning in Second Life achieve or advance that cultural intelligence learning in real-life within the cultures, smart game simulations and encyclopedic, self-service web sites cannot as readily?

  6. Towards gaining renewed balance in life after operable lung cancer

    Missel, Malene

    Background. Studies involving groups of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) provide valuable knowledge on symptoms, quality of life and needs using questionnaires, but knowledge of the perspective of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and the significance of the illness...... and its treatment on their daily lives is scant. Moreover qualitative evidence on patient experiences of participation in rehabilitation is lacking. Objectives. To explore the lived experiences of patients with operable lung cancer in daily life at ‘four critical moments’ during a ‘standard’ illness...... cancer. Methods. Study participants were divided into three samples of patients with operable lung cancer referred for surgery at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen. Samples I and II involved an exploration of patients’ lived experiences during...

  7. Two-dimensional gain cross-grating based on spatial modulation of active Raman gain

    Wang, Li; Zhou, Feng-Xue; Guo, Hong-Ju; Niu, Yue-Ping; Gong, Shang-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Based on the spatial modulation of active Raman gain, a two-dimensional gain cross-grating is theoretically proposed. As the probe field propagates along the z direction and passes through the intersectant region of the two orthogonal standing-wave fields in the x-y plane, it can be effectively diffracted into the high-order directions, and the zero-order diffraction intensity is amplified at the same time. In comparison with the two-dimensional electromagnetically induced cross-grating based on electromagnetically induced transparency, the two-dimensional gain cross-grating has much higher diffraction intensities in the first-order and the high-order directions. Hence, it is more suitable to be utilized as all-optical switching and routing in optical networking and communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274112 and 11347133).

  8. Simulation of Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated....

  9. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  10. Gain in Quality-adjusted Life-years in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis During 1 Year of Biological Therapy

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is used to measure outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) studies; identification of drivers of a gain in QALY might help predict a treatment response. We investigated how changes in components of the Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28) were associated...... with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) responses; and what baseline variables predicted the change in QALY following 1 year of biological therapy....

  11. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after p

  12. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century...... and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Methods: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current...... mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys...

  13. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is work activity that is both substantial and gainful: (a) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity...

  14. High Power VCSEL Device with Periodic Gain Active Region

    2007-01-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSEKLs) with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structures, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the ca...

  15. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  16. The design of maternal centered life-style modification program for weight gain management during pregnancy — a study protocol

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Pozveh, Zahra Amini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy increases the adverse health outcomes during the pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Most of the pregnant women develop weight gain more than the recommended limits; therefore, interventions to manage such disproportionate weight gain are needed. In this paper, the design of the maternal centered life-style intervention study is described, which focuses on controlling weight gaining during pregnancy for all body mass index (BMI) gr...

  17. Slow-light enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Slow light is a fascinating physical effect, raising fundamental questions related to our understanding of light-matter interactions as well as offering new possibilities for photonic devices. From the first demonstrations of slow light propagation in ultra-cold atomic gasses, solid-state Ruby and photonic crystal structures, focus has shifted to applications, with slow light offering the ability to enhance and control light-matter interactions. The demonstration of tuneable delay lines, enhanced nonlinearities and spontaneous emission, enlarged spectral sensitivity and increased phase shifts illustrate the possibilities enabled by slow light propagation, with microwave photonics emerging as one of the promising applications. Here, we demonstrate that slow light can be used to control and increase the gain coefficient of an active semiconductor waveguide. The effect was theoretically predicted but not yet experimentally demonstrated. These results show a route towards realizing ultra-compact optical amplifier...

  18. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...... to those realized in state-of-the-art semiconductor optical amplifiers should be attainable in compact photonic integrated amplifiers...

  19. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is... substantial gainful activity that does not require skills or ability used in his or her previous work....

  20. Healthy life gains in South Australia 1999-2008: analysis of a local Burden of Disease series

    Woollacott Tony

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis describes trends in the levels and social distribution of total life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in South Australia from 1999 to 2008. Methods South Australian Burden of Disease series for the period 1999-2001 to 2006-2008 and across statistical local areas according to relative socioeconomic disadvantage were analyzed for changes in total life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by sex and area level disadvantage, with further decomposition of healthy life expectancy change by age, cause of death, and illness. Results Total life expectancy at birth increased in South Australia for both sexes (2.0 years [2.6%] among males; 1.5 years [1.8%] among females. Healthy life expectancy also increased (1.4 years [2.1%] among males; 1.2 years [1.5%] among females. Total life and healthy life expectancy gains were apparent in all socioeconomic groups, with the largest increases in areas of most and least disadvantage. While the least disadvantaged areas consistently had the best health outcomes, they also experienced the largest increase in the amount of life expectancy lived with disease and injury-related illness. Conclusions While overall gains in both total life and healthy life expectancy were apparent in South Australia, gains were greater for total life expectancy. Additionally, the proportion of expected life lived with disease and injury-related illness increased as disadvantage decreased. This expansion of morbidity occurred in both sexes and across all socio-economic groups. This analysis outlines the continuing improvements to population health outcomes within South Australia. It also highlights the challenge of reducing population morbidity so that gains to healthy life match those of total life expectancy.

  1. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria

    Gæde, Peter; Oellgaard, Jens; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    : The original intervention (mean treatment duration 7.8 years) involved 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria who were randomly assigned (using sealed envelopes) to receive either conventional therapy or intensified, multifactorial treatment including both behavioural and pharmacological...... for all microvascular complications was decreased in the intensive-therapy group in the range 0.52 to 0.67, except for peripheral neuropathy (HR 1.12). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: At 21.2 years of follow-up of 7.8 years of intensified, multifactorial, target-driven treatment of type 2 diabetes......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to study the potential long-term impact of a 7.8 years intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria in terms of gained years of life and years free from incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS...

  2. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  3. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    Morina, N.; Ijntema, H.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials apply

  4. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  5. Women in very low quality marriages gain life satisfaction following divorce.

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Sbarra, David A; Whisman, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    Although marital dissolution is associated with increased risk for poor mental and physical health outcomes, many people report improvements in functioning after divorce. To study the hypothesis that women in lower quality marriages would report the best outcomes upon separation/divorce, we investigated the combined effects of marital quality, gender, and marital status for predicting changes in life satisfaction (LS). Participants (N = 1,639; 50.3% men) were drawn from a nationally representative sample (Midlife in the United States Study), which included assessments of marital quality, marital status, and LS, at 2 time points (T1 and T2), roughly 10 years apart. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed an interaction between marital quality, marital status, and gender when predicting residual change in LS. Divorced women evidenced a negative association between marital quality and later LS, whereas continuously married women had a positive association between marital quality and later LS. In addition, women in higher quality marriages that become divorced showed the lowest LS, and women in lowest quality marriages show the highest LS among women with similar levels of marital quality. There was no association between marital quality and later LS for divorced or continuously married men. This work extends prior findings regarding gender differences in marital quality to postdivorce well-being, and suggests women in the lowest quality marriages may gain LS following divorce.

  6. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  7. Exploring sudden gains in behavioral activation therapy for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the onset and course of sudden gains in treatment provides clinical information to the patient and clinician, and encourages clinicians to strive for these sudden clinical gains with their patients. This study characterizes the occurrence of sudden gains with Behavioral Activation (BA; Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001), and the extent to which pre-treatment dysfunctional depressive thinking predicts sudden gains during treatment. We enrolled a sample of adults (n = 42) between ages 18-65 diagnosed with primary Major Depressive Disorder. All participants completed a 16-week course of BA, with clinical and self-report assessments at pre-, mid- and post-treatment. Results indicated that sudden gain and non-sudden gain participants showed differential improvement across treatment. No significant effects emerged for the dysfunctional cognitive style as a predictor of sudden gain status. Sudden gains may result from interaction of non-specific factors with the BA techniques implemented during early phases of therapy.

  8. The Gain Properties of 1-D Active Photonic Crystal

    2003-01-01

    The terminology 'ID frequency'(w ID) is proposed after analyzing the 1D active photonic crystal based on the transfer matrix method. The relationship between wID and the structure parameters of the photonic crystal is investigated.

  9. Unrelated medical costs in life-years gained : should they be included in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions?

    Rappange, David R; van Baal, Pieter H M; van Exel, N Job A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Rutten, Frans F H; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    Which costs and benefits to consider in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions remains an area of much controversy. Unrelated medical costs in life-years gained is an important cost category that is normally ignored in economic evaluations, irrespective of the perspective chosen for the an

  10. Interviewing in Virtual Worlds: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Success Factors of Job Applicants Utilizing Second Life to Gain Employment

    Koufoudakis-Whittington, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of success factors of job applicants utilizing Second Life to gain employment. The study focused on identifying the perception of what qualified as a successful interview through the lived common experiences of 16 employment recruiters. The research problem was that a gap existed in scholarly research on…

  11. Life Span Differences in Electrophysiological Correlates of Monitoring Gains and Losses during Probabilistic Reinforcement Learning

    Hammerer, Dorothea; Li, Shu-Chen; Muller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    By recording the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to gains and losses, we investigated the contribution of outcome monitoring mechanisms to age-associated differences in probabilistic reinforcement learning. Specifically, we assessed the difference of the monitoring reactions to gains and losses to investigate the monitoring of…

  12. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  13. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  14. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  15. Gain and loss enhancement in active and passive particulate composite materials

    Mackay, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    Two active dielectric materials may be blended together to realize a homogenized composite material (HCM) which exhibits more gain than either component material. Likewise, two dissipative dielectric materials may be blended together to realize an HCM which exhibits more loss than either component material. Sufficient conditions for such gain/loss enhancement were established using the Bruggeman homogenization formalism. Gain/loss enhancement arises when (i) the imaginary parts of the relative permittivities of both component materials are similar in magnitude and (ii) the real parts of the relative permittivities of both component materials are dissimilar in magnitude.

  16. Quality-adjusted life years gained in patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement

    Hørdam, Britta; Pedersen, P.U.; Søballe, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    treatment and telephone intervention. QALYs were calculated from measures of health-related quality of life using questionnaire SF-36. These scores were transformed to QALYs using a formula based on the method developed by Brazier (Brazier 1998). Results: Both the control and the intervention patients......Background: Total hip replacement (THR) is an effective, but also cost-intensive health care procedure for the elderly. Because of demographic changes in Western Europe, THR-associated financial investment for health care has become a question of priorities in society. To provide a quantitative...... rationale for a discussion within Western European health care systems, we undertook a prospective assessment of the benefit of THR from the patients´ perspective and as measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Aim: To measure the difference in health related quality of life between an intervention...

  17. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  18. Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories.

    Adolph, S C; Porter, W P

    1993-08-01

    Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. We present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. We tested our model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models.

  19. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  20. Anania Shirakatsi's Life and Activities

    Nazaryan, L. S.

    2014-10-01

    Anania Shirakatsi is one of the greatest scientists who made an important contribution to the field of exact sciences in Armenia, a brilliant scientist and philosopher of the 7th century; actually the founder of exact sciences in Armenian reality. Unfortunately, out of Shirakatsi's rich heritage only some fragments of his works in the fields of Mathematics, Cosmography, Calendarology, Metrology, which are of great value for the history of exact sciences, got to us. There is a valuable source about Anania Shirakatsi's life and work; the author has left his autobiography. From Shirakatsi's autobiography we learn that he was born in the village Aneank (Shirakavan) at the beginning of the 7th century. He got his elementary education in the local monastery school, later being eager to improve his knowledge, he went to West Armenia. He had to travel a lot about West Armenia seeking an advanced specialist in Mathematics. He was leaving for Constantinople but on his way to Signup he learns that in Trapeze a great Greek scientist, Tyukhik lives: "a wise man, popular with the kings, an expert on Armenian Language and Literature". Shirakatsi changed his way and went to Trapeze. Shirakatsi had been at Tyukhik's school for 8 years; he became proficient in exact science and came back to his native land with rich knowledge base. Here he opened a school and devoted himself to teaching and research. He wrote research works in Astronomy, Mathematics, Geography, Calendarology, Metrology and in other fields of science.

  1. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  2. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  3. Individual Differences in Loss Aversion: Conscientiousness Predicts How Life Satisfaction Responds to Losses Versus Gains in Income.

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-04-01

    Loss aversion is considered a general pervasive bias occurring regardless of the context or the person making the decision. We hypothesized that conscientiousness would predict an aversion to losses in the financial domain. We index loss aversion by the relative impact of income losses and gains on life satisfaction. In a representative German sample (N = 105,558; replicated in a British sample, N = 33,848), with conscientiousness measured at baseline, those high on conscientiousness have the strongest reactions to income losses, suggesting a pronounced loss aversion effect, whereas for those moderately unconscientious, there is no loss aversion effect. Our research (a) provides the first evidence of personality moderation of any loss aversion phenomena, (b) supports contextual perspectives that both personality and situational factors need to be examined in combination, (c) shows that the small but robust relationship between income and life satisfaction is driven primarily by a subset of people experiencing highly impactful losses.

  4. Modeling of gain saturation effects in active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of slow-light enhanced light amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal line defect waveguide. The impact of enhanced light-matter interactions on carrier-depletion-induced modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of slow-light enhanced light amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal line defect waveguide. The impact of enhanced light-matter interactions on carrier-depletion-induced modal gain saturation is investigated....

  5. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences.

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John; Wang, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine.

  6. Physical activity and fat mass gain in Mexican school-age children: a cohort study

    Jáuregui Alejandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM, alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline to 2nd grade elementary school (endline. Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry, BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025 compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity.

  7. 78 FR 74125 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the...

    2013-12-10

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the National.... chapter 3501 et seq.), ED is proposing an extension of an existing information collection. DATES... submitted after the comment period will not be accepted. Written requests for information or...

  8. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment.

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S; Watts, Gerald F; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L; Defesche, Joep C; Descamps, Olivier S; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Santos, Raul D; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-09-21

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is 10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and

  9. Enhanced optical precursors by Doppler effect via active Raman gain process.

    Peng, Yandong; Niu, Yueping; Zhang, Lida; Yang, Aihong; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Shangqing

    2012-08-15

    A scheme for enhancing precursor pulse by Doppler effect is proposed in a room-temperature active-Raman-gain medium. Due to abnormal dispersion between two gain peaks, main fields are advanced and constructively interfere with optical precursors, which leads to enhancement of the transient pulse at the rise edge of the input. Moreover, after Doppler averaging, the abnormal dispersion intensifies and the constructive interference between precursors and main fields is much strengthened, which boosts the transient spike. Simulation results demonstrate that the peak intensity of precursors could be enhanced nearly 20 times larger than that of the input.

  10. The impact of healthcare costs in the last year of life and in all life years gained on the cost-effectiveness of cancer screening

    de Kok, I M C M; Polder, J J; Habbema, J D F;

    2009-01-01

    It is under debate whether healthcare costs related to death and in life years gained (LysG) due to life saving interventions should be included in economic evaluations. We estimated the impact of including these costs on cost-effectiveness of cancer screening. We obtained health insurance, home...... care, nursing homes, and mortality data for 2.1 million inhabitants in the Netherlands in 1998-1999. Costs related to death were approximated by the healthcare costs in the last year of life (LastYL), by cause and age of death. Costs in LYsG were estimated by calculating the healthcare costs in any...... life year. We calculated the change in cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) if unrelated healthcare costs in the LastYL or in LYsG would be included. Costs in the LastYL were on average 33% higher for persons dying from cancer than from any cause. Including costs in LysG increased the CER by 4040 euro...

  11. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments.

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-11-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials applying VRET to specific phobias and measuring treatment outcome by means of behavioral laboratory tests or recordings of behavioral activities in real-life. Data sources were searches of databases (Medline, PsycInfo, and Cochrane). We included in total 14 clinical trials on specific phobias. Results revealed that patients undergoing VRET did significantly better on behavioral assessments following treatment than before treatment, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g = 1.23. Furthermore, patients undergoing VRET performed better on behavioral assessments at post-treatment than patients on wait-list (g = 1.41). Additionally, results of behavioral assessment at post-treatment and at follow-up revealed no significant differences between VRET and exposure in vivo (g = -0.09 and 0.53, respectively). Finally, behavioral measurement effect sizes were similar to those calculated from self-report measures. The findings demonstrate that VRET can produce significant behavior change in real-life situations and support its application in treating specific phobias.

  12. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? : A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials apply

  13. What Is Life? An Activity to Convey the Complexities of This Simple Question

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2013-01-01

    "What is life?" This deceptively simple question lies at the heart of biology. In this activity, students work in groups to come up with their own definition using a set of prompting cards that differs for each team. In doing so, students gain an appreciation of the complexities of addressing this question. The activity takes approximately 60-90…

  14. Relationship of serum somatomedin-like activity and fibroblast proliferative activity with age and body weight gain in sheep.

    Olsen, R F; Wangsness, P J; Patton, W H; Martin, R J

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between serum growth factors and body weight gain was examined in five Dorset lambs. The lambs were weighed and bled by jugular puncture at 2-week intervals between 2 and 18 weeks of age. Somatomedin-like activity (Sm) declined from initially high concentrations at 2 weeks to fairly constant concentrations between 6 and 18 weeks. Relative weight gain--i.e., gain expressed as a percentage of body weight--declined in a manner similar to that of Sm. Mean relative weight gain and mean Sm for the eight 2-week intervals were significantly related (r = .84). Absolute body weight gain--i.e., gain expressed in kilograms--remained fairly constant throughout the study and was not significantly correlated to Sm (r = .15). Serum fibroblast proliferative activity (FPA) was measured as a possible indicator of collective activities of serum growth factors. FPA initially followed a pattern similar to that of Sm, decreasing between 2 and 6 weeks and plateauing until 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, FPA increased to concentrations similar to those observed at 2 weeks. The increase in FPA after 12 weeks was apparently due to an increase in a non-Sm growth factor and had no obvious relationship to body weight changes. Results of the in vitro cell assay system might have been more meaningful if cell type(s) other than WI-38 fibroblasts (e.g., myogenic cells) had been used for estimating collective activities of serum mitogenic factors. The data suggest that serum Sm-like activity may be important in the regulation of growth in sheep.

  15. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  16. Losses, gain, and lasing in organic and perovskite active materials (Conference Presentation)

    Pourdavoud, Neda; Riedl, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Organic solid state lasers (OSLs) based on semiconducting polymers or small molecules have seen some significant progress over the past decade. Highly efficient organic gain materials combined with high-Q resonator geometries (distributed feedback (DFB), VCSEL, etc.) have enabled OSLs, optically pumped by simple inorganic laser diodes or even LEDs. However, some fundamental goals remain to be reached, like continuous wave (cw) operation and injection lasing. I will address various loss mechanisms related to accumulated triplet excitons or long-lived polarons that in combination with the particular photo-physics of organic gain media state the dominant road-blocks on the way to reach these goals. I will discuss the recent progress in fundamental understanding of these loss processes, which now provides a solid basis for modelling, e.g. of laser dynamics. Avenues to mitigate these fundamental loss mechanisms, e.g. by alternative materials will be presented. In this regard, a class of gain materials based on organo-lead halide perovskites re-entered the scene as light emitters, recently. Enjoying a tremendous lot of attention as active material for solution processed solar cells with a 20+% efficiency, they have recently unveiled their exciting photo-physics for lasing applications. Optically pumped lasing in these materials has been achieved. I will discuss some of the unique properties that render this class of materials a promising candidate to overcome some of the limitations of "classical" organic gain media.

  17. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  18. Photon-activated charge domain in high-gain photoconductive switches

    Wei Shi(施卫); Huiying Dai(戴慧莹); Xiaowei Sun(孙小卫)

    2003-01-01

    We report our experimental observation of charge domain oscillation in semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs). The high-gain PCSS is intrinsically a photon-activated charge domain device. It is the photon-activated carriers that satisfy the requirement of charge domain formation on carrier concentration and device length product of 1012 cm-2. We also show that, because of the repeated process of domain formation, the domain travels with a compromised speed of electron saturation velocity and the speed of light. As a result, the transit time of charge domains in PCSS is much shorter than that of traditional Gunn domains.

  19. Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, which lead to discharge from the hospital, and recent advancements have indicated the effectiveness in using contingent music to teach sucking skills to premature infants. The purpose of the first analysis in this study was to determine the effects of Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) trials on weight gain of premature infants. During a 2-year time period, 62 infants from a sample of 188 met criteria for analysis. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significance in daily weight gain for the number of PAL trials completed. The mean weight gains for infants with 1 PAL trial = 13.85 grams, 2 trials = 26.67, 3 trials = 29.64, and 4 or more = 22.89. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean percent of music earned via nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and mean weight gain of all trials approached significance (p = .077, r = 0.18). In a second analysis, weight gained prior to use of PAL, during use of PAL, and post use of PAL was analyzed. Results indicated no significant difference between weight gain 1 day prior to use of PAL, the day of PAL trial, and 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for those infants who participated in 1 PAL trial was 8.49 grams for 1 day prior to use of PAL, 18.73 the day of PAL trial, and 24.81 for 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for 3 days prior to using the PAL was 10.78, 11.30 on the day of PAL trial, and 24.78 grams for 3 days post PAL use. The analyses show definite trends of greater weight gain with PAL use; however, individual variability within groups was greater than group differences leading to no significance in statistical analysis. In the third analysis the effect of proximity between premature infants' feeding schedule and PAL

  20. Amplification of background EMG activity affects the interpretation of H-reflex gain.

    Tahayori, Behdad; Kitano, Koichi; Hong, Siang L; Koceja, David M

    2010-12-01

    In many H-reflex studies, the modulation of the H-reflex is usually compared relative to the normal EMG activity within the muscle. Such comparisons enable the investigators to infer whether the change in the amplitude of the H-reflex was independent of normally occurring muscle activity. This interpretation of the H-reflex is regarded as H-reflex gain, a popular dependent variable in human H-reflex studies. However, in many studies to date, the muscle activity level has been determined from the same EMG signal from which the H-reflex is recorded. This leads to an important methodological consideration: measuring the ongoing normal EMG activity from the same signal might result in an inaccurate measurement, since this EMG signal will need to be minimally amplified to capture the synchronous volley of the H-reflex amplitude. In this study we examined this possibility and found that comparing the EMG activity level from the seated position to standing position yields different results (on average 8.03% in the measurement of the increase of muscle activity). This difference was both dependent on the task and also on the EMG instrumentation used. To solve this problem we suggest the bifurcation of the EMG signal from the recording electrodes with differential amplification of the signal. With this method, both the naturally occurring muscle activity and the H-reflex signal are collected from the same area of the muscle and a more accurate measurement of the H-reflex gain will be yielded.

  1. Gains in oral health and improved quality of life of 12-13-year-old Nepali schoolchildren: outcomes of an advocacy project to fluoridate toothpaste.

    Yee, R.; McDonald, N.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report on gains in oral health and improved quality of life of 12-13-year-old Nepali schoolchildren five and six years after the introduction of fluoride toothpaste in 1999. DESIGN: Cross sectional baseline surveys in 1999 and 2001, and follow up surveys in 2004 and 2005 were multi-st

  2. Photosynthetically active radiation and carbon gain drives the southern orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans fruits.

    Ponce-Bautista, A; Valverde, P L; Flores, J; Zavala-Hurtado, A; Vite, F; López-Ortega, G; Pérez-Hernández, M A

    2017-03-01

    The equatorial orientation of reproductive structures is known in some columnar cacti from extratropical deserts. It has been hypothesised that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception is the main reason for this orientation, because of its key effect on nocturnal CO2 uptake. However, there are no studies addressing both the effect of PAR and its consequence, carbon gain, on fruit orientation. Accordingly, we tested whether PAR and carbon gain could explain the southern fruit orientation of Myrtillocactus geometrizans, an inter-tropical columnar cactus. We studied three populations of M. geometrizans in Mexico. For each population, azimuth of fruits, total daily PAR, nocturnal acid accumulation (NAA) and fruit production were measured. The relationships between rib orientation and number of fruits, as well as total daily PAR, were evaluated using periodic regressions. The effect of total daily PAR and NAA on number of fruits was assessed using generalised linear models. During spring, mean fruit orientation had a south azimuth for three populations. Likewise, rib orientation had a significant effect on fruit production, with the south-facing ribs having the maximum number of fruits. Total daily PAR was highest in the south-facing ribs, at least for those in the northern and central populations. Furthermore, during spring, there was a significant positive effect of total daily PAR and NAA on fruit production. Our results provide strong evidence that the higher carbon gain in equatorial ribs, through a highest interception of PAR, would be the responsible factor for equatorial orientation of fruits in an inter-tropical columnar cactus.

  3. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  4. Burn-injured adolescents report gaining multiple developmental benefits and improved life skills as a result of burn camp attendance.

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Pressman, Melissa S; Takach, Oliver P; Bay, R Curtis; Croteau, Renee; Hansen, Linda D; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotally, burn camp has been reported to be a positive developmental and rehabilitative experience for attendees; there is little empirical data to support this belief. This study sought to explore whether burn camp either directly or indirectly elicits positive development outcomes in pediatric burn survivors or increases their psychosocial well-being and achievement. The Youth Experience Survey 2.0, a 66-item self-report inventory designed to measure developmental experiences in an organized youth activity, was administered to children aged 11 to 18 years attending summer burn camp. One hundred and ten burn-injured youth, 58 male and 52 female, reported that burn camp had positively impacted their lives through improved identity exploration, goal-setting and problem-solving abilities, increased physical activity, communication, emotional regulation, and time management skills (P camp for more than 5 years resulted in greater improvement. Study results support the burn camp experience as a far-reaching and positive developmental activity. Participants credited the camp experience with helping them with identity formation and reflection, improved social interactions, and increased initiative; all positive developmental outcomes for youth. Results suggest that burn camp participation not only helps burn-injured youth to deal with their burns but also assists them in the development of social and basic life skills, which will allow them to navigate the transition from youth to adulthood, more effectively and successfully.

  5. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system.

  6. Storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via active Raman gain

    Xu, Datang; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via a mechanism of active Raman gain (ARG). The system under consideration is a four-level atomic gas interacting with three (pump, signal, and control) laser fields. We show that a stable propagation of signal light pulses with superluminal velocity (i.e., fast-light pulses) is possible in such a system through the ARG contributed by the pump field and the quantum interference effect induced by the control field. We further show that a robust storage and retrieval of light pulses in such a fast-light medium can be implemented by switching on and off the pump and the control fields simultaneously. The results reported here may have potential applications for light information processing and transmission using fast-light media.

  7. Early life determinants of physical activity and sedentary time: Current knowledge and future research

    Guro Pauck Øglund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings of the association between low birth weight and subsequent health outcomes have led to the “developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis”. Furthermore, modifiable and partly modifiable early life factors may also influence behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of the present review was to summarize the existing knowledge on early life determinants (birth weight, rapid infant weight gain, motor development and infant temperament of childhood physical activity and sedentary time, and suggest opportunities for future research based on the Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Inconsistent results have been observed when relating birth weight to later physical activity, likely explained by differences in methodology when assessing physical activity between studies. There is limited data on whether rapid weight gain in early life predicts later physical activity and few studies have examined the association between birth weight and infant weight gain with subsequent sedentary time. Motor development may be a predictor for childhood physical activity, however methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. The association between motor development and sedentary time has rarely been examined. Conflicting results have been reported for the association between infant temperament and subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in toddlers. Finally, it is unknown whether physical activity modifies the association between birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and later health outcomes in youth. Additional research in well-characterized birth cohorts can be used to generate new knowledge on possible early life determinants of children’s and youth’s physical activity and sedentary time which may inform evidence-based public health interventions.

  8. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  9. Relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Rafsanjan City, Iran.

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-03-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (pnutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care.

  10. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    -gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration...... and increased uncoupling protein 2 and 3 expression in skeletal muscle in wild-type mice but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. We conclude that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis and weight gain through activation of PPAR-delta-dependent lipolytic pathways and energy uncoupling in several tissues.......)-delta-dependent pathways in several tissues. In vitro, telmisartan significantly upregulated PPAR-delta expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other than enhancing PPAR-delta expression by 68.2+/-17.3% and PPAR-delta activity by 102.0+/-9.0%, telmisartan also upregulated PPAR...

  11. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  12. Sensitivity- and effort-gain analysis: multilead ECG electrode array selection for activation time imaging.

    Hintermüller, Christoph; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Fischer, Gerald; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2006-10-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electric function of the heart might become clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as an easy and fast application. In this paper, we propose a new electrode array which improves the resolution of methods for activation time imaging considering clinical constraints such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. For identifying the body-surface regions where the body surface potential (BSP) is most sensitive to changes in transmembrane potential (TMP), a virtual array method was used to compute local linear dependency (LLD) maps. The virtual array method computes a measure for the LLD in every point on the body surface. The most suitable number and position of the electrodes within the sensitive body surface regions was selected by constructing effort gain (EG) plots. Such a plot depicts the relative attainable rank of the leadfield matrix in relation to the increase in number of electrodes required to build the electrode array. The attainable rank itself was computed by a detector criterion. Such a criterion estimates the maximum number of source space eigenvectors not covered by noise when being mapped to the electrode space by the leadfield matrix and recorded by a detector. From the sensitivity maps, we found that the BSP is most sensitive to changes in TMP on the upper left frontal and dorsal body surface. These sensitive regions are covered best by an electrode array consisting of two L-shaped parts of approximately 30 cm x 30 cm and approximately 20 cm x 20 cm. The EG analysis revealed that the array meeting clinical requirements best and improving the resolution of activation time imaging consists of 125 electrodes with a regular horizontal and vertical spacing of 2-3 cm.

  13. Physical activity and quality of life.

    Gill, Diane L; Hammond, Cara C; Reifsteck, Erin J; Jehu, Christine M; Williams, Rennae A; Adams, Melanie M; Lange, Elizabeth H; Becofsky, Katie; Rodriguez, Enid; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) professionals and participants recognize enhanced quality of life (QoL) as a benefit of and motivator for PA. However, QoL measures are often problematic and rarely consider the participants'perspective. This paper focuses on recent findings from a larger project on the role of QoL in PA and health promotion. More specifically, we focus on the views of participants and potential participants to better understand the relationship of PA and QoL. In earlier stages of the project we began with a conceptual model of QoL and developed a survey. We now focus on participants' views and ask two questions: 1) what is QoL? and 2) how does PA relate to QoL? We first asked those questions of a large sample of university students and community participants as open-ended survey items, and then asked focus groups of community participants. Overall, participants' responses reflected the multidimensional, integrative QoL model, but the responses and patterns provided information that may not be picked up with typical survey measures. Findings suggest that PA contributes to multiple aspects of QoL, that social and emotional benefits are primary motivators and outcomes for participants, and that the meaning of QoL and PA benefits is subjective and contextualized, varying across individuals and settings. Programs that directly target and highlight the multiple dimensions and integrative QoL, while considering the individual participants and contexts, may enhance both PA motivation and participants' health and QoL.

  14. Productive activity and life satisfaction in Korean elderly women.

    Kim, Ju-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of participation in productive activities on life satisfaction and its implications for social evaluation of productive aging. This study uses data collected from 1,250 elderly women living in urban areas. The regression model was used to examine the influence of elderly women's participation in productive activities on their life satisfaction. Elderly women who participate in volunteer work, learning, and social group activities commonly recognized their activities as meaningful, feeling like worthwhile members of society, and evaluated such activities as very positive. In contrast, elderly women who participated in household chores and family care activities expressed a negative life satisfaction. The difference in life satisfaction regarding productive activities stems not only from the physical and environmental differences but also from the gap between the official social value underpinned by the recognition of surrounding people, their support, and the value of productive activities.

  15. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Sources on Daily Weight Gain and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Peanut Worm(Sipunculus nudus)

    Zhang Qin; Xu Mingzhu; Tong Tong; Dong Lanfang

    2015-01-01

    In the study,glucose,sucrose,dextrin,tapioca starch,potato starch,corn starch and gelatinized corn starch were selected to make the diets with same nitrogen and lipid,and Juvenile peanut worms( Sipunculus nudus) were fed with the diets came from different carbohydrate sources,effects of diets with different carbohydrate sources on daily weight gain and digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus were studied. Results showed that diets with different carbohydrate sources had significant influences on daily weight gain and digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus( P < 0. 05). Daily weight gain in gelatinized corn starch group was significantly higher than that in other groups( P < 0. 05); daily weight gain in glucose group was significantly lower than that in other groups( P < 0. 05); daily weight gain in the three ungelatinized starch groups was significantly higher than that in glucose,sucrose and dextrin groups( P < 0. 05). Analysis of digestive enzyme activities showed that dietary carbohydrate sources had significant influences on digestive enzyme activities of S. nudus( P < 0. 05). Protease activities and amylase activities of S. nudus in sucrose group were the highest,which were significantly higher than that in the other groups( P < 0. 05); lipase activities of S. nudus in glucose group were the lowest,which were significantly lower than that in other groups( P < 0. 05). In conclusion,growth-promoting effects of macromolecules carbohydrates( starch) were better than that of disaccharide( sucrose) and monosaccharide( glucose),which of gelatinized starch were better than that of ungelatinized starch.

  16. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    NATS 101 A Geological Perspective is a general education course taken by non science majors. We offer 600 seats per semester, with four large lecture sections taught by different faculty members. In the past we have offered optional once a week study groups taught by graduate teaching assistants. Students often feel overwhelmed by the science and associated jargon, and many are prone to skipping lectures altogether. Optional study groups are only attended by ~50% of the students. Faculty members find the class to be a lot of work, mainly due to the grading it generates. Activities given in lecture are often short multiple choice or true false assignments, limiting the depth of understanding we can evaluate. Our students often lack math and critical thinking skills, and we spend a lot of time in lecture reintroducing ideas students should have already gotten from the text. In summer 2007 we were funded to redesign the course. Our goals were to 1) cut the cost of running the course, and 2) improve student learning. Under our redesign optional study groups were replaced by once a week mandatory break out sessions where students complete activities that have been introduced in lecture. Break out sessions substitute for one hour of lecture, and are run by undergraduate preceptors and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). During the lecture period, lectures themselves are brief with a large portion of the class devoted to active learning in small groups. Weekly reading quizzes are submitted via the online course management system. Break out sessions allow students to spend more time interacting with their fellow students, undergraduate preceptors, and GTAs. They get one on one help in break out sessions on assignments designed to enhance the lecture material. The active lecture format means less of their time is devoted to listening passively to a lecture, and more time is spent peer learning an interacting with the instructor. Completing quizzes online allows students

  17. A systematic review of quality of life and weight gain-related issues in patients treated for severe and persistent mental disorders: focus on aripiprazole

    Salvatore Gentile

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore GentileDepartment of Mental Health, ASL Salerno 1, ItalyAbstract: Aripiprazole is a relatively novel second-generation antipsychotic belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole derivatives and is characterized by a unique pharmacological profile which suggests that the drug acts as a dopamine-serotonin system stabilizer. Whereas all previously available antipsychotics are antagonists at D2 receptors, aripiprazole is the only available partial agonist at these receptors. Thus, it has been suggested that aripiprazole could be associated with a relatively neutral impact on bodyweight, possibly reducing risks of a detrimental impact on the quality of life that often complicates management for a large number of patients diagnosed with severe and persistent mental disorders (SPMDs treated chronically with antipsychotic medications. However, data from short- and long-term reviewed studies indicate that the prevalence rate of clinically relevant weight gain during therapy with this drug is similar to that occurring during treatments with other antipsychotic agents, either typical or atypical. Moreover, information on the impact of aripiprazole therapy on the quality of life of patients diagnosed with SPMDs is scarce and characterized by conflicting results. Given these results, further, large, well-designed studies are needed before confirming potential advantages of aripiprazole over first-generation antipsychotics and other SGAs.Keywords: aripiprazole, effectiveness, quality of life, safety, weight gain

  18. The Effects of Activity and Gain Based Virtual Material on Student's Success, Permanency and Attitudes towards Science Lesson

    Tas, Erol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to research the effects of a student gains and activity based virtual material on students' success, permanence and attitudes towards science lesson, developed for science and technology lesson 6th grade "Systems in our body" unit. The study, which had a quasi-experimental design, was conducted with…

  19. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  20. The role of diet and physical activity in post-transplant weight gain after renal transplantation

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Kok, Trijntje; Dontje, Manon L.; Danchell, Eva I.; Navis, Gerjan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term survival of renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not improved over the past 20yr. The question rises to what extent lifestyle factors play a role in post-transplant weight gain and its associated risks after transplantation. Methods Twenty-six RTR were measured for body weight,

  1. Noticeable positive Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system

    Chang Zeng-Guang; Niu Yue-Ping; Zhang Jing-Tao; Gong Shang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N type active Raman gain atomic system inside an optical ring cavity.It is shown that the Doppler effect can greatly enhance the dispersion and thus create the bistable behaviour or greatly increase the bistable region,which has been known as the positive Doppler effect on optical bistability.In addition,we find that a positive Doppler effect can change optical bistability from the hybrid dispersion-gain type to a dispersive type.

  2. Designing Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages to Increase Physical Activity among University Students Living in two Different Cultures

    Pelin Ozgur Polat

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Widespread evidence indicates that physical activity has positive effects on physical health in long-run. Therefore, adopting exercising habits at early ages is essential for reducing risk of developing chronic diseases. As a result, prevention studies frequently focus on informing young people about possible consequences of engaging or not engaging in physical activity to encourage them to develop a healthy lifestyle. Gain- and loss-framed health messages (Rothman & Salove...

  3. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    ... and an 80% increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Becoming more active can help lower your blood pressure and also boost your levels of good cholesterol. Physical activity prolongs your optimal health. Without regular physical activity, the body slowly loses ...

  4. Gaining access to the life-world of women suffering from stroke - methodological issues in clinical phenomenological studies

    Kvigne, Kari; Gjengedal, Eva; Kirkevold, Marit

    2002-01-01

    - the informant's openness in describing his/her life-world, and the sensitivity of the researcher as regards seeing and hearing what is conveyed in the situation. Both forms of openness can be influenced positively or negatively by many factors, including the physical and mental health of the informants......, the researcher's theoretical insight, her ability to communicate, and not least the relationship between the informant and the researcher. A relationship of power, for example, might reinforce gender differences, differences in cultural background, education and social status. Conclusion. Openness on the part...

  5. Gaining Autonomy & [corrected] Medication Management (GAM): new perspectives on well-being, quality of life and psychiatric medication.

    del Barrio, Lourdes Rodriguez; Cyr, Céline; Benisty, Lisa; Richard, Pierrette

    2013-10-01

    Autonomous Medication Management (GAM) is an innovative approach developed in partnership with medication users. It takes their subjective experience into account and strives to place the individual at the center of pharmacological treatment in psychiatry with a view to improving well-being and quality of life. It creates spaces of open dialogue on the issue of medication amongst users, physicians and their family and friends. This article is derived from a research study and presents the principles, practices and main impacts of GAM on how people relate to their medications and the physicians who prescribe them. The major positive effects were the users' clearer understanding of their experience of taking psychiatric medication and their rights, the reduction or elimination of sudden and unsupervised treatment interruptions and the users' sense of having more control over their treatment. It includes inner experience and life, an improved relationship with professionals and space for negotiation with the physician and, lastly, changes to prescriptions that significantly improved well-being and recovery. The distinguishing features of GAM are described and compared with other approaches, giving a voice to people who take medication.

  6. The research of the differences between physical activity and life quality in senior high school students (Manisa City example

    Hande TAVAZAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available I nactive life style is one of the problems of today‟s health issues and has seri ous damage in health which threatens and risks human life. That‟s why „„living by raising life quality‟‟is considered to be a key for a healthy life. The way to handle that key is to make the regular physical activity a permanent part of life. Especially t he progress in technology brings the young generation an inactive life style.This study is made to form permanent solutions for suggestions by investigatingthe differences between physical activity and life quality. It is applied in 2013 - 2014 education yea rs, in Manisa city YunusEmre township senior high schools institutes, on 833 male and female students.The personal information form formed by the researchers and Life Quality SF - 36 Short form is applied on the participants in order to search the difference s of physical activity and life quality. Some statistical differences appeared and some did not in the participants‟ age, sex, sporting or not, having a sports license variables and SF - 36 sub dimensions. It is recommended that, in order to gain regular phy sical activity practice, especially in senior - high schools, gymnastics lessons should be increased and be lectured actively to raise the life quality.

  7. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life--A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  8. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life-A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  9. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  10. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity.

  11. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice

    Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high fat diet induced insulin resistance by activating AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α isoform of the IL-18...

  12. Determinants of Developmental Gain in Daily Activities in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, Anne J A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Verschuren, Olaf; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2014-09-18

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine which child and family characteristics at the child's age of 2 years are determinants of development of self-care and mobility activities over a period of 2 years in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Longitudinal data of 92 children, representing all levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were analyzed. Children's self-care and mobility activities were assessed with the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Development of self-care and mobility activities was related to several child determinants but no family determinants. GMFCS, type of CP, intellectual capacity, and epilepsy were related to the development of self-care and mobility activities, while manual ability and spasticity were related to development of mobility activities. Multivariate analysis indicated that GMFCS and intellectual capacity were the strongest determinants of development of self-care activities, and GMFCS was the strongest determinant of development of mobility activities. The change in self-care and mobility activities was less favorable in severely affected children with severe disability. Knowledge of GMFCS level and intellectual capacity is important in anticipating change over time and goal setting in young children with CP.

  13. Local expectation violations result in global activity gain in primary visual cortex.

    Kok, Peter; van Lieshout, Lieke L F; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-11-22

    During natural perception, we often form expectations about upcoming input. These expectations are usually multifaceted - we expect a particular object at a particular location. However, expectations about spatial location and stimulus features have mostly been studied in isolation, and it is unclear whether feature-based expectation can be spatially specific. Interestingly, feature-based attention automatically spreads to unattended locations. It is still an open question whether the neural mechanisms underlying feature-based expectation differ from those underlying feature-based attention. Therefore, establishing whether the effects of feature-based expectation are spatially specific may inform this debate. Here, we investigated this by inducing expectations of a specific stimulus feature at a specific location, and probing the effects on sensory processing across the visual field using fMRI. We found an enhanced sensory response for unexpected stimuli, which was elicited only when there was a violation of expectation at the specific location where participants formed a stimulus expectation. The neural consequences of this expectation violation, however, spread to cortical locations processing the stimulus in the opposite hemifield. This suggests that an expectation violation at one location in the visual world can lead to a spatially non-specific gain increase across the visual field.

  14. Health and quality of life vs. occupational activity

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of quality of life and health status of the population largely depends on the determinants related to occupational activity. The results of reviewed bibliography indicate a significant and growing importance of employment conditions on the quality of life and population health status in most countries of the world, especially in those with market economy. Of the evaluated determinants the following factors should be listed in particular: sources and the amount of income, stability of the income and employment, the nature of work and the degree of job satisfaction, as well as autonomy and career prospects. Moreover, they proved that the situation of persisting and long-term unemployment and precarious employment leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life and health, especially among young people. In conclusion, the study of quality of life and population health status should take into consideration factors related to occupational activity. Med Pr 2016;67(5:663–671

  15. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area is modulated by performance gains

    Ronen eSosnik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing experimental evidence that the engagement of different brain areas in a given motor task may change with practice, although the specific brain activity patterns underlying different stages of learning, as defined by kinematic or dynamic performance indices, are not well understood. Here we studied the change in activation in motor areas during practice on sequences of handwriting-like trajectories, connecting four target points on a digitizing table 'as rapidly and as accurately as possible' while lying inside an fMRI scanner. Analysis of the subjects' pooled kinematic and imaging data, acquired at the beginning, middle and end of the training period, revealed no correlation between the amount of activation in the contralateral M1, PM (dorsal and ventral, SMA, preSMA and PPC and the amount of practice per-se. Single trial analysis has revealed that the correlation between the amount of activation in the contralateral M1 and trial mean velocity was partially modulated by performance gains related effects, such as increased hand motion smoothness. Furthermore, it was found that the amount of activation in the contralateral preSMA increased when subjects shifted from generating straight point-to-point trajectories to their spatiotemporal concatenation into a smooth, curved trajectory. Altogether, our results indicate that the amount of activation in the contralateral M1, PMd and preSMA during the learning of movement sequences is correlated with performance gains and that high level motion features (e.g., motion smoothness may modulate, or even mask correlations between activity changes and low-level motion attributes (e.g., trial mean velocity.

  17. Determinants of Developmental Gain in Daily Activities in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, Anne J A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Verschuren, Olaf; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine which child and family characteristics at the child's age of 2 years are determinants of development of self-care and mobility activities over a period of 2 years in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Longitudinal data of 92 children, representing all level

  18. Determinants of developmental gain in daily activities in young children with cerebral palsy

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, Anne JA; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Verschuren, Olaf; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine which child and family characteristics at the child's age of 2 years are determinants of development of self-care and mobility activities over a period of 2 years in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Longitudinal data of 92 children, representing all level

  19. Cortical activation changes underlying stimulation-induced behavioural gains in chronic stroke.

    Stagg, Charlotte Jane; Bachtiar, Velicia; O'Shea, Jacinta; Allman, Claire; Bosnell, Rosemary Ann; Kischka, Udo; Matthews, Paul McMahan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation, a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, is showing increasing promise as an adjunct therapy in rehabilitation following stroke. However, although significant behavioural improvements have been reported in proof-of-principle studies, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The rationale for transcranial direct current stimulation as therapy for stroke is that therapeutic stimulation paradigms increase activity in ipsilesional motor cortical areas, but this has not previously been directly tested for conventional electrode placements. This study was performed to test directly whether increases in ipsilesional cortical activation with transcranial direct current stimulation are associated with behavioural improvements in chronic stroke patients. Patients at least 6 months post-first stroke participated in a behavioural experiment (n = 13) or a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment (n = 11), each investigating the effects of three stimulation conditions in separate sessions: anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere; cathodal stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere; and sham stimulation. Anodal (facilitatory) stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere led to significant improvements (5-10%) in response times with the affected hand in both experiments. This improvement was associated with an increase in movement-related cortical activity in the stimulated primary motor cortex and functionally interconnected regions. Cathodal (inhibitory) stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere led to a functional improvement only when compared with sham stimulation. We show for the first time that the significant behavioural improvements produced by anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere are associated with a functionally relevant increase in activity within the ipsilesional primary motor cortex in patients with a wide range of disabilities following stroke.

  20. Cortical activation changes underlying stimulation-induced behavioural gains in chronic stroke

    Stagg, Charlotte Jane; Bachtiar, Velicia; O'Shea, Jacinta; Allman, Claire; Bosnell, Rosemary Ann; Kischka, Udo; Matthews, Paul McMahan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation, a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, is showing increasing promise as an adjunct therapy in rehabilitation following stroke. However, although significant behavioural improvements have been reported in proof-of-principle studies, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The rationale for transcranial direct current stimulation as therapy for stroke is that therapeutic stimulation paradigms increase activity in ipsilesional motor cortical a...

  1. The Development of a Digital Marketing Strategy to Gain Active Mobile Game Users in Japan

    Rönkkö, Makiyo

    2014-01-01

    Japan is the world’s biggest spender on mobile apps. This makes it an attractive market, but entering the Japan market is very difficult for Finnish mobile software developers. The goal of this thesis is to identify possible constraints that limit mobile game companies in the Japanese market, and analyze the means of increasing brand awareness and acquiring active game players. The focus is on finding the key elements required for building a digital marketing strategy targeted towards Japanes...

  2. (ImPossible Conversations? Activism, Childhood and Everyday Life

    Sevasti-Melissa Nolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analytical exploration and points of connection between the categories of activism, childhood and everyday life. We are concerned with the lived experiences of activism and childhood broadly defined and especially with the ways in which people become aware, access, orient themselves to, and act on issues of common concern; in other words what connects people to activism. The paper engages with childhood in particular because childhood remains resolutely excluded from practices of public life and because engaging with activism from the marginalized position of children’s everyday lives provides an opportunity to think about the everyday, lived experiences of activism. Occupying a space ‘before method’, the paper engages with autobiographical narratives of growing up in the Communist left in the USA and the historical events of occupying Greek schools in the 1990s. These recounted experiences offer an opportunity to disrupt powerful categories currently in circulation for thinking about activism and childhood. Based on the analysis it is argued that future research on the intersections of activism, childhood and everyday life would benefit from exploring the spatial and temporal dimension of activism, to make visible the unfolding biographical projects of activists and movements alike, while also engaging with the emotional configurations of activists’ lives and what matters to activists, children and adults alike.

  3. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment... Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified...

  4. Study on optical gain of one-dimensional photonic crystals with active impurity

    Zhenghua Li; Tinggen Shen; Xuehua Song; Junfeng Ma; Yong Sheng; Gang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Localized fields in the defect mode of one-dimensional photonic crystals with active impurity are studied with the help of the theory of spontaneous emission from two-level atoms embedded in photonic crystals.Numerical simulations demonstrate that the enhancement of stimulated radiation, as well as the phenomena of transmissivity larger than unity and the abnormality of group velocity close to the edges of photonic band gap, are related to the negative imaginary part of the complex effective refractive index of doped layers. This means that the complex effective refractive index has a negative imaginary part, and that the impurity state with very high quality factor and great state density will occur in the photonic forbidden band if active impurity is introduced into the defect layer properly. Therefore, the spontaneous emission can be enhanced, the amplitude of stimulated emission will be very large and it occurs most probably close to the edges of photonic band gap with the fundamental reason, the group velocity close to the edges of band gap is very small or abnormal.

  5. Actively phase-controlled coupling between plasmonic waveguides via in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator: nanoscale optical logic gates.

    Ho, Kum-Song; Han, Yong-Ha; Ri, Chol-Song; Im, Song-Jin

    2016-08-15

    The development of nanoscale optical logic gates has attracted immense attention due to increasing demand for ultrahigh-speed and energy-efficient optical computing and data processing, however, suffers from the difficulty in precise control of phase difference of the two optical signals. We propose a novel conception of nanoscale optical logic gates based on actively phase-controlled coupling between two plasmonic waveguides via an in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator. Precise control of phase difference between the two plasmonic signals can be performed by manipulating pumping rate at an appropriate frequency detuning, enabling a high contrast between the output logic states "1" and "0." Without modification of the structural parameters, different logic functions can be provided. This active nanoscale optical logic device is expected to be quite energy-efficient with ideally low energy consumption on the order of 0.1 fJ/bit. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed concept.

  6. Life and activities of Danilo Zulevic (1937 - 1998)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.

    The life and scientific and professional activities of Danilo Zulevic (1937 - 1998), research fellow of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, are presented, followed by the Bibliography of his works, the list of bibliographical items wherein his name is mentioned and the list of his name's citations in the Science Citation Index.

  7. Factors influencing quality of life in patients with active tuberculosis

    Cox Victoria C; Marra Fawziah; Marra Carlo A; Palepu Anita; FitzGerald J Mark

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background With effective treatment strategies, the focus of tuberculosis (TB) management has shifted from the prevention of mortality to the avoidance of morbidity. As such, there should be an increased focus on quality of life (QoL) experienced by individuals being treated for TB. The objective of our study was to identify areas of QoL that are affected by active TB using focus groups and individual interviews. Methods English, Cantonese, and Punjabi-speaking subjects with active T...

  8. Alkali-activated fly ash. Relationship between mechanical strength gains and initial ash chemistry

    Palomo, A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated fly ash is the primary component of a new generation of high-strength, durable binders with excellent mechanical properties and durability (on occasion bettering traditional Portland cement performance. Moreover, development of these cements may contribute to mitigating CO2 emissions, since the base material is an industrial by-product. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the composition of the initial materials (SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/Al2O3 ratios on the mechanical properties, nature and composition of the reaction products. The results obtained indicate that there is no linear relationship between these ratios and mechanical strength, but rather a series of optimal values above and below which strength declines. In the specific case of the ratios studied in the present paper, these values were: SiO2/Al2O3= 4.0 and Na2O/Al2O3= 1.0 (molar ratios.Las cenizas volantes activadas alcalinamente constituyen la base de una nueva generación de cementos con muy interesantes propiedades mecánicas, adherentes y durables (a veces incluso mejores que las de los cementos Portland tradicionales. Adicionalmente el desarrollo de estos cementos podría contribuir a mitigar las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera, ya que el material base de los mismos puede estar formado por subproductos industriales. En la presente investigación se realizó un estudio para determinar la influencia de la composición de los materiales iniciales (ratios SiO2/Al2O3 y Na2O/Al2O3 en las propiedades mecánicas y en la naturaleza y composición de los productos de reacción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no existe una relación lineal de dichas ratios con las resistencias mecánicas, sino que existen unos valores óptimos, por encima y debajo de los cuales las resistencias mecánicas disminuyen. En el caso concreto de las ratios estudiadas en el presente trabajo estos valores serian: SiO2/Al2O3= 4,0 y Na2O/Al2O3= 1,0 (relaciones molares

  9. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  10. Gain control of gamma frequency activation by a novel feed forward disinhibitory loop: implications for normal and epileptic neural activity

    Zeinab eBirjandian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of excitatory (pyramidal neurons directly dampens their activity resulting in a suppression of neural network output. The inhibition of inhibitory cells is more complex. Inhibitory drive is known to gate neural network synchrony, but there is also a widely held view that it may augment excitability by reducing inhibitory cell activity, a process termed disinhibition. Surprisingly, however, disinhibition has never been demonstrated to be an important mechanism that augments or drives the activity of excitatory neurons in a functioning neural circuit. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging (VSDI we show that 20-80 Hz stimulus trains, (beta-gamma activation, of the olfactory cortex pyramidal cells in layer II leads to a subsequent reduction in inhibitory interneuron activity that augments the efficacy of the initial stimulus. This disinhibition occurs with a lag of about 150-250 ms after the initial excitation of the layer 2 pyramidal cell layer. In addition activation of the endopiriform nucleus also arises just before the disinhibitory phase with a lag of about 40-80 ms. Preventing the spread of action potentials from layer II stopped the excitation of the endopiriform nucleus, abolished the disinhibitory activity and reduced the excitation of layer II cells. After the induction of experimental epilepsy the disinhibition was more intense with a concomitant increase in excitatory cell activity. Our observations provide the first evidence of feed forward disinhibition loop that augments excitatory neurotransmission, a mechanism that could play an important role in the development of epileptic seizures.

  11. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students

    Gili Marbach-Ad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207 taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198 employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136 replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students. Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  12. Gain-of-function Lyn induces anemia: appropriate Lyn activity is essential for normal erythropoiesis and Epo receptor signaling.

    Slavova-Azmanova, Neli S; Kucera, Nicole; Satiaputra, Jiulia; Stone, Leah; Magno, Aaron; Maxwell, Mhairi J; Quilici, Cathy; Erber, Wendy; Klinken, S Peter; Hibbs, Margaret L; Ingley, Evan

    2013-07-11

    Lyn is involved in erythropoietin (Epo)-receptor signaling and erythroid homeostasis. Downstream pathways influenced following Lyn activation and their significance to erythropoiesis remain unclear. To address this, we assessed a gain-of-function Lyn mutation (Lyn(up/up)) on erythropoiesis and Epo receptor signaling. Adult Lyn(up/up) mice were anemic, with dysmorphic red cells (spherocyte-like, acanthocytes) in their circulation, indicative of hemolytic anemia and resembling the human disorder chorea acanthocytosis. Heterozygous Lyn(+/up) mice became increasingly anemic with age, indicating that the mutation was dominant. In an attempt to overcome this anemia, extramedullary erythropoiesis was activated. As the mice aged, the levels of different immature erythroid populations changed, indicating compensatory mechanisms to produce more erythrocytes were dynamic. Changes in Epo signaling were observed in Lyn(+/up) erythroid cell lines and primary CD71(+) Lyn(up/up) erythroblasts, including significant alterations to the phosphorylation of Lyn, the Epo receptor, Janus kinase 2, Signal Transducer and Action of Transcription-5, GRB2-associated-binding protein-2, Akt, and Forkhead box O3. As a consequence of altered Lyn signaling, Lyn(+/up) cells remained viable in the absence of Epo but displayed delayed Epo-induced differentiation. These data demonstrate that Lyn gene dosage and activity are critical for normal erythropoiesis; constitutively active Lyn alters Epo signaling, which in turn produces erythroid defects.

  13. [ICF and social medicine evaluation of capability of gainful activity: is everything clear?--a discussion article].

    Körner, M

    2005-08-01

    The ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) calls attention to the complexities associated with disturbances of health. The question raised is how the various constituents and the resulting network as defined by this Classification can gain importance for medical expertise under the statutory pension insurance scheme concerning work-related capacity. Possible variations of strategy are discussed: clinical intuition, algorithmic pathways, proved medical diagnostics, particular diagnostics of activity according to ICF. A genuine "silver bullet" is not in evidence thus far. It cannot be expected that diagnostics relating to a certain sector of the ICF will basically eclipse the rest. Future standards of medical expertise should specify as clearly as possible the impact of the diverse diagnostic findings on the assessment of work-related capacity. Framing emphasis in this way cannot be performed by the ICF on its own.

  14. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-05-01

    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  16. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  17. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  18. Life and Activities of Vasilije Oskanjan (1921-1989)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Oskanjan, A. V.

    The life and scientific, professional and other activities of Vasilije Oskanjan (1921-1989), one-time director of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, research fellow of the Belgrade and Byurakan Observatories, are presented, followed by the Bibliography of his works, the list of bibliographical items wherein his name is mentioned and the list of his name's citations in the Science Citation Index in the period 1946 - July 1999.

  19. IMPROVING QUALITY OF LIFE AT EDERLY PEOPLE, THROUGH GIMN ACTIVITIES

    Ganciu Mihaela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of permanent education, physical education and sports activities should be integrated throughout life. The objective of the research is to improve the quality of life of older people to the initiation of maintenance programs by simple methods, reliable and inexpensive. Therapeutic strategies will be adapted practitioners age, associated diseases, profession. The sample under investigation comprised 30 elderly people who participated in two gymnastics lessons a week and a society dance lesson. Inspection methods that I used: bibliographic study, experimental method, survey method and statistical method - mathematical and graphical representation. Quality of life assessment was done by assessing exercise capacity, the survey method and the call routed. Through a sustained program and rhythmic exercise improves cardiovascular activity, as evidenced by increased exercise capacity by lowering resting heart rate, a major component of cardiovascular disease prevention. Decrease abdominal fat and increased muscle tone abdominal favorable effects on biomechanics of the lumbar spine dynamics can thus be considered to be the prevention of back pain. In summary the study conducted, in order to highlight the benefits of the sport for optimal physical condition and fight aging, it can be concluded that physical activity has a beneficial role for the body, both physically and mentally. Survey conducted among people aged III revealed the following: Practicing the sport of gymnastics in a systematic, consistent results in improving health and fitness as well as comfort, good mood, optimism, improving intellectual activity. In short, we can say that these people the sport of gymnastics has improved quality of life.

  20. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  1. In-vehicle and site-based observations of vehicles and cyclists : a small-scale ND study in The Netherlands. PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe PROLOGUE, Deliverable D3.4

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van Pauwelussen, J. Mansvelders, R. Horst, A.R.A. van der & Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project PROLOGUE (PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe) is to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a large-scale European naturalistic driving observation study. The work described in this deliverable focused on th

  2. Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults.

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2010-05-01

    This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.

  3. 78 FR 36829 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    2013-06-19

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Veterans Mortgage Life...

  4. Gain-of-function STAT1 mutations impair STAT3 activity in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC).

    Zheng, Jie; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Crossland, Katherine L; Smeekens, Sanne P; Chan, Chun M; Al Shehri, Tariq; Abinun, Mario; Gennery, Andrew R; Mann, Jelena; Lendrem, Dennis W; Netea, Mihai G; Rowan, Andrew D; Lilic, Desa

    2015-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) triggered production of Th-17 cytokines mediates protective immunity against fungi. Mutations affecting the STAT3/interleukin 17 (IL-17) pathway cause selective susceptibility to fungal (Candida) infections, a hallmark of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In patients with autosomal dominant CMC, we and others previously reported defective Th17 responses and underlying gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, but how this affects STAT3 function leading to decreased IL-17 is unclear. We also assessed how GOF-STAT1 mutations affect STAT3 activation, DNA binding, gene expression, cytokine production, and epigenetic modifications. We excluded impaired STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and sequestration of STAT3 into STAT1/STAT3 heterodimers and confirm significantly reduced transcription of STAT3-inducible genes (RORC/IL-17/IL-22/IL-10/c-Fos/SOCS3/c-Myc) as likely underlying mechanism. STAT binding to the high affinity sis-inducible element was intact but binding to an endogenous STAT3 DNA target was impaired. Reduced STAT3-dependent gene transcription was reversed by inhibiting STAT1 activation with fludarabine or enhancing histone, but not STAT1 or STAT3 acetylation with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A or ITF2357. Silencing HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 indicated a role for HDAC1 and 2. Reduced STAT3-dependent gene transcription underlies low Th-17 responses in GOF-STAT1 CMC, which can be reversed by inhibiting acetylation, offering novel targets for future therapies.

  5. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager).

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B J M; Hunt, D C; Rowlands, J A; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-01

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d(Se) and the applied electric field E(Se) of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E(Se) dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 microm HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E(Se): (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 microm can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy.

  6. Impact of Organized Sports on Activity, Participation, and Quality of Life in People With Neurologic Disabilities.

    Sahlin, K Barbara; Lexell, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise is the mainstay of chronic disease prevention and health maintenance for all people with and without a disability, and clear evidence exists of the benefits among various populations with neurologic disabilities. However, the potential benefits of organized sports for people with neurologic disabilities are not as well explored. In this narrative review, current evidence regarding the impact of organized sports on activity, participation, and quality of life in people with neurologic disabilities of all ages is summarized, and facilitators of and barriers to participation in sports for this population are discussed. The articles reviewed were divided into 2 sets: (1) children and adolescents and (2) adults. The subjects of almost all of the studies were persons with a spinal cord injury. Children and adolescents with a disability who engaged in sports reported self-concept scores close to those of able-bodied athletes, as well as higher levels of physical activity. Adults with a spinal cord injury who engaged in organized sports reported decreased depression and anxiety, increased life satisfaction, and increased opportunity for gainful employment compared with nonathletic persons with disabilities. General facilitators, regardless of age, were fitness, fun, health, competence, and social aspects, whereas overall barriers were lack of or inappropriate medical advice and facilities, decreased self-esteem, poor finances, dependency on others, and views held by others. The importance of this topic for further research is highlighted, and suggestions for future studies are proposed.

  7. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    Lenneis, Verena

    by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... into their experiences with and great challenges to participate in a worksite fitness programme as well as their work, family and everyday lives, their previous experiences with sport and exercise and their health-related knowledge, opinions and practices. Although each of the four articles had a different focus...... targeting cleaners or other marginalized groups of the population must pay specific attention to structural factors such as the organization of the labour market or to the gendered division of work....

  8. Influence of activity on quality of life scores after RYGBP.

    Forbush, Steven W; Nof, Leah; Echternach, John; Hill, Cheryl

    2011-08-01

    Gastric bypass is one of the medically acceptable interventions for weight loss for the obese. Quality of life greatly improves after surgery. Most improvements in quality of life (QOL) after these surgeries are attributed to the weight loss. Few studies have demonstrated any contribution of other variables to positive outcomes in QOL. The purpose of this study was to suggest variables that improve QOL in this post-surgical population. The Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire, the Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the SF-36 survey were sent to all of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure (RYGBP) patients who had surgery 1-5 years prior to the study and performed through the same bariatric surgery center (n = 805; respondents = 265; 33%). Analysis was performed through ANOVA testing to determine relationships between selected behaviors and the SF-36 of the respondents. Comparisons of differences in SF-36 scores were analyzed using the variables of hours of activity/day (HOAD) and energy in activity/day (EEAD). Patients with more EEAD and HOAD demonstrated significantly better SF-36 scores in both mental component and physical component scores (p = 0.05) when compared to those with less EEAD or HOAD. Outcomes measured by the SF-36 tool were improved after RYGBP, if the patient expended more energy/day or was active more hours/day. The post-bariatric surgery populations will have improved QOL if the patients expend more energy and are active more hours as demonstrated in activity/day after their surgery.

  9. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  10. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patponce@iq.usp.br, e-mail: guilacaz@uol.com.br, e-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  11. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  12. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  13. Net Gains

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  14. Motherlove, Initiation, Poverty, and Pride: Teaching "Getting the Facts of Life" by Paulette Childress White and "The Sky Is Gray" by Ernest Gaines

    Pollard, Deborah Smith

    2009-01-01

    In his frequently anthologized short story "The Sky Is Gray," Ernest J. Gaines presents a fictionalized account of a series of events that occurred in 1940s Louisiana when he was a mere boy suffering with a bad toothache. This physical ailment serves as a narrative catalyst, both driving the action and pulling the readers into a world…

  15. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  16. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary...

  17. Physical activity and quality of life: assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives.

    Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Widman, Laura; Paschane, Amy A E; Olson, Karen C

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the impact of exercise frequency, intensity, and volume along with exercise motives on quality of life (QOL) reports. The authors assessed exercise habits with the Godin Leisure Time Activity Scale and measured exercise motives with the Reasons for Exercise Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory assessed satisfaction in 16 domains including health, work, and recreation. High-frequency exercisers reported significantly higher health, helping, and community-related QOL than those who exercised less frequently. The authors noted significantly higher health-related QOL in the heavy volume group compared with the other volume groups. Multiple regression tests revealed that activity intensity and exercise motives significantly predicted QOL reports. The strongest bivariate correlations with QOL existed for mild activity and exercising for fitness and health reasons. Thus, high-frequency activity of mild intensity that produces high kcal utilization and is performed to improve health and fitness has the strongest influence on QOL reports.

  18. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain...... was only to a minor degree influenced by mouse gain (and target sizes) indicating that stability of the forearm/hand is of significance during computer mouse control. The study has implications for ergonomists, pointing device manufacturers and software developers....

  19. An novel analog programmable power supply for active gain control of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC)

    Li, Zhengwei; Xu, Yupeng; Yan, Bo; Li, Yanguo; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Xufang; Zhang, Shuo; Chang, Zhi; Li, Jicheng; Zhang, Yifei; Zhao, Jianling

    2016-01-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) are regarded as novel photo-detector to replace conventional Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMTs). However, the breakdown voltage dependence on the ambient temperature results in a gain variation of $\\sim$3$\\% /^{\\circ} \\mathrm C$. This can severely limit the application of this device in experiments with wide range of operating temperature, especially in space telescope. An experimental setup in dark condition was established to investigate the temperature and bias voltage dependence of gain for the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), one type of the SiPM developed by Hamamatsu. The gain and breakdown voltage dependence on operating temperature of an MPPC can be approximated by a linear function, which is similar to the behavior of a zener diode. The measured temperature coefficient of the breakdown voltage is $(59.4 \\pm 0.4$ mV)$/^{\\circ} \\mathrm C$. According to this fact, a programmable power supply based on two zener diodes and an operational amplifier was designed with a positiv...

  20. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo.

  1. Effects on weight gain and gut microbiota in rats given bacterial supplements and a high-energy-dense diet from fetal life through to 6 months of age.

    Karlsson, Caroline L J; Molin, Göran; Fåk, Frida; Johansson Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jakesevic, Maja; Håkansson, Åsa; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn; Ahrné, Siv

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichia coli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More retroperitoneal adipose tissue (P = 0·030) and higher plasma leptin (P = 0·035) were observed in group Ec compared with group Lp. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in group Ec than in group Lp (P = 0·019), and when all animals were compared, Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with body weight (r 0·428, P = 0·029). Bacterial diversity was lower in group Ec than in groups C (P ≤ 0·05) and Lp (P ≤ 0·05). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated in all groups, but Bacteroidetes were more prevalent in group C than in groups Lp (P = 0·036) and Ec (P = 0·056). The same five bacterial families dominated the microbiota of groups Ec and C, and four of these were also present in group Lp. The other five families dominating in group Lp were not found in any of the other groups. Multivariate data analysis pointed in the same directions as the univariate statistics. The present results suggest that supplementation of L. plantarum or E. coli can have long-term effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as on weight gain and fattening.

  2. [Active surveillance in prostate cancer and quality of life].

    Dominguez Escrig, Jose L; Romero, Rocio

    2014-06-01

    Active surveillance was born as a therapeutic strategy for a well selected group of patients with low risk prostate cancer with the aim to defer or completely avoid the negative impact of secondary effects of curative therapies. Nevertheless, the patient who chooses this treatment does it at the expense of greater anxiety and doubts about the possible progression of the disease. The main psychological features influencing the quality of life of these patients are, on one hand anxiety, due to the uncertainty and fear to disease progression, and on the other hand, the difficult decision making process. Among the factors that seem to influence the election are: urologist's recommendation, effects on urinary function, age and impact of the therapy on sexual function. In the timorous journey walked, it is recommended to apply psycho-educational programs, with the objective of increasing the perceived control and adaptive confrontation. We propose an intervention with 4 group sessions, the objectives of which would be first to improve the decision making process and diminish the fear to progression and, second to reinforce the information already given at the time of diagnosis and increase the sensation of control, e.g promoting healthy habits.

  3. Life Trajectories of Youth Committing to Climate Activism

    Fisher, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from a study investigating the life trajectories of 17 youth climate activists from 14 countries through semi-structured, life memory interviews using Internet-based methods. The interpretations of the interviews focus on the ways in which participants constructed the meanings and functions of experiences and how they…

  4. High-Performance 1.55-µm Superluminescent Diode Based on Broad Gain InAs/InGaAlAs/InP Quantum Dash Active Region

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the high-performance characteristics from superluminescent diodes (SLDs) based on four-stack InAs/InGaAlAs chirped-barrier thickness quantum dash (Qdash) in a well structure. The active region exhibits a measured broad gain spectrum of 140 nm, with a peak modal gain of ~41 cm-1. The noncoated two-section gainabsorber broad-area and ridge-waveguide device configuration exhibits an output power of > 20 mW and > 12 mW, respectively. The corresponding -3-dB bandwidths span ~82 nm and ~72 nm, with a small spectral ripple of <; 0.2 dB, related largely to the contribution from dispersive height dash ensembles of the highly inhomogeneous active region. These C-L communication band devices will find applications in various cross-disciplinary fields of optical metrology, optical coherent tomography, etc.

  5. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses.

    Lewis, Andrea H; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers.

  6. Factors influencing quality of life in patients with active tuberculosis

    Cox Victoria C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With effective treatment strategies, the focus of tuberculosis (TB management has shifted from the prevention of mortality to the avoidance of morbidity. As such, there should be an increased focus on quality of life (QoL experienced by individuals being treated for TB. The objective of our study was to identify areas of QoL that are affected by active TB using focus groups and individual interviews. Methods English, Cantonese, and Punjabi-speaking subjects with active TB who were receiving treatment were eligible for recruitment into the study. Gender-based focus group sessions were conducted for the inner city participants but individual interviews were conducted for those who came to the main TB clinic or were hospitalized. Facilitators used open-ended questions and participants were asked to discuss their experiences of being diagnosed with tuberculosis, what impact it had on their lives, issues around adherence to anti-TB medications and information pertaining to their experience with side effects to these medications. All data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results 39 patients with active TB participated. The mean age was 46.2 years (SD 18.4 and 62% were male. Most were Canadian-born being either Caucasian or Aboriginal. Four themes emerged from the focus groups and interviews. The first describes issues related to the diagnosis of tuberculosis and sub-themes were identified as 'symptoms', 'health care provision', and 'emotional impact'. The second theme discusses TB medication factors and the sub-themes identified were 'adverse effects', 'ease of administration', and 'adherence'. The third theme describes social support and functioning issues for the individuals with TB. The fourth theme describes health behavior issues for the individuals with TB and the identified sub-themes were "behavior modification" and "TB knowledge." Conclusion Despite the ability to

  7. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  8. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity : implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-01-01

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life

  9. 75 FR 73166 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    2010-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States Government Life Insurance, (USGLI)), VA Form...

  10. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse-Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB...

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-389. b. Application for... government life insurance has lapsed or will lapse due to nonpayment of premiums. The claimant must...

  11. 78 FR 53014 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. ] b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States...

  12. 75 FR 68038 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    2010-11-04

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control... complete VA Form 29-8636 to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) or to provide information...

  13. 76 FR 40455 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Inquiry) Activity Under OMB Review

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Inquiry) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Inquiry, VA Form 29-0543. OMB Control Number: 2900-0501... insured under Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) completes VA Form 29-0543 to report any...

  14. 75 FR 68040 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    2010-11-04

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written...: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control Number: 2900-0212. Type of...

  15. 78 FR 58611 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    2013-09-24

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0212.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance... collection. Abstract: Veterans complete VA Form 29-8636 to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI)...

  16. 75 FR 52065 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    2010-08-24

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written...: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control Number: 2900-0212. Type of...

  17. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    T. K. Breus

    Full Text Available In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20–28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called 'infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1 the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2 a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  18. Leisure activity participation as predictor of quality of life in Korean urban-dwelling elderly.

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated participation in leisure activities in urban-dwelling elderly persons in Korea and its role in predicting quality of life. The participated activities over a 48-hour period were recorded by each participant, and amount of participated time for each activity was calculated. Correlational analysis examined the relationship between the degree of participation in domains of leisure activity and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which leisure activity participation predicted quality of life. The results indicated that the participants spent the most time in "use of media". Quality of life showed a positive correlation with "use of media", "sports and outdoor leisure activity" and "hobby and other leisure activity". The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis found that use of media, "religious activity", sports and outdoor leisure activity and hobby and other leisure activity significantly predicted quality of life after controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Of these variables, hobby and other leisure activity was the strongest predictor of quality of life. The results will augment treatment planning and activity management in enhancing quality of life by allied health professionals, especially occupational therapists. The findings are limited in that the sample consisted of urban-dwelling elderly primarily with a religious affiliation. It is recommended that a cross-cultural investigation using standard assessment measures be conducted to validate whether there is indeed similarities in time use and leisure activity participation in the elderly in different cultures.

  19. Active narrowband filtering, line narrowing and gain using ladder electromagnetically induced transparency in an optically thick atomic vapour

    Keaveney, James; Sarkisyan, David; Papoyan, Aram; Adams, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonances using the $5\\rm{S}_{1/2}\\rightarrow5\\rm{P}_{3/2}\\rightarrow5\\rm{D}_{5/2}$ ladder-system in optically thick Rb atomic vapour are studied. We observe a strong line narrowing effect and gain at the $5\\rm{S}_{1/2}\\rightarrow5\\rm{P}_{3/2}$ transition wavelength due to an energy-pooling assisted frequency conversion with characteristics similar to four-wave mixing. As a result it is possible to observe tunable and switchable transparency resonances with amplitude close to $100\\%$ and a linewidth of 15 MHz. In addition, the large line narrowing effect allows resolution of $^{85}$Rb $5\\rm{D}_{5/2}$ hyperfine structure even in the presence of strong power broadening.

  20. Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

    C. D. Reimers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity reduces many major mortality risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. All-cause mortality is decreased by about 30% to 35% in physically active as compared to inactive subjects. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the literature on life expectancy in relation to physical activity. A systematic PubMed search on life expectancy in physically active and inactive individuals was performed. In addition, articles comparing life expectancy of athletes compared to that of nonathletes were reviewed. Results of 13 studies describing eight different cohorts suggest that regular physical activity is associated with an increase of life expectancy by 0.4 to 6.9 years. Eleven studies included confounding risk factors for mortality and revealed an increase in life expectancy by 0.4 to 4.2 years with regular physical activity. Eleven case control studies on life expectancy in former athletes revealed consistently greater life expectancy in aerobic endurance athletes but inconsistent results for other athletes. None of these studies considered confounding risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, while regular physical activity increases life expectancy, it remains unclear if high-intensity sports activities further increase life expectancy.

  1. Original article Coping with the events of daily life and quality of life of the socially active elderly

    Anna Gamrowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Late adulthood is a period in which the number of stressors is increasing; therefore, strategies of coping with these situations may be significant in terms of the subjective evaluation of the quality of life and adaptation to old age. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationships between proactive coping and the quality of life in people in late adulthood. The quality of life was assessed using the Polish version of the CASP-19. Participants and procedure The research included 88 individuals (76 women and 12 men, aged from 60 to 85 years (M = 69.5, SD = 6.74. The following tools were used: The Proactive Coping Inventory, developed by Greenglass, Schwarzer and Taubert (Pasikowski’s adaptation, and the scale for the assessment of the quality of life, called CASP-19, of Higgs, Hyde, Wiggins and Blane (developed by the authors of this paper. Results The results of the research showed a positive relationship between the general level of proactive coping strategies, the proactive coping subscale and the general quality of life and addressing the needs of control and pleasure. People who are more proactive accomplish a higher general level of the quality of life, control and pleasure than people whose pro-activity level is lower. Conclusions Factors contributing to the quality of life and successful aging of elderly subjects are, first and foremost, skills connected with setting objectives autonomously, taking initiative, perseverance in activities and perceiving events in terms of opportunities of development and self-improvement. The CASP-19 seems to be a useful measure of the quality of life in old age.

  2. Normal hematopoiesis and lack of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts of patients and mice harboring Lrp5 gain-of-function mutations

    Galán-Díez, Marta; Isa, Adiba; Ponzetti, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5(A214V)) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5...... patients showed normal hematopoiesis, normal percentage of myeloid cells, and lack of anemia. We conclude that Lrp5 GOF mutations do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. As a result, myeloid lineage differentiation is normal in HBM patients and mice. This article is part of a Special Issue...

  3. Effects of insufficient physical activity on mortality and life expectancy in Jiangxi province of China, 2007-2010.

    Gang Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains an under-researched field in terms of studying burden of disease at provincial level, and no studies have examined the effects of inactivity on life expectancy (LE in China. The purpose of this study was to estimate mortality risk and LE effects associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in Jiangxi province. METHODS/FINDINGS: Prevalence of risk factors and mortality counts were extracted from Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey (CDRFSS and Disease Surveillance Points system (DSP, respectively. Insufficient physical activity (IPA was defined as less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 60 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, accumulated across work, home, transport and discretionary domains. Population-attributable fractions (PAF were used to calculate the mortality attributable to risk factors, and life table methods were used to estimate the LE gains and LE shifts. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Overall, 5 885 (95% uncertainly interval (UI, 5 047-6 506 and 8 578 (95% UI, 8 227-9 789 deaths in Jiangxi province were attributable to IPA in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The LE gains for elimination of attributable deaths were 0.68 (95% UI, 0.61-076 in 2007, and increased to 0.91 (95% UI, 0.81-1.10 in 2010. If the prevalence of IPA in 2010 had been decreased by 50% or 30%, 3 678 (95% UI, 3 220-4 229 or 2 090 (95% UI, 1 771-2 533 deaths would be avoided, and 0.40 (95% UI, 0.34-0.53 or 0.23 (95% UI, 0.16-0.31 years of LE gained, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adults in Jiangxi province of China have a high and increasing prevalence of IPA. Due to the deaths and potential LE gains associated with IPA, there is an urgent need to promote physical activity, one of the most modifiable risk factors, within China's health care reform agenda.

  4. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new measure of Active Life Expectancy, called Active Life Classification (ALC) in which the criterion for successful aging is a combination of good functional ability and high social participation. OBJECTIVES: 1) to describe the distribution of ALC among 75-year-old men......: For both men and women an active life (measured by ALC) was significantly associated with life satisfaction. For men only good self-rated health was related to ALC in the multivariate analysis. Among women high income, many social contacts, good self-rated health, good memory and lack of chronic diseases...

  5. Physical activity and health related quality of life

    Anokye Nana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the relationship between Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL and physical activity (PA, to date, have rarely investigated how this relationship differ across objective and subjective measures of PA. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between HRQoL and PA, and examine how this relationship differs across objective and subjective measures of PA, within the context of a large representative national survey from England. Methods Using a sample of 5,537 adults (40–60 years from a representative national survey in England (Health Survey for England 2008, Tobit regressions with upper censoring was employed to model the association between HRQoL and objective, and subjective measures of PA controlling for potential confounders. We tested the robustness of this relationship across specific types of PA. HRQoL was assessed using the summary measure of health state utility value derived from the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D whilst PA was assessed via subjective measure (questionnaire and objective measure (accelerometer- actigraph model GT1M. The actigraph was worn (at the waist for 7 days (during waking hours by a randomly selected sub-sample of the HSE 2008 respondents (4,507 adults – 16 plus years, with a valid day constituting 10 hours. Analysis was conducted in 2010. Results Findings suggest that higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.026 to 0.072. This relationship is consistent across different measures and types of PA although differences in the magnitude of HRQoL benefit associated with objective and subjective (regression coefficient: 0.047 measures of PA are noticeable, with the former measure being associated with a relatively better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.072. Conclusion Higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL. Using an objective measure of PA compared with subjective shows a relatively better HRQoL.

  6. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  7. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  8. How Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source came to life and gained its niche : the view from an ecosystem perspective.

    Westfall, C.; Office of The Director

    2008-02-25

    At first glance the story of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) appears to have followed a puzzling course. When researchers first proposed their ideas for an accelerator-driven neutron source for exploring the structure of materials through neutron scattering, the project seemed so promising that both Argonne managers and officials at the laboratory's funding agency, the Department of Energy (DOE), suggested that it be made larger and more expensive. But then, even though prototype building, testing, and initial construction went well a group of prominent DOE reviewers recommended in fall 1980 that it be killed, just months before it had been slated to begin operation, and DOE promptly accepted the recommendation. In response, Argonne's leadership declared the project was the laboratory's top priority and rallied to save it. In late 1982, thanks to another review panel led by the same scientist who had chaired the panel that had delivered the death sentence, the project was granted a reprieve. However, by the late 1980s, the IPNS was no longer top priority within the international materials science community, at Argonne, or within the DOE budget because prospects for another, larger materials science accelerator emerged. At just this point, the facility started to produce exciting scientific results. For the next two decades, the IPNS, its research, and its experts became valued resources at Argonne, within the U.S. national laboratory system, and within the international materials science community. Why did this Argonne project prosper and then almost suffer premature death, even though it promised (and later delivered) good science? How was it saved and how did it go on to have a long, prosperous life for more than a quarter of a century? In particular, what did an expert assessment of the quality of IPNS science have to do with its fate? Getting answers to such questions is important. The U.S. government

  9. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  10. No evidence for a role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    Brandl, Eva J; Tiwari, Arun K; Zai, Clement C; Chowdhury, Nabilah I; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Kennedy, James L; Müller, Daniel J

    2014-10-30

    Antipsychotics frequently cause changes in glucose metabolism followed by development of weight gain and/or diabetes. Recent findings from our group indicated an influence of glucose-related genes on this serious side effect. With this study, we aimed to extend previous research and performed a comprehensive study on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes. In 216 schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotics for up to 14 weeks, we investigated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in or near PPARG (N=24) and ADIPOQ (N=18). Statistical analysis was done using ANCOVA in SPSS. Haplotype analysis was performed in UNPHASED 3.1.4 and Haploview 4.2. None of the PPARG or ADIPOQ variants showed significant association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in our combined sample or in a refined subsample of patients of European ancestry treated with clozapine or olanzapine after correction for multiple testing. Similarly, no haplotype association could withstand multiple test correction. Although we could not find a significant influence of ADIPOQ and PPARG on antipsychotic-induced weight gain, our comprehensive examination of these two genes contributes to understanding the biology of this serious side effect. More research on glucose metabolism genes is warranted to elucidate their role in metabolic changes during antipsychotic treatment.

  11. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inact......-based physical activity program was effective in improving quality of life in 60-70-year-olds after 3 months, particularly in participants that reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands Trial Register: NTR 3045; http...

  12. Gain-of-function STAT1 mutations impair STAT3 activity in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC)

    Zheng, J.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Crossland, K.L.; Smeekens, S.P.; Chan, C.M.; Shehri, T. Al; Abinun, M.; Gennery, A.R.; Mann, J.; Lendrem, D.W.; Netea, M.G.; Rowan, A.D.; Lilic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) triggered production of Th-17 cytokines mediates protective immunity against fungi. Mutations affecting the STAT3/interleukin 17 (IL-17) pathway cause selective susceptibility to fungal (Candida) infections, a hallmark of chronic mucocutaneo

  13. Remembering with gains and losses: effects of monetary reward and punishment on successful encoding activation of source memories.

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    The motivation of getting rewards or avoiding punishments reinforces learning behaviors. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of rewards on episodic memory have been demonstrated, there is little evidence of the effect of punishments on this memory. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of monetary rewards and punishments on activation during the encoding of source memories. During encoding, participants memorized words (item) and locations of presented words (source) under 3 conditions (Reward, Punishment, and Control). During retrieval, participants retrieved item and source memories of the words and were rewarded or penalized according to their performance. Source memories encoded with rewards or punishments were remembered better than those without such encoding. fMRI data demonstrated that the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and nucleus accumbens activations reflected both the processes of reward and punishment, whereas insular activation increased as a linear function of punishment. Activation in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex predicted subsequent retrieval success of source memories. Additionally, correlations between these reward/punishment-related regions and the hippocampus were significant. The successful encoding of source memories could be enhanced by punishments and rewards, and interactions between reward/punishment-related regions and memory-related regions could contribute to memory enhancement by reward and/or punishment.

  14. Designing Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages to Increase Physical Activity among University Students Living in two Different Cultures

    Pelin Ozgur Polat

    2015-10-01

    The primary aim of this project is to gather information through using different methods and investigate the determinants of message persuasiveness in university students from the British and Turkish cultures in order to design effective physical activity messages leading intention, attitude and behaviour change. The results of the finalized studies showed the importance of using both qualitative and quantitative methods in message design process.

  15. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins

    Løkkegaard, Laura E; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    . They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair......Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...

  16. Estimating the willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year in Thailand: does the context of health gain matter?

    Thavorncharoensap M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Montarat Thavorncharoensap,1,2 Yot Teerawattananon,2 Sirin Natanant,2 Wantanee Kulpeng,2 Jomkwan Yothasamut,2 Pitsaphun Werayingyong21Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Thailand; 2Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP, Ministry of Public Health, ThailandBackground: This study aims to elicit the value of the willingness to pay (WTP for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY and to examine the factors associated with the WTP for a QALY (WTP/QALY value under the Thai health care setting.Methods: A community-based survey was conducted among 1191 randomly selected respondents. Each respondent was interviewed face-to-face to elicit his/her health state preference in each of three pairs of health conditions: (1 unilateral and bilateral blindness, (2 paraplegia and quadriplegia, and (3 mild and moderate allergies. A visual analog scale (VAS and time trade off (TTO were used as the eliciting methods. Subsequently, the respondents were asked about their WTP for the treatment and prevention of each pair of health conditions by using a bidding-game technique.Results: With regards to treatment, the mean WTP for a QALY value (WTP/QALYtreatment estimated by the TTO method ranged from 59,000 to 285,000 baht (16.49 baht = US$1 purchasing power parity [PPP]. In contrast, the mean WTP for a QALY value in terms of prevention (WTP/QALYprevention was significantly lower, ranging from 26,000 to 137,000 baht. Gender, household income, and hypothetical scenarios were also significant factors associated with the WTP/QALY values.Conclusion: The WTP/QALY values elicited in this study were approximately 0.4 to 2 times Thailand's 2008 GDP per capita. These values were in line with previous studies conducted in several different settings. This study's findings clearly support the opinion that a single ceiling threshold should not be used for the resource allocation of all types of interventions.Keywords: ceiling threshold

  17. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  18. Sporting activities and quality of life in children with hemophilia: An observational study

    Cuesta Barriuso, Rubén; Torres Ortuño, Ana; Pérez Alenda, Sofía; Carrasco, Juan José; Querol Fuentes, Felipe; Nieto Munuera, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Sports activities are part of multidisciplinary treatments in people with hemophilia. Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of sports activities in the quality of life as perceived by children with hemophilia. Methods: A total of 53 children with hemophilia aged 7 to 13 years and 51 children without hemophilia were evaluated. The perception of quality of life, clinical variables, and the frequency of sports activities were registered. The joint condition of patients wit...

  19. The impact of inclusion into working activities on quality of life of adults with intellectual disabilities

    Lozar, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability is a life-long problem, therefore even as adults such persons needs help and support which is adapted to the nature of their special needs, as well as the features of adult life. Apart from the crucial findings concerning adults with intellectual disabilities, this thesis introduces and provides an in-depth research of two other fields, namely, quality of life and inclusion into various forms of working activities. For better understanding and assessment of quality of ...

  20. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  1. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    2013-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... information technology. To Submit Comments and For Further Information: To obtain a copy of the data... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health,...

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.

    Maguire, Gail Hills

    1983-01-01

    Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

  3. 78 FR 46420 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type... solicits comments for information needed to convert to a permanent plan of insurance. DATES:...

  4. 75 FR 68036 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...

    2010-11-04

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type... solicits comments for information needed to convert to a permanent plan of insurance. DATES:...

  5. 76 FR 2756 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Conversion) (Government Life Insurance) Activity...

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Conversion) (Government Life Insurance) Activity... No. 2900-0149.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type of Review: Extension of a...

  6. Activating FLT3 mutants show distinct gain-of-function phenotypes in vitro and a characteristic signaling pathway profile associated with prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Hanna Janke

    Full Text Available About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD. It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70% compared to FLT3-TKD (30%. In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations--including two novel mutations--showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  7. When Product Life Cycle Meets Customer Activity Cycle

    Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2007-01-01

    to shift market strategies from a transactional approach to an approach based on the establishment and management of customer relationships (Grönroos, 1999). A growing number of studies and research programmes have focused on the potentials of business strategies based on providing the value of utility...... project in a global office furniture manufacturer, this paper attempts to uncover how a manufacturing company is making the move from selling office furniture to selling the benefit of workspace performance. A significant insight is that the definition of value is core to both relationship marketing...... of products throughout their life cycle by designing integrated solutions of products and services. This approach has been dubbed ‘product/service-systems (PSS)’ (Mont, 2004). Although relationship marketing and product/service-system design have their roots in each their own research fields - marketing...

  8. Detrimental Effects of Extreme Solar Activity on Life on Earth

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Glocer, Alex; Jackman, Charles

    2015-07-01

    Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), the most energetic eruptions in the Solar System, represent large-scale disturbances forming with the solar corona and are associated with solar flares and Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) events. Current Kepler data from solar-like stars suggest that the frequency of occurrence of energetic flares and associated CMEs from the Sun can be as high as 1 per 1500 years. What effects would CME and associated SEPs have on Earth's habitability? We have performed a three-dimensional time-dependent global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the magnetic interaction of such a CME cloud with the Earth's magnetosphere. We calculated the global structure of the perturbed magnetosphere and derive the latitude of the open-closed magnetic field boundary. We used a 2D GSFC atmospheric code to calculate the efficiency of ozone depletion in the Earth's atmosphere due to SEP events and its effects on our society and life on Earth.

  9. Weakly Supervised Recognition of Daily Life Activities with Wearable Sensors.

    Stikic, Maja; Larlus, Diane; Ebert, Sandra; Schiele, Bernt

    2011-12-01

    This paper considers scalable and unobtrusive activity recognition using on-body sensing for context awareness in wearable computing. Common methods for activity recognition rely on supervised learning requiring substantial amounts of labeled training data. Obtaining accurate and detailed annotations of activities is challenging, preventing the applicability of these approaches in real-world settings. This paper proposes new annotation strategies that substantially reduce the required amount of annotation. We explore two learning schemes for activity recognition that effectively leverage such sparsely labeled data together with more easily obtainable unlabeled data. Experimental results on two public data sets indicate that both approaches obtain results close to fully supervised techniques. The proposed methods are robust to the presence of erroneous labels occurring in real-world annotation data.

  10. Extravehicular Activity Suit/Portable Life Support System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to mature technologies and systems that will enable future Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems. Advanced EVA systems have...

  11. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    An increasing number of families has to meet the challenges of working in a 24-7 society and at the same time striving to take part in everyday family life. Research is not conclusive with respect to what degree atypical working hours has an impact on, for example, work-family balance, instable...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....... marriages or in general the intimate social activities of families. That is, some research point to the fact that having atypical working hours in families might have positive influence on family social activities, like supporting possibilities for the number of activities in which mothers and/or fathers...

  12. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  13. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  14. Older people's volunteering: an important objective of active ageing and the long-life society development

    Huzejrović, Vahida

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses different views of ageing with a special focus on life span development and the life course perspective to ageing. The key themes presented here include the concept of active ageing, volunteering as a means of active ageing, motivation for volunteering as well as a review of related research and studies, mostly conducted abroad. In the empirical section, the motivation of older people for volunteering has been researched as well as the factors that influence older pe...

  15. Multipolar, time-dynamical model for the loss compensation and lasing of a spherical plasmonic nanoparticle spaser immersed in an active gain medium

    Veltri, Alessandro; Chipouline, Arkadi; Aradian, Ashod

    2016-09-01

    The plasmonic response of a metal nanoparticle in the presence of surrounding gain elements is studied, using a space and time-dependent model, which integrates a quantum formalism to describe the gain and a classical treatment for the metal. Our model fully takes into account the influence of the system geometry (nanosphere) and offers for the first time, the possibility to describe the temporal evolution of the fields and the coupling among the multipolar modes of the particle. We calculate the lasing threshold value for all multipoles of the spaser, and demonstrate that the dipolar one is lowest. The onset of the lasing instability, in the linear regime, is then studied both with and without external field forcing. We also study the behaviour of the system below the lasing threshold, with the external field, demonstrating the existence of an amplification regime where the nanoparticle’s plasmon is strongly enhanced as the threshold is approached. Finally, a qualitative discussion is provided on later, non-linear stages of the dynamics and the approach to the steady-state of the spaser; in particular, it is shown that, for the considered geometry, the spasing is necessarily multi-modal and multipolar modes are always activated.

  16. RESEARCH ON INCREASING ACTIVE LIFE OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Alin STĂNCIOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the exploitation of dies the defections that occur, due mainly to non operating rules of exploration, the improperly conditions of the machine (press in terms of cinematic precision and the wearing elements in relative motion (ram displacement, wearing guides, etc as the incorrect mounting of dies on the press. When installing dies must consider several aspects. Among the techniques used, especially for restoring the active elements in the work area are rectified frontal surfaces, hard chromating, hardening with electric sparks and charging welding. Were restored active profile and size of the work active elements so after reconditioning they corresponded in terms of dimensional precision and resistance to wear, like initial elements

  17. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Pregnancy > Nutrition, weight & fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain ...

  18. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    LI, Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  19. Quality of life and physical activity as indicators of health-preserving competence of teachers

    Pavlova Iu.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and physical activity of teachers of physical culture, basic of health, labour, the defense of Motherland and pedagogue-organizers from secondary schools Lviv region (Ukraine were investigated. The 402 persons (age 24-78 years were surveyed with the use of questionnaires MOS SF 36 and IPAQ. The highest quality of life and level of physical activity have teachers of physical culture. It is considered the quality of life of teachers of other subjects similar to persons with chronic diseases. The level of physical activity in leisure time was particularly low for teachers of Basic of Health and pedagogue-organizers. The teachers spent no more than 433 MET-min/ week for moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. The level of physical activity of teachers (besides the physical education teachers was insufficient to improve health and indicate about low level of health-preserving competence.

  20. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  1. EFFECTS OF DISTINCT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MEDITATION PROGRAMS ON QUALITY OF LIFE AND DEPRESSION LEVELS IN ACTIVE ELDERLY WOMEN

    J. Corrêa; Cunha, F.A.; T. H. Pires; Giani T.; FERREIRA, M. de A.; Dantas, E.

    2010-01-01

     

    ABSTRACT

    Sedentary aging can evolve to depression which interferes both qualitatively and quantitatively on elderly’s quality of life. The present study compared quality of life and depression levels between sedentary and active elderly women. For this, a correlational ex post facto study was employed, the sample...

  2. The importance of group activities for quality of life of women in postmenopause

    Renata Calazans Negrão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of life of postmenopausal women who participate in different activities groups for elderly. Methods: We selected 59 women, divided as follows: hydrotherapy group (n = 15, physical activity and bingo group (n = 15, and a control group(n = 29. Data collection was done through a questionnaire evaluating the Quality of Life(WHOQOL-Bref, the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The assessments were conducted in two stages with an interval of two monthsbetween each one. Results: There was an improvement in quality of life of women participants in activities groups with respect to the control group, and in all domains of quality of life questionnaire, the control group had lower values. Significant differences occurred in the environment domain, in comparing the hydrotherapy group and physical activity/bingo groups, of which the latter showed better responses. Conclusion: The activities groups were positive for improving quality of life of postmenopausal women, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the practice of not only physical activities, but also those that stimulate the social and psychological profile of these women.

  3. Gain-of-function mutations in the Toll-like Receptor pathway: TPL2-mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK activation, a path to tumorigenesis in lymphoid neoplasms?

    Simon eRousseau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR signalling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signalling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFB and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways to regulate innate immune responses (Kawai and Akira, 2010. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signalling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK 293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumour Promoting Locus-2 (TPL-2, activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNP A1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumour formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated tumorigenesis occurs via the TPL2-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumour growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumour cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia, where the

  4. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  5. Fuel cell life improved by metallic sinter activation after electrode assembly welding

    Taylor, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Technique improves the service life of fuel cell electrodes. The welding is done before the metallic sinter is activated by depositing finely divided metal within the sinter structure from a solution with corrosion inhibiting ions. The activator solution flows through the porous sinter while attached to the backup plate.

  6. Purpose and pleasure in late life: Conceptualising older women's participation in art and craft activities.

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David W

    2013-12-01

    The fourth age, as the last stage of life, represents a final challenge to find personal meaning in the face of changing capacities, illness and disability. Participation in valued activities is important for sustaining interest in life and has been associated with enhanced health and well-being. Art and craft activities are a popular form of participation amongst women in late life with growing international interest in the potential for these types of activities to maintain health and well-being and address problems of social isolation. Drawing on open text comments from 114 women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and in-depth interviews with 23 women all aged in their eighties, this paper explores the nature of older women's participation in art and craft activities and conceptualises links between participation in these activities and health and well-being in late life. Participation in art and craft activities is complex and dynamic, comprising cognitive and physical processes infused with emotion and occurs in the context of social relationships, physical spaces, physical ailments and beliefs about the value of the activities. By participating in art and craft activities, older women find purpose in their lives, contributing to their subjective well-being whilst helping and being appreciated by others. They develop a self view as enabled and as such take on new art and craft challenges, continue to learn and develop as art and craft makers and remain open to new possibilities.

  7. Self-Conception and Life Satisfaction: Integrating Aged Subculture and Activity Theory.

    McClelland, Kent A.

    1982-01-01

    Integrates the traditional activity theory explanation of adjustment to aging with the aged subculture theory advanced by Rose. A path model to data from two subsamples of older adults. Self-conception is shown to be an important intervening variable between social activity and life satisfaction. (Author)

  8. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  9. ApoE4-Driven Accumulation of Intraneuronal Oligomerized Aβ42 following Activation of the Amyloid Cascade In Vivo Is Mediated by a Gain of Function

    Lia Zepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating the amyloid cascade by inhibiting the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin in targeted replacement mice, which express either apoE4 or apoE3, results in the specific accumulation of oligomerized Aβ42 in hippocampal CA1 neurons of the apoE4 mice. We presently investigated the extent to which the apoE4-driven accumulation of Aβ42 and the resulting mitochondrial pathology are due to either gain or loss of function. This revealed that inhibition of neprilysin for one week triggers the accumulation of Aβ42 in hippocampal CA1 neurons of the apoE4 mice but not of either the corresponding apoE3 mice or apoE-deficient mice. At 10 days, Aβ42 also accumulated in the CA1 neurons of the apoE-deficient mice but not in those of the apoE3 mice. Mitochondrial pathology, which in the apoE4 mice is an early pathological consequence following inhibition of neprilyisn, also occurs in the apoE-deficient but not in the apoE3 mice and the magnitude of this effect correlates with the levels of accumulated Aβ42 and oligomerized Aβ42 in these mice. These findings suggest that the rate-limiting step in the pathological effects of apoE4 on CA1 neurons is the accumulation of intracellular oligomerized Aβ42 which is mediated via a gain of function property of apoE4.

  10. The role of level of functioning, life satisfaction and leisure activities in elderly depressive symptomatology

    George Kleftaras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today's elderly people make up a large part of the population and depressive symptoms they show requires specialized intervention health professionals. Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to study the phenomenon of elderly depressive symptomatology and its relationship with their quality of life as judged by the performance of daily life activities, perceived life satisfaction and leisure activities. Method and material: The studied sample consisted of107 elderly, 62 men and 45 women, who lived in the community, members of Open Care Centres for the Elderly (K.A.P.I. and the Friendship Club of the wider area of Attica. They completed the Questionnaire of Depressive Symptomatology, the Life Satisfaction Index, the Satisfaction with Performance Scale Questionnaire and the Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the results was done with SPSS-v. 20,and more specifically with the method of correlation. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the level of life satisfaction of the elderly and depressive symptomatology. They also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the ability to solve social problems and depressive symptomatology. Not statistically significant relationship between the capacity to manage the home and depressive symptomatology was recorded. Of the areas related to leisure, only activities relaxing the person, social and personal hobbiesrelated negatively with depressive symptomatology but not the physical activities, a finding which supports previous results regarding the efficiency in managing the home. Conclusions: Thus, according to the results of the present study the health professionals working with older people with depressive symptomatology should, in their interventions initially encourage activities that give life satisfaction and then focus their program on strengthening the individual to perform

  11. Stressful life events and psychosocial correlates of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity

    Giannakopoulos, George; Chouliaras, George; Margoni, Daphne; Korlou, Sophia; Hantzara, Vassiliki; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Liakopoulou, Magda; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of psychiatric and psychosocial correlates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity in children and adolescents. METHODS A total of 85 pediatric IBD patients (in remission or active state of the disease) and their parents completed a series of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews measuring life events, depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, and parent mental health. Differences between the remission and the IBD active group and the association of any significant variable with the disease activity state were examined. RESULTS Parents of children being in active state of the disease reported more life events (P = 0.005) and stressful life events (P = 0.048) during the past year and more mental health symptoms (P < 0.001), while the children themselves reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms (P = 0.017) compared to the remission group. In the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the only predictor which had a significant positive effect on the probability of the patients being in active state was parent mental health symptoms (OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-25.8). CONCLUSION Life events, child anxiety and parent mental health symptoms may be important correlates of pediatric IBD activity and targets of thorough assessment and treatment. PMID:27679771

  12. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  13. Strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease: improving quality of life

    Barksdale H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heather Barksdale,1 Odinachi Oguh,21Department of Rehabilitation, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA Abstract: The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, to consider the effect that physical activity and exercise has on the quality of life in individuals with PD, identify types of physical activity and exercise most recently and best supported by research, and to explore ways to customize physical exercise to PD patients based on stage and severity. Through research, recommendations are made to encourage physical activity and overcome barriers that may hinder participation in physical activity and exercise across different stages of PD. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, physical activity, barriers, exercise, quality of life

  14. Activity, life time and effect of hydrolytic enzymes for enhanced biogas production from sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Odnell, Anna; Recktenwald, Michael; Stensén, Katarina; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Karlsson, Martin

    2016-10-15

    As an alternative to energy intensive physical methods, enzymatic treatment of sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants for increased hydrolysis and biogas production was investigated. Several hydrolytic enzymes were assessed with a focus on how enzyme activity and life time was influenced by sludge environments. It could be concluded that the activity life time of added enzymes was limited (enzymes, due to endogenous protease activity. In biogas in situ experiments, subtilisin at a 1% mixture on basis of volatile solids, was the only enzyme providing a significantly increased biomethane production of 37%. However, even at this high concentration, subtilisin could not hydrolyze all available substrate within the life time of the enzyme. Thus, for large scale implementation, enzymes better suited to the sludge environments are needed.

  15. Activity and meaning-making in everyday life of people with advanced cancer

    la Cour, Karen; Johannessen, Helle; Josephsson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore and understand how people with advanced cancer create meaning and handle everyday life through activity. Methods: A purposive sample of seven participants was recruited from a larger study. Data were collected through qualitative interviews and participant....... A narrative of “being healthy although ill” provided an arena for exploring the contrast between simultaneously feeling well and severely ill. Further emplotment of activities in “routines and continuity” was identified as a means to provide a safe, familiar framework stimulating participants’ everyday agency....... “My little Mecca” was identified as a narrative reflecting the activity of life-confirming experiences and taking time out. Significance of results: The identified narratives performed and told in daily life may guide the development of palliative care services to support people with advanced cancer...

  16. Efficacy-mediated effects of spirituality and physical activity on quality of life: A path analysis

    Konopack James F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been established as an important determinant of quality of life, particularly among older adults. Previous research has suggested that physical activity’s influence on quality of life perceptions is mediated by changes in self-efficacy and health status. In the same vein, spirituality may be a salient quality of life determinant for many individuals. Methods In the current study, we used path analysis to test a model in which physical activity, spirituality, and social support were hypothesized to influence global quality of life in paths mediated by self-efficacy and health status. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 215 adults (male, n = 51; female, n = 164 over the age of 50 (M age = 66.55 years. Results The analysis resulted in a model that provided acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 33.10, df = 16, p  Conclusions These results support previous findings of an efficacy-mediated relationship between physical activity and quality of life, with the exception that self-efficacy in the current study was moderately associated with physical health status (.38 but not mental health status. Our results further suggest that spirituality may influence health and well-being via a similar, efficacy-mediated path, with strongest effects on mental health status. These results suggest that those who are more spiritual and physically active report greater quality of life, and the effects of these factors on quality of life may be partially mediated by perceptions of self-efficacy.

  17. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  18. The Impact Of Sports Activities On Quality Of Life Of Persons With A Spinal Cord Injury

    Kljajić Dragana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation.

  19. Activity-based Costing (ABC and Activity-based Management(ABMImplementation – Is This the Solution for Organizations to Gain Profitability?

    Ildikó Réka CARDOS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adherents of ABC/ABM systems claimed traditional management accounting systems generated misleading costs in a contemporary, tumultuous, often changing business environment and implementing ABC/ABM would remedy this. That is why activity-based costing (ABC and activity-based management (ABM represents the symbol of improved competitiveness and efficiency in every organization.The purpose of this article – after analyzing the existing literature in the field – is to emphasize that new cost systems such as ABC and ABM could be a strong couple that assures competitiveness and efficiency for each company. Another objective is to present that, besides its disadvantages, firms implement the ABC/ABM system because it permits better tracing of costs to objects, superior allocation of overheads to cost objects, financial and non-financial analysis and measures useful to managers and management accountants in the decision-making process.

  20. Activities of Daily Life (ADL Recognition using Wrist-worn Accelerometer

    K. Rajesh Kanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition has become the necessity of smart homes, future factories, and surveillance. Activities independent of body posture predominantly exhibiting gestures involving both arm and the wrist motion supports the use of the wearable sensors for data acquisition. This paper uses an algorithm based prediction method to recognize the Activities of Daily Life (ADL involving activities like mobility, feeding, and functional transfers. The classification of the various activities were carried out by using decision tree – J48 algorithm from the acquired dataset.

  1. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  2. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  3. Overexpression of Elafin in Ovarian Carcinoma Is Driven by Genomic Gains and Activation of the Nuclear Factor κB Pathway and Is Associated with Poor Overall Survival

    Adam Clauss

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in women. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether whey acidic protein (WAP genes on chromosome 20q13.12, a region frequently amplified in this cancer, are expressed in serous carcinoma, the most common form of the disease. Herein, we report that a trio of WAP genes (HE4, SLPI, and Elafin is overexpressed and secreted by serous ovarian carcinomas. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking Elafin to ovarian cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of primary tumors demonstrates genomic gains of the Elafin locus in a majority of cases. In addition, a combination of peptidomimetics, RNA interference, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments shows that Elafin expression can be transcriptionally upregulated by inflammatory cytokines through activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway. Importantly, using a clinically annotated tissue microarray composed of late-stage, high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, we show that Elafin expression correlates with poor overall survival. These results, combined with our observation that Elafin is secreted by ovarian tumors and is minimally expressed in normal tissues, suggest that Elafin may serve as a determinant of poor survival in this disease.

  4. Digital automatic gain control

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  5. Is Physical Activity a Good Way to Improve Quality of Life in the Elder Population?

    Teresa Bento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although evidence demonstrates that physical activity beneficially influences major chronic illnesses, older adults remain sedentary. Many interventions to increase physical activity intend to reduce disease complications as well as improve quality of life by enhancing physical function in our even more aging society. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to summarize knowledge on randomized controlled trials studying the effects of physical activity interventions on quality of life in the elder population. Methods: Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews or meta-analysis were searched in the Pubmed data base. Search terms: “quality of life”, “intervention” and “physical activity” were used to identify English written articles, with humans older than 65 years. Results: From the initial screening of 234 titles, only 5 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Conclusions: Physical activity interventions seem to have a slight effect on physical function and in improving quality of life of people aged 65 and over. More intervention studies involving physical activity in older people should include measures of quality of life as primary outcome, as well as a standardization of measures would help to compare results and enlarge the evidence base in this area.

  6. Comparing gains and losses.

    McGraw, A Peter; Larsen, Jeff T; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David

    2010-10-01

    Loss aversion in choice is commonly assumed to arise from the anticipation that losses have a greater effect on feelings than gains, but evidence for this assumption in research on judged feelings is mixed. We argue that loss aversion is present in judged feelings when people compare gains and losses and assess them on a common scale. But many situations in which people judge and express their feelings lack these features. When judging their feelings about an outcome, people naturally consider a context of similar outcomes for comparison (e.g., they consider losses against other losses). This process permits gains and losses to be normed separately and produces psychological scale units that may not be the same in size or meaning for gains and losses. Our experiments show loss aversion in judged feelings for tasks that encourage gain-loss comparisons, but not tasks that discourage them, particularly those using bipolar scales.

  7. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Reichheld, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  8. Affect and subsequent physical activity: An ambulatory assessment study examining the affect-activity association in a real-life context

    Christina eNiermann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive, motivational and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship.An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M=45.2, SD=8.1 was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested.Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect.The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent

  9. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  11. Motivational Processes in Children's Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Gu, Xiangli; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School physical education (PE) not only offers and promotes health-related physical activity (PA), but also encompasses the promotion and development of health-related well-being such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, assessing PA and HRQOL have become major issues in pediatric public health and also serve as a…

  12. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  13. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  14. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  15. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  16. Early-life effects on adult physical activity: Concepts, relevance, and experimental approaches

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of...

  17. Physical activity in daily life in physically independent elderly participating in community-based exercise program

    Hernandes,Nidia A.; Probst,Vanessa S; Silva Jr,Rubens A. da; Renata S. B Januário; Pitta, Fabio; Denilson C. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether participation in exercise programs specifically developed for elderly translates into a more active lifestyle. OBJECTIVES: To compare the objectively measured level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) between physically independent elderly who participate or do not participate in community-based exercise programs; and to evaluate which factors are associated with the higher level of PADL in these subjects. METHOD: 134 elderly participants in community-b...

  18. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors

    Clark, Matthew M.; Novotny, Paul J.; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the ...

  19. Indoor acoustic gain design

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  20. [Influence of voice and hearing changes in the quality of life of active elderly individuals].

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Roque, Francelise Pivetta; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de; Chiari, Brasilia Maria

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to verify the self-rated impact of voice and hearing changes of active elderly individuals in their daily lives, and the influence of this self-rating on quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 72 elderly individuals of an Open University for Senior Citizens in the state of São Paulo. The questionnaires applied were HHIE-S; VHI and WHOQoL-Old. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used adopting a p-level significance value of life was perceived by 45.8%, and moderate or severe voice handicap by 9.7% of the elderly individuals. The self-rating of hearing impact on daily life was correlated with the voice handicap index. Quality of life was negatively affected by the increase in self-rating of hearing and voice difficulties in daily life. The sample profile is typical of successful aging with the acceptance of aging changes and consequently less impact on daily lives than expected. The findings suggest that there is an impact of voice and hearing handicap on quality of life, although it has revealed high indices, bolstering the characteristic of adaptation of the sample to aging. The results justify the need for improving actions of self-care and empowerment for the elderly.

  1. [Influence of physical activity on quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis].

    Caputo, Eduardo Lucia; Costa, Marcelo Zanusso

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to conduct a review on the association between exercise and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A search was performed in PubMed, SciELO, SpringerLink and Sport Discus databases to identify relevant articles that addressed this association. We used the following descriptors in the English and Portuguese languages: osteoporosis, exercise, menopause, women, physical activity, quality of life/osteoporose, exercício físico, menopausa, mulheres, atividade física, qualidade de vida. Regarding quality of life and physical aspects like muscle strength and balance, with the exception of two studies, all others have reported improvement in quality of life and in physical domain of participants. Intervention with exercise has proved essential to improving the quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Activities that aim at the improvement of muscle strength and balance are essential to prevent falls, and consequently to reduce the incidence of fractures in this population.

  2. Weight gain - unintentional

    ... be due to menstruation, heart or kidney failure, preeclampsia, or medicines you take. A rapid weight gain ... al. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management. J Am Diet Assoc . 2009;109:330-46. ...

  3. Metamaterials with Gain

    Hess, Ortwin

    2012-02-01

    Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

  4. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  5. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2015-02-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span.

  6. The effect of gain saturation in a gain compensated perfect lens

    Andresen, Marte P Hatlo; Haakestad, Magnus W; Krogstad, Harald E; Skaar, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of evanescent waves in a gain-compensated perfect lens is discussed. In particular, the impact of gain saturation is included in the analysis, and a method for calculating the fields of such nonlinear systems is developed. Gain compensation clearly improves the resolution; however, a number of nonideal effects arise as a result of gain saturation. The resolution associated with the lens is strongly dependent on the saturation constant of the active medium.

  7. The influence of physical activity on life quality formation of elderly people

    Iuliia Pavlova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the relationship between various parameters of life quality and physical activity level of older Ukrainian citizens. Material & Methods: 150 female aged 65,2±4,3 years were interviewed with MOS SF 36 and IPAQ questionnaire. Results: it is shown the values of scales Emotional role functioning (44,0 points, General Health (51,4 points and Bodily Pain (52,2 points can be considered as critical. Conclusions: statistically significant correlation between the numbers of metabolic equivalents used on physical activity during work (study, duration of active recreation was found.

  8. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  9. Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe

    Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

  10. Physical activity history and end-of-life hospital and long-term care

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantanen, Taina; Leinonen, Raija

    2009-01-01

    persons aged 66-98 years at death, who, on average 5.8 years prior to death, had participated in an interview about their current and earlier physical activity. Data on the use of care in the last year of life are register-based data and complete. RESULTS: Men needed on average 96 days (SD 7.0) and women...... had been consistently physically active, whereas use of long-term care did not correlate with physical activity history. Among women, the risk for long-term care was higher for those who had been sedentary (IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21) or only occasionally physically active (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.......06-2.43), than for those who had been consistently active from midlife onward, whereas use of hospital care did not correlate with physical activity history. CONCLUSION: People who had been physically active since midlife needed less end-of-life inpatient care but patterns differed between men and women....

  11. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy

    Iva Tendais

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  12. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy.

    Tendais, Iva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Mota, Jorge; Conde, Ana

    2011-02-01

    This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  13. Complexity in non-pharmacological caregiving activities at the end of life: an international qualitative study.

    Olav Lindqvist

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In late-stage palliative cancer care, relief of distress and optimized well-being become primary treatment goals. Great strides have been made in improving and researching pharmacological treatments for symptom relief; however, little systematic knowledge exists about the range of non-pharmacological caregiving activities (NPCAs staff use in the last days of a patient's life. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Within a European Commission Seventh Framework Programme project to optimize research and clinical care in the last days of life for patients with cancer, OPCARE9, we used a free-listing technique to identify the variety of NPCAs performed in the last days of life. Palliative care staff at 16 units in nine countries listed in detail NPCAs they performed over several weeks. In total, 914 statements were analyzed in relation to (a the character of the statement and (b the recipient of the NPCA. A substantial portion of NPCAs addressed bodily care and contact with patients and family members, with refraining from bodily care also described as a purposeful caregiving activity. Several forms for communication were described; information and advice was at one end of a continuum, and communicating through nonverbal presence and bodily contact at the other. Rituals surrounding death and dying included not only spiritual/religious issues, but also more subtle existential, legal, and professional rituals. An unexpected and hitherto under-researched area of focus was on creating an aesthetic, safe, and pleasing environment, both at home and in institutional care settings. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data, we argue that palliative care in the last days of life is multifaceted, with physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential care interwoven in caregiving activities. Providing for fundamental human needs close to death appears complex and sophisticated; it is necessary to better distinguish nuances in such caregiving to acknowledge

  14. The activities and quality of life of caregivers of patients with chronic diseases

    Letícia Zanetti Marchi Altafim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the increase of the elderly population in our country and, simultaneously, the increasing morbidity rate of chronic-degenerative disease in general, the number of people seeking for attendance at day care centers and hospitals has also increased. Most of the time, these people are also dependent, when they return home, on the care provided by family members: the caregivers. To prevent and treat the problems caused by the stress factors among caregivers contribute to reduce or delay their hospitalization. In addition, improvement on the caregivers’ quality of life could allow them to better help the patients. In this context, this research tried to understand the reality of the lives of caregivers of chronically ill patients, and with this knowledge, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention proposal. Objective: To attenuate the stress conditions of care activities. Method: The research used interviews with caregivers; these interviews were taped and later transcribed to analyze the content of answers and elaborate the intervention plan, which, in this case, was a course. The course consisted of informative aspects on the disease and daily life activities, as well as the formative aspect on self-knowledge. A quality of life instrument named Caregiver Burden Scale was also applied. After the intervention (course, the Scale was once more applied to verify the data and check for efficacy. Results: Results show the importance of the intervention on the caregivers’ quality of life.

  15. The Relationship between Psychosocial Effects and Life Satisfaction of the Korean Elderly: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Leisure Activity

    Jongmin Ra; Soonok An; Ki Jong Rhee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this present study first suggest a conceptual framework for life satisfaction of the elderly and examined the relationship among leisure activities, self-efficacy, social support and life satisfaction in terms of moderating and mediating effects with a sample of the elderly in the Korean context by characterizing the causal structure. Specially, this study not only describes the relationship between life satisfaction and leisure activities, self-efficacy and social support, but...

  16. 78 FR 56901 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    2013-09-16

    ... Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section... instruments must be requested in writing. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating... as sleep, sun-safety, and tobacco) in new ways not previously addressed comprehensively on...

  17. Microbial life in frozen boreal soils-environmental constraints on catabolic and anabolic activity

    Oquist, M. G.; Sparrman, T.; Haei, M.; Segura, J.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial activity in frozen soils has recently gained increasing attention and the fact that soil microorganisms can perform significant metabolic activity at temperatures below freezing is apparent. However, to what extent microbial activity is constrained by the environmental conditions prevailing in a frozen soil matrix is still very uncertain. This presentation will address how the fundamental environmental factors of temperature, liquid water availability and substrate availability combine to regulate rates of catabolic and anabolic microbial processes in frozen soils. The presented results are gained from investigations of the surface layers of boreal forest soils with seasonal freezing. We show that the amount and availability of liquid water is an integral factor regulating rates of microbial activity in the frozen soil matrix and can also explain frequently observed deviations in the temperature responses of biogenic CO2 production in frozen soils, as compared to unfrozen soils. In turn, the capacity for a specific soil to retain liquid water at sub-zero temperatures is controlled by the structural composition of the soil, and especially the soil organic matter is of integral importance. We also show that the partitioning of substrate carbon, in the form of monomeric sugar (glucose), for catabolic and anabolic metabolism remain constant in the temperature range of -4C to 9C. This confirms that microbial growth may proceed even when soils are frozen. In addition we present corresponding data for organisms metabolizing polymeric substrates (cellulose) requiring exoenzymatic activity. We conclude that the metabolic response of soil microorganism to controlling factors may change substantially across the freezing point of soil water, and also the patterns of interaction among controlling factors are affected. Thus, it is evident that metabolic response functions derived from investigations of unfrozen soils cannot be superimposed on frozen soils. Nonetheless

  18. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with questionnai

  19. Relational Information Gain

    Lippi, Marco; Jaeger, Manfred; Frasconi, Paolo;

    2011-01-01

    We introduce relational information gain, a refinement scoring function measuring the informativeness of newly introduced variables. The gain can be interpreted as a conditional entropy in a well-defined sense and can be efficiently approximately computed. In conjunction with simple greedy general......-to-specific search algorithms such as FOIL, it yields an efficient and competitive algorithm in terms of predictive accuracy and compactness of the learned theory. In conjunction with the decision tree learner TILDE, it offers a beneficial alternative to lookahead, achieving similar performance while significantly...

  20. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    Adair, Linda S.; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Aryeh D. Stein; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guate...

  1. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants.

  2. Engagement in Play Activities as a Means for Youth in Detention to Acquire Life Skills.

    Shea, Chi-Kwan; Siu, Andrew M H

    2016-09-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists in a community-based programme, Occupational Therapy Training Program (OTTP), use play activities to facilitate the acquisition of life skills by youth in detention. This pilot study explored the extent of engagement of male and female inmates aged 14 to 18 years old in structured play activities on topics such as interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, cultural celebrations and the transition to community. Retrospective analysis of data collected from surveys using the Engagement in OTTP Activities Questionnaire (EOAQ), completed by youth participants at the end of each group session, was used to measure the extent of occupational engagement. Worksheets and artworks produced by OTTP participants during those group sessions were also analysed. The participants reported very high engagement in OTTP. Engagement scores for male participants were higher than those for female participants, and male and female participants had higher engagement scores for different activities. Over 90% of the worksheets and artworks were found to be complete and relevant to the topic of the session. Play activities could be an appropriate way for occupational therapists to encourage youth in detention to acquire life skills. Demographic information and the actual number of participants are unknown because of how the existing data were collected. Future studies examining the potential gender-related preferences for specific topics deserve further investigation as well as research comparing the youth's engagement in OTTP interventions using play activities to other group interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Should I Gain Weight?

    ... If you're having trouble with your body image, talk about how you feel with someone you like and trust who's been through it — maybe a parent, doctor, counselor, coach, or teacher. continue It's the Growth, Not the Gain No ...

  4. Behaviour change intervention increases physical activity, spinal mobility and quality of life in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomised trial

    Tom O’Dwyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Does a 3-month behaviour change intervention targeting physical activity (PA increase habitual physical activity in adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS? Does the intervention improve health-related physical fitness, AS-related features, and attitude to exercise? Are any gains maintained over a 3-month follow-up

  5. Behaviour change intervention increases physical activity, spinal mobility and quality of life in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomised trial

    Tom O’Dwyer; Ann Monaghan; Jonathan Moran; Finbar O'Shea; Fiona Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Does a 3-month behaviour change intervention targeting physical activity (PA) increase habitual physical activity in adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS)? Does the intervention improve health-related physical fitness, AS-related features, and attitude to exercise? Are any gains maintained over a 3-month follow-up

  6. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-02-22

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.

  7. Resilience, according to the paradigm of the development along the life (life-span)

    Arlete Portella Fontes

    2010-01-01

    Resilience, in the approach of the development along the life, refers to the capacity of recovering and maintenance of the adaptive behavior when the person feels threatened by any distressing event (Staudinger, Marsiske and Baltes, 1995). Although the losses become more likely than the developed gains, the aged people can present considerable stability, self-esteem, competence, self-efficacy, subjective quality of life. The resilience is based on active protecting resources along the life: m...

  8. Understanding determinants of nutrition, physical activity and quality of life among older adults: the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and physical activity are major determinants of health and quality of life; however, there exists little research focusing on determinants of these behaviours in older adults. This is important, since just as these behaviours vary according to subpopulation, it is likely that the determinants also vary. An understanding of the modifiable determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults to take into account the specific life-stage context is required in order to develop effective interventions to promote health and well-being and prevent chronic disease and improve quality of life. Methods The aim of this work is to identify how intrapersonal, social and environmental factors influence nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults living in urban and rural areas. This study is a cohort study of adults aged 55-65 years across urban and rural Victoria, Australia. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline in 2010 and will complete follow-up questionnaires in 2012 and 2014. Self-report questionnaires will be used to assess outcomes such as food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, anthropometry and quality of life. Explanatory variables include socioeconomic position, and measures of the three levels of influence on older adults’ nutrition and physical activity behaviours (intrapersonal, social and perceived environmental influences. Discussion Obesity and its determinant behaviours, physical inactivity and poor diet are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of the quality of life among the ageing population. There is a critical need for a better understanding of the determinants of nutrition and physical activity in this important target group. This research will provide evidence for the development of effective policies and programs to promote and support increased physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among older

  9. Interrupt-Based Step-Counting to Extend Battery Life in an Activity Monitor

    Seung Young Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most activity monitors use an accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to characterize the wearer’s physical activity. The monitor measures the motion by polling an accelerometer or gyroscope sensor or both every 20–30 ms and frequent polling affects the battery life of a wearable device. One of the key features of a commercial daily-activity monitoring device is longer battery life so that the user can keep track of his or her activity for a week or so without recharging the battery of the monitoring device. Many low-power approaches for a step-counting system use either a polling-based algorithm or an interrupt-based algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses the tap interrupt of an accelerometer to count steps while consuming low power. We compared the accuracy of step counting and measured system-level power consumption to a periodic sensor-reading algorithm. Our tap interrupt approach shows a battery lifetime that is 175% longer than that of a 30 ms polling method without gyroscope. The battery lifetime can be extended up to 863% with a gyroscope by putting both the processor and the gyroscope into sleep state during the majority of operation time.

  10. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  11. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  12. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer

    Rottmann, Nina; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Christensen, René dePont;

    2017-01-01

    with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women...... with BC and their male partners participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Participants completed items from the PROMIS(®) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure (version 1.0), two items measuring affectionate behavior, a single item measuring...... in the analyses. Less vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients' satisfaction with sex life. Patients' and partners' satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners' timing of ejaculation. Patients' reports of affectionate...

  13. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Built environment characteristics are closely related to transport behavior, but observed variations could be due to residents own choice of neighborhood called residential self-selection. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neighborhood walkability and residential...... self-selection across life stages in relation to active transport behavior. METHODS: The IPEN walkability index, which consists of four built environment characteristics, was used to define 16 high and low walkable neighborhoods in Aarhus, Denmark (250.000 inhabitants). Transport behavior was assessed...... using the IPAQ questionnaire. Life stages were categorized in three groups according to age and parental status. A factor analysis was conducted to investigate patterns of self-selection. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between walkability...

  14. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs.

  15. THE PRACTEAM MODEL REGARDING SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE TRANSITION. STUDENTS’ EXPECTANCIES

    Dodescu Anca Otilia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The project “Practical training of economist’s students. Inter-regional partnership in the labor market between universities and the business environment” focuses on student’s transition from school to labor market. Concretely, it tries to highlight the general role of practical training – specifically the field related practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum, by identifying possibilities of interventions from supervisors. Starting with literature review regarding determinants of school to active life transition, the present contribution discusses the outline of the practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum. Within PRACTeam project the practical training itself is accompanied with a series of supplementary services (aptitude testing, counseling, career guidance, mentoring by a trained tutor, granting financial aid, awarding excellence over contests and internships. It represents an active partnership on the labor market meant to address directly students’ expectations regarding practical training, work, and entrepreneurship. At least two main benefits may be derived from the training and tutoring. First, as a dual type model of transition from school to active life, allowing students to become insiders in the labor market. Secondly, changes in supervisor’ patterns of interactions and behavior/attitudes toward work and employees may also occur, which in turn may improve the work. A pretest-posttest non-experimental design was applied for the PRACTeam evaluation. Using administered questionnaires and focus group method to students before and after they completed their practical stages we examined their attitudes and behavior towards elements of the dual model of transition. The paper concludes that a dual type model of transition from school to active life - that implies the education and practice occur simultaneously, successfully meets students’ expectancies and may be

  16. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Saglam M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melda Saglam,1 Naciye Vardar-Yagli,1 Sema Savci,2 Deniz Inal-Ince,1 Ebru Calik Kutukcu,1 Hülya Arikan,1 Lutfi Coplu3 1Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; 2School of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Chest Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Background: The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg (n=18, and the control (PaO2 ≥60 mmHg (n=21 groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.Results: The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05. Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05.Conclusion: Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. Keywords: COPD, hypoxemia, 6-minute walk test

  17. Learn and gain

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  18. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  19. Left-handed graduate students: difficulties found and proposals presented to daily life activities

    Elisângela de Assis Amaroa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify, through the application of questionnaires, the daily difficulties of left-handed college students and to list their proposals to solve the problems found. One hundred thirty-eight left-handed students participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire composed of eight essay questions and five alternative questions which included information on laterality, school, labor and daily life activities, and on suggestions to improve their activities. It was verified that the main difficulties reported by left-handed college students on daily life, work, and school environment are opening cans, bad arrangement of objects in space, and inadequacy of school desks, respectively. Aiming to improve the performance of their activities within these three aspects, the most cited suggestions are related to improvement/availability of left-handed adapted desks and development of objects adapted to this group. The study shows data on difficulties and coherent suggestions, and the advances proposed are of easy solution and great value for such population.

  20. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents : rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active gam

  1. Late morbidity after treatment of breast cancer in relation to daily activities and quality of life: a systematic review

    Rietman, J.S.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Hoekstra, H.J; Eisma, W.H.; Szabo, B.G; Groothoff, J.W.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Breast cancer treatment may result in long-term upper limb morbidity: reduced range of motion of the shoulder, muscle weakness of the arm and hand, lymph edema, pain and numbness. Relationship of this late morbidity with activities of daily life (ADL) and quality of life (QOL) is infrequently

  2. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  3. Late morbidity after treatment of breast cancer in relation to daily activities and quality of life : a systematic review

    Rietman, J.S.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Eisma, W.H.; Szabo, B.G.; Groothoff, J.W.; Geertzen, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Breast cancer treatment may result in long-term upper limb morbidity: reduced range of motion of the shoulder, muscle weakness of the arm and hand, lymph edema, pain and numbness. Relationship of this late morbidity with activities of daily life (ADL) and quality of life (QOL) is infrequently

  4. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  5. Atividade física e qualidade de vida Physical activity and quality of life

    Rodrigo Sinnott Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se na atividade física como uma forma de restaurar a saúde dos efeitos nocivos que a rotina estressante do trabalho/estudo traz. O estudo constitui uma pesquisa transversal que objetiva analisar as associações da prática de atividades esportivas na qualidade de vida dos indivíduos. A amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, 111 funcionários e 638 estudantes da Universidade Católica de Pelotas (UCPel, totalizando 863 participantes. Foram utilizados como instrumentos o WHOQOL-breve/OMS para avaliar a qualidade de vida e questionário de atividades físicas habituais traduzido e modificado por NahasNuPAF/UFSC, 2001. Do total, 394 são do sexo masculino e 469 do sexo feminino. Destes, 313 são moderadamente ativos, 210 inativos, 207 ativos e 136 são muito ativos. Pode-se observar que, em média, quanto mais ativa a pessoa é, melhor sua qualidade de vida. Além disso, dentre as diferenças na qualidade de vida das pessoas que praticam atividades físicas comparadas com as que não praticam, não estão apenas os aspectos de saúde física, mas também aspectos psicológicos e cognitivos. Estes resultados servem de estímulo a profissionais de diferentes áreas para incentivarem e apoiarem a definição de rotinas de atividades físicas para seus pacientes.Physical activity is believed to be a form to restore the health of the harmful effects caused by a stressful work/study routine. The study comprises a transversal research which aims at analyzing the associations of the practice of sports activities in the quality of life of individuals. The sample was comprised 107 professors, 111 employees and 638 students of the Universidade Católica de Pelotas UCPEL-RS, totalizing 863 participants. WHOQOL-brief/OMS were used as a tool to evaluate quality of life as well as the Questionnaire of habitual physical activities translated and modified by Nahas - NuPAF/UFSC, 2001. Of the total, 394 are males and 469 are females. Of these, 313

  6. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors

    Clark, Matthew M.; Novotny, Paul J.; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Summary Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the mailed survey an average of 6 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer. Survey measures included the stage of change for physical activity and a set of single item QOL and symptom scales. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported they currently engaged in regular physical activity (a total of 30 min or more per day, at least 5 days per week). Kruskal–Wallis tests revealed that those who reported engaging in regular physical activity reported a better overall QOL, better QOL on all five domains of QOL functioning (mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual), and fewer symptoms compared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity level may have important QOL and symptom management benefits for long-term lung cancer survivors. PMID:18243406

  7. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors.

    Clark, Matthew M; Novotny, Paul J; Patten, Christi A; Rausch, Sarah M; Garces, Yolanda I; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the mailed survey an average of 6 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer. Survey measures included the stage of change for physical activity and a set of single item QOL and symptom scales. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported they currently engaged in regular physical activity (a total of 30 min or more per day, at least 5 days per week). Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that those who reported engaging in regular physical activity reported a better overall QOL, better QOL on all five domains of QOL functioning (mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual), and fewer symptoms compared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity level may have important QOL and symptom management benefits for long-term lung cancer survivors.

  8. Psychosocial rehabilitation activities, empowerment, and quality of community-based life for people with schizophrenia.

    Chou, Kuei-Ru; Shih, Ya-Wen; Chang, Chueh; Chou, Yi-Ying; Hu, Wei-Herng; Cheng, Josephjror-Serk; Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2012-08-01

    Many variables influencing quality of life (QOL) for outpatients with schizophrenia have been identified from prior studies. Symptom severity, psychosocial rehabilitation activities, and empowerment have all been clearly identified as key variables. However, which variables are the most influential and important factors remains unknown; factors influencing QOL, either directly or indirectly and to what degree, need to be examined. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that empowerment is a possible mediator of how (a) psychiatric symptoms and (b) psychosocial rehabilitation activities affect QOL for outpatients with schizophrenia in the community. We used the probability proportional to size random sampling for 190 outpatients with schizophrenia at 10 community rehabilitation centers in Taipei, such that samples consisted of adults who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. The instruments included the questionnaire to gather demographic and disease information, the Empowerment Scale, the Psychiatric Symptoms Scale, the psychosocial rehabilitation activity (PRA), and the Quality of Life Scale for Psychiatric Patients. Beyond descriptive statistics, correlation and structural equation models were computed. Findings showed that empowerment in outpatients with schizophrenia mediates QOL, whereas psychosocial rehabilitation activities seem to increase empowerment, which may in turn increase QOL. Psychotic symptoms seem to have a direct effect of decreasing QOL that could not be mediated by empowerment. Empowerment had a significant effect on QOL for outpatients with schizophrenia. The findings of this study support the importance of empowerment and rehabilitation activities for promoting QOL among community outpatients. We suggest that various rehabilitation programs and empowerment health education are needed to enhance QOL for schizophrenia outpatients in the community.

  9. A prospective longitudinal study testing relationships between meaningful activities, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning in life.

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether change in meaningful activity over an 11-month period could help explain change in meaning in life in a sample of 174 undergraduate and graduate students. The Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as indicators of the constructs of meaningful activity, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning and purpose in life. The findings were in support of the study hypotheses and indicated that change in meaningful activity explained both change in basic psychological needs fulfillment (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness) and change in meaning in life. Further, this study reports findings consistent with results from cross-sectional studies in support of the hypothesis that change in meaningful activity may influence change in meaning in life through two pathways: a direct path of influence from meaningful activity to meaning in life and an indirect path through change in basic psychological needs fulfillment. The current study contributes to a growing literature implicating subjective evaluations of day-to-day action (or meaningful activity) as a fruitful means for exploring relationships between occupation and well-being.

  10. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  11. Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining

    Buurmans, Inge L. C.; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V.; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A.; Vogt, Eelco T. C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2011-11-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a series of catalysts deactivated via industrial protocols, a correlation is established between Brønsted acidity and cracking activity. The generally applicable method has clear potential for catalyst diagnostics, as it determines intra- and interparticle Brønsted acidity distributions for industrial FCC materials.

  12. Home transport and wastage: environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food.

    Sonesson, Ulf; Anteson, Frida; Davis, Jennifer; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest.

  13. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  14. TOURISM HIGHER EDUCATION AND TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE. THE PRACTeam PROJECT STUDY CASE

    Anca DODESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the impact of practice and internship stages in order to facilitate transition from school to active life for Tourism higher education graduates in Romania, in the case of the project entitled: “The practice of students in Economics. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and business environment" (PRACTeam, implemented in partnership by Faculties of Economics and Business Administration from: University of Oradea, West University of Timişoara and „Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava. The research carried out for this article is addressed to students, members of the PRACTeam project’s target groups, enrolled in Economics of Commerce, Tourism and Services as common Bachelor specialization and, also, to students from different Master degree specializations in the field of Tourism from universities mentioned above. The article presents the literature analysis about transition from university to active life, research methodology and characteristics of respondents, then the main findings and concludes that the practice and internship stages developed in PRACTeam project have generated both improving the students’ skills and abilities and their perception and attitude regarding work in Tourism.

  15. Evidence for Methyl-Compound-Activated Life in Coal Bed System 2 km Below Sea Floor

    Trembath-reichert, E.; Morono, Y.; Dawson, K.; Wanger, G.; Bowles, M.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Inagaki, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 337 set the record for deepest marine scientific drilling down to 2.4 kmbsf. This cruise also had the unique opportunity to retrieve deep cores from the Shimokita coal bed system in Japan with the aseptic and anaerobic conditions necessary to look for deep life. Onboard scientists prepared nearly 1,700 microbiology samples shared among five different countries to study life in the deep biosphere. Samples spanned over 1 km in sampling depths and include representatives of shale, sandstone, and coal lithologies. Findings from previous IODP and deep mine expeditions suggest the genetic potential for methylotrophy in the deep subsurface, but it has yet to be observed in incubations. A subset of Expedition 337 anoxic incubations were prepared with a range of 13C-methyl substrates (methane, methylamine, and methanol) and maintained near in situ temperatures. To observe 13C methyl compound metabolism over time, we monitored the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (by-product of methyl compound metabolism) over a period of 1.5 years. Elemental analysis (EA), ion chromatograph (IC), 13C volatile fatty acid (VFA), and mineral-associated microscopy data were also collected to constrain initial and endpoint conditions in these incubations. Our geochemical evidence suggests that the coal horizon incubated with 13C-methane showed the highest activity of all methyl incubations. This provides the first known observation of methane-activated metabolism in the deep biosphere, and suggests there are not only active cells in the deeply buried terrigenous coal bed at Shimokita, but the presence of a microbial community activated by methylotrophic compounds.

  16. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Results Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Conclusion Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed. PMID:25686396

  17. A Depth Video Sensor-Based Life-Logging Human Activity Recognition System for Elderly Care in Smart Indoor Environments

    Ahmad Jalal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in depth video sensors technologies have made human activity recognition (HAR realizable for elderly monitoring applications. Although conventional HAR utilizes RGB video sensors, HAR could be greatly improved with depth video sensors which produce depth or distance information. In this paper, a depth-based life logging HAR system is designed to recognize the daily activities of elderly people and turn these environments into an intelligent living space. Initially, a depth imaging sensor is used to capture depth silhouettes. Based on these silhouettes, human skeletons with joint information are produced which are further used for activity recognition and generating their life logs. The life-logging system is divided into two processes. Firstly, the training system includes data collection using a depth camera, feature extraction and training for each activity via Hidden Markov Models. Secondly, after training, the recognition engine starts to recognize the learned activities and produces life logs. The system was evaluated using life logging features against principal component and independent component features and achieved satisfactory recognition rates against the conventional approaches. Experiments conducted on the smart indoor activity datasets and the MSRDailyActivity3D dataset show promising results. The proposed system is directly applicable to any elderly monitoring system, such as monitoring healthcare problems for elderly people, or examining the indoor activities of people at home, office or hospital.

  18. Change, Gain and Loss

    Fu Mengzi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Five years have passed since the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred. America's counter-terrorism campaign is still on the way.Besides the momentary monumental significance of the fifth anniversary, five years is still too short in regard to the long-term counter-terrorism campaign. Yet, America's president's tenure is eight years at best; most of Bush's presidency time has passed. Five years ago, the U. S. encountered the most serious terrorist attack; the whole nation formed a consensus that counter-terrorism is its utmost priority. President Bush once enjoyed a support rate as high as 90% for over 16 months. But five years later, the trend changes. People can not help but ask: what are the gains and losses of the Republican Party in dealing with national security affairs?

  19. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  20. Physical Activity and Quality of Life among Adults with Paraplegia in Odisha, India

    Shankar Ganesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The complete rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI comprises both physical and psychosocial factors. This study therefore aimed to assess physical activity and quality of life (QOL among paraplegic patients with SCI in Odisha, India. Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted between March 2010 and December 2013. All paraplegic patients treated at the Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research in Odisha, India, during the study period who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study (n = 364. Structured face-to-face interviews were held with participants and QOL and physical activity were assessed using the abbreviated World Health Organization QOL instrument and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities, respectively. Results: A total of 84 people participated in the study (response rate: 23.1%. The mean age was 32.54 ± 10.75 years and 90.5% of the participants were male. Participants had a low mean metabolic equivalent score (18.18 ± 10.68 hours/day. Additionally, low mean scores were noted for the physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment QOL domains (49.76 ± 18.74, 48.57 ± 17.04, 57.88 ± 17.04 and 49.85 ± 17.77, respectively. There was a strong positive association between levels of physical activity and all QOL domains (P <0.050. Physical activity and employment status were significant predictors of all QOL domains (P <0.001. Conclusion: Low physical activity levels and QOL were noted among the paraplegic subjects. Interventions promoting physical activity and employment may help to improve QOL among this patient group.

  1. The Effects of Regular Physical Activity at Home on Patients' Quality of Life after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Zeinab Amirian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diseases such as heart diseases have adverse effects on the physical, psychological, social performance, and overall quality of life of patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of regular physical activity at home on the quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: This Quasi-experimental study was carried out on patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgeries. 58 patients from Urmia Syedolshoheda hospital were selected randomly and then allocated into two intervention and control groups randomly. Data collected with using MacNew quality of life questionnaire. Patients in intervention group were trained with combined exercises at least three times a week and performed this exercises for 12 week at home. Data were analyzed using Chi-sqaure, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon testes. Results: Findings of the study showed promotion in quality of life domains in physical, emotional and social after performance of regular physical activity at home in intervention group (P=0.001. A significant difference was observed between patients quality of life after regular physical activity in intervention and the control groups (P=0.001. Conclusion: Regular physical activity at home has important effects on patients' promotion of quality of life after coronary artery bypass surgeries. Therefore, it is suggested that after CABG patients be trained with regular physical activity at home.

  2. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients.

  3. Life at the wedge: the activity and diversity of arctic ice wedge microbial communities.

    Wilhelm, Roland C; Radtke, Kristin J; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Greer, Charles W; Whyte, Lyle G

    2012-04-01

    The discovery of polygonal terrain on Mars underlain by ice heightens interest in the possibility that this water-bearing habitat may be, or may have been, a suitable habitat for extant life. The possibility is supported by the recurring detection of terrestrial microorganisms in subsurface ice environments, such as ice wedges found beneath tundra polygon features. A characterization of the microbial community of ice wedges from the high Arctic was performed to determine whether this ice environment can sustain actively respiring microorganisms and to assess the ecology of this extreme niche. We found that ice wedge samples contained a relatively abundant number of culturable cells compared to other ice habitats (∼10(5) CFU·mL(-1)). Respiration assays in which radio-labeled acetate and in situ measurement of CO(2) flux were used suggested low levels of microbial activity, though more sensitive techniques are required to confirm these findings. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, bacterial and archaeal ice wedge communities appeared to reflect surrounding soil communities. Two Pseudomonas sp. were the most abundant taxa in the ice wedge bacterial library (∼50%), while taxa related to ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota occupied 90% of the archaeal library. The tolerance of a variety of isolates to salinity and temperature revealed characteristics of a psychrotolerant, halotolerant community. Our findings support the hypothesis that ice wedges are capable of sustaining a diverse, plausibly active microbial community. As such, ice wedges, compared to other forms of less habitable ground ice, could serve as a reservoir for life on permanently cold, water-scarce, ice-rich extraterrestrial bodies and are therefore of interest to astrobiologists and ecologists alike. .

  4. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SELF-ESTEEM, AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITY.

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Suttiwong, Jattuporn; Sullivan, Patricia E; Nilanthi, Deepika L H K

    2016-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve health and quality of life (QOL) of healthy people. However, the association between PA and QOL among people with physical disability (PWPD) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between factors including intensity of PA, activitiy in daily living (ADL), stress, and self-esteem that influences self-reported QOL among PWPD. The relationships were further explored using the in-depth interview method to find out whether the intensity of PA, stress, and self-esteem are related to QOL perception in PWPD. One hundred sixty PWPD aged 18-48 years who studied at a vocational school were enrolled. A mixed method case study was conducted: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview. Five questionnaires, including the Barthel Index, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were distributed. QOL was measured using the WHOQOL_BREF. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors for QOL prediction. For in-depth interview, ten persons from each group (poor-to-fair and good QOL) volunteered to explore further about life satisfaction related to physical disability. One hundred forty-six (91%) subjects completed all questionnaires. One hundred fourteen (77%) reported poor-to-fair QOL. QOL was explained by self-esteem and ADL (adjusted R² 34.7%, p activities (28.40 ± 30.20 MET hour/day) compared to poor and fair QOL (17.94 ± 22.06 and 21.70 ± 17.75 MET hour/day). Those who had good QOL reported that they were proud to be independent and did not feel inferior. PA participation among people with disabilities should therefore be encouraged.

  5. The social basis of the development of physical activity of students in terms of their quality of life

    Leyfa A.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the theoretical foundations of social development, physical activity of students in terms of the promotion to enhance their quality of life. The social basis of the phenomenon of physical activity of students in terms of improving their quality of life is shown. It is established that the problem of the formation of students’ physical activity should take into account features of mental and physical condition, their future careers. The conditions and the sequence of the formation of the physical activity of students are found out. It is substantiated the feasibility of higher education in the practice of modern educational technology to improve the quality of life of students. It is proved that the formation of the physical activity of students must pass from the external to the internal plan of the mind.

  6. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate

  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients in a clinical pathway gained less in health-related quality of life as compared with patients who undergo CABG in a conventional-care plan

    El Baz, Noha; Middel, Berrie; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Boonstra, Piet W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the difference between clinical pathway (CP) and conventional care in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains, depression and anxiety, as well as to determine the relative contribution of CP towards an improved HRQoL after coronary artery bypass

  8. Activities for gaining insight into IASCC and continuous evaluation of in-service inspection data; Arbeiten zu IASCC und Kontinuierliche Auswertung und Bewertung der Ergebnisse der wiederkehrenden Pruefungen

    Huettner, F.; Weber, G.; Wuensch, G.

    1999-06-01

    The report is a documentation of the important results of various international studies conducted to gain insight into the occurrence, mechanisms, and characteristic features of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking, IASCC, as well as measures preventing IASCC in light water reactors. The major information can be summarised as follows: the number of cases of damage clearly induced by IASCC is low, as compared to the damage induced by intergranular stress corrosion cracking, IGSCC. In fact, recent information from a review of documented stress corrosion cracking damage of BWR type reactor internals reveals that an increasing number of cracks formerly thought to have been caused by IASCC now can be attributed to ICSCC as the most probable cause. Generally speaking, current knowledge of the impact of ionizing radiation on the corrosion resistance of LWR materials is rather insufficient. (orig./CB) [German] Ziel des Berichts ist es, die aus internationalen Untersuchungen bekannt gewordenen wichtigsten Erkenntnisse zu Umfang, Mechanismen, Charakterisierung und Vermeidung von IASCC in Leichtwasserreaktoren zusammenzufassen. Die Ergebnisse lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen: Die Zahl der eindeutig auf IASCC zurueckzufuehrenden Schadensfaelle ist gering im Vergleich zur Anzahl der Schaeden infolge interkristalliner Spannungsrisskorrosion (IGSCC). Insgesamt ist bei der Beurteilung von Risslorrosionsschaeden an RDB-Einbauten in SWR in juengerer Zeit die Tendenz zu verzeichnen, dass bei Rissbildungen, welche zunaechst ursaechlich der IASCC zugeordnet wurden, zunehmend interkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion (IGSCC) als wahrscheinliche Schadensursache in Betracht gezogen wird. Insgesamt ist der Wissensstand ueber den Einfluss ionisierender Strahlung auf das Korrosionsverhalten von LWR-Werkstoffen noch lueckenhaft. (orig./MM)

  9. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments

    Soneral, Paula A. G.; Wyse, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech “Mock-up” version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi-­experimental setup. The same instructor taught two sections of an introductory biology course in the SCALE-UP and Mock-up rooms. Although students in both sections were equivalent in terms of gender, grade point average, incoming ACT, and drop/fail/withdraw rate, the Mock-up classroom enrolled significantly more freshmen. Controlling for class standing, multiple regression modeling revealed no significant differences in exam, in-class, preclass, and Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology Concept Inventory scores between the SCALE-UP and Mock-up classrooms. Thematic analysis of student comments highlighted that collaboration and whiteboards enhanced the learning experience, but technology was not important. Student satisfaction and attitudes were comparable. These results suggest that the benefits of a SCALE-UP experience can be achieved at lower cost without technology features. PMID:28213582

  10. Gain Efficient L-band EDFA With Dynamic Gain Equalization

    Xiaoli Hui; Rujian Lin

    2003-01-01

    A gain efficient L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with dynamic gain equalization is presented. Using a single fiber Bragg grating and a static equalizer, the gain is clamped at 27dB with less than 0.5dB variations over 35nm.

  11. The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility Activity toward Customer Loyalty through Improvement of Quality of Life in Urban Area

    Tengku Ezni Balqiah; Hapsari Setyowardhani; Khairani Khairani

    2011-01-01

    The success of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities can create competitive advantage by influencing customer responses to firms’ offering. Customer’s awareness of CSR activity will influence their loyalty through their perception that activity can improve society’s quality of life where the CSR activities were implemented. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between CSR awareness and loyalty that mediated by CSR Belief, Company Ability Belief, Quality of Li...

  12. Portuguese nursing: history of the life and activism of Maria Augusta Sousa

    Deybson Borba de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the history of the life and activism of Portuguese nurse Maria Augusta Sousa. METHOD Sousa's life story was obtained by means of semi-structured interview swith Sousa as the oral source of data. NVivo qualitative research software was used for data analysis. Content analysis focused on thematic analysis based on the theoretical and philosophical ideas of Michel Foucault, in particular, power and techniques of the self. RESULTS Alienation and political participation were revealed as pertinent issues. In techniques of production of activist subjects, the following were highlighted: the importance of the review of formal education; actions of involvement with the world, society and the profession; and finally, techniques of the self, techniques of constitution of activist subjects, professional identity and way of being. CONCLUSION The constitution of the nurse Maria Augusta Sousa as an activist came about through questioning of how to be, education in the context of her family, and political engagement in Catholic Youth. This impacted her trajectory of contributions to Portuguese nursing, as expressed in the following achievements: the integration of nursing training into higher education; the creation of the Regulation of Nurses Professional Practice; and implementation of the Order of Nurses.

  13. Study on impact of dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense on life activities of marine bivalves

    Yan Tian(颜天); Zhou Mingjiang(周名江); Fu Meng(傅萌); Wang Liping

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a PSP producing dinoflagellate Ale xandrium tamarense on marine bivalvesat their several important life stages: egg, D- shape larva, eyespot larva, juvenile and adult, were stud-ied. The results show that the hatching, survival, activity, filtration and growth were adversely affectedby the alga and the impact was significantly increased with the increase of algal density. The inhibitoryeffect on egg hatching was most significant, which the hatching rate was only 30% of the control whenexposed to the alga at 100 cell/cm3 after 36 h. Further experiments show that the algal culture, re-sus-pended cells and cell fragments had the inhibitory effect, while no such effect was from the cell-freemedium, cell contents and standard STX. The results indicate that the alga could produce unknown tox-ins, rather than PSP, associated with the cell surface.

  14. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-30

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  15. Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

    Miriane Lilian Barboza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities.

  16. Detection of Activities by Wireless Sensors for Daily Life Surveillance: Eating and Drinking

    Chen Khong Tham

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a two-stage approach to the detection of people eating and/or drinking for the purposes of surveillance of daily life. With the sole use of wearable accelerometer sensor attached to somebody’s (man or a woman wrists, this two-stage approach consists of feature extraction followed by classification. At the first stage, based on the limb’s three dimensional kinematics movement model and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF, the realtime arm movement features described by Euler angles are extracted from the raw accelerometer measurement data. In the latter stage, the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM network is adopted to classify the extracted features of the eating/drinking activities based on the space and time varying property of the features, by making use of the powerful modelling capability of HTM network on dynamic signals which is varying with both space and time. The proposed approach is tested through the real eating and drinking activities using the three dimensional accelerometers. Experimental results show that the EKF and HTM based two-stage approach can perform the activity detection successfully with very high accuracy.

  17. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  18. Structure and function relationship of toxin from Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmKAGAP): gaining insight into related sites of analgesic activity.

    Cui, Yong; Guo, Gui-Li; Ma, Lin; Hu, Nan; Song, Yong-Bo; Liu, Yan-Feng; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Jing-Hai

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an effective Escherichia coli expression system was used to study the role of residues in the antitumor-analgesic peptide from Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmKAGAP). To evaluate the extent to which residues of the toxin core contribute to its analgesic activity, nine mutants of BmKAGAP were obtained by PCR. Using site-directed mutagenesis, all of these residues were individually substituted by one amino acid. These were then subjected to a circular dichroism analysis, and an analgesic activity assay in mice. This study represents a thorough mapping and elucidation of the epitopes that underlie the molecular basis of the analgesic activity. The three-dimensional structure of BmKAGAP was established by homology modeling. Our results revealed large mutant-dependent differences that indicated important roles for the studied residues. With our ongoing efforts for establishing the structure and analgesic activity relationship of BmKAGAP, we have succeeded in pinpointing which residues are important for the analgesic activity.

  19. Preventing Weight Gain

    ... this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button About Us Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition ...

  20. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working g...

  1. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    M. Calderon (Moises); P. Demoly; T.B. Casale (Thomas); C.A. Akdis; C. Bachert (Claus); Bewick, M.; Bilò, B.M.; B. Bohle (B.); S. Bonini (Sergio); A. Bush (Andrew); Caimmi, D.P.; G. Canonica (Gwalter); D. Cardona (Doris); A.M. Chiriac (A.); L. Cox (Linda); A. Custovic; F. de Blay; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Di Lorenzo, G.; G. Du Toit (George); S.R. Durham (Stephen); C. Eng (Charis); A. Fiocchi (Alessandro); Fox, A.T.; R.G. van Wijk (Roy Gerth); Gomez, R.M.; Haathela, T.; S. Halken (Susanne); P.W. Hellings (P.); L. Jacobsen; P.M. Just; Tanno, L.K.; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); L. Klimek (Ludger); E.F. Knol (Edward Frank); P. Kuna; D. Larenas-Linnemann (Désirée); A. Linneberg (Allan); Matricardi, M.; H.-J. Malling; Moesges, R.; Mullol, J.; Muraro, A.; N. Papadopoulos; G. Passalacqua (Giovanni); Pastorello, E.; O. Pfaar (Oliver); D. Price (David); P.R. Del Rio (P. Rodriguez); Ruëff, R.; Samolinski, B.; G.K. Scadding; Senti, G.; Shamji, M.H.; A. Sheikh (Aziz); J.C. Sisul (J.); D. Solé (D.); G.J. Sturm; Tabar, A.; R. Van Ree; Ventura, M.T.; C. Vidal (Carmen); E.M. Varga; M. Worm (M.); T. Zuberbier (Torsten); J. Bousquet (Jean)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAllergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a

  2. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins: Reliability and Association With Subsequent Survival

    Løkkegaard, Laura E.; Larsen, Lisbeth A.; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We aimed to investigate the association between self-reported lifestyle factors and subsequent survival in 347 Danish twin pairs aged 70 years and older and, additionally, to investigate the reliability of these self-reports. The twins were interviewed in 2003 and followed for mortality until 2015. They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa values for the inter-twin agreement on who ate the most were 0.16 to 0.34 in different life stages, and for physical activity 0.19 to 0.26, corresponding to a slight-to-fair agreement. Approximately, 50% of the twin pairs were not in agreement regarding physical activity, and of these twins 75% (95% CI: 67–82%) considered themselves the most active twin. These findings indicate a still-existing tendency of answering according to social norms, even in a twin study designed to minimize this. PMID:27485765

  3. The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility Activity toward Customer Loyalty through Improvement of Quality of Life in Urban Area

    Tengku Ezni Balqiah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR activities can create competitive advantage by influencing customer responses to firms’ offering. Customer’s awareness of CSR activity will influence their loyalty through their perception that activity can improve society’s quality of life where the CSR activities were implemented. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between CSR awareness and loyalty that mediated by CSR Belief, Company Ability Belief, Quality of Life, and Company Reputation using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The result shows little differrences among five firms/brands as the object of the research, that are beverage, soap, car, lubricant, and cigarette. This result has an implication for the firm that CSR activities are not just cost center activities, but also can create reputation, and in the long run can create customer loyalty that contributes to firm’s financial benefit.

  4. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neuro...

  5. Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest (ALASCA and the effectiveness of an early intervention service: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Bakx Wilbert GM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac arrest survivors may experience hypoxic brain injury that results in cognitive impairments which frequently remain unrecognised. This may lead to limitations in daily activities and participation in society, a decreased quality of life for the patient, and a high strain for the caregiver. Publications about interventions directed at improving quality of life after survival of a cardiac arrest are scarce. Therefore, evidence about effective rehabilitation programmes for cardiac arrest survivors is urgently needed. This paper presents the design of the ALASCA (Activity and Life After Survival of a Cardiac Arrest trial, a randomised, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a new early intervention service for survivors of a cardiac arrest and their caregivers. Methods/design The study population comprises all people who survive two weeks after a cardiac arrest and are admitted to one of the participating hospitals in the Southern part of the Netherlands. In a two-group randomised, controlled clinical trial, half of the participants will receive an early intervention service. The early intervention service consists of several consultations with a specialised nurse for the patient and their caregiver during the first three months after the cardiac arrest. The intervention is directed at screening for cognitive problems, provision of informational, emotional and practical support, and stimulating self-management. If necessary, referral to specialised care can take place. Persons in the control group will receive the care as usual. The primary outcome measures are the extent of participation in society and quality of life of the patient one year after a cardiac arrest. Secondary outcome measures are the level of cognitive, emotional and cardiovascular impairment and daily functioning of the patient, as well as the strain for and quality of life of the caregiver. Participants and their caregivers will be followed

  6. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  7. Effects of a physical activity program on the quality of life among elderly people in Brazil

    da Fonte, Eduardo; Feitosa, Pedro Henrique; de Oliveira Neto, Luiz Teixeira; de Araújo, Carla Leal; Figueiroa, José Natal; Alves, João Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people in the “Academia da Cidade program” (ACP), a public Brazilian Government Program encourages physical and leisure activity in Recife, Brazil. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 181 elderly people attending the “ACP” at least twice a week. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data were presented according to World Health Organization QOL (WHOQOL)-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD scores. Results: Univariate analysis showed that WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD scores were positively associated with longer duration of participation in “ACP,” P < 0.030 and P < 0.003, respectively, a multivariate regression analysis showed that duration of participation in “ACP” remained associated with higher WHOQOL-BREF (P = 0.023) and WHOQOL-OLD (P = 0.038) scores. Conclusion: A longer duration of participation in a community-based physical activity program, “ACP,” may contribute to a better QOL for the elderly in Brazil. PMID:27453859

  8. College Activities and Environmental Factors Associated with the Development of Life-Long Learning Competencies of College Seniors. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Hayek, John C.; Kuh, George D.

    This study examined college activities and environmental factors associated with the acquisition of continuous learning skills, looking at where students who report the greatest gains in continuous learning devote the most time and energy and at the student and institutional characteristics associated with above-average gains in the capacity for…

  9. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E. Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M. Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire a...

  10. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  11. Gain Flattening Filter Canceling Temperature Dependence of EDFA s gain

    M.; Ohmura; Y.; Ishizawa; H.; Nakaji; K.; Hashimoto; T.; Shibata; M.; Shigehara; A.; Inoue

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a gain flattening filter (GFF) for an erbium doped fiber (EDF) without temperature control systems. This GFF, which consists of temperature-sensitive long period gratings (LPGs) and a temperature compensated slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG), follows the gain shift of EDF with temperature. Gain variation of the EDFA less than 0.25dBp-p was achieved with the bandwidth of 37nm, and the temperature range 0-65℃ without any temperature control systems.

  12. Transcriptional responses to loss or gain of function of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene uncover biological processes modulated by LRRK2 activity

    Nikonova, Elena V.; Xiong, Yulan; Tanis, Keith Q.; Dawson, Valina L.; Vogel, Robert L.; Finney, Eva M.; Stone, David J.; Reynolds, Ian J.; Kern, Jonathan T.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) and cause both autosomal dominant familial and sporadic PD. Currently, the physiological and pathogenic activities of LRRK2 are poorly understood. To decipher the biological functions of LRRK2, including the genes and pathways modulated by LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo, we assayed genome-wide mRNA expression in the brain and peripheral tissues from LRRK2 knockout (KO) and kinase hyperactive G2019S (G2019S) transgenic mice. Subtle but significant differences in mRNA expression were observed relative to wild-type (WT) controls in the cortex, striatum and kidney of KO animals, but only in the striatum in the G2019S model. In contrast, robust, consistent and highly significant differences were identified by the direct comparison of KO and G2019S profiles in the cortex, striatum, kidney and muscle, indicating opposite effects on mRNA expression by the two models relative to WT. Ribosomal and glycolytic biological functions were consistently and significantly up-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S compared with LRRK2 KO tissues. Genes involved in membrane-bound organelles, oxidative phosphorylation, mRNA processing and the endoplasmic reticulum were down-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S mice compared with KO. We confirmed the expression patterns of 35 LRRK2-regulated genes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These findings provide the first description of the transcriptional responses to genetically modified LRRK2 activity and provide preclinical target engagement and/or pharmacodynamic biomarker strategies for LRRK2 and may inform future therapeutic strategies for LRRK2-associated PD. PMID:21972245

  13. 基于作业成本法的医疗服务项目盈亏分析%Analysis on gain and loss of medical service project based on activity-based costing

    陈民; 王瑞云

    2016-01-01

    Analysis on gain and loss of medical service project based on activity-based costing is an important part of the establishment of refinement cost management system in hospital. Through the gain and loss analysis, hospital can improve management and operation efficiency, reduce the medical service cost, and increase the economic benefits. This paper took the department of Endocrinology ward in county hospital as an example to analyze the gain and loss of medical service project and cost structure using the activity-based costing method, to understand the reason of the cost formation, and to put forward some suggestions for improvement of medical project cost management.%基于作业成本法的医疗服务项目盈亏分析是医院建立成本精细化管理体系的重要组成部分。通过项目盈亏分析,医院可以据此改进管理,提高自身运行效率,同时降低各项医疗服务项目的成本,增加医院的经济效益。本文以县级医院内分泌科病区为例,运用作业成本法对医疗服务项目盈亏、成本构成进行分析,了解各项成本形成的原因,并据此对医疗项目成本管理提出改进建议。

  14. Multi-subject/daily-life activity EMG-based control of mechanical hands

    Fiorilla Angelo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forearm surface electromyography (EMG has been in use since the Sixties to feed-forward control active hand prostheses in a more and more refined way. Recent research shows that it can be used to control even a dexterous polyarticulate hand prosthesis such as Touch Bionics's i-LIMB, as well as a multifingered, multi-degree-of-freedom mechanical hand such as the DLR II. In this paper we extend previous work and investigate the robustness of such fine control possibilities, in two ways: firstly, we conduct an analysis on data obtained from 10 healthy subjects, trying to assess the general applicability of the technique; secondly, we compare the baseline controlled condition (arm relaxed and still on a table with a "Daily-Life Activity" (DLA condition in which subjects walk, raise their hands and arms, sit down and stand up, etc., as an experimental proxy of what a patient is supposed to do in real life. We also propose a cross-subject model analysis, i.e., training a model on a subject and testing it on another one. The use of pre-trained models could be useful in shortening the time required by the subject/patient to become proficient in using the hand. Results A standard machine learning technique was able to achieve a real-time grip posture classification rate of about 97% in the baseline condition and 95% in the DLA condition; and an average correlation to the target of about 0.93 (0.90 while reconstructing the required force. Cross-subject analysis is encouraging although not definitive in its present state. Conclusion Performance figures obtained here are in the same order of magnitude of those obtained in previous work about healthy subjects in controlled conditions and/or amputees, which lets us claim that this technique can be used by reasonably any subject, and in DLA situations. Use of previously trained models is not fully assessed here, but more recent work indicates it is a promising way ahead.

  15. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Diabetes-39. Demographic data, diabetes symptoms, time of initial diagnosis, and treatment procedure/approaches were recorded. [Results] Of the study subjects, 51 (39.5%) had low, 67 had moderate (51.9%), and 11 (8.5%) had high activity levels. The mean weekly sitting duration was 302 minutes. The mean weekly walking time was 231.7 minutes. Except for the "diabetes control" domain, scores for all the subgroups and the total score in the quality-of-life assessment had a statistically significant negative correlation with physical activity level. [Discussion] Physical inactivity negatively affects the quality of life of diabetic patients. A planned exercise education program and incorporation of exercise into the lifestyle can improve the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study physical activity intervention

    Rejeski WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9  On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of

  17. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Blake J Lawrence

    Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  18. Representations of happiness and life satisfaction in the group of educated and socially active young people

    Kokurina, Irina G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the differences in the social representations of happiness among optimists and pessimists in the group of socially active, educated young members of the international youth organization Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales . To assess the degree of optimism and pessimism we used the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS developed by E. Diener, while social representation, divided into the nucleus and peripheral zones, were examined using Verges’ technique within the framework of the concept of social mindsets offered by S. Moskovichi. It has been shown that, irrespective of the optimism or pessimism of the participants, the nucleus of their representations of happiness contains such a value as love. However, only in optimists’ representations is this value combined in the nucleus with the values of family and friendship. In the pessimists’ nucleus zone of the representation of happiness, love is presented as an independent value, primarily associated with striking emotional experiences, which has aspects of psychological addiction. Considerable differences between optimists and pessimists have also been found in the peripheral zone of the representation of happiness. Only optimists have such associations as “knowledge”, “children”, and “faith” in their peripheral area. In our opinion, the major scale of differences between optimists and pessimists is formed by the factor of sociocentricity and egocentricity.

  19. "To me, it's my life": medical communication, trust, and activism in cyberspace.

    Radin, Patricia

    2006-02-01

    This paper studies the conversations and activities of an online support group for breast cancer sufferers and survivors and their supporters. Using communications medium theory and social capital theory, it examines the mundane and profound exchanges, the poignant self-disclosures, the creative expressions of solidarity, and the minor but not-insignificant political actions of people--initially strangers--who come together as a 'virtuous circle,' not only to assist with medical issues but also to meet emotional and even material needs. Sponsored by the Canadian nonprofit organization Breast Cancer Action Nova Scotia (BCANS), this virtual community has logged over a half million messages since 1996. Not every BCANS participant is an activist--many are just trying to grapple with their disease--but some find ways to shatter the professional "information monopoly," and to press for healthcare improvements. The study illustrates the scope, passion, and complexity of peer-to-peer medical communication in a virtual environment that promotes "thick trust". BCANS participants discuss with candor, warmth and even humor such painful topics as death and dying and the crises in intimate relationships brought about by a terminal illness. The sharing of confidences and fears enables participants to pool their 'collective intelligence' about many things, from how to cope with swelling, to how to think about end-of-life issues, to how to improve social policy.

  20. Manual of positioning orientation and execution of activities of daily life for stroke patients

    Natalia Cristina Thinen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this manuscript is to guide caregiversin relation to the lying position in bed, activities of daily life (ADL, position transfer, and hospital discharge preparation of Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVApatients by means of verbal orientation, finalizing with the handing over of manuals. Ten caregivers participated in the study. The methodology consisted of two phases: in the first part of the study, a survey was conducted on caregivers’ doubts regarding the necessities of Stroke patients; in the second part, orientation was provided to caregivers and the information manuals were handed over; caregivers were also requested to evaluate the respective manuals. Results showed that none of the caregivers knew the correct positioning of the patient in bed and, considering the illustrations and the objectivity of the manual, all caregivers interviewed demonstrated positive perception regarding the manual, and reported that its guidance improved their way of caring for patients. We conclude that caregivers have been instructed and guided, acquiring information and conditions to initiate the rehabilitation process at home.

  1. The importance of physical activity and diet in the life of female students

    Rafał Pawłowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The lifestyle is known to be the most influential factor for maintaining a good health condition. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition are two factors that suport each other in a negative way and result in an increasing number of obese people. Irregular nutrition is often closely related to irregular academic life. Aim of the research: The objective of this research is to find out how female students perceive health – how they understand and define it. Another objective is to determine whether nurses-to-be and psychiatrists-to-be perceive health differently than other students and whether their health-esteem is backed with their free-time physical activity and regular nutrition. It is crucial to find out what factors, according to the research, have the biggest influence on people’s health. Material and methods: The research involved 180 female students of full-time courses at the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce: 98 female students of the Health Sciences Faculty and 82 female students of other faculties. The method of a diagnostic survey and a questionnaire were used in the research. Results : The female students perceived health as a quality, well-being, an absence of disease; and for female nursing students health was not only the absence of disease or disability but also biopsychosocial well-being. The most important factors that influence the health condition are physical activity and nutrition. A high evaluation does not correspond to taking care of one’s health. Fewer than 8% of the female students practised sport in their free time and ate regularly. More than a half neither did sport nor ate regularly (Pearson’s contingency coefficient C reaches a value of 0.1. Conclusions : The female nursing students, contrary to the female students of other faculties, perceive health in the same way as the World Health Organisation. Regardless of faculty, physical activity and regular nutrition are considered to be

  2. Metallomics for drug development: a further insight into intracellular activation chemistry of a ruthenium(III)-based anticancer drug gained using a multidimensional analytical approach.

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Prządka, Monika; Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Czarnocki, Zbigniew; Pawlak, Katarzyna; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Jarosz, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism by which the most relevant ruthenium anticancer drugs are activated in tumors to commence their tumor-inhibiting action remains one of the challenging research tasks of present-day metallomics. This contribution aims to capture and identify eventually more reactive species of one of two bis-indazole tetrachloridoruthenate(III) compounds that are progressing in clinical trials. In view of the fact that the transport of ruthenium into cancer cells is governed by transferrin receptors, the susceptibility of the Ru drug adduct with holo-transferrin to exposure by glutathione and ascorbic acid (at their cancer cytosol concentrations) was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following isolation of the reaction products by ultrafiltration. Next, capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS was applied to monitor changes in the Ru speciation both under simulated cancer cytosol conditions and in real cytosol and to assign the charge state of novel metal species. The latter were identified by using tandem electrospray ionization MS in the respective ion mode. The formation of ruthenium(II) species was for the first time revealed, in which the central metal is coordinated by the reduced (GSH) or the oxidized (GSSG) form of glutathione, i.e. [Ru(II)HindCl4(GSH)](2-) and [Ru(II)HindCl4(GSSG)](2-), respectively (Hind = indazole). Ascorbic acid released the ruthenium functionality from the protein-bound form in a different way, the products of adduct cleavage containing aqua ligands. Distribution of low-molecular mass species of Ru in human cytosol was found to have very much in common with the ruthenium speciation assayed under simulated cytosol conditions.

  3. Domain-specific physical activity and health-related quality of life in university students.

    Pedišić, Zeljko; Rakovac, Marija; Titze, Sylvia; Jurakić, Danijel; Oja, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Information on the relationship between domain-specific physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population and specific groups is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PA in work, transport, domestic and leisure-time domains and HRQoL among university students. PA and HRQoL were assessed in a random stratified sample of 1750 university students using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form and 12-item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. The Spearman's rank correlations, adjusted for age, community size, personal monthly budget, body mass index, smoking habits and alcohol intake ranged from -0.11 to 0.18 in female students and -0.29 to 0.19 in male students. Leisure-time, domestic, transport-related PA and total PA were positively related to HRQoL. Inverse correlations with HRQoL were only found for work-related PA in male students. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only leisure-time PA was related to the Physical Summary Component score (β = 0.08 for females and β = 0.10 for males, P HRQoL, future studies should not only analyse total PA levels but also domain-specific PA levels. The evidence on the positive relationship of leisure-time, transport and domestic PA with HRQoL can potentially be used to support evidence-based promotion of PA in a university setting, and as a hypothesis for future longitudinal studies on such potential causal relationships.

  4. Health-related quality of life and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    Gholam Hossein Alishiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to 1 investigate the degrees of correlations between different disease activity scores (DASs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and 2 determine if DASs correlate with either physical or mental HRQoL. Methods: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA were assessed for different DASs, measured with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or C-reactive protein (CRP, namely DAS4-ESR, DAS-3 ESR, DAS4-CRP, DAS3-CRP, DAS4-28 ESR, DAS3-28 ESR, DAS4-28 CRP, and DAS3-28 CRP, and Simplified Disease Activity Indexes namely SDAI-ESR, and SDAI-CRP. Physical and mental HRQoL were measured using the SF-36. The Pearson correlation test was employed to examine the correlations between HRQoL and different DAS indices. PASS 2000 (Power Analysis and Sample Size software was utilized to find significant differences between the correlations. Results: SF-36 total score showed a significant inverse correlation with the DAS4-ESR, DAS-3 ESR, DAS4-CRP, DAS3-CRP, DAS4-28 ESR, DAS3-28 ESR, DAS4-28 CRP, and DAS3-28 CRP, with correlation coefficients of -0.320, -0.314, -0.330, -0.323, -0.327, -0.318, -0.360 and -0.348, respectively (P < 0.01 for all. The correlation coefficients between different DAS indices and the HRQoL score were not significantly different. In addition, all DASs showed significant correlations with physical HRQoL, but not with mental HRQoL. Conclusions: Among patients with RA, disease severity indices are associated with physical, but not mental HRQoL. However this study failed to show any differences between various DASs in their clinical use.

  5. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being.

  6. The V1 Population Gains Normalization

    Ganmor, Elad; Okun, Michael; Lampl, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Busse et al. describe the population response to superimposed visual stimuli while Sit et al. examine the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical activation in response to small visual stimuli. Surprisingly, these two studies of V1 report that a single gain control model accoun

  7. Dietary fortificant iron intake is negatively associated with quality of life in patients with mildly active inflammatory bowel disease

    Powell Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia and oral iron supplementation have been associated negatively with quality of life, and with adverse effects, respectively, in subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Hence, the risk-benefit ratio of oral iron is not understood in this patient group. The present case–control study investigated whether dietary iron intake impacts on quality of life in IBD patients. Methods Quality of life, habitual dietary iron intakes and iron requirements were assessed in 29 patients with inactive or mildly active IBD as well as in 28 healthy control subjects. Results As expected, quality of life was worse in IBD patients as a whole in comparison to healthy controls according to EuroQol score and EuroQol VAS percentage (6.9 ± 1.6 vs 5.3 ± 0.6; pvs 88 ± 12%; p=0.004 respectively. For IBD subjects, 21/29 were iron deplete based upon serum iron responses to oral iron but, overall, were non-anaemic with mean haemoglobin of 13.3 ± 1.5 g/dL, and there was no difference in their quality of life compared to 8/29 iron replete subjects (Hb 14.0 ± 0.8 g/dL. Interestingly, total dietary iron intake was significantly negatively associated with quality of life in IBD patients, specifically for non-haem iron and, more specifically, for fortificant iron. Moreover, for total non-haem iron the negative association disappeared when fortificant iron values were subtracted. Finally, further sub-analysis indicated that the negative association between (fortificant dietary iron intake and quality of life in IBD patients is driven by findings in patients with mildly active disease rather than in patients with quiescent disease. Conclusions Iron deficiency per se (i.e. without concomitant anaemia does not appear to further affect quality of life in IBD patients with inactive or mildly active disease. However, in this preliminary study, dietary iron intake, particularly fortificant iron, appears to be significantly negatively

  8. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  9. Bridging the Legacy of Activism across Generations: Life Stories of African American Educators in Post-Civil Rights Birmingham

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study takes account of the salience of activism in informing the worldviews and professional practices of a multigenerational sample of 42 African American educators in Birmingham, Alabama. Framed by life course, Black feminist thought, and hip-hop educational research perspectives, the study highlights how the participants…

  10. Association between obesity, quality of life, physical activity and health service utilization in primary care patients with osteoarthritis.

    Rosemann, T.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Herman, K.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of obesity with quality of life, health service utilization and physical activity in a large sample of primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Data were retrieved from the PraxArt project, representing a cohort of 1021 primary care pati

  11. Impact of physical activity on health-related quality of life in osteoporotic and osteopenic postmenopausal women: A systematic review

    Xiao Xu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Only weak evidence supports the notion that physical activity effectively improves the health-related quality of life of osteoporotic and osteopenic postmenopausal women. Compared with a single exercise, combined exercise produced favorable effects on both physical function and pain. However, different lengths of exercise produced improvements in different domains.

  12. The Relationship of Lifetime Achievement Patterns to Life Goals, Activity Participation, Health, and Well-Being among Gifted Aged Women.

    Holahan, Carole K.

    Life goals and commitment are integral to developmental processes and satisfactions in adulthood and aging. Yet the maintenance and pursuit of appropriate goals and commitments during the aging years may pose particular challenges for the individual within the social context of normal aging. This study examined goals, activity participation, and…

  13. Relationships Between Activities, Participation, Personal Factors, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

    van Leeuwen, Christel M.; Post, Marcel W.; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    van Leeuwen CM, Post MW, Westers P, van der Woude LH, de Groot S. Sluis T, Slootman H, Lindeman E. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:82-9. Objective: To clarify rel

  14. The Gains from Improved Market Efficiency

    Persson, Karl Gunnar; Ejrnæs, Mette

    This paper looks at the gains from improved market efficiency in long-distance grain trade in the second half of the 19th century when violations of the law of one price were reduced due to improved information transmission. Two markets, a major export centre, Chicago, and a major importer......, Liverpool, are analyzed. We show that there was a law of one price equilibrium throughout the period but that markets displayed spells of demand- or supply-constrained trade when the law of one price was violated. Over time adjustments back to equilibrium, as measured by the half-life of a shock, become...... faster, violations of the law of one price become smaller and hence less persistent. There were also significant gains from improved market efficiency but that improvement took place after the information ‘regime’ shifted from pre-telegraphic communication to a regime with swift transmission...

  15. Influence of different levels of sports activities on the quality of life after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Ninković Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of this study was to examine the nature and presence of influence of different levels of sports activity on the life quality of the patients a year after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. Material and Methods. The study included 185 patients operated at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, who were followed for twelve months. Data were collected using the modified Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire which included the Lysholm scale. Results. This study included 146 male and 39 female subjects. The reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament was equally successful in both gender groups. In relation to different types of sports activity, there were no differences in the overall life quality measured by the questionnaire and its subscales, regardless of the level (professional or recreational. However, regarding the level of sports activities, there were differences among the subjects engaged in sports activities at the national level as compared with those going in for sports activities at the recreational level, and particularly in comparison with physically inactive population. A significant correlation was not found by examining the aforementioned relationship between sports activities. Conclusions. This study has shown that the overall life quality a year after the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament does not differ in relation to either the gender of the subjects or the type of sports activity, while the level of sports activity does have some influence on the quality of life. Professional athletes have proved to train significantly more intensively after this reconstruction than those going in for sports recreationally.

  16. Nature-culture-health activities as a method of rehabilitation: an evaluation of participants' health, quality of life and function.

    Batt-Rawden, Kari Bjerke; Tellnes, Gunnar

    2005-06-01

    The dramatic increase in sickness absence and disability pensions in recent years are negative side-effects of our welfare society. Among others, people certified as long-term sick are offered participation in a programme of health-promoting activities (salutogenesis) in Asker, Norway. The aim of this study was to evaluate health, quality of life and function among participants included in a programme of community-based nature-culture-health activities. A qualitative evaluation study in 2003 included 30 men and 16 women aged 30-79 years old participating in 12 different health-promoting activities at the Nature-Culture-Health (NaCuHeal) Centre. The group activities were hiking, physical activities, gardening, music, singing, painting, dancing, dialogue groups for men or women, ethics, painting and local history. Around two-thirds of the participants reported to have improved their health status, quality of life and function, particularly when given the opportunity to utilize their own abilities and creativity. Belonging to a themed group seems to play a significant role in increasing self-efficacy and self-esteem. The majority of participants reported improved health, quality of life and functionality when considering returning to work due to their experiences in the NaCuHeal groups. Increasing the population's participation in health-promoting outdoor and cultural activities seem to be a useful method for enhance complete rehabilitation.

  17. Gain Flattening Filter Canceling Temperature Dependence of EDFA's gain

    M. Ohmura; Y. Ishizawa; H. Nakaji; K. Hashimoto; T. Shibata; M. Shigehara; A. Inoue

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a gain flattening filter(GFF) for an erbium doped fiber (EDF) without temperature control systems. This GFF, which consists of temperature-sensitive long period gratings (LPGs)and a temperature compensated slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG), follows the gain shift of EDF with temperature. Gain variation of the EDFA less than 0.25dBp-p was achieved with the bandwidth of 37nm,and the temperature range 0-65℃ without and temperature control systems.

  18. Image formation using stimulated raman scattering gain

    Bespalov, V. G.; Makarov, E. A.; Stasel'ko, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the spatial, noise, and energy characteristics of an amplifier has been performed in the mode of spectral and time selection using subnanosecond stimulated Raman Scattering gain of weak echo signals in crystalline active media that are known for high (up to 10-1 cm/MW) gain coefficients. The possibility to reach high gain values has been demonstrated for weak signals from objects at acceptable angular sizes of the field of vision of an amplifier. To provide a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeds unity over the entire field of vision, the number of photons at the input to an amplifier that is required has to exceed the number of its resolution elements. Accurate determination of the possibilities of recording of weak echo signals and quality of images of targets that are obtained using amplifiers under stimulated Raman Scattering requires additional special experiments.

  19. Exercise improves quality of life in bariatric surgery candidates: Results from the Bari-Active trial

    Bond, Dale S.; Thomas, J. Graham; King, Wendy C.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Ryder, Beth A.; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of a pre-bariatric surgery physical activity intervention (PAI), designed to increase bout-related (≥10-minute) moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS Analyses included 75 adult participants (86.7% female; BMI=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or standard pre-surgical care (SC; n=35). PAI received six individual weekly counseling sessions to increase walking exercise. Participants wore an objective PA monitor for 7 days and completed the SF-36 Health Survey at baseline and post-intervention to evaluate bout-related MVPA and HRQoL changes, respectively. RESULTS PAI increased bout-related MVPA from baseline to post-intervention (4.4±5.5 to 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) versus no change (7.9±16.6 to 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). PAI reported greater improvements than SC on all SF-36 physical and mental scales (p<0.05), except role-emotional. In PAI, better baseline scores on the physical function and general health scales predicted greater bout-related MVPA increases (p<0.05), and greater bout-related MVPA increases were associated with greater post-intervention improvements on the physical function, bodily pain, and general health scales (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Increasing PA preoperatively improves physical and mental HRQoL in bariatric surgery candidates. Future studies should examine whether this effect improves surgical safety, weight loss outcomes, and postoperative HRQoL. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00962325 PMID:25611582

  20. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  1. Obesity, Diet, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Endometrial Cancer Survivors

    Knobf, M. Tish; Lanceley, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, low-quality diet, and inactivity are all prevalent among survivors of endometrial cancer. The present review was conducted to assess whether these characteristics are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Electronic databases, conference abstracts, and reference lists were searched, and researchers were contacted for preliminary results of ongoing studies. The quality of the methodology and reporting was evaluated using appropriate checklists. Standardized mean differences were calculated, and data were synthesized narratively. Eight of the 4385 reports retrieved from the literature were included in the analysis. Four of the 8 studies were cross-sectional, 1 was retrospective, 1 was prospective, and 2 were randomized controlled trials. Obesity was negatively associated with overall HRQoL in 4 of 4 studies and with physical well-being in 6 of 6 studies, while it was positively associated with fatigue in 2 of 4 studies. Meeting the recommendations for being physically active, eating a diet high in fruit and vegetables, and abstaining from smoking were positively associated with overall HRQoL in 2 of 2 studies, with physical well-being in 2 of 3 studies, and with fatigue in 1 of 3 studies. Improvements in fatigue and physical well-being were evident after lifestyle interventions. The findings indicate a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in this population, but the number of studies is limited. Additional randomized controlled trials to test effective and practical interventions promoting a healthy lifestyle in survivors of endometrial cancer are warranted. PMID:26011914

  2. The gain from improved market efficiency

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    , Liverpool, are analysed. We show that the law of one price equilibrium was an ‘attractor equilibrium'. The implication is that prices converged to that equilibrium in a tâtonnement process. Because of asymmetrically timed information between markets separated by long distances there were periods of excess...... demand as well as excess supply, which triggered off the tâtonnement process. Over time, adjustments to equilibrium, as measured by the half-life of a shock, became faster and violations of the law of one price become smaller. There were significant gains from improved market efficiency, which took place...

  3. The Assessment of the Quality of Life in Visually Impaired People with Different Level of Physical Activity

    Kamelska Anna Malwina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QOL is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed.

  4. Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Community Dwelling Elderly

    Halaweh, Hadeel; Willen, Carin; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Svantesson, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important factors for optimal health in the elderly. Studying the association between PA and HRQoL is becoming more essential as the number of elderly people increases worldwide. This study assesses the association between PA and HRQoL among community dwelling elderly above 60 years old. Methods The study included 115 women and 61 men (mean age: 68.15 ± 6.74 years) recruited from the community and from public centers for the elderly. Data were collected using a background characteristics questionnaire (BCQ), a physical activity socio-cultural adapted questionnaire (PA-SCAQ), and the EuroQuol-5Dimensions-5Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. Between groups, comparisons were based on the PA-SCAQ by dividing the participants into three PA groups: low (n = 74), moderate (n = 85), and high (n = 17). Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed on the ordinal variables of the three PA groups to determine differences between the groups according to categorical variables such as gender, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of comorbid conditions. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed on the ordinal variables of the EuroQuol-5Dimensions (EQ-5D), and the independent sample t-test was performed on the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the EQ-5D and level of PA. Results Values in all dimensions of HRQoL were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the moderate and high PA groups compared with the low PA group. Significant correlations were recorded between the five dimensions of HRQoL and the level of PA (P < 0.001). The low PA group showed higher prevalence of hypertension (64%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (50%, P < 0.001). Conclusion There were strong associations between higher levels of PA and all dimensions of HRQoL. Therefore, adopting a PA lifestyle may contribute to better HRQoL among community dwelling elderly above 60

  5. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  6. Profinteg: A Tool for Real-Life Assessment of Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    Patrick Anselme

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many instruments for assessing activities of daily living (IADL in brain injured patients, few instruments specifically target cognitive impairment and its impact on IADL. The present study presents the development of the Profinteg instrument, a tool for real-life assessment as well as rehabilitation of IADL in patients with cognitive impairment. This two-stage instrument covers over 90 activities. Psychometric properties of the different Profinteg measures were explored in twenty-five patients with mild to severe cognitive difficulties and twenty-five caregivers. The feasibility of the Profinteg rehabilitation procedure was explored in three patients. Excellent interrater reliability ('r' > 0.90,' ''p' < 0.01 was observed for all measures. Good sensitivity to changes in IADL disability over time was also observed ('T' = 2.37, 'p' < 0.02. Significant improvement of IADL functioning was found after rehabilitation guided by Profinteg assessment. The Profinteg instrument detects with precision the difficulties patients encounter in their real-life setting via (1 assessment of a large number of activities and (2 detailed decomposition of activities into sub-activities. The Profinteg tool also provides promising results for guidance of IADL rehabilitation in the patient's real-life environment.

  7. Improving physical quality of life with group physical activity in the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder

    Mannu Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the change in quality of life over 32 weeks in depressed women assuming antidepressant drug with (experimental group or without (control group physical exercise from a study which results on objective dimension of outcome were already published. Methods Trial with randomized naturalistic control. Patients selected from the clinical activity registries of a Psychiatric University Unit. Inclusion criteria: female, between 40 and 60 years, diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorders (MMD, DSM-IV TR resistant to ongoing treatment. Exclusion criteria: diagnosis of psychotic disorders; any contraindications to physical activity. 30 patients (71.4% of the eligible participated to the study. Cases: 10 randomized patients undergoing pharmacological treatment plus physical activity. Controls: 20 patients undergoing only pharmacological therapy. Quality of life was measured by means of WHOQOL-Bref. Results The patients that made physical activity had their WHOQOL-Bref physical score improved from T0 to T8, the differences was statistically significant. In the control group WHOQOL-Bref physical remains the same and, consequentially, the difference between T0 and T8 do not reach any statistical significance. The perceived quality of life in the other domains did not change during the treatment in both groups. Thus no other differences were found between and within groups. Discussion and Conclusion The data presented in the previous paper found that physical activity seems a good adjunctive treatment in the long term management of patients with MDD. These new data indicated that physical activity may also improve the perceived physical quality of life. The dimensions related with social functioning, environment and psychical well being seem do not improved, unexpectedly, during the trial. Two objective dimension not strictly related to the depressive symptoms improved: social functioning and Clinical Global

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study.

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  9. Are total, intensity- and domain-specific physical activity levels associated with life satisfaction among university students?

    Željko Pedišić

    Full Text Available Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity, domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time, and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, and self-rated health.The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (β = 0.13; p = <0.001, younger age (β = -0.07; p = 0.024, higher disposable income (β = 0.10; p = 0.001, and better self-rated health (β = 0.30; p = <0.001. No significant association was found between life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567, smoking status (p = 0.056, alcohol consumption (p = 0.058, or BMI (p = 0.508. Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (β = 0.06; p = 0.045.This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the

  10. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  11. The Evaluation of Daily Life Activities after Application of an Osseointegrated Prosthesis Fixation in a Bilateral Transfemoral Amputee

    Schalk, Stephanie A.F.; Jonkergouw, Niels; van der Meer, Fred; Swaan, Willem M.; Aschoff, Horst-H.; van der Wurff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Individuals with a transfemoral amputation (TFA) may experience limitations in daily life due to reduced mobility and prosthesis-related problems. An osseointegrated prosthesis fixation (OPF) procedure in amputees might contribute to a solution for patients with short stumps or socket-related problems. To date, no study has specifically described the application of an OPF procedure in individuals with a TFA. This study evaluated the level of daily life activities of a 21-year old service member with a bilateral TFA and cerebral trauma. Due to a short stump length and coordination problems, an OPF procedure was deemed the most suitable option. The result of this procedure and the rehabilitation program showed an increased mobility and satisfaction as obtained by the assessment of life habits questionnaire (LIFE-H) and lower extremity functional scale. The participant was able to walk short distances and the Genium knee provided a stance position. Stair ambulation is impossible because of inadequate muscle capacity. In this specific case we conclude that the quality of life improved through the use of an OPF. However, OPF might not be the appropriate device for every individual with TFA, due to varying bone compositions, co-morbidities, and limited clinical experience and unknown long-term effects. PMID:26356693

  12. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke

    Hickner Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index. Methods Two groups of subjects who had suffered a stroke at least a year prior to testing and showed hemiplegia or hemiparesis were studied: a group from Belo Horizonte (BH with 48 people (51.5 ± 8.7 years and one from Montes Claros (MC with 29 subjects (55.4 ± 8.1 years. Subsequently, regardless of location, the groups were divided into Active and Insufficiently Active so their difference in terms of quality of life could be analyzed. Results There were no significant differences between BH and MCG when it came to four dimensions of physical health that were evaluated (physical functioning, physical aspect, pain and health status or in the following four dimensions of mental health status (vitality, social aspect, emotional aspect and mental health. However, significantly higher mean values were found in Active when compared with Insufficiently Active individuals in various measures of physical health (physical functioning 56.2 ± 4.4 vs. 47.4 ± 6.9; physical aspect 66.5 ± 6.5 vs. 59.1 ± 6.7; pain 55.9 ± 6.2 vs. 47.7 ± 6.0; health status 67.2 ± 4.2 vs. 56.6 ± 7.8 (arbitrary units, and mental health (vitality 60.9 ± 6.8 vs. 54.1 ± 7.2; social aspect 60.4 ± 7.1 vs. 54.2 ± 7.4; emotional aspect 64.0 ± 5.5 vs. 58.1 ± 6.9; mental health status 66.2 ± 5.5 vs. 58.4 ± 7.5 (arbitrary units. Conclusions Despite the difference between the cities concerning HDI values, no significant differences in quality of life were found between BH and MCG. However, the Active group showed significantly better results, confirming the importance of active lifestyle to enhance quality of

  13. Effects of Improving Physical Activity Level on Quality of Life and Functional Status of Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis

    Deran OSKA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD experience an improvement in physical activity, quality of life and functional status as a result of exercise training at home by motivation about benefi ts of exercising. MATERIAL and METHODS: Twenty-one PD patients of 46.7±14.1 years participated in the study. Participants were encouraged by a physiotherapist to walk for 30 minutes, 3 days a week and motivated by explaining benefi ts of exercising. We assessed quality of life by Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire-Turkish Version (KDQOL-SF, functional status by Six Minute Walk Test (SMW, physical activity level by International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Long Form (IPAQ-LF. The antropometric measurements were performed with the bioelectrical impedance. Assessments were done at the beginning and 3 months later. RESULTS: Total physical activity score of IPAQ-LF increased signifi cantly 3 months later (p0.05. Improvements in pain and emotional score of KDQOL-SF were statistically signifi cant (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Regular exercise should be allocated in the PD standard care. Participation of the patient into such a program could be possible by explaining the benefi ts of exercising at the beginning of the treatment.

  14. [Life and medical missionary activities of Esther K. Pak (1877-1910)].

    Lee, Bang Weon

    2007-12-01

    Esther K. Pak (1876-1910) is believed as the first medical doctor in Korea. Esther's life can be largely reviewed in three parts: school-hood at EwhaHaktang (currently Ewha Womans University), Education in the United States, and medical missionary work after coming back to Korea from the United States. The foreign Methodist missionaries was able to enter Korea after opening of its ports and establishing its diplomatic relationship with the United States. Esther met modern sciences and Christianity at EwhaHaktang, which was founded by those missionaries. She could dream of being an American-style medical doctor in the future, while she assisted medical missionaries at PoKuNyoKwan in EwhaHaktang. She could get substantial academic help from those missionaries. With the support of Dr. Rosetta Sherwood Hall, who first introduced the world of medial science to Esther in a real sense, Esther went to the United States to study the field in 1894. While learning it, she suffered from academic frustration, economic difficulty, her husband's death and so on, but she eventually got over those adversities and completed the four years of academic courses to become a medical doctor. Her religious faith and will to help Koreans as a doctor encouraged her to finish what she had originally planned. Esther came back to Korea in 1900 and began to work earnestly as a medical missionary delegated from Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. At PoKuNyoKwan in Seoul and Woman's Hospital in Pyongyang, She performed medical work and enlightenment campaign against the superstitious healing conduct. Esther also took part in the circuit missionary performances. She devoted herself for evangelical work at Bible Institute as well. Esther's activity made people understand the effectiveness of education. She helped people to recognize education for woman, occidental medical treatment and Christianity in a positive way. On April 28, 1909, based on these excellent performances for the social development

  15. Physical activity and quality of life in severely obese individuals seeking bariatric surgery or lifestyle intervention

    Bond Dale S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that bariatric surgery (BS and lifestyle intervention (LI represent two vastly different approaches to treating severe obesity, there is growing interest in whether individuals who seek BS versus LI also differ on weight-related behaviors. In the present study, we compared BS- and LI-seekers on physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB, and examined between-group differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL, while controlling for PA. Findings A sample of 34 LI-seekers were matched with 34 BS-seekers on gender, age, BMI, and PA monitor-daily wear time (age: 42.1±10.0 years; BMI: 45.6±6.5 kg/m2. PA and SB were assessed over a 7-day period via the SenseWear Armband (SWA. HRQoL was measured using the SF-36, with scores standardized to a population normal distribution (M=50, SD=10. Participants wore the SWA for 13.7±1.6 h/day. BS-seekers did not differ from LI-seekers on average min/d over the wear period spent in SB (641±117.1 vs. 638.4±133.4, p=0.62 or light (136.4±76.1 vs. 145.5±72.5, p=0.59 and moderate-to-vigorous (>1-min bouts=36.4±26.2 vs. 40.2±31.3, p=0.59; ≥10-min bouts=5.7±8.3 vs. 10.2±17.0, p=0.17 PA. BS-seekers reported significantly lower SF-36 physical functioning (42.4±10.9 vs. 49.0±6.8, p=0.004 and physical component summary (43.9±10.1 vs. 48.9±7.0 scores versus LI-seekers. BS-seeker group status was related to lower physical functioning (β=0.30, p=0.009, independent of gender, age, BMI, and daily PA. Conclusions Findings suggest that seeking BS versus LI is not related to patterns of PA or SB, and that lower subjective physical functioning is not associated with lower overall PA levels in BS-seekers.

  16. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4 were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6 that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1. First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  17. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  18. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information and Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 1997-1998. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evaluation of the Cosmos.

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for grade 9 through grade 12 classrooms. Background information about star birth and life, black dwarfs, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and the electromagnetic spectrum is included. The seven activities focus on star mass,…

  19. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information & Activity Booklet Grades K-8, 1997-1998. Star-Child--A Learning Center for Young Astronomers.

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for kindergarten through grade 8 classrooms. Background information on massive stars and medium stars and activities with subjects such as star life, constellation shapes, nebula terminology, astronomical distances, and pulsars is included. The 12…

  20. The relationship between physical activity, restless legs syndrome, and health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes.

    Daniele, Thiago Medeiros da Costa; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; e Forte, Adriana Costa; de Oliveira, Débora Siqueira Nobre; Pompeu, Clara Mota Randal; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between physical activity with co morbidities and health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients with and without restless legs syndrome (RLS). This is an observational study, set at tertiary care diabetic outpatient clinic, where 200 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients and 47 controls participated. Physical activity level was established by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and RLS diagnosis and RLS severity were established using the criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group; excessive daytime sleepiness was evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, quality of sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Health-Related Quality of Life by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Depressive symptoms were investigated by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI- II). Among all diabetic patients (58 % women, mean age 52.7 ± 5.7), disease duration varied from 1 to 30 years (11.7 ± 7.5). Diabetic patients had more hypertension (76 %), peripheral neuropathy (65 %), and depressive symptoms (31 %) than controls; no gender differences were found between cases with and without depressive symptoms. RLS patients (72 % female) had worse quality of sleep. With regards to the quality of life domains, more active RLS diabetic patients had better perception of functional capacity, physical limitation, pain, and general health state (p < 0.05). RLS symptom severity did not vary according to physical activity (IPAQ level). This study shows that the physical activity is associated with a better perception of functional capacity, physical limitation, and pain in diabetic patients with RLS; thus a more active lifestyle should be encouraged.

  1. Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    Koeneman, M.A.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Verheijden, M.W.; Tilburg, T.G. van; Visser, M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract for the International Society for Aging and Physical activity's 8th World Congress on Aging and Physical Activity: A celebration of Diversity and Inclusion in Active Ageing, August 13-17 2012.

  2. Limits to life at low temperatures and at reduced water contents and water activities

    Mazur, P.

    1978-01-01

    Liquid water is generally considered an absolute requisite for functional terrestrial life; consequently, life is expected to function only over the range of temperatures that permit its existence. These limits, however, do not apply to cell survival. Some can survive the closest attainable approach to 0/sup 0/K and some can survive the loss of over 99% of their water. The author discusses various aspects of the phenomena of cell survival at low temperatures. Included are sections on events occurring during freezing and thawing of cells, the consequences of cell dehydration, limits to cell survival, and minimum temperatures for cell growth. (ACR)

  3. Effect of a physical activity program on sport enjoyment, physical activity participation, physical self-concept and quality of life in children with asthma

    Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to analyse the effects of indoor physical training program on the enjoyment and the willingness to participate in sports activities, physical self-concept and the quality of life in children with asthma. Participants were randomized in an experimental group (EG (n=58, age=11.55±1.01 years old and, a control group (CG (n = 47, age=11.51±1.42 years old. An indoor training program was executed for 12-week, with each week containing three sessions of 60 minutes. Enjoyment in physical activity questionnaire, participation in physical activities, physical self-concept questionnaire, 6 minute walking test, and paediatric asthma quality of life questionnaire were employed. After the intervention, EG showed a significant reduction in the body mass index as well as a significant improvement in physical fitness test and the score obtained in questionnaires compared to the CG. A12-week indoor training program targeted towards asthmatic children improved the sport enjoyment, physical activity participation, physical self-concept, and quality of life.

  4. QUALITY OF LIFE, PERCEIVED STIGMA, ACTIVITY AND PARTICIPATION OF PEOPLE WITH LEPROSY-RELATED DISABILITIES IN SOUTH-EAST NEPAL

    Huib Cornielje

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, many people live with leprosy-related disabilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in socio-economic characteristics, quality of life (QOL, perceived stigma, activity and participation among people affected by leprosy as a group and between this group and the general population, and to identify prime determinants of QOL among the leprosy-affected people. People with leprosy-related disabilities (N=100; 54DGI/46DGII and community controls (N=100 were selected from Morang district, South-East Nepal, using quota sampling. QOL, perceived stigma and participation and activity limitations were measured using the Nepali abbreviated version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL assessment and the Nepali versions of the Jacoby Scale, Participation Scale and Green Pastures Activity Scale (GPAS, respectively. Total QOL, participation and activity levels of people affected by leprosy were worse than those of the general population. Regression analysis showed that the ability to maintain a family, satisfaction with health, vocational training, sex, activity and participation limitations (the latter for QOL only, perceived stigma and living situation (i.e. joint family, type of house were significantly associated with a deterioration in QOL and higher participation restriction in one or both of the grading groups. There is an urgent need for interventions focused on quick referral of people with leprosy, to minimize the development of visible impairments, and social rehabilitation. The latter can be achieved by creating more public awareness, providing (financial support for income generating projects and /or vocational training to leprosy- affected people, and by encouraging them to be involved in all community development activities. The current results indicate that such measures would help improve the quality of life of people with leprosy-related disabilities.DOI 10.5463/DCID.v22i1.15

  5. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    Fellowes, David A.; Botkin, Michael E.; Draper, Russell S.; Coletta, Jason

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2012 with the U.S. Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 with triad pixels) and WUXGA (1920 X 1200 with triad pixels) OLED microdisplays. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposia. Life and performance tests have continued through 2013, and this data will be presented along with a comparison to previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems, where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  6. Predictors of Quality of Life, Sexual Intercourse, and Sexual Satisfaction among Active Older Adults

    Penhollow, Tina M.; Young, Michael; Denny, George

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the sexual behaviors of older people, and the relationship between quality of life and sexuality has not been fully explored. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sociological, cultural, and psychological factors to further explain variance beyond biological changes that…

  7. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…

  8. Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Ghosh, Amalkumar; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas

    2011-06-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through research and development programs from 2007 to 2010 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2,3,4. Life and performance tests have continued through 2010, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  9. Learning Outcome, Presence and Satisfaction from a Science Activity in Second Life

    Vrellis, Ioannis; Avouris, Nikolaos; Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

    2016-01-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has many advantages, it often fails to connect to the real world outside the classroom. The integration with the laboratory setting and the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been proposed to address this deficiency. Multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) like Second Life (SL) are…

  10. Arsenic-Based Life: An Active Learning Assignment for Teaching Scientific Discourse

    Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Among recent high profile scientific debates was the proposal that life could exist with arsenic in place of phosphorous in its nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Soon after its initial publication, scientists across diverse disciplines began to question this extraordinary claim. Using the original article, its claims, its scientific support,…

  11. Physical activity as a mediator of the impact of chronic conditions on quality of life in older adults

    Miller William C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic conditions could negatively affect the quality of life of older adults. This may be partially due to a relative lack of physical activity. We examined whether physical activity mediates the relationship between different chronic conditions and several health outcomes that are important to the quality of life of older adults. Methods The data were taken from the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 1.1, a cross-section survey completed in 2001. Only respondents who were 65 years or older were included in our study (N = 22,432. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall quality of life, and to measure selected health outcomes (dexterity, mobility, pain, cognition, and emotional wellbeing that are considered to be of importance to the quality of life of older adults. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed by determining weekly energy expenditure (Kcal per week based on the metabolic equivalents of self-reported leisure activities. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the mediating effect of leisure-time physical activity while controlling for demographic variables (age and sex, substance use (tobacco use and alcohol consumption, and obesity. Results Having a chronic condition was associated with a relative decrease in health utility scores and a relative increase in mobility limitations, dexterity problems, pain, emotional problems (i.e., decreased happiness, and cognitive limitations. These negative consequences could be partially attributed to a relative lack of physical activity in older adults with a chronic condition (14% mediation for the HUI3 score. The corresponding degree of mediation was 18% for mobility limitations, 5% for pain, and 13% for emotional wellbeing (statistically significant mediation was not observed for the other health attributes. These values varied with respect to the different chronic conditions examined in our study. Conclusion Older

  12. The influence of fine art activities on satisfaction with life of the residents of the care home for elderly people

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this specialist thesis was to observe and evaluate the influence of fine art activities on satisfaction with life of the residents of the Care Home for Elderly people in Ljubljana. In this thesis I have tried to assess the impact that fine art activities, performed by the residents, had on their satisfaction with their lives. In my evaluation I have used the elements of the so-called action research, which is a qualitative method. Seven female clients voluntarily participated i...

  13. Physical activity, life events stress, cortisol, and DHEA: preliminary findings that physical activity may buffer against the negative effects of stress.

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between habitual physical activity, life events stress, the diurnal rhythms of cortisol and DHEA, and the cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio in older adults. Thirty-six participants aged ≥ 65 reported their habitual physical activity, and indicated if a particular event happened to them in the past year (stress incidence) and how stressful they perceived the event to be (stress severity). Older adults with higher stress severity demonstrated a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio. Individuals with higher stress incidence scores and who did not participate in aerobic exercise had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm compared with those who regularly participated in aerobic exercise. In conclusion, life events stress may have a negative impact on the cortisol:DHEA ratio in older adults. Under conditions of high stress exposure, exercise may protect older adults from an increased cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm.

  14. Display life of beef packaged with an antioxidant active film as a function of the concentration of oregano extract.

    Camo, Javier; Lorés, Alberto; Djenane, Djamel; Beltrán, José Antonio; Roncalés, Pedro

    2011-05-01

    Fresh beef steaks were packaged with a new antioxidant active system containing increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) of an oregano extract. Control samples were packaged without the active film. Additional samples were sprayed with the extract and packaged as the control samples. Packages were filled with a 80%O(2)/20%CO(2) atmosphere and displayed under illumination (14 h) at 1 ± 1 °C for 28 days. Metmyoglobin formation, lipid oxidation (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE a*) and sensory colour, discoloration, off-odour and oregano smell were determined. Active packaging significantly (P oregano concentration of the active film. The display life of beef samples demonstrated that at least 1% oregano was needed for obtaining a significant increase of display life from 14 to 23 days. A concentration of 4% gave rise to unacceptable oregano smell. As a consequence, most suitable oregano extract concentrations for optimum active packaging in this system should be within the range 1-2%.

  15. Physical activity and health-related quality of life during pregnancy: a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial.

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of physical activity before and during pregnancy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data from the cluster-randomised gestational diabetes mellitus primary prevention trial conducted in maternity clinics were utilised in a secondary analysis. The cases considered were pregnant women who reported engaging in at least 150 min of moderate-intensity leisure-time physical activity per week (active women) (N = 80), and the controls were women below these recommendations (less active) (N = 258). All participants had at least one risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus. Their HRQoL was evaluated via the validated generic instrument 15D, with HRQoL at the end of pregnancy examined in relation to changes in physical activity during pregnancy. Logistic regression models addressed age, parity, education, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. At the end of pregnancy, the expected HRQoL was higher (tobit regression coefficient 0.022, 95 % CI 0.003-0.042) among active women than less active women. Active women also had greater mobility (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.04-3.78), ability to handle their usual activities (OR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.29-3.81), and vitality (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.22-3.54) than did less active women. Active women reported higher-quality sleep (OR 2.11, 95 % CI 1.03-4.30) throughout pregnancy as compared to less active women. Meeting of the physical activity guidelines before pregnancy was associated with better overall HRQoL and components thereof related to physical activity.

  16. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization.

    Townsend, Robert M; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

  17. Physical activity, quality of life and symptoms of depression in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

    Salguero, Alfonso; Martínez-García, Raquel; Molinero, Olga; Márquez, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression in community dwelling and institutionalized elderly. The sample was a cohort of 436 elderly (234 women and 202 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. 58% were community-dwellers and 42% were institutionalized in senior residences. Participants completed measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), HRQoL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, SF-36) and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). All SF-36 domains, except role-emotional, were significantly correlated with the YPAS activity dimension summary index. Physical function, role-physical, general health and vitality correlated with total time activity, and correlations were observed between weekly energy expenditure and physical function, role physical, vitality and mental health. Depressive symptom scores correlated significantly with the YPAS activity dimension summary index and the weekly energy expenditure. Scores for various domains of the SF-36 and for depressive symptoms significantly differed among less and more active individuals of the same sex and institutionalization category. Differences generally reached a higher extent in institutionalized subjects in comparison to community dwellers. In conclusion, physical activity was related to different domains of both the physical and mental components of HRQoL and to decreased depressive symptoms. Results emphasize the positive effects of physical activity in both community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults.

  18. INTELLECTUAL INDEPENDENCE OF STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF GAINING KNOWLEDGE

    Zvezdan Arsić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main task of teaching at the present stage of social development that is characterized by the rapid development of science and technology should be directed towards ensuring that students are in the process of gaining knowledge as more independent. Learning in the modern conditions of life and work more focused on finding new information and acquiring skills that they interpret, judge, critically analyze and find their practical application. Individual learning is a process in which students do their own activities, and the school should primarily be to develop pupils' skills and habits for independent work, or to enable them to actively come to know and own efforts. With a program of independent activities of children in the process of acquiring knowledge in teaching should begin already at a younger age in order to further their education existed during the constant rise of autonomy and independence. Individual learning in the classroom requires thought flexibility, critical thinking, individual work and intellectual independence, creativity and productivity, motivation and interest, as well as a partnership of teachers and students in the realization of educational tasks.

  19. Activity measurement of 60Fe through the decay of 60mCo and confirmation of its half-life

    Ostdiek, Karen; Bauder, William; Bowers, Matthew; Clark, Adam; Collon, Philippe; Dressler, Rugard; Greene, John; Kutschera, Walter; Lu, Wenting; Nelson, Austin; Paul, Michael; Robertson, Daniel; Schumann, Dorothea; Skulski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The half-life of the neutron-rich nuclide, $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ has been in dispute in recent years. A measurement in 2009 published a value of $(2.62 \\pm 0.04)\\times10^{6}$ years, almost twice that of the previously accepted value from 1984 of $(1.49 \\pm 0.27)\\times10^{6}$ years. This longer half-life was confirmed in 2015 by a new measurement, resulting in a value of $(2.50 \\pm 0.12)\\times10^{6}$ years. All three half-life measurements used the grow-in of the $\\gamma$-ray lines in $^{60}\\text{Ni}$ from the decay of the ground state of $^{60\\text{g}}\\text{Co}$ (t$_{1/2}$=5.27 years) to determine the activity of a sample with a known number of $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ atoms. In contrast, the work presented here measured the $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ activity directly with the 58.6 keV $\\gamma$-ray line from the short-lived isomeric state of $^{60\\text{m}}\\text{Co}$ (t$_{1/2}$=10.5 minutes), thus being independent of any possible contamination from long-lived $^{60\\text{g}}\\text{Co}$. A fraction of the material from the 2015 exper...

  20. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED)-XL performance and life test results

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Lum, Alden K.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2009-05-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the OLED-XL devices over the standard OLED displays, publishing results at the 2007 and 2008 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2. In 2008, eMagin Corporation made additional improvements on the lifetime of their displays and developed the first SXGA (1280 × 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. A summary of the life and performance tests run at CERDEC NVESD will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  1. Pathway data concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage - DMPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available DMPD Pathway data concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage Data detail Data name Pathway data... concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage Description of data contents Pathways concerning differentiation and activat...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Pathway data concerning differentiation and activation of macrophage - DMPD | LSDB Archive ... ...ion of macrophage extracted from the literature list in

  2. Influence of balneophysical therapy on activity, functional capacity, and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Stojanović Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been well known that balneophysical therapy has a therapeutic effect on clinical and biological parameters of disease activity in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Objective. To determine the influence of balneophysical therapy on functional capacity, activity and quality of life of the patients with RA primarily treated with some of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods. The study enrolled 73 patients with RA treated with some of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (Methotrexate in 85% of patients. During hospitalization at the Clinical Rheumatologic Department of the Institute 'Niska Banja', the patients were treated, beside the medicamentous therapy, by hydrotherapy (oligomineral, homeothermic, low radioactive water, mineral peloid therapy, electrotherapy and kinesiotherapy. Before and after balneotherapy, the patients filled in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and the Quality of Life Rheumatoid Arthritis (QOL-RA scale. The Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 was used to measure the disease activity before and after balneotherapy. A possible value of HAQ was from 0 to 3, and QOL-RA from 0 to 10. Results. The mean value of the duration of balneophysical therapy was 14.7±4.8 days. We found significant improvement of functional capacity in the patients with RA. The average HAQ score before balneotherapy was 1.07±0.61, and 0.86±0.55 after balneotherapy, which was statistically significantly lower (p<0.05. DAS 28 after balneotherapy was also statistically significantly lower than DAS 28 before balneotherapy: the mean value of DAS 28 before therapy was 6.30±0.81 and after therapy 5.48±0.75 (p<0.001. The quality of life significantly improved after balneophysical therapy: the mean value of QOL-RA scale before therapy was 5.38±1.62 and after therapy 7.35±1.81 (p<0.05. Conclusion. Balneophysical therapy, when properly dosed, is an effective, adjuvant therapy in the patients with RA of mild disease

  3. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P;

    2010-01-01

    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study...

  4. Experiences of physical activity during pregnancy in Danish nulliparous women with a physically active life before pregnancy. A qualitative study

    Hegaard, Hanne; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter P;

    2010-01-01

    National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study w...

  5. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  6. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  7. Adverse effects of MWCNTs on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and activation of MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Puthumana, Jayesh; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-10-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received widespread applications in a broad variety of commercial products due to low production cost. Despite their significant commercial applications, CNTs are being discharged to aquatic ecosystem, leading a threat to aquatic life. Thus, we investigated the adverse effect of CNTs on the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Additional to the study on the uptake of CNTs and acute toxicity, adverse effects on life parameters (e.g. growth, fecundity, and size) were analyzed in response to various concentrations of CNTs. Also, as a measurement of cellular damage, oxidative stress-related markers were examined in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the phosphorylation pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of oxidative stress-induced toxicity in the copepod P. nana. As a result, significant inhibition on life parameters and evoked antioxidant systems were observed without ROS induction. In addition, CNTs activated MAPK signaling pathway via ERK, suggesting that phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)-mediated adverse effects are the primary cause of in vitro and in vivo endpoints in response to CNTs exposure. Moreover, ROS-independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway was observed. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of CNTs on the copepod P. nana at cellular and molecular level and insight on possible ecotoxicological implications in the marine environment.

  8. Gain of harmonic generation in high gain free electron laser

    DENG Hai-Xiao; DAI Zhi-Min

    2008-01-01

    In a planar undulator employed free electron laser(FEL),each harmonic radiation starts from linear amplification and ends with nonlinear harmonic interactions of the lower nonlinear harmonics and the fundamental radiation.In this paper,we investigate the harmonic generation based on the dispersion relation driven from the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations,taking into account the effects due to energy spread,emittance,betatron oscillation of electron beam as well as diffraction guiding of the radiation field.A 3D universal scaling function for gain of the linear harmonic generation and a 1D universal scaling function for gain of the nonlinear harmonic generation are presented,which promise rapid computation in FEL design and optimization.The analytical approaches have been validated by 3D simulation results in large range.

  9. A STUDY IN TERMS OF SOCIAL MARKETING APPROACH: THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN ELDERLY

    Hakan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study which was carried out, in terms of social marketing approach, has the purpose of investigating the effects of physical exercises on aged 65 years and over people on quality of life. In this study, a campaign, in social marketing scope was organized and it was advertised by flyers aim to determine the effects of physical activities on life quality of randomly selected volunteer men, above 65 years old who stay in Mugla Abide-H.Nuri Öncüer Senior Center. Moreover, a presentation about physical activity and quality of life was submitted and informed about the programme to 57 senior center participants. The photo and slogan was used and prepared as a flyer to create an effect on participants for this campaign. These flyers were given to participants before the study and waited one week to create awareness about to study. The survey was made and the study was started a week after the flyers were given to participants. The exercises were continued during 8 weeks. The SF 36 quality of life scale, its validity and reliability studies were investigated by Pinar(1996 and Demirsoy(1996, was made under the supervisor of three trainer to randomly selected 27 person from senior center. The results of pre-test and final-test were determined by using SPSS 18 software. As a result, %47 of participants who were impressed from Social marketing programme decided to participate to this study. There were significant differences in some variances (subscales like physical function, body pain, general health, social function and physical health when compared before and after programme.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  11. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  12. Matters of Life and Longing

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    and often actively seeking sterilisation. Through a vivid and thoughtfulanalysis she shows sterilisation to be both a symptom of structural constraints and a resource – a means by which women gain a sense of control over their own lives.The major theoretical contribution of the book is its demonstration...... of the ways that phenomenology can be used as a tool of critical social analysis. The book focuses on lived experience and subjective meaning within a life-world dominated by poverty and violence. Through a focus on the basic human need for recognition Dalsgaard describes women’s desire to be valuable...

  13. ATTITUDE TO FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG ELDER PEOPLE FROM THE WIELKOPOLSKA REGION BASED ON THEIR LIFE ACTIVITY – PILOT STUDY

    Anna Jędrusek-Golińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing share of the elderly in the population of developed countries and studies that indicate that aging is positively correlated with poorer nutritional status, it would make sense to spread the consumption of functional foods among seniors. The aim of the work was to determine the perception of functional food by elderly people depending on their vital activity. In the study survey questionnaire was used, consisting primarily of closed questions. In direct survey participated 140 people at the age of 65 from the Wielkopolska region. Women accounted for 66% of the respondents. Respondents were divided into 2 groups – active physically and mentally (respondents doing sports every day, leading social and charitable activities, participants in classes at the University of the Third Age, and less-active. The answers were analysed Chi-square test α = 0.05 signifi cance level (Statistica Soft Ware 7.0. On the basis of the carried out study were found better attitudes towards functional foods among people with more active life. More than a half of the “active” respondents had no concern with respect to functional foods, while 20% of the people from “inactive” group believed the products to be promoted as healthy only as an advertising ploy. Most of the “active” respondents associated functional food as pro-healthy food. The application of functional foods can translate into improving health quality of life of older people, which is why it is worthwhile to support activation measures of seniors and increase their knowledge of these products.

  14. Pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus in Egyptian patients: the impact of disease activity on the quality of life

    Nagwa Ibrahim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE afflicts young people disproportionately, often at a crucial time in their lives when they are trying to establish relationships, start families and launch careers. As a result, persons with SLE may experience a wide range of physical and psychosocial problems that are not always fully captured by descriptions of the disease’s physiological consequences alone. METHODS: In order to characterize the spectrum of the effects of SLE with regards to disease activity and its impact on the quality of life (QoL, a case control study involving 59 SLE Egyptian patients (mean age 28.6 years , 94.9% females and 20 healthy controls was undertaken. Disease activity was measured by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI, and quality of life was measured by Short Form 36 health questionnaire (SF-36. RESULTS: Mucocutaneous and hematological manifestations were present in most of the patients and arthralgia in half of them. All domains of SF-36 including general health, physical functions, physical limitations, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, pain, social functions, and health changes were significantly lower in SLE patients compared to controls. Except for emotional limitations, all domains were correlated with disease activity and low in class IV-V lupus nephritis. CONCLUSION: Physicians should focus on QoL and how to improve it; health education regarding the negative impact of disease activity on the patients should be given attention. The results of QoL studies help physicians to understand and provide better support to SLE patients beside rapid meticulous control of disease activity

  15. Life Cycle Thinking in Impact Assessment

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life...... cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which...

  16. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (pcardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  17. [Physical activity, sedentary behavior and quality of life in undergraduate adolescents of Ciudad Guzman, State of Jalisco, Mexico].

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos Alejandro; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of evaluating the association between physical activity and sedentary behavior with quality of life (QoL) in undergraduate students of Ciudad Guzman, state of Jalisco, Mexico, a total of 881 adolescents aged between 17 and 19 were studied. Online questionnaires were used, namely the research version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Odd ratios (OR) were obtained using simple and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The number of days with physical activity was related to a higher total perceptual score, higher general QoL domain, higher self domain as well as higher environment domain. Playing in > 2 sports teams was related to a higher total perceptual score, higher general QoL domain, higher self domain as well as higher environment domain. Having 4-5 physical education classes/week was related with a higher general QoL domain. Limiting recreational screen time to < 2 hours/day was related with a higher relationship domain. In conclusion, in Mexican undergraduate adolescent students, higher QoL was associated with: physical activity at least 4 days/week; physical education classes 4 or more days/week; playing in 2 or more sports teams and limiting recreational screen time to 2 hours or less.

  18. Identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer: Evaluating laboratory trained algorithms in daily life

    Cuba Gyllensten, I.; Bonomi, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate identification of physical activity types has been achieved in laboratory conditions using single-site accelerometers and classification algorithms. This methodology is then applied to free-living subjects to determine activity behaviour. This study aimed at analysing the reproducibility of

  19. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents' Life Satisfaction

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne S.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life…

  20. PECULIAR FEATURES CONCERNING 1-ST-YEAR STUDENT ADAPTATION TO LIFE-ACTIVITY AT ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    V. A. Klimenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of peculiar features concerning a 1-st-year student adaptation to new conditions of life-activity  on the basis of self-evaluation made by 212 persons.  In order to obtain the data a methodology for diagnostics of social and psychological adaptation developed by K.Rodgers and R.Diamond has been applied with the purpose to study such integral indices as adaptivity, emotional comfort, friendly attitude, internality, tolerance and domination symptom.

  1. Neonatal morphine administration leads to changes in hippocampal BDNF levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in the adult life of rats.

    Rozisky, J R; Laste, G; de Macedo, I C; Santos, V S; Krolow, R; Noschang, C; Vanzella, C; Bertoldi, K; Lovatel, G A; de Souza, I C C; Siqueira, I R; Dalmaz, C; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2013-03-01

    It is know that repeated exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory and that the hippocampus has important neuromodulatory effects after drug exposure and withdrawal symptoms. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to assess hippocampal levels of BDNF, oxidative stress markers associated with cell viability, and TNF-α in the short, medium and long term after repeated morphine treatment in early life. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of morphine (morphine group) or saline (control group), 5 μg in the mid-scapular area, starting on postnatal day 8 (P8), once daily for 7 days, and neurochemical parameters were assessed in the hippocampus on postnatal days 16 (P16), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). For the first time, we observed that morphine treatment in early life modulates BDNF levels in the medium and long term and also modulates superoxide dismutase activity in the long term. In addition, it was observed effect of treatment and age in TNF-α levels, and no effects in lactate dehydrogenase levels, or cell viability. These findings show that repeated morphine treatment in the neonatal period can lead to long-lasting neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of male rats, and indicate the importance of cellular and intracellular adaptations in the hippocampus after early-life opioid exposure to tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.

  2. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths.

  3. Physical activity during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment and IQ in the first 4 years of life.

    Marlos R Domingues

    Full Text Available Maternal physical activity during pregnancy could alter offspring's IQ and neurodevelopment in childhood.Children belonging to a birth cohort were followed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Physical activity during pregnancy was assessed retrospectively at birth. Neurodevelopment was evaluated by Battelle's Development Inventory (12, 24 and 48 months and IQ by the Weschler's Intelligence Scale (48 months. Neurodevelopment was based on Battelles' (90th percentile and also analyzed as a continuous outcome. IQ was analyzed as a continuous outcome. Potential confounders were: family income, mother's age, schooling, skin color, number of previous births and smoking; and newborns': preterm birth, sex and low birth weight.From birth to 48 months, sample size decreased from 4231 to 3792. Crude analysis showed that IQ at 48 months was slightly higher (5 points among children from active women. The Battelle's score at 12 and 24 months was higher among offspring from active mothers. After controlling for confounders, physical activity during pregnancy was positively associated to the Battelle's Inventory at 12 months IQ, however, at 48 months no association was observed.Physical activity during pregnancy does not seem to impair children's neurodevelopment and children from active mothers presented better performance at 12 months.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF ACTIVITIES FOR CONTROLLING ADMINISTRATIVE AND ECONOMIC LIFE OF ARMY UNITS

    Khlebnikov V. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we consider main objectives of system approach, as a research method of difficult objects, administrative activity supervision and analyses, components of which are processes of check and comparison of the actual results to the set parameters. The theory of decision-making focused on development and search of optimum results on various problems with a significant amount of communications and dependences, restrictions and versions of decisions has been developed. Optimization of economic activity supervision in a military unit and, in particular, competence of officials is considered. The use of assessment results of the subordinated divisions (services administrative activity on the basis of experts' opinion at adoption of administrative decisions. Introduction of mathematical methods in the monitoring procedure of administrative activity is analyzed. Ways to improve the organization of administrative activity supervision by means of expert assessment method on the basis of introduction of the settlement network Expert program are offered. This software product provides fast data input and an efficiency assessment of administrative activity in a division (service of a military unit. To judge the quantitative characteristics of administrative activity and evident representation of a change tendency of the observed values on the monitor screen of the automated workplace of the official, the information in the form of a tabular and graphic representation (charts is displayed

  5. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major).

    Rainio, Miia J; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine bird, the great tit (Parus major) by manipulating dietary lead levels of the nestlings. We had three experimental groups, exposed to environmentally relevant lead concentrations; high (4 μg/g body mass), low (1 μg/g body mass) and control (0 μg/g body mass) group. As a comparison, a great tit population breeding in the vicinity of a metal smelter was included to the experimental set-up. We measured glutathione, the ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase together with protein carbonylation and phagocytosis activity to study the effects of lead on the oxidative status and immune function of birds. We found differences in enzyme activities between the study groups, but in most cases the smelter group differed from the other groups. Despite the differences observed in antioxidant enzymes, our results indicate only minor short-term effects of lead exposure on oxidative status, since either glutathione ratio or protein carbonylation were not affected by lead. Phagocytosis activity was not linked to higher lead concentrations either. Interestingly, protein carbonylation was positively associated with enzyme activities and glutathione level. Our results did not show major long-term effects of lead on the oxidative status of great tits.

  6. Structural and functional brain changes related to different types of physical activity across the life span.

    Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Niemann, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    Physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive functioning. Research has largely focused on cognitive facilitation by cardiovascular exercise in older adults. Only few studies have investigated younger age groups or other types of physical activity. In this paper we review and summarize common results found in recent studies of metabolic (i.e. cardiovascular and resistance) and coordinative exercise. Findings from human motor learning are utilized to complement results on coordinative exercise. Results show that both types of exercise affect the brain differently. We propose possible mechanisms by which physical activity facilitates cognitive performance by briefly reviewing microscopic structural changes in animal research. Lastly, we highlight open research questions.

  7. The Alfred Hospital experience of resumption of cardiac activity after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.

    Yong, S A; D'Souza, S; Philpot, S; Pilcher, D V

    2016-09-01

    With the advent of donation after circulatory death programs in Australia and New Zealand, greater knowledge is needed about physiologic variation in haemodynamic activity following withdrawal of cardiorespiratory support. The ANZICS Statement on Death and Organ Donation allows provision for variation in the observation times between two and five minutes after cessation of the circulation prior to declaration of death. We report our experience of two cases, the first where electrical activity and pulse returned after a 102 second pause and the second where electrical activity returned after a three minute pause; both longer than previously reported cases.

  8. Vailulu'u Seamount, Samoa: Life and Death at the Edge of An Active Submarine Volcano

    Vailulu'U Research Group, T.

    2005-12-01

    Exploration of Vailulu'u seamount (14°13'S; 169°04'W) by manned submersible, ROV, and surface ship revealed a new, 300m tall volcano that has grown in the summit crater in less than four years. This shows that Vailulu'u's eruption behavior is at this stage not predictable and continued growth could allow Vailulu'u to breach sea level within decades Several types of hydrothermal vents fill Vailulu'u crater with particulates that reduce visibility to less than a few meters in some regions. Hydrothermal solutions mix with seawater that enters the crater from its breaches to produce distinct biological habitats. Low temperature hydrothermal vents can produce Fe-oxide chimneys or up to one meter-thick microbial mats. Higher temperature vents (85°C) produce low salinity acidic fluids containing buoyant droplets of immiscible CO2. Low temperature hydrothermal vents at Nafanua summit (708m depth) support a thriving population of eels (Dysommia rusosa). The areas around the high temperature vents and the moat and remaining crater around the new volcano is almost devoid of any macroscopic life and is littered with fish, and mollusk carcasses that apparently died from exposure to hydrothermal fluid components in deeper crater waters. Acid- tolerant polychaetes adapt to this environment and feed near and on these carcasses. Vailulu'u presents a natural laboratory for the study of how seamounts and their volcanic systems interact with the hydrosphere to produce distinct biological habitats, and how marine life can adapt to these conditions or be trapped in a toxic volcanic system that leads to mass mortality. The Vailulu'u research team: Hubert Staudigel, Samantha Allen, Brad Bailey, Ed Baker, Sandra Brooke, Ryan Delaney, Blake English, Lisa Haucke, Stan Hart, John Helly, Ian Hudson, Matt Jackson, Daniel Jones, Alison Koleszar, Anthony Koppers, Jasper Konter, Laurent Montesi, Adele Pile, Ray Lee, Scott Mcbride, Julie Rumrill, Daniel Staudigel, Brad Tebo, Alexis Templeton

  9. Non-Dive Activities for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about non-dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager...

  10. Non-Dive Activities for Life on the Edge 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about non-dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager...

  11. Transtheoretical model for behavior changes: an important tool when adopting active life

    Álvarez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Despite the worship of beauty that has ruled this globalized society and the importance of physical activity for the prevention of cardio-degenerative diseases (US.DHHS, 1996), sedentary behavior continues to increase in the population.  What strategies can be used by professionals of human movement to make the population physically active? It is at this point where the Transtheoretical Model appears as an innovative option that greatly surpasses the classic short-term biological intervention...

  12. Early androgens, activity levels and toy choices of children in the second year of life.

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet

    2012-09-01

    The hypothesis that stronger preferences for active play styles contribute to stronger preferences for male-typical toys was examined in 47 boys and 37 girls at 19-months of age using ambulatory monitoring technology (i.e., actigraphy) to measure activity levels during contact with male-typical, female-typical, and gender-neutral toys. Digit ratios and salivary testosterone levels were measured earlier in children at 3-4 months of age. There were no significant sex differences in digit ratios, salivary testosterone levels, or overall activity levels during toy play. In contrast, contact times showed large sex differences in infants' toy preferences. The within-sex comparisons showed that infant girls had significant preferences for female-typical toys over male-typical toys, whereas infant boys showed only a small preference for male-typical toys over female-typical toys. More male-typical digit ratios in early infancy predicted higher activity counts during toy play and less female-typical toy preferences in girls. However, in both sexes, activity levels were unrelated to toy preferences suggesting that factors other than activity level preferences contribute to the early emergence of gender-linked toy preferences.

  13. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  14. Costs in Relation to Disability, Disease Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Wallman, Johan K; Eriksson, Jonas K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare how costs relate to disability, disease activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-treated patients with RA in southern Sweden (n = 2341) were monitored 2005-2010. Health Assessment...... Questionnaire (HAQ), 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), and EQ-5D scores were linked to register-derived costs of antirheumatic drugs (excluding anti-TNF agents), patient care, and work loss from 30 days before to 30 days after each visit (n = 13,289). Associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to healthcare...... (patient care and drugs) and work loss costs (patients costs. Analyses were conducted based on both individual means (linear regression, comparing...

  15. Active paraffin-based paper packaging for extending the shelf life of cherry tomatoes.

    Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Nerin, Cristina; Batlle, Ramon

    2010-06-09

    A new active paraffin coating for paper and board was evaluated for antimicrobial protection and decay retardation for cherry tomatoes. Different active agents were evaluated against Alternaria alternata fungus both in vitro and in vivo using artificially inoculated cherry tomatoes. Bark cinnamon and oregano essential oil showed the best performance (versus clove and leaf cinnamon essential oils) when incorporated to active paper or board used for packaging at nominal concentrations of 3 and 6% (w/w), respectively. Almost total inhibition of the fungus was obtained when 6% of bark cinnamon essential oil was applied to the packaging material. A number of physicochemical parameters such as pH, weight loss, water activity, and color were monitored, and no significant differences between active, blank, and control samples were found for weight loss and color difference. The maximum transfer of trans-cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol to the food was detected after 1 or 2 days of storage. Sensorial analysis was performed, and panelists were not able to detect changes in cinnamon-based packaged tomatoes but they could in the oregano-based tomatoes.

  16. Concomitant treatment of brain metastasis with Whole Brain Radiotherapy [WBRT] and Temozolomide [TMZ] is active and improves Quality of Life

    Montella Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain metastases (BM represent one of the most frequent complications related to cancer, and their treatment continues to evolve. We have evaluated the activity, toxicity and the impact on Quality of Life (QoL of a concomitant treatment with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT and Temozolomide (TMZ in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors in a prospective Simon two stage study. Methods Fifty-nine patients were enrolled and received 30 Gy WBRT with concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m2/day for ten days, and subsequently TMZ (150 mg/m2/day for up to six cycles. The primary end points were clinical symptoms and radiologic response. Results Five patients had a complete response, 21 patients had a partial response, while 18 patients had stable disease. The overall response rate (45% exceeded the target activity per study design. The median time to progression was 9 months. Median overall survival was 13 months. The most frequent toxicities included grade 3 neutropenia (15% and anemia (13%, and only one patient developed a grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Age, Karnofsky performance status, presence of extracranial metastases and the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA were found to be predictive factors for response in patients. Overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were dependent on age and on the RPA class. Conclusion We conclude that this treatment is well tolerated, with an encouraging objective response rate, and a significant improvement in quality of life (p

  17. Computational modeling of serum-binding proteins and clearance in extrapolations across life stages and species for endocrine active compounds.

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Barton, Hugh A

    2004-06-01

    One measure of the potency of compounds that lead to the effects through ligand-dependent gene transcription is the relative affinity for the critical receptor. Endocrine active compounds that are presumed to act principally through binding to the estrogen receptor (e.g., estradiol, genistein, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) comprise one class of such compounds. For making simple comparisons, receptor-binding affinity has been equated to in vivo potency, which consequently defines the dose-response characteristics for the compound. Direct extrapolation of in vitro estimated affinities to the corresponding in vivo system and to specific species or life stages (e.g., neonatal, pregnancy) can be misleading. Accurate comparison of the potency of endocrine active compounds requires characterization of biochemical and pharmacokinetic factors that affect their free concentration. Quantitative in vitro and in vivo models were developed for integrating pharmacokinetics factors (e.g., serum protein and receptor-binding affinities, clearance) that affect potency. Data for parameterizing these models for several estrogenic compounds were evaluated and the models exercised. While simulations of adult human or rat sera were generally successful, difficulties in describing early life stages were identified. Exogenous compounds were predicted to be largely ineffective at competing estradiol off serum-binding proteins, suggesting this was unlikely to be physiologically significant. Discrepancies were identified between relative potencies based upon modeling in vitro receptor-binding activity versus in vivo activity in the presence of clearance and serum-binding proteins. The examples illustrate the utility of this approach for integrating available experimental data from in vitro and in vivo studies to estimate the relative potency of these compounds.

  18. The secret life of CFTR as a calcium-activated chloride channel.

    Billet, Arnaud; Hanrahan, John W

    2013-11-01

    cAMP-stimulated anion conductance is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF). The regulatory domain of CFTR, the anion channel protein encoded by the CF gene, possesses an unusually high density of consensus sequences for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (14 in a stretch of CFTR is viewed primarily as a cAMP-stimulated anion channel, and most studies have focused on this mode of activation. However, there is growing evidence that CFTR also responds to Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues and contributes substantially to cholinergic and purinergic responses in native tissues. G protein-coupled receptors that signal through Gαq can stimulate CFTR channels by activating Ca(2+)-dependent adenylyl cyclase and tyrosine kinases, and also by inhibiting protein phosphatase type 2A. Here we review evidence for these novel mechanisms of CFTR activation and discuss how they may help explain previous observations.

  19. Development and life cycle analysis of double slope active solar still with flat plate collector

    A.K. Sethi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Potable water is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Often water sources are brackish (i.e. contain dissolved salts and/or contain harmful bacteria and therefore cannot be used for drinking. In addition, there are many coastal locations where seawater is abundant but potable water is not available. This study is focused on a development of solar still with flat plat collector for water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations where only saline water is available. In this paper the cost of distilled water per kg has been calculated by using the concept of life cycle cost analysis. The pay back periods for different conditions of the distribution of distilled water, namely at the cost it is produced and at the selling price on market rate have been evaluated. The cost of water per kg is minimum Rs. 0.59, when the interest rate and the lifetime of solar still are taken as 4% and 50 years respectively. The lowest payback time 1.23 years is obtained when the selling price of water Rs. 10 per kg.

  20. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  1. Physical activity on prescription (PAP): self-reported physical activity and quality of life in a Swedish primary care population, 2-year follow-up

    Rödjer, Lars; H. Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the self-reported level of physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving physical activity on prescription (PAP) for up to 24 months. Design Observational study conducted in a regular healthcare setting. Setting A primary care population in Sweden receiving physical activity on prescription as part of regular care was studied alongside a reference group. Subjects The group comprised 146 patients receiving PAP at two different primary care locations (n = 96 and 50, respectively). The reference group comprised 58 patients recruited from two different primary care centres in the same region. Main outcome measurements We used two self-report questionnaires – the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) to assess physical activity, and SF-36 to assess QOL. Results A significant increase in the PA level was found at six and 12 months following PAP, with an ongoing non-significant trend at 24 months (p = .09). A clear improvement in QOL was seen during the period. At 24 months, significant and clinically relevant improvements in QOL persisted in four out of eight sub-scale scores (Physical Role Limitation, Bodily Pain, General Health,Vitality) and in one out of two summary scores (Physical Component Summary). Conclusion Patients receiving PAP showed an increased level of self-reported PA at six and 12 months and improved QOL for up to 24 months in several domains. The Swedish PAP method seems to be a feasible method for bringing about changes in physical activity in different patient populations in regular primary healthcare. While increased physical activity (PA) is shown to improve health, the implementation of methods designed to increase activity is still being developed. Key points The present study confirms that the Swedish physical activity on prescription (PAP) method increases the self-reported level of PA in the primary care setting at six and 12 months. Furthermore, this study shows

  2. Becoming a Runner: Big, Middle and Small Stories about Physical Activity Participation in Later Life

    Griffin, Meridith; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    How do older adults learn to tell a "new" story about, through, and with the body? We know that narratives are embodied, lived and central to the process of meaning-making--and as such, they do not lie in the waiting for telling, but are an active part of everyday interaction. Telling stories about ourselves to others is one way in which…

  3. Atividades lúdicas, gênero e vida adulta Ludic activities, gender and adult life

    Simone Chabudee Pylro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se averiguar como a preferência lúdica se evidencia na idade adulta em relação ao gênero, por meio da investigação das atividades lúdicas preferidas e praticadas por adultos jovens. Para tanto, procedeu-se à aplicação coletiva de um questionário contendo questões abertas e fechadas a 213 universitários capixabas, de ambos os gêneros, entre 21 e 40 anos. Verificou-se que pouco tempo tem sido dedicado aos jogos e brincadeiras no dia-a-dia dos participantes. As atividades preferidas foram namorar, estar com amigos, ir ao cinema, ouvir música e assistir TV. Entre as atividades tipicamente masculinas destacaram-se futebol e jogos e brincadeiras agressivas. As atividades lúdicas consideradas tipicamente femininas estão relacionadas, principalmente, a jogos simbólicos. Entre os fatores que dificultam a prática de atividades lúdicas sobressaíram-se trabalho, estudo e cansaço. Perceberam-se diferenças marcantes, segundo os gêneros, no que diz respeito às atividades lúdicas praticadas, bem como ao tempo dedicado a tais atividades.The intention of this research was to investigate the favorite ludic activities carried out by young adults. The investigation employed a questionnaire, applied to 213 Capixaba university students aged between 20 and 40 years old, to find out if the differentiation in ludic preference evidences in adulthood, in function of the gender. It was verified that, on a daily basis, very little time was dedicated to games and play. The favorite activities were dating, being with friends, going to the movies, listening to music and watching TV. Amongst the men, typical activities were soccer and aggressive games and playing activities. Ludic activities considered typically female were mainly related to symbolic games. Among the reasons causing difficulties for ludic activities, the most prominent were work, study and fatigue. It was evident the notorious differences, according to gender, regarding the

  4. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J

    2012-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  5. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    Lee, Chris J.; Slot, van der Peter J.M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ

  6. Minocycline increases the life span and motor activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in manganese treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    Bonilla, E; Contreras, R; Medina-Leendertz, S; Mora, M; Villalobos, V; Bravo, Y

    2012-03-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Minocycline in the life span, motor activity, and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster treated with manganese. Two days after emerging from the pupa male wild-type D. melanogaster were fed for 13 days with corn media containing 15 mM manganese. Then, they were divided in six groups of 300 flies each: group (a) remained treated with manganese (Mn group); group (b) began treatment with Minocycline (0.05 mM) (Mn-Minocycline group); group (c) received no additional treatment (Mn-no treatment group); group (d) simultaneously fed with manganese and Minocycline (Mn+Minocycline group). Additionally, a control (group e) with no treatment and another group (f) fed only with Minocycline after emerging from the pupa were added. All the manganese treated flies (group a) were dead on the 25th day. The life span in group f (101.66±1.33 days, mean S.E.M.) and of group b (97.00±3.46 days) were similar, but in both cases it was significantly higher than in group e (68.33±1.76 days), group c (67.05±2.30 days) and in those of group d (37.33±0.88). Manganese (groups a and d) decreased motor activity in D. melanogaster. In the Minocycline fed flies (groups b and f) a higher motor activity was detected. In Mn-Minocycline and Mn+Minocycline treated flies a significant decrease of MDA levels was detected when compared to the Minocycline group indicating that Minocycline and Mn appear to have a synergistic effect. In conclusion, Minocycline increased the life span and motor activity and decreased MDA formation of manganese treated D. melanogaster, probably by an inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Manganese also exerted an antioxidant effect as shown by the significant decrease of MDA levels when compared to control flies.

  7. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  8. Psychological status in Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis and its relation to disease activity and quality of life

    Tabatabaeian, Mahshid; Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feizi, Awat; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Naji, Fateme; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%), 48 (40.0%), and 46 (38.3%) had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01). Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01). Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01). In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049). Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001). For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard. PMID:26600833

  9. Psychological status in Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis and its relation to disease activity and quality of life

    Mahshid Tabatabaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%, 48 (40.0%, and 46 (38.3% had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01. Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01. In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049. Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001. For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard.

  10. Recreational Physical Activity Ameliorates Some of the Negative Impact of Major Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life

    Scott Burton Patten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive episodes (MDEs have a negative effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective of this study was to determine whether recreational physical activity can ameliorate some of this negative impact. Methods: The data source for the study was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS. The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has collected data from a representative cohort of 15,254 community residents. Sixteen years of follow-up data are available. The NPHS included: an instrument to assess MDE (the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form for Major Depression, an inventory of recreational activities (each associated with hours of participation and estimated metabolic expenditures and a HRQoL instrument (the Health Utility Index, Mark 3 or HUI3. Proportional hazard and linear regression models were used in this study to determine whether MDE-related declines in HRQoL were lessened by participation in an active recreational lifestyle. Results: Consistent with expectation, major depression was associated with a significant decline in HRQoL over time. While no statistical interactions were observed, the risk of diminished HRQoL in association with MDE was reduced by physical activity. In a proportional hazards model, the hazard ratio for transition to poor HRQoL was 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6 – 0.8, p < 0.0001. In linear regression models, physical activity was significantly associated with more positive HRQoL (β = 0.019, 95% CI 0.004 to – 0.034, p =0.02.Conclusions: Recreational physical activity appears to ameliorate some of the decline in HRQoL seen in association with MDE. Physical activity may be an effective tertiary preventive strategy for this condition.

  11. Information Gains from Cosmological Probes

    Grandis, S; Refregier, A; Amara, A; Nicola, A

    2015-01-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the 'surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat $\\Lambda$CDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter $w$. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 ...

  12. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides.

  13. Key players and activities across the ERP life cycle: A temporal perspective

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are enterprise wide systems that, because of their integration, automate all of a company's business processes. They have rapidly become the de facto industry standard for replacement of legacy systems. In this paper I analyze using an information theory approach the temporal aspects of key players and activities specific to Romanian SME's ERP implementations with focus on both generic and unique aspects

  14. Predictors of adherence to physical activity in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot study (LIFE-P

    W Jack Rejeski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski1, Michael E Miller2, Abby C King3, Stephanie A Studenski4, Jeffrey A Katula1, Roger A Fielding5, Nancy W Glynn4, Michael P Walkup2, Jamile A Ashmore6, For the LIFE Investigators (20061Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University; 2Department of Biostatistics, Wake Forest University; 3Stanford University; 4University of Pittsburgh; 5Tuffs University; 6Cooper Institute Objectives: A prospective design was used to examine predictors of adherence to a physical activity intervention in older adults with compromised function.Methods: The sample included 213 men (31.1% and women (68.9% with an average age of 76.53 years.Results: The predictor variables accounted for 10% of the variance in percent attendance during adoption and transition, respectively. Adding percent attendance during adoption to the prediction of percent attendance during transition increased the explained variance in this phase to 21%. During maintenance, the predictors accounted for 13% of the variance in frequency of physical activity; this estimate increased to 46% when adding in percent attendance from the transition phase.Discussion: These results are encouraging in that the physical activity intervention appears to have been well tolerated by diverse subgroups of older adults. The role of prior behavior in predicting downstream adherence underscores the importance of developing proactive interventions for treating nonadherence in older adult populations.Keywords: Disability, Physical Activity, Older Adults, Adherence

  15. Community-Based Recreational Football: A Novel Approach to Promote Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Ditte Marie Bruun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors.

  16. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using...... the non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  17. Active and passive problem solving as moderators of the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and non-attempters.

    Linda, Wendy P; Marroquín, Brett; Miranda, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether active problem solving would buffer against, whereas passive problem solving would exacerbate, the association of negative life stress with suicidal ideation. Young adult college students (73 females, M(age) = 19.0) from a diverse urban public university, with (n = 37) and without (n = 59) a suicide attempt history completed measures of life stress, problem solving, hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to test moderating roles of active and passive problem solving, along with suicide attempt history, on the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation. There was a weaker relation between life stress and suicidal ideation at high and average levels of relevant problem solving than at low levels, and this was the case primarily for suicide attempters but not for non-attempters. Individuals with a past attempt produced more passive solutions than non-attempters, but among attempters, even passive problem solving buffered the association of life stress with suicidal ideation. Relevant problem solving in the face of life stress may be especially important for individuals vulnerable to suicidal ideation due to an attempt history. Among such at-risk individuals, generating even passive solutions in the face of life stress may be more adaptive than generating few solutions. Thus, clinical interventions with suicide attempters that focus on generating solutions to problems, even if these are initially passive, may help mitigate the effect of life stress on suicidal ideation.

  18. Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: mediating effects of physical activity.

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Mental health conditions are among the leading non-fatal diseases in middle-aged and older adults in Australia. Proximal and distal social environmental factors and physical environmental factors have been associated with mental health, but the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations remain unclear. The study objective was to examine the contribution of different types of physical activity in mediating the relationship of social and physical environmental factors with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults.Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study were used. WELL is a prospective cohort study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. Baseline data collection took place in 2010. In total, 3,965 middle-aged and older adults (55-65 years, 47.4% males completed the SF-36 Health Survey, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on socio-demographic, social and physical environmental attributes. Mediation analyses were conducted using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test.Personal safety, the neighbourhood physical activity environment, social support for physical activity from family or friends, and neighbourhood social cohesion were positively associated with mental health-related quality of life. Active transportation and leisure-time physical activity mediated 32.9% of the association between social support for physical activity from family or friends and mental health-related quality of life. These physical activity behaviours also mediated 11.0%, 3.4% and 2.3% respectively, of the relationship between the neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety and neighbourhood social cohesion and mental health-related quality of life.If these results are replicated in future longitudinal studies, tailored interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults should use a combined strategy

  19. Impact of physical activity and bodyweight on health-related quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes

    Eckert K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharina EckertInstitute of Exercise and Public Health, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, GermanyPurpose: Increasing obesity prevalence rates in the general population are reflected in patients with type 2 diabetes. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is negatively affected in patients who are overweight or have diabetes, but physical activity (PA is proven to have positive side effects on the perceived quality of life. Little is known about the relationship of PA with obesity, diabetes, and HRQoL. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between HRQoL and PA in type 2 diabetics in association with the severity of overweight.Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter cohort study involving 370 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36® and the Freiburger Questionnaire for Physical Activity (FFkA. Endurance capacity was tested with a 2 km walking test. t-tests, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation test, and multiple regression analyses were performed.Results: HRQoL is negatively affected by body mass index (BMI. The results show that patients with type 2 diabetes and grade II obesity (BMI > 35 have a lower HRQoL than overweight patients (BMI 25–29.99 and patients with grade I obesity (BMI 30–35. HRQoL decreases with decreasing PA in all dimensions of the SF-36. PA remains a significant predictor of physical composite summary (B = 0.09; β = 0.11; P < 0.05, physical function (B = 0.10; β = 0.13; P < 0.01, mental composite summary (B = 0.13; β = 0.20; P < 0.001, vitality (B = 0.15; β = 0.24; P < 0.001, and psychological well-being (B = 0.11; β = 0.18; P < 0.01 when controlling for age, sex, and BMI.Conclusion: Because of the strong association between being overweight/obese and several risk factors for morbidity and mortality, reversing the obesity epidemic is an urgent priority. Based upon the results of this study and

  20. LOWER LEVELS OF VITAMIN D CORRELATE WITH CLINICAL DISEASE ACTIVITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Francisca DIAS DE CASTRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Inflammatory bowel disease, comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a group of debilitating conditions associated with deregulated mucosal immune response. Vitamin D has been implicated in immune response and gastrointestinal function. Objectives - To investigate the correlation between serum vitamin D levels and disease activity and quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods - This cross-sectional study enrolled ambulatory patients with inflammatory bowel disease and assessed clinical disease activity and quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire [SIBDQ]. Vitamin D levels were determined via serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement; deficiency was defined as values <20 ng/mL. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS vs 20.0. Results - A total of 76 patients were enrolled, 19 with ulcerative colitis (25% and 57 with Crohn's disease (75%. Overall, mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were low (26.0±10.0 ng/mL, while those in patients with Crohn's disease were significantly lower than ulcerative colitis (24.6±8.0 vs 30.0±12.5 ng/mL; P=0.032. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 30% of patients. Patients who were in clinical remission were found to have higher levels of vitamin D than those who were not in remission (28.0±10.3 vs 21.6±6.0 ng/mL, P=0.001. Inflammatory bowel disease patients with SIBDQ scores <50 were found to have significantly lower mean vitamin D levels compared with patients who had SIBDQ scores ≥50 (23.4±6.9 vs 27.9±10.8 ng/mL, P=0.041. Conclusions - A high proportion of patients with inflammatory bowel disease were vitamin D deficient, particularly patients with Crohn's disease. Both clinical disease activity and quality of life correlated significantly with lower levels of vitamin D, illustrating a clear need for supplementation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. 婴儿乳糖酶活性与肠道菌群对其体重增长的影响%Effect of lactase activity and intestinal microflora on infant's weight gain

    颜引妹; 张燕; 颜雨静; 唐华; 白玲; 陆纯; 汪科

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨婴儿乳糖酶活性与肠道菌群对其体重增长的影响,及乳糖酶和益生菌治疗后对其体重增长速率的变化. [方法]从2011年5月-2012年8月期间,从门诊随机收集42 d的体检婴儿共97例(男52,女45),实验组为体弱儿:满月体重增长不足600 g的婴儿共58(男33,女25)例;对照组为体重增长超过600 g家长自愿参加的正常婴儿32例(男19,女13)例,予尿半乳糖测定和粪肠道菌群测定.对实验组给予乳糖酶与益生菌治疗,观察治疗后一月体重增长的变化. [结果]实验组尿半乳糖测定阳性率与对照组比较明显增高(P<0.005),肠道菌群调查显示有失调(P<0.01).提示实验组存在乳糖酶活性低下和肠道菌群紊乱;实验组治疗1月后肠道菌群均>10∶1,体重增长值与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),说明其肠道功能恢复,体重增长速度跟上了对照组. [结论]体弱儿体重增长缓慢的原因之一是乳糖酶活性低下和肠道菌群失调,补充乳糖酶与益生菌是有效的.%[Objective] To investigate the effect of lactase activity and intestinal microflora on infant's weight gain,and the change of weight increasing rate after lactase and probiotics therapy.[Methods] From 2011 June to 2012 August,97 cases of infants (52 males,45 females) under 42 days were randomly collected from outpatients section.The experimental group were 58 cases of frail infants (33 males,25 females) whose weight increase in the first month of birth were less than 600 g; The control group were 32 cases of normal infants (19 males,13 females) volunteered by parents.They were given urinary galaetose and fecal intestinal flora test.The experimental group was given the lactase and probiotics treatment and their weight increase were observed one month later.[Results] The positive rate of urinary galactose test for experimental group was much higher than control group (P<0.005) and intestinal flora showed disorder

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    Amel Bendiabdellah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering. Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxygenated monoterpenes, 5 phenolic compounds, 4 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, 2 oxygenated diterpenes, and 01 diterpene hydrocarbons. Whatever the analyzed stage, phenolic compounds were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 36.4 to 82.1%. Antimicrobial activities of oils were tested on four different microorganisms. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against Candida albicans (30 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (11–28 mm bacteria strains which are deemed very dangerous and very difficult to eliminate. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems.

  3. Towards the measurement of event-related EEG activity in real-life working environments.

    Wascher, Edmund; Heppner, Holger; Hoffmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In applied contexts, psychophysiological measures have a long tradition to evaluate the user state. EEG correlates that indicate mechanisms of information processing, however, are hardly accessible since discrete time stamps that are necessary for this approach are commonly not available in natural situations. However, eye blinks may close this gap. Eye blinks are assumed to mark distinct points in information processing, necessary to segment the incoming data stream. By using mobile EEG in a simulated working situation we demonstrate that eye-blink-related potentials provide reliable information about cognitive processing in distinct working environments. During cognitive tasks, an increase in the fronto-central N2 component as well as evoked theta activity can be shown, both indices of enhanced cognitive control. The posterior P3 is reduced during physical tasks (sorting of boxes), probably reflecting the more continuous nature of this task. The data are discussed within a model of dopaminergic modulation of blink activity that involves both task specific aspects like executive control and modulating influences of motivation or fatigue.

  4. Gravitational mechanism of active life of the Earth, planets and satellites

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    From positions of geodynamic model of the forced gravitational swing, wobble and displacements of shells of a planet are studied and fundamental problems of geodynamics, geology, geophysics, planetary sciences are solved etc.: 1) The mechanism of cyclic variations of activity of natural processes in various time scales. 2) The power of endogenous activity of planetary natural processes on planets and satellites. 3) The phenomenon of polar inversion of natural processes on planets and satellites. 4) Spasmodic and catastrophic changes of activity of natural processes. 5) The phenomenon of twisting of hemispheres (latitude zones or belts) of celestial bodies. 6) Formation of the pear-shaped form of celestial bodies and the mechanism of its change. 7) The ordered planetary structures of geological formations. 8) The phenomena of bipolarity of celestial bodies and antipodality of geology formations. Mechanism. The fundamental feature of a structure of celestial bodies is their shell structure. The most investigated is the internal structure of the Earth. For the Moon and wide set of other bodies of solar system models of an internal structure have been constructed on the basis of the data of observations obtained at studying of their gravitational fields as a result of realization of the appropriate space missions. The basic components for the majority of celestial bodies are the core, the mantle and the crust. To other shells we concern atmospheres (for example, at Venus, Mars, the Titan etc.) and oceanic shells (the Titan, the Earth, Enceladus etc.). Shells are the complex (composite) formations. Planets and satellites are not spherical celestial bodies. The centers of mass of shells of the given planet (or the satellite) and their appropriate principal axes of inertia do not coincide. Accordingly, all their shells are characterized by the certain dynamic oblatenesses. Differences of dynamical oblatenesses results in various forced influences of external celestial

  5. Optogenetics in neuroscience: what we gain from studies in mammals

    Quanhui Chen; Ziling Zeng; Zhian Hu

    2012-01-01

    Optogenetics is a newly-introduced technology in the life sciences and is gaining increasing attention.It rcfers to the combination of optical technologies and genetic methods to control the activity of specific cell groups in living tissue,during which high-resolution spatial and temporal manipulation of cells is achicved.Optogcnetics has been applied to numerous regions,including cerebral cortex,hippocampus,ventral tegmental area,nucleus accumbens,striatum,spinal cord,and retina,and has revealed new directions of research in neuroscience and the treatment of related diseases.Since optogenetic tools are controllable at high spatial and temporal resolution,we discuss its applications in these regions in detail and the recent understanding of higher brain functions,such as reward-seeking,learning and memory,and sleep.Further,the possibilities of improved utility of this newly-emerging technology are discussed.We intend to provide a paradigm of the latest advances in neuroscience using optogenetics.

  6. Association between quality of life and anxiety, depression, physical activity and physical performance in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Yi-Nan Li; Bryan Shapiro; Jun Chul Kim; Min Zhang; Janos Porszasz; Rachelle Bross; Usama Feroze

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients often have impaired quality of life (QOL), anxiety, depression, and reduced daily physical activity (DPA) and physical performance. The contributions of these latter factors to reduced QOL in MHD are poorly understood. We examined the association of QOL with anxiety, depression, DPA, and physical performance.Methods: Seventy-two relatively healthy adult MHD patients, vintage≥6 months, and 39 normals of similar age range and gender distribution were studied. QOL was assessed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF). Anxiety and depression were each evaluated with two questionnaires. DPA and physical performance were assessed with a physical activity monitor, Human Activity Profile, and 6-minute walk, sit-to-stand, and stair-climbing tests. Results: Most KDQOL components were reduced in MHD patients versus normals. KDQOL components in patients were commonly inversely correlated with measures of anxiety and depression (P<0.05) and were more reduced in patients with both anxiety and depression. KDQOL was often impaired in patients with either anxiety or depression. However, most KDQOL scores did not differ between patients and normals without anxiety or depression. DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical per-formance often correlated with KDQOL scores in adjusted models, but after further adjustment for anxiety and depression, DPA, Human Activity Profile, and physical performance correlated less frequently with KDQOL scores. This reduction in significant correlations after adjustment for anxiety and depression was particularly pronounced for the association between KDQOL and DPA. Conclusion: In relatively healthy MHD patients, KDQOL scores are usually decreased in those with anxiety and/or depression but are usually normal in those without anxiety or depression. Lower DPA in MHD patients with reduced KDQOL scores often appears to be associated with anxiety and depression. The relationship

  7. The importance of group activities for quality of life of women in postmenopause - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p376

    Renata Aparecida Calazans Negrão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of life of postmenopausal women who participate in different activities groups for elderly. Methods: We selected 59 women, divided as follows: hydrotherapy group (n = 15, physical activity and bingo group (n = 15, and a control group (n = 29. Data collection was done through a questionnaire evaluating the Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref, the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The assessments were conducted in two stages with an interval of two months between each one. Results: There was an improvement in quality of life of women participants in activities groups with respect to the control group, and in all domains of quality of life questionnaire, the control group had lower values. Significant differences occurred in the environment domain, in comparing the hydrotherapy group and physical activity/bingo groups, of which the latter showed better responses. Conclusion: The activities groups were positive for improving quality of life of postmenopausal women, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the practice of not only physical activities, but also those that stimulate the social and psychological profile of these women.

  8. The Need for Plasma Astrophysics in Understanding Life Cycles of Active Galaxies

    Li, H; Bellan, P; Colgate, S; Forest, C; Fowler, K; Goodman, J; Intrator, T; Kronberg, P; Lyutikov, M; Zweibel, E

    2009-01-01

    In this White Paper, we emphasize the need for and the important role of plasma astrophysics in the studies of formation, evolution of, and feedback by Active Galaxies. We make three specific recommendations: 1) We need to significantly increase the resolution of VLA, perhaps by building an EVLA-II at a modest cost. This will provide the angular resolution to study jets at kpc scales, where, for example, detailed Faraday rotation diagnosis can be done at 1GHz transverse to jets; 2) We need to build coordinated programs among NSF, NASA, and DOE to support laboratory plasma experiments (including liquid metal) that are designed to study key astrophysical processes, such as magneto-rotational instability (origin of angular momentum transport), dynamo (origin of magnetic fields), jet launching and stability. Experiments allowing access to relativistic plasma regime (perhaps by intense lasers and magnetic fields) will be very helpful for understanding the stability and dissipation physics of jets from Supermassive...

  9. Life experiences in active addiction and in recovery among treated and untreated persons: a national study.

    Laudet, Alexandre; Hill, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Addiction treatment can be effective but fewer than 50% of addiction affected persons are ever treated. Little is known about the addiction and recovery experience of this large subgroup. A national sample of persons in recovery (N = 3,176, 29.5% untreated) was used to begin addressing these questions to inform strategies to encourage help-seeking and to contribute to the small knowledge base on untreated individuals. Study domains were finances, family, social and civic functioning, health, criminal justice involvement, and employment. Treated persons reported significantly greater levels of negative-and fewer positive-experiences in all areas during active addiction than did the untreated group. This gap was significantly narrowed in recovery.

  10. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  11. [Effects of steroid therapy on long-term canal prognosis and activity in the daily life of vestibular neuronitis patients].

    Kitahara, T; Okumura, S; Takeda, N; Nishiike, S; Uno, A; Fukushima, M; Kubo, T

    2001-11-01

    We studied 28 patients with vestibular neuronitis treated at our hospital between 1997 and 1999. To determine the effects of steroid therapy on long-term canal prognosis and daily activity, we examined caloric tests and gave questionnaires to 12 steroid-treated and 16 nonsteroid-treated patients 2 years after onset. We found that canal improvement was 50% in the nonsteroid-treated group and 75% in the steroid-treated one. In cases with severe canal paresis (CP > or = 60%), canal improvement was 33% in the nonsteroid-treated group and 67% in the steroid-treated one. Steroid therapy at the acute stage of this disease significantly reduced the duration of spontaneous nystagmus and handicap in daily life due to dizziness induced by head and body movement, decreasing mood disturbance.

  12. Comparing the Environmental Impacts of Alkali Activated Mortar and Traditional Portland Cement Mortar using Life Cycle Assessment

    Matheu, P. S.; Ellis, K.; Varela, B.

    2015-11-01

    Since the year 1908 there has been research into the use alkali activated materials (AAM) in order to develop cementitious materials with similar properties to Ordinary Portland Cement. AAMs are considered green materials since their production and synthesis is not energy intensive. Even though AAMs have a high compressive strength, the average cost of production among other issues limits its feasibility. Previous research by the authors yielded a low cost AAM that uses mine tailings, wollastonite and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This mortar has an average compressive strength of 50MPa after 28 days of curing. In this paper the software SimaPro was used to create a product base cradle to gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This compared the environmental impact of the AAM mortar to an Ordinary Portland Cement mortar (PCHM) with similar compressive strength. The main motivation for this research is the environmental impact of producing Ordinary Portland Cement as compared to alkali activated slag materials. The results of this LCA show that the Alkali Activated Material has a lower environmental impact than traditional Portland cement hydraulic mortar, in 10 out of 12 categories including Global Warming Potential, Ecotoxicity, and Smog. Areas of improvement and possible future work were also discovered with this analysis.

  13. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  14. EXPERIENCES OF OPERATING AND STUDYING IN SECOND LIFE: STUDYING IN SECOND LIFE:

    Riitta LISKI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Association Citizens´ Forum SKAF ry is an educational institution for non-formal education. The Citizens’ Forum has been an active Second Life participant since 2007, researching its potential and challenges in educational use and non-governmental organisation activities. The first training sessions were organised in 2008 on a block of land rented from EduFinland I island. Later, ownership was acquired of the Suomi ry (Finland ry island, which was customised to serve Finnish organisations and non-governmental organisations (further NGO. The Citizens’ Forum’s training courses have covered training in Second Life and the organisation of cooperative meetings and various other events in Second Life. The overall length of training sessions has been one month. Each course has consisted of 3-5. 1.5 hour meetings in Second Life and interim tasks completed either individually or in small groups. In addition to Second Life, Moodle, an online learning environment, has been employed in which tasks, experiences and feedback have been gathered and which has also contained written summaries of what was learned during the Second Life meetings. The Second Life environment has also been regularly utilised in Citizens’ Forum staff and various other work group work related meetings.Funding and ventures 2008: Ministry of Education special funding, Initiation of Second Life courses and construction of environment 2009-2010: ESF programme Open Learning Environments-AVO venture, development and implementation of Second Life educational programmes.This article is based on practical experiences gained from Ø suitability of cooperative educational processes for Second LifeØ constructing a Second Life environment for educational useØ suitability of Second Life technology and tools for education and team workØ practical methods related to educational situations .

  15. Relationship between depression and physical activity, disability, burden, and health-related quality of life among patients with arthritis.

    Joshi, Namita; Khanna, Rahul; Shah, Ruchit M

    2015-04-01

    This study purports to examine the relationship of depression with physical activity, disability, arthritis-attributable burden (joint limitation, work limitation, social activity limitation, and joint pain), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among arthritis patients. Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults in the United States, was used for the purpose of this study. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to address the study objectives. The final study sample included 167,068 arthritis patients, 45,459 of whom had comorbid depression. Arthritis patients with depression had lower odds of engaging in physical activity (odds ratio [OR]=1.070, confidence interval [CI] 1.006-1.139) and higher odds of being disabled (OR=1.411, CI 1.306-1.524). Arthritis patients with depression also had greater odds of arthritis-attributable joint limitations (OR=1.551, CI 1.460-1.648), work limitations (OR=1.506, CI 1.414-1.604), social activity limitations (OR=1.647, CI 1.557-1.742), and pain (OR=1.438, CI 1.364-1.517) as compared to those without depression. Arthritis patients with versus without depression had greater odds of poor general health status (OR=1.698, CI 1.586-1.819), physical HRQOL (OR=1.592, CI 1.486-1.704), mental HRQOL (OR=6.225, CI 5.768-6.718), and activity limitations (OR=2.345, CI 2.168-2.537). Study results indicate toward a negative functional impact of depression among arthritis patients. Policy makers should consider incorporating screening and management of depression into routine clinical care of arthritis patients.

  16. Rehabilitation Program for the Quality of Life for Individuals on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Short Report

    Maharaj, Sonill S.; Chetty, Verusia

    2011-01-01

    Patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) spend less time on vigorous activities due to lower aerobic capacity with functional limitations that can be attributed to a detraining effect, resulting in a poor quality of life (QoL). The overall aims of rehabilitation are to restore, to maintain, and to enhance the QoL and this…

  17. Higher-Level Hand Motor Function in Aging and (Preclinical) Dementia : Its Relationship with (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Life - A Mini-Review

    Scherder, Erik; Dekker, Welmoed; Eggermont, Laura

    2008-01-01

    A causal relationship between physical activity such as walking and cognitive functions - particularly executive functions and memory - has been observed in elderly people with and without dementia. Executive functions play an important role in the (instrumental) activities of daily life [(I)ADL]. H

  18. Changes on Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Social Support for Activities and Physical Fitness in People with Intellectual Disabilities through Multimodal Intervention

    Pérez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability have poor levels of physical activity, quality of life, fitness condition and self-efficacy and social support when they want to undertake physical activity so it is very important to improve these parameters in this population. Method: A prospective study was conducted. Data were measured before and…

  19. Strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with hemophilia to improve quality of life

    Goto M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Miwa Goto,1 Hideyuki Takedani,2 Kazuhiko Yokota,1 Nobuhiko Haga3 1Rehabilitation Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 2Department of Joint Surgery, Research Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder caused by a congenital abnormality of blood coagulation. Until the mid-1970s, patients with hemophilia (PWH were advised to refrain from physical activity (PA because of a perceived increased risk of bleeding. Since then, PA, which is recognized as being essential for health maintenance, is now recommended by the World Federation of Hemophilia. Moreover, a number of studies reported that PA can improve treatment efficacy and prevent bleeding in PWH. Physical assessment and intervention in PA are currently used in clinical practice. However, the necessity of PA is not emphasized, and many PWH generally have low- to- no PA. Therefore, a behavior change approach to encourage patient motivation is becoming ever more important. In this article, we review articles addressing PA in PWH and discuss strategies to encourage PA through a behavior change approach by focusing on factors relevant to hemophilia, such as benefits and bleeding risk of PA, risk management of bleeding, PA characteristics, and difficulty with exercise adherence. The trust relationship between clinicians and patients, a transtheoretical model of behavior change, and motivation theory as approaches to promote PA are introduced. Finally, we review a case report of the clinical success of a behavior change approach to promote PA. Many PWH find it difficult to continue PA because of aging, fear of bleeding, insufficient recognition of PA benefits, and psychological problems. Therefore, it is essential and important to perform prophylaxis with PWH and to heighten their understanding of the benefits and risks of

  20. The Influence of Autonomic Dysfunction Associated with Aging and Type 2 Diabetes on Daily Life Activities

    Jerrold Petrofsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D and ageing have well documented effects on every organ in the body. In T2D the autonomic nervous system is impaired due to damage to neurons, sensory receptors, synapses and the blood vessels. This paper will concentrate on how autonomic impairment alters normal daily activities. Impairments include the response of the blood vessels to heat, sweating, heat transfer, whole body heating, orthostatic intolerance, balance, and gait. Because diabetes is more prevalent in older individuals, the effects of ageing will be examined. Beginning with endothelial dysfunction, blood vessels have impairment in their ability to vasodilate. With this and synaptic damage, the autonomic nervous system cannot compensate for effectors such as pressure on and heating of the skin. This and reduced ability of the heart to respond to stress, reduces autonomic orthostatic compensation. Diminished sweating causes the skin and core temperature to be high during whole body heating. Impaired orthostatic tolerance, impaired vision and vestibular sensing, causes poor balance and impaired gait. Overall, people with T2D must be made aware and counseled relative to the potential consequence of these impairments.

  1. Sub-Surface Meridional flow, Vorticity and the life time if Solar Active Regions

    Maurya, R A

    2010-01-01

    Solar sub-surface fluid topology provides an indirect approach to examine the internal characteristics of active regions (ARs). Earlier studies have revealed the prevalence of strong flows in the interior of ARs having complex magnetic fields. Using the Doppler data obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) project for a sample of 74 ARs, we have discovered the presence of steep gradients in meridional velocity at depths ranging from 1.5 to 5 Mm in flare productive ARs. The sample of these ARs is taken from the Carrington rotations 1980--2052 covering the period August 2001-January 2007. The gradients showed an interesting hemispheric trend of negative (positive) signs in the northern (southern) hemisphere, i.e., directed toward the equator. We have discovered three sheared layers in the depth range of 0 - 10 Mm, providing an evidence of complex flow structures in several ARs. An important inference derived from our analysis is that the location of the deepest zero vertical vorticity is correlat...

  2. Classroom teachers’ professional development activities within the scope of life long learning in Turkey

    Aliye Erdem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the factors affecting education, teachers have more important role in ensuring the effectiveness of the teaching process. Teachers’ professional development is a subject that directly affect the teaching process. Researches on the development of teaching profession indicate that professional training is a necessity for better education and better schools. Because if the teacher learns during performing the teaching profession, the quality of the education offered by the teacher will be higher. Teachers who develop themselves in terms of profession provide both a better education and a positive learning environment for the students. In this context, the aim of this research is to investigate the activities of the classroom teachers participate in Turkey in order to ensure their professional development. The study is prepared depending on the views of the classroom teachers. The data were obtained from the classroom teachers who teach 1, 2, 3, and 4. classes in public and private elementary schools in Ankara, in the 2014-2015 academic year. Questionnaire developed by the researchers was used for collecting the data.

  3. Positive regulation of DNA double strand break repair activity during differentiation of long life span cells: the example of adipogenesis.

    Aline Meulle

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the ability of terminally differentiated cells to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, and one might reasonably speculate that efficient DNA repair of these threatening DNA lesions, is needed in cells of long life span with no or limited regeneration from precursor. Few tissues are available besides neurons that allow the study of DNA DSBs repair activity in very long-lived cells. Adipocytes represent a suitable model since it is generally admitted that there is a very slow turnover of adipocytes in adult. Using both Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and the disappearance of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant H2AX, we demonstrated that the ability to repair DSBs is increased during adipocyte differentiation using the murine pre-adipocyte cell line, 3T3F442A. In mammalian cells, DSBs are mainly repaired by the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ that relies on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK activity. During the first 24 h following the commitment into adipogenesis, we show an increase in the expression and activity of the catalytic sub-unit of the DNA-PK complex, DNA-PKcs. The increased in DNA DSBs repair activity observed in adipocytes was due to the increase in DNA-PK activity as shown by the use of DNA-PK inhibitor or sub-clones of 3T3F442A deficient in DNA-PKcs using long term RNA interference. Interestingly, the up-regulation of DNA-PK does not regulate the differentiation program itself. Finally, similar positive regulation of DNA-PKcs expression and activity was observed during differentiation of primary culture of pre-adipocytes isolated from human sub-cutaneous adipose tissue. Our results show that DNA DSBs repair activity is up regulated during the early commitment into adipogenesis due to an up-regulation of DNA-PK expression and activity. In opposition to the general view that DNA DSBs repair is decreased during differentiation, our results demonstrate

  4. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    about 30 % as compared with the synchronous control, but the ratio of desmycosine to tylosin does not change. It was estimated that the strain S. oneidensis MR- 1 under the conditions of flight remains viable in all types of culture media Reducing the level of activity of the cells is similar in flight samples and the laboratory strain Strain S. oneidensis MR- 1 can be used in the microbial fuel cell while conducting experiments on board the spacecraft

  5. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    Paul de Vos

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life.

  6. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-06-10

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities.

  7. Gain control in the sonar of odontocetes.

    Ya Supin, Alexander; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2013-06-01

    The sonar of odontocetes processes echo-signals within a wide range of echo levels. The level of echoes varies widely by tens of decibels depending on the level of the emitted sonar pulse, the target strength, the distance to the target, and the sound absorption by the water media. The auditory system of odontocetes must be capable of effective perception, analysis, and discrimination of echo-signals within all this variability. The sonar of odontocetes has several mechanisms to compensate for the echo-level variation (gain control). To date, several mechanisms of the biosonar gain control have been revealed in odontocetes: (1) adjustment of emitted sonar pulse levels (the longer the distance to the target, the higher the level of the emitted pulse), (2) short-term variation of hearing sensitivity based on forward masking of the echo by the preceding self-heard emitted pulse and subsequent release from the masking, and (3) active long-term control of hearing sensitivity. Recent investigations with the use of the auditory evoked-potential technique have demonstrated that these mechanisms effectively minimize the variation of the response to the echo when either the emitted sonar pulse level, or the target distance, or both vary within a wide range. A short review of these data is presented herein.

  8. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  9. Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living.

    Vaughan, Leslie; Giovanello, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    The present study of older adults used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between 3 executive processes underlying executive function (EF) (inhibition, task switching, updating in working memory), and 2 types of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (self-report, performance based). Experimental tasks of executive attention and self-report or performance-based IADL tests were administered to create latent constructs of EF and IADLs. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity of EF and IADLs. This analysis indicated a 3-factor model of inhibition, updating, and task switching and a 2-factor model of self-report and performance-based IADLs. As predicted, when the latent variable relationships were analyzed, executive processes had a significant relationship with performance-based, but not self-report, IADLs. In addition, task switching had a strong and significant relationship with performance-based IADLs. The results of this study uniquely show a direct relationship between executive processes and performance-based IADLs, thus demonstrating the ecological utility of experimental measures of EF to predict daily function. Furthermore, these results point to areas of cognitive training that may strategically impact older adults' performance on daily life activities.

  10. Association between physical activity and quality of life in the elderly: a systematic review, 2000-2012

    Gislaine C. Vagetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review information regarding the association of physical activity (PA with quality of life (QoL in the elderly and to identify the study designs and measurement instruments most commonly used in its assessment, in the period 2000-2012. Methods: Relevant articles were identified by a search of four electronic databases and cross-reference lists and by contact with the authors of the included manuscripts. Original studies on the association between PA and QoL in individuals aged 60 years or older were examined. The quality of studies as well as the direction and the consistency of the association between PA and QoL were evaluated. Results: A total of 10,019 articles were identified as potentially relevant, but only 42 (0.42% met the inclusion criteria and were retrieved and examined. Most studies demonstrated a positive association between PA and QoL in the elderly. PA had a consistent association with the following QoL domains: functional capacity; general QoL; autonomy; past, present and future activities; death and dying; intimacy; mental health; vitality; and psychological. Conclusion: PA was positively and consistently associated with some QoL domains among older individuals, supporting the notion that promoting PA in the elderly may have an impact beyond physical health. However, the associations between PA and other QoL domains were moderate to inconsistent and require further investigation.

  11. In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Neves, Bruno J; Braga, Rodolpho C; Bezerra, José C B; Cravo, Pedro V L; Andrade, Carolina H

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes.

  12. Self-efficacy, physical activity and health-related quality of life in middle-aged meniscectomy patients and controls.

    Ericsson, Y B; Ringsberg, K; Dahlberg, L E

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose was to examine self-efficacy of knee function, physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in post-meniscectomy patients and controls as well as to explore the impact of gender and the association between outcomes. Ninety-nine post-meniscectomy patients (27% women), mean age 44.5 years, mean (range) of follow-up time 3 (1-5) years, and 94 controls (34% women), mean age 45 years, completed the following questionnaires: the Knee Self-Efficacy Scale (K-SES(ABC) ), the Physical Activity Scale (PAS) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Patients scored lower than controls in K-SES(ABC) and in the SF-36 subscales Physical Functioning and Bodily Pain (P≤0.002). Forty-six percent of the patients had resumed pre-injury PA, but current PA did not differ between the groups. In the patients, K-SES(ABC) correlated strongly with four physical SF-36 subscales and one mental scale (Vitality) (r(s) =0.56-0.85, PHRQoL.

  13. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used (N = 5,536. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.004; P < 0.001, but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.0003; 95% CI: −0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37, was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥487.5 min/day level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.03 to −0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769. The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  14. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life.

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = - 0.01; 95% CI: - 0.01 to - 0.004; P HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.02; 95% CI: - 0.03 to - 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  15. Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers

    Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOW GAIN FEEDBACK AND LOW-AND-HIGH GAIN FEEDBACK

    Zongli LIN

    2009-01-01

    Low gain feedback refers to certain families of stabilizing state feedback gains that are parameterized in a scalar and go to zero as the scalar decreases to zero. Low gain feedback was initially proposed to achieve semi-global stabilization of linear systems subject to input saturation. It was then combined with high gain feedback in different ways for solving various control problems. The resulting feedback laws are referred to as low-and-high gain feedback. Since the introduction of low gain feedback in the context of semi-global stabilization of linear systems subject to input saturation,there has been effort to develop alternative methods for low gain design, to characterize key features of low gain feedback, and to explore new applications of the low gain and low-and-high gain feedback.This paper reviews the developments in low gain and low-and-high gain feedback designs.

  17. Effects of the Otago exercise program on fall efficacy, activities of daily living and quality of life in elderly stroke patients

    Park, Youngju; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the Otago exercise program on fall efficacy, activities of daily living, and quality of life in elderly stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eight subjects performed the Otago exercise program three times per week, for 8 weeks. The outcome measures were the Fall Efficacy Scale score for fall efficacy, modified Barthel index for activities of daily living, and EQ-5D for quality of life. [Results] In our comparison of the results before and after the intervention, we found that the Otago exercise program improved fall efficacy significantly as well as the score for activities of daily living and quality of life, though not significantly. [Conclusion] We consider that the Otago exercise program is an effective method for improving fall efficacy in elderly stroke patients. PMID:26957755

  18. Disability in activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life among older medical ICU survivors: a prospective cohort study

    Pisani Margaret A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of quality of life in older ICU survivors is difficult but critical for understanding the long-term impact of our treatments. Activities of daily living (ADLs are important components of functional status and more easily measured than quality of life (QOL. We sought to determine the cross-sectional associations between disability in ADLs and QOL as measured by version one of the Short Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12 at both one month and one year post-ICU discharge. Methods Data was prospectively collected on 309 patients over age 60 admitted to the Yale-New Haven Hospital Medical ICU between 2002 and 2004. Among survivors an assessment of ADL's and QOL was performed at one month and one-year post-ICU discharge. The SF-12 was scored using the version one norm based scoring with 1990 population norms. Multivariable regression was used to adjust the association between ADLs and QOL for important covariates. Results Our analysis of SF-12 data from 110 patients at one month post-ICU discharge showed that depression and ADL disability were associated with decreased QOL. Our model accounted for 17% of variability in SF12 physical scores (PCS and 20% of variability in SF12 mental scores (MCS. The mean PCS of 37 was significantly lower than the population mean whereas the mean MCS score of 51 was similar to the population mean. At one year mean PCS scores improved and ADL disability was no longer significantly associated with QOL. Mortality was 17% (53 patients at ICU discharge, 26% (79 patients at hospital discharge, 33% (105 patients at one month post ICU admission, and was 45% (138 patients at one year post ICU discharge. Conclusions In our population of older ICU survivors, disability in ADLs was associated with reduced QOL as measured by the SF-12 at one month but not at one year. Although better markers of QOL in ICU survivors are needed, ADLs are a readily observable outcome. In the meantime, clinicians

  19. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia.

    Abera, Kebede; Gedif, Teferi; Engidawork, Ephrem; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2010-04-01

    The Amharic version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at selected governmental hospitals in central and southern Ethiopia. The study was cross-sectional and used SF-36-specific software for automatic scoring of the form's scales and dimensions. Pearson bivariate correlations showed moderate correlation between the SF-36 scales, ranging from 0.2673 between 'general health' and 'vitality,' to 0.8583 between 'role physical' and 'role emotional.' Cronbach's-αwas >0.70 for six out of eight multi-item scales, with values ranging from 0.6500 to 0.8860 for all scales, thus indicating good internal reliability of the Amharic version of the SF-36. The independent variables shown to positively affect mean scores were: duration of treatment, CD4 cell count, and adherence to doses of antiretrovirals. Participants treated for >12 months had higher mean scores for all domains than those who had been treated for ≤12 months. Likewise, those with a CD4 cell count >200 cells/mm(3) had better mean scores for all scales except 'social functioning' and 'mental health' than those with counts ≤200. Participants adhering to treatment (in the last 15 days, according to self-report) had better mean scores for all scales except 'role physical,' 'bodily pain' and 'vitality' in comparison to those who were not adherent. The findings suggest that the Amharic version of the SF-36 is a valid and reliable health survey instrument for use in Ethiopia to assess the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS on HAART.

  20. Gain spectroscopy of a type-II VECSEL chip

    Lammers, Christian; Berger, Christian; Möller, Christoph; Fuchs, Christian; Perez, Antje Ruiz; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Hader, Jörg; Moloney, Jerome; Stolz, Wolfgang; Koch, Stephan W; Koch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Using optical pump-white light probe spectroscopy the gain dynamics is investigated for a VECSEL chip which is based on a type-II heterostructure. The active region the chip consists of a GaAs/(GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb)/(GaIn)As/GaAs multiple quantum well. For this structure, a fully microscopic theory predicts a modal room temperature gain at a wavelength of 1170 nm, which is confirmed by experimental spectra. The results show a gain buildup on the type-II chip which is delayed relative to that of a type-I chip. This slower gain dynamics is attributed to a diminished cooling rate arising from reduced electron-hole scattering.