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Sample records for active life gained

  1. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  2. Lifestyle intervention to improve quality of life and prevent weight gain after renal transplantation : Design of the Active Care after Transplantation (ACT) randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Gerald; Zelle, Dorien M; Navis, Gerjan J; Dijkema, Desie; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low physical activity and reduced physical functioning are common after renal transplantation, resulting in a reduced quality of life. Another common post-transplantation complication is poor cardio-metabolic health, which plays a main role in long-term outcomes in renal transplant

  3. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.

  4. Gain and loss learning differentially contribute to life financial outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Knutson

    Full Text Available Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt. In a community sample of healthy adults (n = 75, rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes.

  5. Gains in Life Expectancy Associated with Higher Education in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Govert E; van Poppel, Frans; Ekamper, Peter; Lumey, L H

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show large differences in life expectancy across the range of education, intelligence, and socio-economic status. As educational attainment, intelligence, and socio-economic status are highly interrelated, appropriate methods are required to disentangle their separate effects. The aim of this paper is to present a novel method to estimate gains in life expectancy specifically associated with increased education. Our analysis is based on a structural model in which education level, IQ at age 18 and mortality all depend on (latent) intelligence. The model allows for (selective) educational choices based on observed factors and on an unobserved factor capturing intelligence. Our estimates are based on information from health examinations of military conscripts born in 1944-1947 in The Netherlands and their vital status through age 66 (n = 39,798). Our empirical results show that men with higher education have lower mortality. Using structural models to account for education choice, the estimated gain in life expectancy for men moving up one educational level ranges from 0.3 to 2 years. The estimated gain in months alive over the observational period ranges from -1.2 to 5.7 months. The selection effect is positive and amounts to a gain of one to two months. Decomposition of the selection effect shows that the gain from selection on (latent) intelligence is larger than the gain from selection on observed factors and amounts to 1.0 to 1.7 additional months alive. Our findings confirm the strong selection into education based on socio-economic status and intelligence. They also show significant higher life expectancy among individuals with higher education after the selectivity of education choice has been taken into account. Based on these estimates, it is plausible therefore that increases in education could lead to increases in life expectancy.

  6. Length of life gained with surgical treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus; Rusch, Ea

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse relative survival, excess mortality and gain in life expectancy in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa) between 1995 and 2011 in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population comprised the complete c...

  7. Gains in disability-free life expectancy from elimination of diseases and injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Yamada, Hiroya; Seko, Rumi; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Masayuki; Kato, Masahiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Masato; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Although disability-free life expectancy has been investigated in Japan, gains from elimination of diseases and injuries have not been examined. We used data from the 2007 Japanese national health statistics to calculate the number of years with and without activity limitation that could be expected from eliminating 6 selected diseases and injuries. At birth, the number of expected years of life without and with activity limitation was 70.8 and 8.4, respectively, in males and 74.2 and 11.8 in females. More than 1.0 expected years without activity limitation were gained from eliminating malignant neoplasms and cerebrovascular diseases; smaller gains were observed after eliminating other diseases and injuries. Elimination of cerebrovascular diseases, dementia, and fracture decreased expected years with activities of daily living (ADL) limitation, and elimination of shoulder lesions/low back pain decreased expected years with non-ADL limitation. Elimination of diseases and injuries increased expected years with and without activity limitation among Japanese, which suggests that improved prevention of those diseases and injuries-including cerebrovascular diseases and dementia-would result in longer disability-free life expectancy and fewer years of severe disability.

  8. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  9. Simulation of Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated....

  10. Active microwave negative-index metamaterial transmission line with gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Chang, Kihun; Si, Li-Ming; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2011-11-11

    We studied the active metamaterial transmission line at microwave frequency. The active composite right-handed or left-handed transmission line was designed to incorporate a germanium tunnel diode with a negative differential resistance property as the gain device at the unit cell level. Measurements of the fabricated planar transmission line structures with one-, two-, and three-unit cells showed that the addition of the dc pumped tunnel diodes not only provided gain but also maintained the left handedness of the transmission line metamaterial. Simulation results agree well with experimental observation. This work demonstrated that negative index material can be obtained with a net gain when an external source is incorporated.

  11. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate...... that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order...... carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more...

  13. Towards gaining renewed balance in life after operable lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene

    Background. Studies involving groups of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) provide valuable knowledge on symptoms, quality of life and needs using questionnaires, but knowledge of the perspective of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and the significance of the illness...... and its treatment on their daily lives is scant. Moreover qualitative evidence on patient experiences of participation in rehabilitation is lacking. Objectives. To explore the lived experiences of patients with operable lung cancer in daily life at ‘four critical moments’ during a ‘standard’ illness...... cancer. Methods. Study participants were divided into three samples of patients with operable lung cancer referred for surgery at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen. Samples I and II involved an exploration of patients’ lived experiences during...

  14. Gain in Quality-adjusted Life-years in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis During 1 Year of Biological Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is used to measure outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) studies; identification of drivers of a gain in QALY might help predict a treatment response. We investigated how changes in components of the Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28) were associated wit...... with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) responses; and what baseline variables predicted the change in QALY following 1 year of biological therapy....

  15. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after

  16. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Takomana G, BSc, MSc Student in Food Science and Human Nutrition. Kalimbira AA, PhD ... Results: There was a significant difference in mean weight gain between female (7.1 ± 3.2 kg, n = 26) and male students (9.6 ± 3.5 kg, ..... of total energy expenditure,19 depending on the type of activity performed ...

  17. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century...... and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Methods: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current...... mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys...

  18. Longevity in Slovenia: Past and potential gains in life expectancy by age and causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrič Dolinar, Aleša; Došenović Bonča, Petra; Sambt, Jože

    2017-06-01

    In Slovenia, longevity is increasing rapidly. From 1997 to 2014, life expectancy at birth increased by 7 and 5 years for men and women, respectively. This paper explores how this gain in life expectancy at birth can be attributed to reduced mortality from five major groups of causes of death by 5-year age groups. It also estimates potential future gains in life expectancy at birth. The importance of the five major causes of death was analysed by cause-elimination life tables. The total elimination of individual causes of death and a partial hypothetical adjustment of mortality to Spanish levels were analysed, along with age and cause decomposition (Pollard). During the 1997-2014 period, the increase in life expectancy at birth was due to lower mortality from circulatory diseases (ages above 60, both genders), as well as from lower mortality from neoplasms (ages above 50 years) and external causes (between 20 and 50 years) for men. However, considering the potential future gains in life expectancy at birth, by far the strongest effect can be attributed to lower mortality due to circulatory diseases for both genders. If Spanish mortality rates were reached, life expectancy at birth would increase by more than 2 years, again mainly because of lower mortality from circulatory diseases in very old ages. Life expectancy analyses can improve evidence-based decision-making and allocation of resources among different prevention programmes and measures for more effective disease management that can also reduce the economic burden of chronic diseases.

  19. Potential gains in life expectancy by improving road safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Ma, S; Bishai, D; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) cause a significant number of injuries and deaths in China every year; the World Health Organization estimated 261,367 deaths due to RTI in 2013. As a result of the ongoing growth of China's economy, road construction and motorisation, RTI are expected to impose a heavy health burden in the future. However, the public and policy makers have not widely perceived RTI as a public health issue commensurate with its consequences, in part, due to a lack of intuitive indicator measuring the health impact. Employs the cause-eliminating life table technique to provide a measure of the burden of RTI based on data from a nationally representative surveillance system in China. Previous studies have used indicators such as event counts, rates and disability-adjusted life years to measure the health impact of RTI; but this study uses potential gains in life expectancy to measure this impact. Eliminating RTI could lead to a gain of 0.52 years in life expectancy in 2012, meaning that on average Chinese people could live a half year more than they would in the presence of RTI. Males have a substantially higher RTI death rate and consequently could have a gain in life expectancy more than twice as large as females (male 0.72 years vs female 0.28 years). The gain in rural areas (0.65 years) is twice that in urban areas (0.32 years). The significant gain in life expectancy signals the urgency for public actions to improve road safety; the disparity in the burden across regions and sexes indicate a great opportunity for targeted interventions to protect health and save lives. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  1. Incarceration and adult weight gain in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Zinzi D; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2015-12-01

    The United States has the unenviable distinction of having both the highest obesity rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the highest incarceration rate in the world. Further, both are socially patterned by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Incarceration involves various health behaviors that could influence adult weight trajectory. We evaluated the associations between history and duration of adult incarceration and weight gain using the National Survey of American Life (N=6082 adults residing in the 48 contiguous states between February 2001 and March 2003). We propensity score-matched individuals to control for the probability of having a history of incarceration. To examine the relation between prior incarceration and adult weight gain, we fit gender-stratified generalized estimating equations controlling for propensity of incarceration history, age, education, income, race/ethnicity, and marital status. For males (N=563), incarceration was associated with about a 1.77 kg/m(2) lower gain in body mass index (BMI) during adulthood, after adjusting for age, education, income, race/ethnicity, and marital status in addition to the propensity of having a history of incarceration (95% CI: -2.63, -0.92). For females (N=286), no significant overall relationship was found between a history of incarceration and adult weight gain. In subgroup analyses among those with an incarceration history, we found no overall association between duration of incarceration and adult weight gain in men or women. In sensitivity analyses, neither tobacco smoking nor parity changed the results. The results of this study indicate that incarceration is associated with a lower transition of weight gain in males, but not in females.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of Weight Gain From Early to Middle Adulthood With Major Health Outcomes Later in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Manson, JoAnn E; Yuan, Changzheng; Liang, Matthew H; Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-18

    Data describing the effects of weight gain across adulthood on overall health are important for weight control. To examine the association of weight gain from early to middle adulthood with health outcomes later in life. Cohort analysis of US women from the Nurses' Health Study (1976-June 30, 2012) and US men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-January 31, 2012) who recalled weight during early adulthood (at age of 18 years in women; 21 years in men), and reported current weight during middle adulthood (at age of 55 years). Weight change from early to middle adulthood (age of 18 or 21 years to age of 55 years). Beginning at the age of 55 years, participants were followed up to the incident disease outcomes. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were confirmed by medical records or the National Death Index. A composite healthy aging outcome was defined as being free of 11 chronic diseases and major cognitive or physical impairment. A total of 92 837 women (97% white; mean [SD] weight gain: 12.6 kg [12.3 kg] over 37 years) and 25 303 men (97% white; mean [SD] weight gain: 9.7 kg [9.7 kg] over 34 years) were included in the analysis. For type 2 diabetes, the adjusted incidence per 100 000 person-years was 207 among women who gained a moderate amount of weight (≥2.5 kg to adulthood was associated with significantly increased risk of major chronic diseases and decreased odds of healthy aging. These findings may help counsel patients regarding the risks of weight gain.

  3. Quality-Adjusted Life Years Gained by Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery and Its Aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebs, Thoralf R; Herzberg, Wolfgang; Rüther, Wolfgang; Russlies, Martin; Hassenpflug, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    To determine the lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by total joint arthroplasty (TJA), and assess the QALYs attributed to specific postoperative rehabilitation interventions. Secondary analysis of 2 multicenter, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Two university hospitals, 2 municipal hospitals, and 1 rural hospital. Patients (N=827) who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). RCT A: 465 patients were randomly assigned to receive aquatic therapy (pool exercises aimed at training of proprioception, coordination, and strengthening) 6 versus 14 days after THA or TKA. 362 patients were randomly assigned to either perform or not perform ergometer cycling beginning 2 weeks after THA or TKA. QALYs, based on the Short Form-6 Dimensions utility, measured at baseline and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months' follow-up. After hip arthroplasty, the lifetime QALYs increased by 2.35 years in the nonergometer group, and by 2.30 years in the early aquatic therapy group. However, after knee arthroplasty, the lifetime QALYs increased by 1.81 years in the nonergometer group, and by 1.60 years in the early aquatic therapy group. By ergometer cycling, .55 additional QALYs could be gained after hip and .10 additional QALYs after knee arthroplasty, while the additional QALYs attributed to the timing of aquatic therapy were .12 years after hip and .01 years after knee arthroplasty. This analysis provides a sound estimate for the determination of the lifetime QALYs gained by THA and TKA. In addition, this analysis demonstrates that specific postoperative rehabilitation can result in an additional mean QALY gain of .55 years, which represents one fourth of the effect of surgery. Even if this is interpreted as a small effect at an individual level, it is important when extrapolated to all patients undergoing TJA. At a national level, these improvements appear to have a similar magnitude of QALY gain when compared

  4. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  5. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gæde, Peter; Øllgaard, Jens Christian; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    for all microvascular complications was decreased in the intensive-therapy group in the range 0.52 to 0.67, except for peripheral neuropathy (HR 1.12). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: At 21.2 years of follow-up of 7.8 years of intensified, multifactorial, target-driven treatment of type 2 diabetes......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to study the potential long-term impact of a 7.8 years intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria in terms of gained years of life and years free from incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS......: The original intervention (mean treatment duration 7.8 years) involved 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria who were randomly assigned (using sealed envelopes) to receive either conventional therapy or intensified, multifactorial treatment including both behavioural and pharmacological...

  6. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gæde, Peter; Øllgaard, Jens Christian; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to study the potential long-term impact of a 7.8 years intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria in terms of gained years of life and years free from incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS......: The original intervention (mean treatment duration 7.8 years) involved 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria who were randomly assigned (using sealed envelopes) to receive either conventional therapy or intensified, multifactorial treatment including both behavioural and pharmacological...... for all microvascular complications was decreased in the intensive-therapy group in the range 0.52 to 0.67, except for peripheral neuropathy (HR 1.12). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: At 21.2 years of follow-up of 7.8 years of intensified, multifactorial, target-driven treatment of type 2 diabetes...

  7. Adolescents, organized activities, and peers: knowledge gained and knowledge needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Borrowing a framework used to study adolescent peer groups, this chapter relates key findings from chapters in this volume to the status or reputation that peers accord a given organized activity, the tendency of activities to channel adolescents toward some relationships and away from others, and the context for peer interactions created within an activity. Then, a conceptual model is presented urging more careful consideration of specific features of a given activity and the peers who participate in them when examining peer effects on activity participants' psychosocial outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  8. Adolescents, Organized Activities, and Peers: Knowledge Gained and Knowledge Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Borrowing a framework used to study adolescent peer groups, this chapter relates key findings from chapters in this volume to the status or reputation that peers accord a given organized activity, the tendency of activities to channel adolescents toward some relationships and away from others, and the context for peer interactions created within…

  9. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ijntema, H.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials

  10. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  11. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, Li; Zimmerman, Linnea; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Tsui, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  12. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. 229.85 Section 229.85 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  13. Enhancing Diversity in Undergraduate Science: Self-Efficacy Drives Performance Gains with Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Cissy J; Wieman, Carl; Salehi, Shima; Searle, Jeremy B; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to retain underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have shown only limited success in higher education, due in part to a persistent achievement gap between students from historically underrepresented and well-represented backgrounds. To test the hypothesis that active learning disproportionately benefits URM students, we quantified the effects of traditional versus active learning on student academic performance, science self-efficacy, and sense of social belonging in a large (more than 250 students) introductory STEM course. A transition to active learning closed the gap in learning gains between non-URM and URM students and led to an increase in science self-efficacy for all students. Sense of social belonging also increased significantly with active learning, but only for non-URM students. Through structural equation modeling, we demonstrate that, for URM students, the increase in self-efficacy mediated the positive effect of active-learning pedagogy on two metrics of student performance. Our results add to a growing body of research that supports varied and inclusive teaching as one pathway to a diversified STEM workforce. © 2017 C. J. Ballen et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia: Associations with psychological resource losses and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ora; Kushnir, Jonathan; Bar, Mor; Kushnir, Talma

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived losses and gains of psychological resources and quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia. Thirty one adult daughters of mothers with schizophrenia (age range 30 to 50years) and thirty women of similar socio-demographic characteristics whose mothers were mentally healthy (the control group) participated in this study. (a) Resource loss was higher and resource gains were lower among daughters of women with schizophrenia, compared to the control group; (b) despite resource gains total score of quality of life was significantly lower among daughters of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the controls; (c) daughters of mothers with schizophrenia had lower levels of family functioning, a higher level of negative emotions and a lower level of positive emotions; (d) resource gains moderated the negative relationship between resource loss and quality of life; (e) the most significant predictor of quality of life was the group (i.e. daughters of women with schizophrenia compared with controls); (f) quality of life was more strongly associated with resource loss than with resource gain. The findings of this research underscore the importance of raising awareness of caregivers and healthcare authorities to the needs of the unique population of daughters of women diagnosed with schizophrenia for support and even treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing dietary intake and physical activity affecting weight gain in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Connie K; Cashion, Ann K; Cowan, Patricia A; Tutor, Ruth S; Wicks, Mona N; Williams, Ruth; Eason, James D

    2012-03-01

    Weight gain after kidney transplantation affects 50% to 90% of kidney transplant recipients. Factors leading to weight gain in recipients are thought to include a change in lifestyle (eg, dietary intake and physical activity), age, race, sex, and immunosuppressant medications. To examine dietary intake and physical activity of kidney transplant recipients at baseline and 3 and 6 months after transplantation to identify contributing factors to weight gain. Descriptive, correlational study using secondary data from a larger parent study examining genetic and environmental contributors to weight gain after kidney transplantation. Forty-four kidney transplant recipients at a mid-South university hospital-based transplant institute who had dietary intake, physical activity, and clinical data at baseline and 3 and 6 months were included. Dietary intake, physical activity, weight, and body mass index. Mean weight gain increased by 6% from baseline to 6 months. Interestingly, dietary intake did not change significantly from baseline to 6 months. Hours of sleep per day decreased during the same period (P = .02). Dietary intake, physical activity, age, race, sex, and immunosuppression showed no significant relationship to weight gain at 6 months. Little consideration has been given to dietary intake and physical activity of kidney transplant recipients and the effects of these variables on weight gain. Further studies with a larger sample are needed, as weight gain after transplantation is a significant risk factor for diminished long-term outcomes.

  16. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, Leanne K; L'Abée, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education) were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains. Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2totalweight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  17. Women in very low quality marriages gain life satisfaction following divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Sbarra, David A; Whisman, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    Although marital dissolution is associated with increased risk for poor mental and physical health outcomes, many people report improvements in functioning after divorce. To study the hypothesis that women in lower quality marriages would report the best outcomes upon separation/divorce, we investigated the combined effects of marital quality, gender, and marital status for predicting changes in life satisfaction (LS). Participants (N = 1,639; 50.3% men) were drawn from a nationally representative sample (Midlife in the United States Study), which included assessments of marital quality, marital status, and LS, at 2 time points (T1 and T2), roughly 10 years apart. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed an interaction between marital quality, marital status, and gender when predicting residual change in LS. Divorced women evidenced a negative association between marital quality and later LS, whereas continuously married women had a positive association between marital quality and later LS. In addition, women in higher quality marriages that become divorced showed the lowest LS, and women in lowest quality marriages show the highest LS among women with similar levels of marital quality. There was no association between marital quality and later LS for divorced or continuously married men. This work extends prior findings regarding gender differences in marital quality to postdivorce well-being, and suggests women in the lowest quality marriages may gain LS following divorce. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, and adequate weight gain are all associated with maternal health and fetal growth during pregnancy. Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechani...

  19. Elderly age: healthy life style and life activity prolongation

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshkova Elena Vyacheslavovna; Rodionova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna; Mukhina Marina Yurievna; Veretelnikova Yulia Yakovlevna; Chernyshkov Danila Vsevolodovich

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of the results of elderly people’s (aged 55–65) questionnaires concerning the basic precepts of healthy life style for activity prolongation (N = 180). It has been established that the basic principles of healthy life style include regular moderate physical loads, a rational diet, giving up bad habits. Healthy life style popularization may become a promising measure to increase activity motivation of elderly people.

  20. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  1. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life-The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, Leanne K.; L'Abee, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Methods In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length

  2. Life Span Differences in Electrophysiological Correlates of Monitoring Gains and Losses during Probabilistic Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerer, Dorothea; Li, Shu-Chen; Muller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    By recording the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to gains and losses, we investigated the contribution of outcome monitoring mechanisms to age-associated differences in probabilistic reinforcement learning. Specifically, we assessed the difference of the monitoring reactions to gains and losses to investigate the monitoring of…

  3. How efficient are New Zealand's District Health Boards at producing life expectancy gains for Māori and Europeans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Peter; Consuelo, David Juan José Vivas; Rouse, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of New Zealand's District Health Boards (DHBs) at achieving gains in Māori and European life expectancy (LE). Using life tables for 2006 and 2013, a two-output DEA model established the production possibility frontier for Māori and European LE gain. Confidence limits were generated from a 10,000 replicate Monte Carlo simulation. Results support the use of LE change as an indicator of DHB efficiency. DHB mean income and education were related to initial LE but not to its rate of change. LE gains were unrelated to either the initial level of life expectancy or to the proportion of Māori in the population. DHB efficiency ranged from 79% to 100%. Efficiency was significantly correlated with DHB financial performance. Changes in LE did not depend on the social characteristics of the DHB. The statistically significant association between efficiency and financial performance supports its use as an indicator of managerial effectiveness. Implications for public health: Efficient health systems achieve better population health outcomes. DEA can be used to measure the relative efficiency of sub-national health authorities at achieving health gain and equity outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life--The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne K Küpers

    Full Text Available To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors.In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains.Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%.Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role.

  5. Risk of bottle-feeding for rapid weight gain during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Magadia, Joselito; Fein, Sara B; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-05-01

    To better understand the mechanisms behind breastfeeding and childhood obesity, we assessed the association of weight gain with the mode of milk delivery aside from the type of milk given to infants. A longitudinal study of infants followed up from birth to age 1 year. Multilevel analyses were conducted to estimate infant weight gain by type of milk and feeding mode. Pregnant women were recruited from a consumer mail panel throughout the United States between May 2005 and June 2007. One thousand eight hundred ninety nine infants with at least 3 weight measurements reported during the first year. Six mutually exclusive feeding categories and proportions of milk feedings given as breastmilk or by bottle. Weight measurements reported on 3-, 5-, 7-, and 12-month surveys. Compared with infants fed at the breast, infants fed only by bottle gained 71 or 89 g more per month when fed nonhuman milk only (P feedings, but it was positively associated with proportion of bottle-feedings among those who received mostly breastmilk. Among infants fed only breastmilk, monthly weight gain increased from 729 g when few feedings were by bottle to 780 g when most feedings were by bottle. Infant weight gain might be associated not only with type of milk consumed but also with mode of milk delivery. Regardless of milk type in the bottle, bottle-feeding might be distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' weight gain.

  6. Habitual active transport, TV viewing and weight gain: a four year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations of TV viewing time and domain-specific physical activity with weight change; to determine whether domain-specific physical activity moderates the potential association of TV viewing time with weight change. We used four-year longitudinal data (baseline: 2003-2004, follow-up: 2007-2008) on 969 adults from selected neighborhoods in Adelaide, Australia (Age: 48.6 ± 10.6 years, 61% females). Mixed models examined four-year weight change as the dependent variable, with TV viewing time, habitual transport and past week domain-specific physical activity at baseline as independent variables. On average, participants gained 1.6 kg over four years. TV viewing time at baseline was positively associated with weight gain at follow-up. Each additional hour of TV viewing was associated with 0.24-0.27 kg of extra weight gain. This relationship was not moderated by recent recall of transport, leisure-time, and occupational physical activity, but was moderated by habitual transport: an additional hour of TV viewing time at baseline was significantly associated with an extra weight gain of 0.65 kg at follow-up among those who were inactive in everyday transport; TV time was not significantly associated with weight change among those who were regularly active in transport. Habitual active transport may protect adults against risk of weight gain associated with prolonged TV viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  8. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Oscar H; de Laet, Chris; Peeters, Anna; Jonker, Jacqueline; Mackenbach, Johan; Nusselder, Wilma

    2005-11-14

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical activity levels after age 50 years on total life expectancy and life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. We constructed multistate life tables using data from the Framingham Heart Study to calculate the effects of 3 levels of physical activity (low, moderate, and high) among populations older than 50 years. For the life table calculations, we used hazard ratios for 3 transitions (healthy to death, healthy to disease, and disease to death) by levels of physical activity and adjusted for age, sex, smoking, any comorbidity (cancer, left ventricular hypertrophy, arthritis, diabetes, ankle edema, or pulmonary disease), and examination at start of follow-up period. Moderate and high physical activity levels led to 1.3 and 3.7 years more in total life expectancy and 1.1 and 3.2 more years lived without cardiovascular disease, respectively, for men aged 50 years or older compared with those who maintained a low physical activity level. For women the differences were 1.5 and 3.5 years in total life expectancy and 1.3 and 3.3 more years lived free of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle during adulthood not only prevents cardiovascular disease independently of other risk factors but also substantially expands the total life expectancy and the cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy for men and women. This effect is already seen at moderate levels of physical activity, and the gains in cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy are twice as large at higher activity levels.

  9. Estimating the impact of antiretroviral therapy: regional and global estimates of life-years gained among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Mary; Stover, John; Stanecki, Karen; Stoneburner, Rand; Tassie, Jean-Michel

    2010-12-01

    An estimated 4.9 million adults received antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle income countries in 2009. A further estimated 700 000 adults received ART in high-income countries. The impact of providing ART is not often quantifiable due to limited monitoring systems. One measure, life-years gained, provides a standardised measure that shows the survival impact of ART on the population while controlling for variations in underlying survival. Measuring life-years gained allows a comparison of the impact of ART between regions. Using the Spectrum computer package, two different scenarios were created for 151 countries. One scenario describes the results of providing adults with ART as reported by countries between 1995 and 2009, the second scenario describes a situation in which no ART was provided to adults living with HIV between 1995 and 2009. The difference in the number of life-years accrued among adults in the two scenarios is compared and summarised by geographical region. An estimated 14.4 million life-years have been gained among adults globally between 1995 and 2009 as a result of ART. 54 % of these years were gained in western Europe and North America, where ART has been available for over 10 years. In recent years the growth in life-years has occurred more rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The substantial impact of ART described here provides evidence to argue for continued support of sustainable ART programmes in low and middle-income countries. Strengthening ART monitoring systems and mortality surveillance in low and middle-income countries will make this evidence more accessible to programme managers.

  10. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian activity was studied in 36 dry, Bos taurus cows fed to achieve different rates of body mass loss and gain in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. .... resumption of sexual activity may have been due to gutfill. The present study was initiated to determine ..... Prod. 7, 180. HALE, D.H., 1975. Nutrition, hormones and fertility. Rhod.

  11. Changing diet and physical activity to reduce gestational weight gain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B; Wardle, J; Poston, L; Croker, H

    2011-07-01

    Excessive pregnancy weight gain is associated with adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Intervention developers have assumed that adopting a healthier diet and increasing physical activity in pregnancy can limit weight gain, but evaluations of such interventions have yielded mixed results. Recent reviews of this literature have not identified defining characteristics of effective interventions. We systematically reviewed 10 published controlled trials of interventions that aimed to reduce gestational weight gain through changes in diet or physical activity. Characteristics of the sample, intervention content and delivery, and methodology were categorized. Meta-analysis showed that, overall, diet and physical activity change was effective in reducing gestational weight gain, but there was considerable heterogeneity in outcomes. Our analysis points to sample characteristics and aspects of intervention design, content, delivery and evaluation which differ between studies and may explain variation in effectiveness. Failure to evaluate changes in behaviour or its psychological determinants, and under-reporting of intervention content, may obscure identification of the processes by which weight change is effected. This limits our ability to discern active intervention ingredients. We suggest that behaviour-based gestational weight gain reduction interventions be more systematically designed, evaluated and reported to build on insights from behavioural science. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Positive Youth Development Life Skills Gained at the Iowa 4-H Youth Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Allen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests 4-H programs build Life Skills such as leadership, communication, citizenship and learning. However, 4-H programs vary from long-term on-going experiences to shorter, more intense opportunities. This paper discusses a program evaluation articulating the life skill development of participants in a 3-day residential State 4-H Conference on a Midwestern college campus. The Life Skills assessed were in the areas of leadership, citizenship, communication, and learning as part of overall Life Skill development. Participants were youth ages 14-18 years. A retrospective pretest-posttest was used to evaluate skill development and understanding. Analysis, including paired sample t-tests, indicated growth in each of the 12 common outcome measures evaluated. This study supports the importance of purposeful planning and youth engagement in the learning process to achieve desired life skill outcomes.

  13. A shift from motorised travel to active transport: What are the potential health gains for an Australian city?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Knibbs, Luke D; Ware, Robert S; Heesch, Kristiann C; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Veerman, J Lennert

    2017-01-01

    An alarmingly high proportion of the Australian adult population does not meet national physical activity guidelines (57%). This is concerning because physical inactivity is a risk factor for several chronic diseases. In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been placed on the potential for transport and urban planning to contribute to increased physical activity via greater uptake of active transport (walking, cycling and public transport). In this study, we aimed to estimate the potential health gains and savings in health care costs of an Australian city achieving its stated travel targets for the use of active transport. Additional active transport time was estimated for the hypothetical scenario of Brisbane (1.1 million population 2013) in Australia achieving specified travel targets. A multi-state life table model was used to estimate the number of health-adjusted life years, life-years, changes in the burden of diseases and injuries, and the health care costs associated with changes in physical activity, fine particle (travel to active transport. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test alternative modelling assumptions. Over the life course of the Brisbane adult population in 2013 (860,000 persons), 33,000 health-adjusted life years could be gained if the travel targets were achieved by 2026. This was mainly due to lower risks of physical inactivity-related diseases, with life course reductions in prevalence and mortality risk in the range of 1.5%-6.0%. Prevalence and mortality of respiratory diseases increased slightly (≥0.27%) due to increased exposure of larger numbers of cyclists and pedestrians to fine particles. The burden of road trauma increased by 30% for mortality and 7% for years lived with disability. We calculated substantial net savings ($AU183 million, 2013 values) in health care costs. In cities, such as Brisbane, where over 80% of trips are made by private cars, shifts towards walking, cycling and public transport would cause

  14. Modeling of gain saturation effects in active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of slow-light enhanced light amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal line defect waveguide. The impact of enhanced light-matter interactions on carrier-depletion-induced modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of slow-light enhanced light amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal line defect waveguide. The impact of enhanced light-matter interactions on carrier-depletion-induced modal gain saturation is investigated....

  15. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide prevents fat gain following the cessation of voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Sevage, Joseph A; Childs, Thomas E; Grigsby, Kolter B; Booth, Frank W

    2017-08-07

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) could prevent acute increases in body fat and changes in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue following the sudden transition from physical activity to physical inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? AICAR prevented fat gains following the transition from physical activity to inactivity to levels comparable to rats that remained physically active. AICAR and continuous physical activity produced depot-specific changes in cyclin A1 mRNA and protein that were associated with the prevention of fat gain. These findings suggest that targeting AMP-activated protein kinase signalling could oppose rapid adipose mass growth. The transition from physical activity to inactivity is associated with drastic increases in 'catch-up' fat that in turn foster the development of many obesity-associated maladies. We tested whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment would prevent gains in body fat following the sudden transition from a physically active state to an inactive state by locking a voluntary running wheel. Male Wistar rats were either sedentary (SED) or given wheel access for 4 weeks, at which time rats with wheels continued running (RUN), had their wheel locked (WL) or had WL with daily AICAR injection (WL + AICAR) for 1 week. RUN and WL + AICAR prevented gains in body fat compared with SED and WL (P food intake and in differences in select hypothalamic mRNAs. These findings suggest that AICAR treatment prevents acute gains in adipose tissue following physical inactivity to levels of rats that continuously run, and that together, continuous physical activity and AICAR could, at least initially in these conditions, exert similar inhibitory effects on adipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  16. A shift from motorised travel to active transport: What are the potential health gains for an Australian city?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Ware, Robert S.; Heesch, Kristiann C.; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Veerman, J. Lennert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An alarmingly high proportion of the Australian adult population does not meet national physical activity guidelines (57%). This is concerning because physical inactivity is a risk factor for several chronic diseases. In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been placed on the potential for transport and urban planning to contribute to increased physical activity via greater uptake of active transport (walking, cycling and public transport). In this study, we aimed to estimate the potential health gains and savings in health care costs of an Australian city achieving its stated travel targets for the use of active transport. Methods Additional active transport time was estimated for the hypothetical scenario of Brisbane (1.1 million population 2013) in Australia achieving specified travel targets. A multi-state life table model was used to estimate the number of health-adjusted life years, life-years, changes in the burden of diseases and injuries, and the health care costs associated with changes in physical activity, fine particle (transport. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test alternative modelling assumptions. Results Over the life course of the Brisbane adult population in 2013 (860,000 persons), 33,000 health-adjusted life years could be gained if the travel targets were achieved by 2026. This was mainly due to lower risks of physical inactivity-related diseases, with life course reductions in prevalence and mortality risk in the range of 1.5%-6.0%. Prevalence and mortality of respiratory diseases increased slightly (≥0.27%) due to increased exposure of larger numbers of cyclists and pedestrians to fine particles. The burden of road trauma increased by 30% for mortality and 7% for years lived with disability. We calculated substantial net savings ($AU183 million, 2013 values) in health care costs. Conclusion In cities, such as Brisbane, where over 80% of trips are made by private cars, shifts towards walking, cycling and public

  17. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Incarceration and adult weight gain in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Zinzi D.; WILLIAMS, David R.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The United States has the unenviable distinction of having both the highest obesity rate among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the highest incarceration rate in the world. Further, both are socially patterned by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Incarceration involves various health behaviors that could influence adult weight trajectory. We evaluated the associations between history and duration of adult incarceration and weight gain...

  19. [The practical wisdom gained in the provision of end-of-life care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Chun; Chiang, Hsien-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    The suffering experienced by nurses while providing end-of-life care to patients influences the lived experience of these nurses. The perspectives of "for the other" and "practical wisdom" may be used to elicit the experience of nurses in caring for dying patients and to help illustrate the ethical contents and meanings of end-of-life care. This study describes the experiences of nurses who have provided end-of life care in hospital settings. In-depth interviews were used to explore the respective experiences of 7 nurses. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings show that practicing and engaging in end-of-life care provide nurses the opportunity to acquire practical care wisdom in three categories, including (1) the emotional difficulties of patient care; (2) the limitations of the self; and (3) learning to adjust to the needs and pace of the patient. End-of-life care is an opportunity for both dying patients and nurses to transform and grow spiritually. Dealing with the emotional difficulties of end-of-life care, recognizing their self-limitations in care, and adjusting their care provision to meet the needs and pace of their patients help increase the awareness of nurses to the ethical responsibility they have toward patients. These findings give nurses new perspectives on caring for others.

  20. Childhood IQ in relation to obesity and weight gain in adult life: the National Child Development (1958) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, T; Deary, I J; Blane, D; Batty, G D

    2006-09-01

    To examine the relation of childhood intelligence (IQ) test results with obesity in middle age and weight gain across the life course. We analysed data from the National Child Development (1958) Study, a prospective cohort study of 17 414 births to parents residing in Great Britain in the late 1950s. Childhood IQ was measured at age 11 years and body mass index (BMI), an indicator of adiposity, was assessed at 16, 23, 33 and 42 years of age. Logistic regression (in which BMI was categorised into obese and non-obese) and structural equation growth curve models (in which BMI was retained as a continuous variable) were used to estimate the relation between childhood IQ and adult obesity, and childhood IQ and weight gain, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, lower childhood IQ scores were associated with an increased prevalence of adult obesity at age 42 years. This relation was somewhat stronger in women (OR(per SD decrease in IQ score) [95% CI]: 1.38 [1.26, 1.50]) than men (1.26 [1.15, 1.38]). This association remains statistically significant after adjusting for childhood characteristics, including socio-economic factors, but was heavily attenuated following control for adult characteristics, particularly education (women: 1.11 [0.99, 1.25]; men: 1.10 [0.98, 1.23]). When weight gain between age 16 and 42 years was the outcome of interest, structural equation modelling revealed that education and dietary characteristics in adult life mediated the association with childhood IQ. A lower IQ score in childhood is associated with obesity and weight gain in adulthood. In the present study, this relation appears to be largely mediated via educational attainment and the adoption of healthy diets in later life.

  1. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  2. Quality-adjusted life years gained in patients aged over 65 years after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta; Pedersen, P.U.; Søballe, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Background: Total hip replacement (THR) is an effective, but also cost-intensive health care procedure for the elderly. Because of demographic changes in Western Europe, THR-associated financial investment for health care has become a question of priorities in society. To provide a quantitative...... rationale for a discussion within Western European health care systems, we undertook a prospective assessment of the benefit of THR from the patients´ perspective and as measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Aim: To measure the difference in health related quality of life between an intervention...... treatment and telephone intervention. QALYs were calculated from measures of health-related quality of life using questionnaire SF-36. These scores were transformed to QALYs using a formula based on the method developed by Brazier (Brazier 1998). Results: Both the control and the intervention patients...

  3. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  4. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles....

  5. Activation in the VTA and nucleus accumbens increases in anticipation of both gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKell Carter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To represent value for learning and decision making, the brain must encode information about both the motivational relevance and affective valence of anticipated outcomes. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc and ventral tegmental area (VTA are thought to play key roles in representing these and other aspects of valuation. Here, we manipulated the valence (i.e., monetary gain or loss and personal relevance (i.e., self-directed or charity-directed of anticipated outcomes within a variant of the monetary incentive delay task (MID. We scanned young-adult participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, utilizing imaging parameters targeted for the NAcc and VTA. For both self-directed and charity-directed trials, activation in the NAcc and VTA increased to anticipated gains, as predicted by prior work, but also increased to anticipated losses. Moreover, the magnitude of responses in both regions was positively correlated for gains and losses, across participants, while an independent reward-sensitivity covariate predicted the relative difference between and gain- and loss-related activation on self-directed trials. These results are inconsistent with the interpretation that these regions reflect anticipation of only positive-valence events. Instead, they indicate that anticipatory activation in reward-related regions largely reflects the motivational relevance of an upcoming event.

  6. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ(2) test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  7. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, A.; Gidding, S.S.; Watts, G.F.; Chapman, M.J.; Ginsberg, H.N.; Cuchel, M.; Ose, L.; Averna, M.; Boileau, C.; Boren, J.; Bruckert, E.; Catapano, A.L.; Defesche, J.C.; Descamps, O.S.; Hegele, R.A.; Hovingh, G.K.; Humphries, S.E.; Kovanen, P.T.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Masana, L.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Pajukanta, P.; Parhofer, K.G.; Raal, F.J.; Ray, K.K.; Santos, R.D.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E.; Stroes, E.S.; Taskinen, M.R.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Wiklund, O.

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness

  8. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents : gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S.; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Boren, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Pajukanta, Paevi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Santos, Raul D.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness

  9. Undergraduate Greek Leadership Experiences: A Proven Method for Gaining Career Related and Life-Long Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermersheim, Katherine L.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 96 past leaders of college Greek organizations (chapter presidents, Pan-Hellenic councils, Greek service organizations) at Western Illinois University investigated the impact of Greek leadership experience on work-related and personal life skills. Ninety-five percent felt their undergraduate Greek leadership position was extremely…

  10. Feeding Practices and Weight Gain in the First Six Months of Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The renewed effort to encourage the practice of breast feeding has awakened interest in the study of the relationship between different modes of infant feeding and growth patterns. This relationship was studied in a cohort of 196 children in the first six months of life. The babies were classified as exclusively breastfed ...

  11. Interrelationships among activity, food intake and weight gain in genetically obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M P; Wecker, J; Grinker, J A

    1982-06-01

    In Experiment 1, food deprivation resulting in a 30% reduction in body weight produced significant increases in wheel running in both obese and lean female Zucker rats. In Experiment 2, a new technique, food contingent activity (FR, VI), dramatically increased wheel running in both obese and lean female Zucker rats. This increase in activity was achieved primarily during the dark period. Regardless of changes in activity levels, food intake and body weight gain remained similar to controls. When food was again available ad lib, activity levels rapidly decreased for obese but not lean rats. These results indicate that behavioral interventions alone are not sufficient to correct the obesity of the genetically obese rat.

  12. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  13. 4-H & FFA Livestock Projects: Life Skills Gained and Knowledge Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle N. Holmgren

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Junior Livestock shows are one of the most popular 4-H and FFA projects in Utah. Thousands of youth participate in these shows from every county in Utah. County extension agents and FFA advisors spend much time with livestock committees, leaders, parents, and youth engaged in livestock shows. Can public funds spent on salaries be justified for county 4-H extension agents and FFA advisors who work with junior livestock shows? To help answer this question, 413 youth involved in livestock shows in Utah were surveyed in 2001. Youth were asked to share skills learned from their livestock projects. Value statements along with specific content skills were measured in the survey. The results indicate that from their 4-H and FFA projects, youth learned to accept responsibility, follow instructions, gain self-confidence, follow instructions, “do the right thing” as well as a variety of other values and content skills.

  14. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000–10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform—the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population—and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service—those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes—by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. PMID:26733705

  15. Homicides In Mexico Reversed Life Expectancy Gains For Men And Slowed Them For Women, 2000-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; García-Guerrero, Victor Manuel; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Mexico increased for more than six decades but then stagnated in the period 2000-10. This decade was characterized by the enactment of a major health care reform-the implementation of the Seguro Popular de Salud (Popular Health Insurance), which was intended to provide coverage to the entire Mexican population-and by an unexpected increase in homicide mortality. We assessed the impact on life expectancy of conditions amenable to medical service-those sensitive to public health policies and changes in behaviors, homicide, and diabetes-by analyzing mortality trends at the state level. We found that life expectancy among males deteriorated from 2005 to 2010, compared to increases from 2000 to 2005. Females in most states experienced small gains in life expectancy between 2000 and 2010. The unprecedented rise in homicides after 2005 led to a reversal in life expectancy increases among males and a slowdown among females in most states in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high fat diet induced insulin resistance by activating AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α isoform of the IL-18...... receptor (IL-18R(-/-)), fed a standard chow or high fat diet (HFD). We next performed gain of function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation...

  17. Active metamaterial: Gain and stability, and microfluidic chip for THz cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi

    Metamaterials are artificially designed composite materials which can exhibit unique and unusual properties such as the negative refractive index, negative phase velocity, etc. The concept of metamaterials becomes prevalent in the electromagnetic society since the first experimental implementation in the early 2000s. Many fascinated potential applications, e.g. super lens, invisibility cloaking, and novel antennas that are electrically small, have been proposed based on metamaterials. However, most of the applications still remain in theory and are not suitable for practical applications mainly due to the intrinsic loss and narrow bandwidth (large dispersion) determined by the fundamental physics of metamaterials. In this dissertation, we incorporate active gain devices into conventional passive metamaterials to overcome loss and even provide gain. Two types of active gain negative refractive index metamaterials are proposed, designed and experimentally demonstrated, including an active composite left-/right-handed transmission line and an active volumetric metamaterial. In addition, we investigate the non-Foster circuits for broadband matching of electrically small antennas. A rigorous way of analyzing the stability of non-Foster circuits by normalized determinant function is proposed. We study the practical factors that may affect the stability of non-Foster circuits, including the device parasitics, DC biasing, layouts and load impedance. A stable floating negative capacitor is designed, fabricated and tested. Moreover, it is important to resolve the sign of refractive index for active gain media which can be quite challenging. We investigate the analytical solution of a gain slab system, and apply the Nyquist criterion to analyze the stability of a causal gain medium. We then emphasize that the result of frequency domain simulation has to be treated with care. Lastly, this dissertation discusses another interesting topic about THz spectroscopy of live cells

  18. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissy, Firas H; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John; Wang, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine.

  19. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage: Dynamics of Gaining and Losing Coverage over the Life-Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Heeju

    2017-04-01

    Health insurance coverage varies substantially between racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin had persistently lower insurance coverage rates at all ages. This article describes age- and group-specific dynamics of insurance gain and loss that contribute to inequalities found in traditional cross-sectional studies. It uses the longitudinal 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (N=114,345) to describe age-specific patterns of disparity prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A formal decomposition on increment-decrement life-tables of insurance gain and loss shows that coverage disparities are predominately driven by minority groups' greater propensity to lose the insurance that they already have. Uninsured African Americans were faster to gain insurance than non-Hispanic whites but their high rates of insurance loss more than negated this advantage. Disparities from greater rates of loss among minority groups emerge rapidly at the end of childhood and persist throughout adulthood. This is especially true for African Americans and Hispanics and their relative disadvantages again heighten in their 40s and 50s.

  20. Anania Shirakatsi's Life and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaryan, L. S.

    2014-10-01

    Anania Shirakatsi is one of the greatest scientists who made an important contribution to the field of exact sciences in Armenia, a brilliant scientist and philosopher of the 7th century; actually the founder of exact sciences in Armenian reality. Unfortunately, out of Shirakatsi's rich heritage only some fragments of his works in the fields of Mathematics, Cosmography, Calendarology, Metrology, which are of great value for the history of exact sciences, got to us. There is a valuable source about Anania Shirakatsi's life and work; the author has left his autobiography. From Shirakatsi's autobiography we learn that he was born in the village Aneank (Shirakavan) at the beginning of the 7th century. He got his elementary education in the local monastery school, later being eager to improve his knowledge, he went to West Armenia. He had to travel a lot about West Armenia seeking an advanced specialist in Mathematics. He was leaving for Constantinople but on his way to Signup he learns that in Trapeze a great Greek scientist, Tyukhik lives: "a wise man, popular with the kings, an expert on Armenian Language and Literature". Shirakatsi changed his way and went to Trapeze. Shirakatsi had been at Tyukhik's school for 8 years; he became proficient in exact science and came back to his native land with rich knowledge base. Here he opened a school and devoted himself to teaching and research. He wrote research works in Astronomy, Mathematics, Geography, Calendarology, Metrology and in other fields of science.

  1. Limiting Excess Weight Gain in Healthy Pregnant Women: Importance of Energy Intakes, Physical Activity, and Adherence to Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R. Cohen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated if compliance with energy intakes, physical activity, and weight gain guidelines attenuate postpartum weight retention (PPWR in mothers attending prenatal classes. We investigated whether (a daily energy intakes within 300 kcal of estimated energy requirements (EERs, (b walking more than 5000 steps/day, (c targeting the recommended weight gain goals for prepregnancy BMI, and/or (d achieving weekly or total gestational weight gain (GWG recommendations minimized PPWR in 54 women attending prenatal classes in Montreal/Ottawa, Canada. Participants completed a validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ, 3 telephone-validated 24-hr dietary recalls, and wore a pedometer for one week. PPWR was measured 6 weeks after delivery. Results showed that 72% had healthy prepregnancy BMIs. However, 52% consumed >300 kcal/day in excess of their EER, 54% exceeded recommended GWG, and more overweight (93% than normal weight women (38% cited nonrecommended GWG targets. Following delivery, 33% were classified as overweight, and 17% were obese. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that women targeting “recommended weight gain advice” were 3 times more likely to meet total GWG recommendations (OR: 3.2, P<0.05; women who complied with weekly GWG goals minimized PPWR (OR: 4.2, P<0.02. In conclusion, appropriate GWG targets, lower energy intakes, and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal education programs.

  2. Post-Genomics Nanotechnology Is Gaining Momentum: Nanoproteomics and Applications in Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissy, Firas H.; Gulbakan, Basri; Alawieh, Ali; Karam, Pierre; Zhang, Zhiqun; Guingab-Cagmat, Joy D.; Mondello, Stefania; Tan, Weihong; Anagli, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The post-genomics era has brought about new Omics biotechnologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, as well as their novel applications to personal genomics and the quantified self. These advances are now also catalyzing other and newer post-genomics innovations, leading to convergences between Omics and nanotechnology. In this work, we systematically contextualize and exemplify an emerging strand of post-genomics life sciences, namely, nanoproteomics and its applications in health and integrative biological systems. Nanotechnology has been utilized as a complementary component to revolutionize proteomics through different kinds of nanotechnology applications, including nanoporous structures, functionalized nanoparticles, quantum dots, and polymeric nanostructures. Those applications, though still in their infancy, have led to several highly sensitive diagnostics and new methods of drug delivery and targeted therapy for clinical use. The present article differs from previous analyses of nanoproteomics in that it offers an in-depth and comparative evaluation of the attendant biotechnology portfolio and their applications as seen through the lens of post-genomics life sciences and biomedicine. These include: (1) immunosensors for inflammatory, pathogenic, and autoimmune markers for infectious and autoimmune diseases, (2) amplified immunoassays for detection of cancer biomarkers, and (3) methods for targeted therapy and automatically adjusted drug delivery such as in experimental stroke and brain injury studies. As nanoproteomics becomes available both to the clinician at the bedside and the citizens who are increasingly interested in access to novel post-genomics diagnostics through initiatives such as the quantified self, we anticipate further breakthroughs in personalized and targeted medicine. PMID:24410486

  3. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  4. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Vrijkotte, T G M; Fall, C H D; van Eijsden, M; Osmond, C; Gemke, R J B J

    2015-04-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and infant-feeding data in a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development), body composition measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis at the age of 5-6 years was available for 2227 children. We assessed how feeding (duration of full breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) and conditional variables representing linear growth and relative weight gain were associated with childhood fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Birth weight was positively associated with both FFM and FM in childhood, and more strongly with FFM than FM. Faster linear growth and faster relative weight gain at all ages in infancy were positively associated with childhood FFM and FM. The associations with FM were stronger for relative weight gain than for linear growth (FM z score: β coefficient 0.23 (95% con 0.19 to 0.26), P6 months was associated with lower FM (FM z score: -0.17 (-0.28 to -0.05), P=0.005) and lower FFM (FFM z score: -0.13 (-0.23 to -0.03), P=0.015), as was the introduction of complementary feeding >6 months (FM z score: -0.22 (-0.38 to -0.07), P=0.004), compared with 6 months and introduction of complementary feeding >6 months are associated with lower childhood FM.

  5. Achievement of public health recommendations for physical activity and prevention of gains in adiposity in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in weight control and public health guidelines recommend regular participation to prevent gains in adiposity. It may therefore come as a surprise that the cumulative evidence from observational studies to support this is not strong. A weakness...... of many published observational studies on this topic has been a reliance on a single baseline assessment of PA. Using only the baseline information on PA in a prospective study cause misclassification because of participants often change activity level during follow-up. In turn this causes regression...

  6. Newborn insula gray matter volume is prospectively associated with early life adiposity gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, J M; Entringer, S; Kruggel, F; Cooper, D M; Styner, M; Gilmore, J H; Potkin, S G; Wadhwa, P D; Buss, C

    2017-09-01

    The importance of energy homeostasis brain circuitry in the context of obesity is well established, however, the developmental ontogeny of this circuitry in humans is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the prospective association between newborn gray matter (GM) volume in the insula, a key brain region underlying energy homeostasis, and change in percent body fat accrual over the first six months of postnatal life, an outcome that represents among the most reliable infant predictors of childhood obesity risk. A total of 52 infants (29 male, 23 female, gestational age at birth=39(1.5) weeks) were assessed using structural MRI shortly after birth (postnatal age at MRI scan=25.9(12.2) days), and serial Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry shortly after birth (postnatal age at DXA scan 1=24.6(11.4) days) and at six months of age (postnatal age at DXA scan 2=26.7(3.3) weeks). Insula GM volume was inversely associated with change in percent body fat from birth to six-months postnatal age and accounted for 19% of its variance (β=-3.6%/S.D., P=0.001). This association was driven by the central-posterior portion of the insula, a region of particular importance for gustation and interoception. The direction of this effect is in concordance with observations in adults, and the results remained statistically significant after adjusting for relevant covariates and potential confounding variables. Altogether, these findings suggest an underlying neural basis of childhood obesity that precedes the influence of the postnatal environment. The identification of plausible brain-related biomarkers of childhood obesity risk that predate the influence of the postnatal obesogenic environment may contribute to an improved understanding of propensity for obesity, early identification of at-risk individuals, and intervention targets for primary prevention.

  7. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-11-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials applying VRET to specific phobias and measuring treatment outcome by means of behavioral laboratory tests or recordings of behavioral activities in real-life. Data sources were searches of databases (Medline, PsycInfo, and Cochrane). We included in total 14 clinical trials on specific phobias. Results revealed that patients undergoing VRET did significantly better on behavioral assessments following treatment than before treatment, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g = 1.23. Furthermore, patients undergoing VRET performed better on behavioral assessments at post-treatment than patients on wait-list (g = 1.41). Additionally, results of behavioral assessment at post-treatment and at follow-up revealed no significant differences between VRET and exposure in vivo (g = -0.09 and 0.53, respectively). Finally, behavioral measurement effect sizes were similar to those calculated from self-report measures. The findings demonstrate that VRET can produce significant behavior change in real-life situations and support its application in treating specific phobias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of healthcare costs in the last year of life and in all life years gained on the cost-effectiveness of cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kok, I M C M; Polder, J J; Habbema, J D F

    2009-01-01

    It is under debate whether healthcare costs related to death and in life years gained (LysG) due to life saving interventions should be included in economic evaluations. We estimated the impact of including these costs on cost-effectiveness of cancer screening. We obtained health insurance, home...... care, nursing homes, and mortality data for 2.1 million inhabitants in the Netherlands in 1998-1999. Costs related to death were approximated by the healthcare costs in the last year of life (LastYL), by cause and age of death. Costs in LYsG were estimated by calculating the healthcare costs in any...... life year. We calculated the change in cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) if unrelated healthcare costs in the LastYL or in LYsG would be included. Costs in the LastYL were on average 33% higher for persons dying from cancer than from any cause. Including costs in LysG increased the CER by 4040 euro...

  9. Associations of Linear Growth and Relative Weight Gain in Early Life with Human Capital at 30 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Victora, Cesar G; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the associations of birthweight, nutritional status and growth in childhood with IQ, years of schooling, and monthly income at 30 years of age. In 1982, the 5 maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and 5914 live births were identified. At 30 years of age, 3701 subjects were interviewed. IQ, years of schooling, and income were measured. On average, their IQ was 98 points, they had 11.4 years of schooling, and the mean income was 1593 reais. After controlling for several confounders, birthweight and attained weight and length/height for age at 2 and 4 years of age were associated positively with IQ, years of years of schooling, and income, except for the association between length at 2 years of age and income. Conditional growth analyses were used to disentangle linear growth from relative weight gain. Conditional length at 2 years of age ≥1 SD score above the expected value, compared with ≥1 SD below the expected, was associated with an increase in IQ (4.28 points; 95% CI, 2.66-5.90), years of schooling (1.58 years; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08), and monthly income (303 Brazilian reais; 95% CI, 44-563). Relative weight gain, above what would be expected from linear growth, was not associated with the outcomes. In a middle-income setting, promotion of linear growth in the first 1000 days of life is likely to increase adult IQ, years of schooling, and income. Weight gain in excess of what is expected from linear growth does not seem to improve human capital. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight gain in healthy pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2015-07-01

    to explore gestational weight gain in healthy women in relation to pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet and physical activity. a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages receiving antenatal care from an independent midwife in the Netherlands. Weight gain was assessed using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and classified as below, within, or above the guidelines. A multinomial regression analysis was performed with weight gain classifications as the dependent variable (within IOM-guidelines as reference). Independent variables were pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet (broken down into consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish) and physical activity (motivation to engage in physical activity, pre-pregnancy physical activity and decline in physical activity during pregnancy). Covariates were age, gestational age, parity, ethnicity, family income, education, perceived sleep deprivation, satisfaction with pre-pregnancy weight, estimated prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, having a weight gain goal and having received weight gain advice from the midwife. forty-two per cent of the women surveyed gained weight within the guidelines. Fourteen per cent of the women gained weight below the guidelines and 44 per cent gained weight above the guidelines. Weight gain within the guidelines, compared to both above and below the guidelines, was not associated with pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index nor with diet. A decline in physical activity was associated with weight gain above the guidelines (OR 0.54, 95 per cent CI 0.33-0.89). Weight gain below the guidelines was seen more often in women who perceived a greater sleep deprivation (OR 1.20, 95 per cent CI 1.02-1.41). Weight gain above the guidelines was seen less often in Caucasian women in comparison to non-Caucasian women (OR 0.22, 95 per cent CI 0.08-0.56) and with women who did not stop smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.49, 95 per cent CI 0.25-0.95). a decline in

  11. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? : A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ijntema, Hiske; Meyerbröker, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343319594; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials

  12. Religious Activity, Denomination Membership and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Robert F.; Loden, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects of differing degrees of religious involvement on subjects' (N=233) feelings of well being, satisfaction with religious associations, and perception of stress. Results showed that time spent on religious activities was positively related to happiness, both with the subjects' religion and with life satisfaction, but not with…

  13. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  14. Individual Differences in Striatum Activity to Food Commercials Predict Weight Gain in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokum, Sonja; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between reward region (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) responsivity to food commercials and future change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Design and Methods Adolescents (N = 30) underwent a scan session at baseline while watching a television show edited to include 20 food commercials and 20 non-food commercials. BMI was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Activation in the striatum, but not OFC, in response to food commercials relative to non-food commercials and in response to food commercials relative to the television show was positively associated with change in BMI over 1-year follow-up. Baseline BMI did not moderate these effects. Conclusions The results suggest that there are individual differences in neural susceptibility to food advertising. These findings highlight a potential mechanism for the impact of food marketing on adolescent obesity. PMID:25155745

  15. African American and White Women’s Perceptions of Weight Gain, Physical Activity, and Nutrition During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M.; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe African American and White women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy and to explore differences in perceptions by race. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Two Ob/Gyn clinics in South Carolina, USA. Participants Thirty pregnant women (15 African American, 15 White) between 20–30 weeks gestation, equally represented across pre-pregnancy BMI categories (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 10 obese). Findings White women more frequently described intentions to meet weight gain, physical activity, and dietary guidelines in pregnancy than African American women. African American women were more concerned with inadequate weight gain while White women more commonly expressed concerns about excessive weight gain. More White women discussed the importance of physical activity for weight management. Regardless of race, few women described risks of excessive weight gain or benefits of physical activity as it relates to the baby’s health. The primary cited barrier of healthy eating was the high cost of fresh produce. Key conclusions and implications for practice Several knowledge gaps as well as race differences were identified in women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy. Future interventions should seek to educate women about common misperceptions. It may be necessary to culturally tailor gestational weight gain interventions to optimize health outcomes. PMID:26612000

  16. Rhythmic auditory cortex activity at multiple timescales shapes stimulus-response gain and background firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Wilson, Caroline; Safaai, Houman; Sakata, Shuzo; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-05-20

    The phase of low-frequency network activity in the auditory cortex captures changes in neural excitability, entrains to the temporal structure of natural sounds, and correlates with the perceptual performance in acoustic tasks. Although these observations suggest a causal link between network rhythms and perception, it remains unknown how precisely they affect the processes by which neural populations encode sounds. We addressed this question by analyzing neural responses in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats using stimulus-response models. These models included a parametric dependence on the phase of local field potential rhythms in both stimulus-unrelated background activity and the stimulus-response transfer function. We found that phase-dependent models better reproduced the observed responses than static models, during both stimulation with a series of natural sounds and epochs of silence. This was attributable to two factors: (1) phase-dependent variations in background firing (most prominent for delta; 1-4 Hz); and (2) modulations of response gain that rhythmically amplify and attenuate the responses at specific phases of the rhythm (prominent for frequencies between 2 and 12 Hz). These results provide a quantitative characterization of how slow auditory cortical rhythms shape sound encoding and suggest a differential contribution of network activity at different timescales. In addition, they highlight a putative mechanism that may implement the selective amplification of appropriately timed sound tokens relative to the phase of rhythmic auditory cortex activity. Copyright © 2015 Kayser et al.

  17. Storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via active Raman gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Datang; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of light pulses in a fast-light medium via a mechanism of active Raman gain (ARG). The system under consideration is a four-level atomic gas interacting with three (pump, signal, and control) laser fields. We show that a stable propagation of signal light pulses with superluminal velocity (i.e., fast-light pulses) is possible in such a system through the ARG contributed by the pump field and the quantum interference effect induced by the control field. We further show that a robust storage and retrieval of light pulses in such a fast-light medium can be implemented by switching on and off the pump and the control fields simultaneously. The results reported here may have potential applications for light information processing and transmission using fast-light media.

  18. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI Use with Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Czwornog

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity were extracted from NHANES. Multivariate regression models included confounding variables. Daily energy intake was similar between PPI users and non-users (p = 0.41. Diet composition was similar between the two groups, except that PPI users consumed a slightly greater proportion of calories from fat (34.5% vs. 33.2%; p = 0.02. PPI users rated themselves as being as physically active as their age/gender-matched peers and reported similar frequencies of walking or biking. However, PPI users were less likely to have participated in muscle-strengthening activities (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30–0.95. PPI users reported similar sedentary behaviors to non-users. Male PPI users had an increase in weight (of 1.52 ± 0.59 kg; p = 0.021 over the previous year compared to non-users, while female PPI users had a non-significant increase in weight. The potential mechanisms for PPI-associated weight gain are unclear as we did not find evidence for significant differences in energy intake or markers of energy expenditure.

  19. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...... no association between the pre-pregnancy level of physical activity and mean birth weight. What the results of this study add: We found that women classified as competitive exercisers had a 2.6-fold increased risk of gaining more weight than recommended compared to light exercisers. Nearly 6 out of 10 women...

  20. IAEA activities on steam generator life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Lyssakov, V.; Trampus, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Div. of Nuclear Power, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries out a set of activities in the field of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) life management. Main activities within this area are implemented through the Technical Working Group on Life Management of NPPs, and mostly concentrated on studies of understanding mechanisms of degradation and their monitoring, optimisation of maintenance management, economic aspects, proven practices of and approaches to plant life management including decommissioning. The paper covers two ongoing activities related to steam generator life management: the International Database on NPP Steam Generators and the Co-ordinated Research Project on Verification of WWER Steam Generator Tube Integrity (WWER is the Russian designed PWR). The lifetime assessment of main components relies on an ability to assess their condition and predict future degradation trends, which to a large extent is dependent on the availability of relevant data. Effective management of ageing and degradation processes requires a large amount of data. Several years ago the IAEA started to work on the International Database on NPP Life Management. This is a multi-module database consisting of modules such as reactor pressure vessels materials, piping, steam generators, and concrete structures. At present the work on pressure vessel materials, on piping as well as on steam generator is completed. The paper will present the concept and structure of the steam generator module of the database. In countries operating WWER NPPs, there are big differences in the eddy current inspection strategy and practice as well as in the approach to steam generator heat exchanger tube structural integrity assessment. Responding to the need for a co-ordinated research to compare eddy current testing results with destructive testing using pulled out tubes from WWER steam generators, the IAEA launched this project. The main objectives of the project are to summarise the operating experiences of WWER

  1. Gains in life expectancy after elimination of major causes of death: revised estimates taking into account the effect of competing causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.E. Kunst (Anton); H. Lautenbach; Y.B. Oei; F. Bijlsma

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that conventional estimates of the potential number of life years to be gained by elimination of causes of death are too generous. This is because these estimates fail to take into account the fact that those who are

  2. Unrelated medical care in life years gained and the cost utility of primary prevention : In search of a 'perfect' cost-utility ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; De Wit, G. Ardine; Brouwer, Werner B. F.

    An important subject of debate in cost-utility analysis of health care programmes is whether to include costs of unrelated medical care in life years gained. The inclusion of such costs is likely to be of consequence in the case of primary prevention. This paper presents different strategies

  3. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  4. Presence in a Collaborative Science Learning Activity in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos; Natsis, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) are surrounded by hype regarding their impact on and potential in education. Many issues regarding the educational affordances of MUVEs and the learning experience of users are still under research. Presence is an important phenomenon users experience when...... interacting with and via virtual environments and seems to play an important role in learning. This chapter presents empirical data gathered from an exploratory study regarding a problem-based physics learning activity in Second Life (SL). Our aim is to gain knowledge and experience about the sense...... of presence (spatial and social) that emerges while students collaborate in MUVEs. Students (n = 30) collaborated “in-world” to solve a problem. Data were gathered using the Temple Presence Inventory questionnaire. Results indicate higher scores of social presence than spatial presence. Correlations were...

  5. Relative Influence of Socioeconomic, Psychological and Sensory Characteristics, Physical Activity and Diet on 5-Year Weight Gain in French Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Lampuré

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individual characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity influence weight status; however, the contribution of each factor to weight change has not been studied. The objective was to confirm a conceptual framework by simultaneously assessing the relative influence of socioeconomic, psychological and sensory characteristics, physical activity, and dietary intake on five-year weight gain in French adults. Individual characteristics, physical activity, and dietary data were assessed at baseline in 8014 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected at baseline and five years later. Structural equation models, stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI, were used to perform analyses. Dietary restraint was a direct predictor of weight gain, with a stronger effect than age or intake of energy-dense foods, both in non-overweight and overweight participants. In non-overweight individuals only, intake of nutrient-dense foods and physical activity were inversely associated with weight gain. Regarding dietary intake, fat liking was the most important predictor of nutrient-dense food intake and was also related to energy-dense food intake. In these models, dietary restraint appears to be a direct predictor of weight gain and fat liking is a strong determinant of dietary intake. The influence of dietary restraint on weight gain, not explained by diet, warrants further investigation.

  6. α1-Proteinase inhibitor (human) in the treatment of hereditary emphysema secondary to α1-antitrypsin deficiency: number and costs of years of life gained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, David Alexander; Evans, Marc A; Robison, Linda M; Skaer, Tracy L

    2012-05-01

    α(1)-Antitrypsin deficiency (α-ATD) is a disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, with co-dominant alleles known as the protease inhibitor system (Pi). The main function of α(1)-antitrypsin (α-AT) is to protect the lungs against a powerful elastase released from neutrophil leucocytes. α-ATD typically presents with a serum α-AT level of effective in raising serum α-AT levels to desired levels (>80 mg/dL), with few, if any, adverse effects. The present study was designed to discern the number of years of life gained, and the expense per year of life gained, associated with use of α-AT augmentation therapy (α(1)-proteinase inhibitor [human]), relative to 'no therapeutic intervention' in persons with α-ATD. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was used to: (i) estimate the number of years of life gained; and (ii) estimate the health service expenditures per year of life gained for persons receiving, or not receiving, α-AT augmentation therapy. MCS afforded a decision-analytical framework parameterized with both stochastic (random) and deterministic (fixed) components, and yielded a fiscal risk-profile for each simulated cohort of interest (eight total: by sex, smoking status [non-smoker; or past use (smoker)]; and use of α-AT augmentation therapy). The stochastic components employed in the present inquiry were: (i) age-specific body weight, and height; (ii) age-specific mortality; and (iii) the probability distribution for receipt of a lung transplant, as a function of FEV(1). The deterministic components employed in the present inquiry were: (i) age in years for the simulated cohort; (ii) outlays for α-AT augmentation therapy; (iii) health service expenditures associated with receipt of a lung transplant; (iv) annual decline in FEV(1); (v) percent predicted FEV(1); (vi) initiation of α-AT augmentation therapy as a function of percent predicted FEV(1); (vii) need for a lung transplant as a function of percent predicted FEV(1); (viii) annual rate of

  7. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  8. Early life determinants of physical activity and sedentary time: Current knowledge and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Pauck Øglund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings of the association between low birth weight and subsequent health outcomes have led to the “developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis”. Furthermore, modifiable and partly modifiable early life factors may also influence behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of the present review was to summarize the existing knowledge on early life determinants (birth weight, rapid infant weight gain, motor development and infant temperament of childhood physical activity and sedentary time, and suggest opportunities for future research based on the Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Inconsistent results have been observed when relating birth weight to later physical activity, likely explained by differences in methodology when assessing physical activity between studies. There is limited data on whether rapid weight gain in early life predicts later physical activity and few studies have examined the association between birth weight and infant weight gain with subsequent sedentary time. Motor development may be a predictor for childhood physical activity, however methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. The association between motor development and sedentary time has rarely been examined. Conflicting results have been reported for the association between infant temperament and subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in toddlers. Finally, it is unknown whether physical activity modifies the association between birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and later health outcomes in youth. Additional research in well-characterized birth cohorts can be used to generate new knowledge on possible early life determinants of children’s and youth’s physical activity and sedentary time which may inform evidence-based public health interventions.

  9. Measuring presence in a collaborative physics learning activity in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrellis, Ioannis; Papachristos, Nikiforos; Natsis, Antonios

    2010-01-01

    interacting with and via virtual environments and seems to play an important role in learning. This paper presents empirical data gathered from an exploratory study regarding a problem-based physics learning activity in Second Life (SL). Our aim is to gain knowledge and experience about the sense of presence...... found between dimensions of presence, subjective computer expertise and tendency to become involved in activities....

  10. Growth temperature dependence of optical modal gain and loss in GaN:Eu active medium on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Steckl, A. J.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E.

    2006-06-01

    The dependence of optical modal gain and loss on GaN:Eu growth temperature is reported. GaN:Eu thin films were grown on Si substrates with AlGaN transition and cladding layers at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 850°C. The modal gain and loss in the GaN:Eu layer were a strong function of the optically active Eu atomic concentration and of the interface quality between the active layer and the top cladding layer, which in turn depended on the growth temperature. Optimum optical properties of maximum modal gain of ~ 100 cm-1 and minimum loss of ~ 46 cm-1 were obtained for growth at 800°C.

  11. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    NATS 101 A Geological Perspective is a general education course taken by non science majors. We offer 600 seats per semester, with four large lecture sections taught by different faculty members. In the past we have offered optional once a week study groups taught by graduate teaching assistants. Students often feel overwhelmed by the science and associated jargon, and many are prone to skipping lectures altogether. Optional study groups are only attended by ~50% of the students. Faculty members find the class to be a lot of work, mainly due to the grading it generates. Activities given in lecture are often short multiple choice or true false assignments, limiting the depth of understanding we can evaluate. Our students often lack math and critical thinking skills, and we spend a lot of time in lecture reintroducing ideas students should have already gotten from the text. In summer 2007 we were funded to redesign the course. Our goals were to 1) cut the cost of running the course, and 2) improve student learning. Under our redesign optional study groups were replaced by once a week mandatory break out sessions where students complete activities that have been introduced in lecture. Break out sessions substitute for one hour of lecture, and are run by undergraduate preceptors and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). During the lecture period, lectures themselves are brief with a large portion of the class devoted to active learning in small groups. Weekly reading quizzes are submitted via the online course management system. Break out sessions allow students to spend more time interacting with their fellow students, undergraduate preceptors, and GTAs. They get one on one help in break out sessions on assignments designed to enhance the lecture material. The active lecture format means less of their time is devoted to listening passively to a lecture, and more time is spent peer learning an interacting with the instructor. Completing quizzes online allows students

  12. Modulating hemispheric lateralization by brain stimulation yields gain in mental and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Harty, Siobhán; Kranczioch, Cornelia; Mansfield, Karen L; Sella, Francesco; Debener, Stefan; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2017-10-18

    Imagery plays an important role in our life. Motor imagery is the mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output. Previous studies have documented the effect of motor imagery practice. However, its translational potential for patients as well as for athletes, musicians and other groups, depends largely on the transfer from mental practice to overt physical performance. We used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over sensorimotor areas to modulate neural lateralization patterns induced by unilateral mental motor imagery and the performance of a physical motor task. Twenty-six healthy older adults participated (mean age = 67.1 years) in a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study. We found stimulation-related changes at the neural and behavioural level, which were polarity-dependent. Specifically, for the hand contralateral to the anode, electroencephalographic activity induced by motor imagery was more lateralized and motor performance improved. In contrast, for the hand contralateral to the cathode, hemispheric lateralization was reduced. The stimulation-related increase and decrease in neural lateralization were negatively related. Further, the degree of stimulation-related change in neural lateralization correlated with the stimulation-related change on behavioural level. These convergent neurophysiological and behavioural effects underline the potential of tDCS to improve mental and physical motor performance.

  13. Fundamental Properties and Practical Application of Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Gain Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...a gain slab system, and applied the Nyquist criterion to analyze the stability of a causal gain medium. W 15. SUBJECT TERMS Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...dielectric constant is 6.5. Related dimensions are a = 27 mm, b = 54 mm, c = 4 mm, d = 5 mm, e = 6 mm, f = 0.8 mm, g = 2.5 mm, r1 = 9 mm, and r2

  14. Slow and stopped light in active gain composite materials of metal nanoparticles. Ultralarge group index-bandwidth product predicted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Hyon; Choe, Song-Hyok [Institute of Lasers, State Academy of Sciences, Unjong District, Pyongyang (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Chip-compatible slow light devices with large group index-bandwidth products and low losses are of great interest in the community of modern photonics. In this work, active gain materials containing metal nanoparticles are proposed as the slow and stopped light materials. Gain-assisted high field enhancement in metal nanoparticles and the resultant strong dispersion lead to such phenomena. From the Maxwell-Garnett model, it is revealed that the metal nanocomposite exhibits the infinitely large group index when the gain of the host medium and the filling factor of metal nanoparticles satisfy a critical condition. For the gain of the host above the critical value, one can observe slowing down effect with amplification of light pulses. Significantly large group index-bandwidth products, which vary from a few to several thousand or even infinity depending on the gain value of the host medium, have been numerically predicted in active silica glasses containing spheroidal metal nanoparticles, as examples. The proposed scheme inherently provides the widely varying operating spectral range by changing the aspect ratio of metal nanoparticles and chip-compatibility with low cost. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. These results suggest that low levels of physical activity are a risk factor

  16. Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hebert, James R; Paluch, Amanda E; Blundell, John E; Hill, James O; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Participants included 421 individuals (mean ± SD age: 27.6 ± 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y. Results: At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 ± 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 ± 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 ± 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 ± 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 ± 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 ± 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 ± 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group. Conclusions: These results suggest

  17. The relationship of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruifrok, A.; Althuizen, G.H.C.W.; Oostdam, E.W.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Mol, B.W.; de Groot, C.J.M.; van Poppel, M.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relationship of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight. Design. Combined data from two prospective studies: (1) nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions and (2) overweight and obese pregnant women at

  18. The Effects of Activity and Gain Based Virtual Material on Student's Success, Permanency and Attitudes towards Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Erol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to research the effects of a student gains and activity based virtual material on students' success, permanence and attitudes towards science lesson, developed for science and technology lesson 6th grade "Systems in our body" unit. The study, which had a quasi-experimental design, was conducted with…

  19. Patient and Provider Perceptions of Weight Gain, Physical Activity, and Nutrition Counseling during Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated patient and provider perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition counseling during prenatal care visits. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 pregnant women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (15 African American, 15 White) and 11 prenatal care providers (5 attending physicians, 5 residents, 1 nurse practitioner) in 2014. The majority of patients and providers reported receiving or giving advice on weight gain (87% and 100%, respectively), physical activity (87% and 91%), and nutrition (100% and 91%) during a prenatal visit. Discussion of counseling content was largely consistent between patients and providers. However, counseling was limited and not fully consistent with current weight gain, physical activity, or dietary guidelines during pregnancy. Most patients viewed provider advice positively, but some wanted more detailed information. Providers discussed many barriers to lifestyle counseling, including lack of time, inadequate training, concern about the sensitivity of the topic, lower education or income level of the patient, cultural differences, and lack of patient interest. Providers discussed weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during prenatal care visits and patients accurately recalled this advice. However, counseling was limited and not fully consistent with guidelines. Future studies are needed to develop and evaluate the efficacy of interventions to help providers overcome perceived barriers and more effectively counsel women on weight and healthy lifestyles during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  1. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth’s biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this “geothermal glacial refugia” hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  2. The role of diet and physical activity in post-transplant weight gain after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Kok, Trijntje; Dontje, Manon L.; Danchell, Eva I.; Navis, Gerjan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Background Long-term survival of renal transplant recipients (RTR) has not improved over the past 20yr. The question rises to what extent lifestyle factors play a role in post-transplant weight gain and its associated risks after transplantation. Methods Twenty-six RTR were measured for body weight,

  3. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria: 21?years follow-up on the Steno-2 randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    G?de, Peter; Oellgaard, Jens; Carstensen, Bendix; Rossing, Peter; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to study the potential long-term impact of a 7.8?years intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria in terms of gained years of life and years free from incident cardiovascular disease. Methods The original intervention (mean treatment duration 7.8?years) involved 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria who were randomly assigned (using sealed envelopes) to receive either convent...

  4. Understanding Life Skills Gained from and Reasons for Youth Participation in the Tennessee 4-H Sheep Skillathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terra Kimes; Stripling, Christopher T.; Stephens, Carrie A.; Loveday, H. Dwight

    2016-01-01

    The high number of U.S. youth exhibiting at-risk behavior points to a lack of life skills development. We determined the effects of participating in one state's 4-H sheep skillathon on youths' life skills development and the youths' reasons for participating. The target population was 2014 Tennessee 4-H Sheep Skillathon participants (N = 153), and…

  5. Sleep deprivation, physical activity and low income are risk factors for inadequate weight gain during pregnancy: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysena, Chrishantha; Jayawardana, Pushpa

    2011-07-01

    To determine the possible risk factors for inadequate gestational weight gain. A population-based cohort study was carried out in Sri Lanka from May 2001 to April 2002. Pregnant women were recruited on or before 16 weeks' gestation and followed up until delivery; the sample size was 710. Trimester-specific exposure status and potential confounding factors were gathered on average at the 12th, 28th and 36th weeks of gestation. Maternal weight was measured at the first antenatal clinic visit and at delivery. Inadequate weight gain was defined as weight gain below the Institute of Medicine recommendations in 2009. Multiple logistic regression was applied and the results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The risk factors for inadequate weight gain were low per-capita monthly income (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.03, 2.58), multiparity (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34, 2.87), sleeping weight gain were low income, being multiparous, sleep deprivation, physical activity in terms of standing and walking, and the male sex of baby. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between meaningful activity, basic psychological needs, and meaning in life: test of the meaningful activity and life meaning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    The author of this study proposed and examined a theoretical model in which meaningful activity fulfills basic psychological needs and contributes to meaning in life. Hypotheses derived from the Meaningful Activity and Life Meaning model and tested within this study included: (1) meaningful activity will be associated with meaning in life, (2) meaningful activity will be associated with basic psychological needs, and (3) basic psychological needs will partially mediate the relationship between meaningful activity and meaning in life. Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to test the study hypotheses. A total of 591 undergraduate and graduate students completed the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and the Presence subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Results from the study were in full support of each hypothesis and indicate the important role meaningful activity may serve in fostering meaning in life. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; David E Conroy

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e...

  9. Urban black social life and leisure activities in Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Works created by these black artists will be analysed in order to formulate an idea of what life was like in the townships, especially the social life and leisure activities of the black inhabitants. An analysis of these works, which form part of Township Art, ought to introduce township life to the reader and serve as a doorway for ...

  10. Associations between breast milk feeding, introduction of solid foods, and weight gain in the first 12 months of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klag, Elizabeth A.; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Breast milk feeding and solid food introduction can influence infant growth, but are rarely examined together. The objectives were: describe relationships between feeding practices, feeding practices and weight gain, and how the relationship of breast milk feeding and growth may change when breastfed infants start solid foods before 6 months. Methods Data was analyzed on 438 infants from the Moms2Moms Study (2011–2012, Ohio), using multivariable linear and logistic regression models to explore each of the relationships. Results For each additional month of breast milk feeding, solid food introduction was delayed by 1.32 days (95% CI: 0.11 to 2.53) and average weight gain per month decreased by 5.05 grams (95% CI: 7.39 to 2.17). There was no association between solid food introduction and growth. Conclusions Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with slower growth regardless of solid food introduction. Age at solid food introduction was not associated with growth. PMID:25644649

  11. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  12. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity.

  13. Modulating hemispheric lateralization by brain stimulation yields gain in mental and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zich, C; Harty, S; Kranczioch, C.; Mansfield, KL; Sella, F.; Debener, S; Cohen Kadosh, R.

    2017-01-01

    Imagery plays an important role in our life. Motor imagery is the mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output. Previous studies have documented the effect of motor imagery practice. However, its translational potential for patients as well as for athletes, musicians and other groups, depends largely on the transfer from mental practice to overt physical performance. We used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over sensorimotor areas to modulate neural late...

  14. Active life expectancy of older people in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Beaman, Sandra; Jagger, Carol; Garcia-Peña, Carmen; Muñoz, Onofre; Beaman, Peter E; Stafford, Bruce

    2005-03-04

    Social and economic development together with demographic changes and health interventions have resulted in an increase in life expectancy and a rapidly ageing population in Mexico. Whether people will live longer active and independent lives is still, however, unknown. We will address this question, providing the first estimates of active life expectancy by age, sex and local regional area in Mexico. Active life expectancy was calculated using the Sullivan method with abridged life tables. Information on the older Mexican population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and the number of deaths for the same group in the year 2000 was obtained from the Office for Health Statistics and Information at IMSS in Mexico. Information on ability to perform basic activities of daily living was obtained from the National Survey on Ageing carried out in IMSS during 1998-99. For males and females combined, active life expectancy decreased from 26.9 years at 60 years to 5.7 years at 85 years. Women's life expectancy exceeded that of men but women lived more years dependent. Similarly, older people in geographical areas with longer life expectancy spent a lower proportion of remaining life active. The success in increasing life expectancy above average in some groups of older people covered by IMSS has been accompanied by increments in the proportion of remaining years dependent upon others for help in basic self-care activities.

  15. Vaccination against Weight Gain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric P. Zorrilla; Shinichi Iwasaki; Jason A. Moss; Jason Chang; Jonathan Otsuji; Koki Inoue; Michael M. Meijler; Kim D. Janda

    2006-01-01

    .... Here we show that active vaccination of mature rats with ghrelin immunoconjugates decreases feed efficiency, relative adiposity, and body weight gain in relation to the immune response elicited...

  16. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  17. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  18. Do all sedentary activities lead to weight gain: sleep does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Klingenberg, Lars; Sjödin, Anders

    2010-11-01

    To discuss the benefits of having a good night's sleep for body weight stability. Experimental studies have shown that short-term partial sleep restriction decreases glucose tolerance, increases sympathetic tone, elevates cortisol concentrations, decreases the satiety hormone leptin, increases the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, and increases hunger and appetite. Short sleep duration might increase the risk of becoming obese, because it does not allow the recovery of a hormonal profile facilitating appetite control. Lack of sleep could also lead to weight gain and obesity by increasing the time available for eating and by making the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle more difficult. Furthermore, the increased fatigue and tiredness associated with sleeping too little could lessen one's resolve to follow exercise regimens. Short sleep duration appears to be a novel and independent risk factor for obesity. With the growing prevalence of chronic sleep restriction, any causal association between reduced sleep and obesity would have substantial importance from a public health standpoint. Future research is needed to determine whether sleep extension in sleep-deprived obese individuals will influence appetite control and/or reduce the amount of body fat.

  19. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis: the crouching tiger hidden dragon of societal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; Vander Weg, Mark W; Hill, James O; Klesges, Robert C

    2006-04-01

    Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expenditure of all physical activities other than volitional sporting-like exercise. NEAT includes all the activities that render us vibrant, unique, and independent beings such as working, playing, and dancing. Because people of the same weight have markedly variable activity levels, it is not surprising that NEAT varies substantially between people by up to 2000 kcal per day. Evidence suggests that low NEAT may occur in obesity but in a very specific fashion. Obese individuals appear to exhibit an innate tendency to be seated for 2.5 hours per day more than sedentary lean counterparts. If obese individuals were to adopt the lean "NEAT-o-type," they could potentially expend an additional 350 kcal per day. Obesity was rare a century ago and the human genotype has not changed over that time. Thus, the obesity epidemic may reflect the emergence of a chair-enticing environment to which those with an innate tendency to sit, did so, and became obese. To reverse obesity, we need to develop individual strategies to promote standing and ambulating time by 2.5 hours per day and also re-engineer our work, school, and home environments to render active living the option of choice.

  1. Potential gains in life expectancy from reducing heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, kidney disease or HIV/AIDS as major causes of death in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G D; Lai, D J; Burau, K D; Du, X L

    2013-04-01

    Potential gains in life expectancy (PGLEs) that give proper consideration to competing risks are an effective indicator for measuring the impact of multiple causes of death on a defined population. This study aimed to assess PGLE by hypothetically reducing the major causes of death in the USA from 2001 to 2008. PGLEs due to the reduction and elimination of heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, kidney disease or human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) were calculated by age, gender and race. Age-specific mortality rates for the above diseases from the National Center for Health Statistics were used, and multiple decremental life tables were constructed to compute the corresponding PGLEs. PGLEs due to the elimination of heart disease, cancer or HIV/AIDS decreased from 2001 to 2008, but PGLEs due to the elimination of Alzheimer's disease or kidney disease increased over time. For heart disease, PGLE in 2001-2008 for all races was 2.78-2.15 for females vs 2.41-2.06 for males. For cancer, PGLE in 2001-2008 for all races was 2.97-2.81 for females vs 3.02-2.85 for males. HIV/AIDS has a greater impact on people of working age, whereas Alzheimer's disease has a greater impact on the elderly population. To compare the impacts of these diseases on life expectancy, partial multiple decremental life tables were constructed, and PGLEs were computed by a partial reduction or complete elimination of various causes of death for the entire life span as well as for certain working ages. This study outlined a picture of how each category of diseases could affect life expectancy in the US population by age, race or sex. The findings may assist in evaluating current public health improvements, and also provide useful information for directing future research and disease control programmes. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I2=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy......Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity...... Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall...

  3. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extra...

  4. Empowered to gain a new foothold in life--A study of the meaning of participating in cardiac rehabilitation to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Dreyer, Pia; Pedersen, Birthe D; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate what it means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack to participate in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is well-established internationally to support patients towards moving forward in satisfying, healthy, and well-functioning lives. Studies indicate that patients achieve improvement in quality of life when participating in CR. However, knowledge of how patients are supported during CR is sparse. Moreover, knowledge of what participating in CR means to patients afflicted by a minor heart attack is lacking. In-depth knowledge in this area is crucial in order to understand these patients' particular gains and needs. In a phenomenological-hermeneutic frame field observations, focus group interviews, and individual interviews were conducted among 11 patients during and after their participation in CR. Field notes and transcribed interviews underwent three-phased interpretation. It was found that patients were supported to gain renewed balance in their lives during CR. Three themes were identified: (1) receiving a helpful but limited caring hand, (2) being supported to find new values in life, and (3) developing responsibility for the remaining time. The patients were carefully guided through a difficult time and supported to continue in healthy everyday lives. They were given hope which enabled them to find themselves a new foothold in life with respect to their own sense of well-being. This guidance and a sense of hopefulness were provided by heart specialists and more seasoned heart patients. In conclusion, patients were empowered to achieve a healthier lifestyle and improve their personal well-being during CR. However, structural barriers in the programme prevented adequate support regarding the patients' total needs. Knowledge of the benefits of CR emphasizes the significance of the programme and highlights the importance of high inclusion. Efforts should be made to develop more flexible and longer lasting programmes and

  5. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, SHENGJUAN; WANG, YULIANG; ZHANG, XIAOLONG

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention. PMID:27347087

  6. Comparative studies on extracts fromHericium erinaceusby different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

  7. Rehabilitation of Quarries to Finished Re-Gaining Activity and the Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Cındık

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 21. century, the rapidly growing industry, technology, and rapid population growth in our country and especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Trabzon Province in the districts and villages has caused significant damage and deterioration. Depending on them every day in the mining sector in the further development of accelerated destruction of natural areas. In the rugged terrain of the eastern Black Sea region, residential areas, and scattered far from each other by making a move away from the city of stone quarries. This study of the damage caused by quarrying activities done in this area and to nature, back to the local people is given to those who needed to win.

  8. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  9. The research of the differences between physical activity and life quality in senior high school students (Manisa City example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande TAVAZAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available I nactive life style is one of the problems of today‟s health issues and has seri ous damage in health which threatens and risks human life. That‟s why „„living by raising life quality‟‟is considered to be a key for a healthy life. The way to handle that key is to make the regular physical activity a permanent part of life. Especially t he progress in technology brings the young generation an inactive life style.This study is made to form permanent solutions for suggestions by investigatingthe differences between physical activity and life quality. It is applied in 2013 - 2014 education yea rs, in Manisa city YunusEmre township senior high schools institutes, on 833 male and female students.The personal information form formed by the researchers and Life Quality SF - 36 Short form is applied on the participants in order to search the difference s of physical activity and life quality. Some statistical differences appeared and some did not in the participants‟ age, sex, sporting or not, having a sports license variables and SF - 36 sub dimensions. It is recommended that, in order to gain regular phy sical activity practice, especially in senior - high schools, gymnastics lessons should be increased and be lectured actively to raise the life quality.

  10. Modeling thermomechanical pulp and paper activated sludge treatment plants to gain insight to the causes of bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Jean-Martin; Comeau, Yves; Perrier, Michel; Stuart, Paul

    2010-04-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was chosen as the basis for model development and was modified to take into account the specific characteristics of pulp and paper effluents. The model was incorporated to the GPS-X simulation environment (Hydromantis, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) to study operating deficiencies and nutrient transformations, particularly in relation to bulking. The results show that the process of ammonification is not significant at the studied mill and that the process of phosphatification (transformation of soluble organic phosphorus into orthophosphates) seems to be related to settling problems, as indicated by the sludge volume index. The phosphatification rate and the standard oxygen-transfer efficiency were found to decrease as the system entered a bulking state. Understanding the behavior of pulp and paper activated sludge can be improved by the incorporation of industry-specific processes and components to comprehensive models. These models then can be used to gain insight to the causes of bulking.

  11. When your pain signifies my gain: neural activity while evaluating outcomes based on another person's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fang; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-05-19

    The overlap between pain and reward processing pathways leds researchers to hypothesize that there are interactions between them in the human brain. Two hypotheses have been proposed. The "competition hypothesis" posits that reward can reduce pain-related neural activity and vice versa. The "salience hypothesis" suggests that the motivational salience of pain and reward can be mutually reinforced. However, no study has tested these two hypotheses from temporal perspective as we know. In the present study, pictures depicted other people in painful or non-painful situations were used to indicate the valence of outcomes in a gambling task. The event-related potential results revealed an interaction between another person's pain and outcome valence in multiple time stages. Specifically, the amplitudes of the N1 and P3 were enhanced in the win condition compared with the loss condition when the outcome was indicated by painful picture. This interactions between pain and reward support the salience hypothesis but not the competition hypothesis. The present results provide evidence from human subjects that support the salience hypothesis, which claims that observing other people's pain can enhance the salience of reward.

  12. Medical Care Activities Among Spouses of Older Adults With Functional Disability: Implications for Caregiving Difficulties and Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Kales, Helen C

    2017-10-01

    Spouses of older adults with functional disability often provide help with their partner's medical care. Yet little is known about the implications of these activities for spouses' caregiving experiences. We examined how spouses' medical care activities are linked to both positive and negative aspects of caregiving (difficulties and gains), and whether these associations vary by their age, gender, or education. Retrospective analysis of data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving cross-sectional studies. Caregivers and care recipients/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. Nationally representative U.S. sample of 345 spousal caregivers and their community-dwelling care recipients aged 65 years and older. Caregivers' self-reported sociodemographics, care activities, health conditions, well-being, and support resources. Care recipients (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and dementia status. A higher number of health system interaction tasks (e.g., making appointments) were significantly associated with greater emotional caregiving difficulties, whereas a higher number of medical/nursing tasks (e.g., giving shots/injections) were significantly linked to greater caregiving gains. A higher number of medical/nursing tasks were also significantly associated with greater physical difficulties for caregiving wives and spouses with less education. Medical care activities may have both positive and negative consequences for spousal caregivers, which depend partly on sociodemographics. This study underscores the importance of ensuring that spouses have the resources and support needed to provide complex care to their partners. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkali-activated fly ash. Relationship between mechanical strength gains and initial ash chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated fly ash is the primary component of a new generation of high-strength, durable binders with excellent mechanical properties and durability (on occasion bettering traditional Portland cement performance. Moreover, development of these cements may contribute to mitigating CO2 emissions, since the base material is an industrial by-product. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the composition of the initial materials (SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/Al2O3 ratios on the mechanical properties, nature and composition of the reaction products. The results obtained indicate that there is no linear relationship between these ratios and mechanical strength, but rather a series of optimal values above and below which strength declines. In the specific case of the ratios studied in the present paper, these values were: SiO2/Al2O3= 4.0 and Na2O/Al2O3= 1.0 (molar ratios.Las cenizas volantes activadas alcalinamente constituyen la base de una nueva generación de cementos con muy interesantes propiedades mecánicas, adherentes y durables (a veces incluso mejores que las de los cementos Portland tradicionales. Adicionalmente el desarrollo de estos cementos podría contribuir a mitigar las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera, ya que el material base de los mismos puede estar formado por subproductos industriales. En la presente investigación se realizó un estudio para determinar la influencia de la composición de los materiales iniciales (ratios SiO2/Al2O3 y Na2O/Al2O3 en las propiedades mecánicas y en la naturaleza y composición de los productos de reacción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no existe una relación lineal de dichas ratios con las resistencias mecánicas, sino que existen unos valores óptimos, por encima y debajo de los cuales las resistencias mecánicas disminuyen. En el caso concreto de las ratios estudiadas en el presente trabajo estos valores serian: SiO2/Al2O3= 4,0 y Na2O/Al2O3= 1,0 (relaciones molares

  14. Gain-of-function mutant p53 activates small GTPase Rac1 through SUMOylation to promote tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xuetian; Zhang, Cen; Zhao, Yuhan; Liu, Juan; Lin, Alan W; Tan, Victor M; Drake, Justin M; Liu, Lianxin; Boateng, Michael N; Li, Jun; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

    2017-08-15

    Tumor suppressor p53 is frequently mutated in human cancer. Mutant p53 often promotes tumor progression through gain-of-function (GOF) mechanisms. However, the mechanisms underlying mutant p53 GOF are not well understood. In this study, we found that mutant p53 activates small GTPase Rac1 as a critical mechanism for mutant p53 GOF to promote tumor progression. Mechanistically, mutant p53 interacts with Rac1 and inhibits its interaction with SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1), which in turn inhibits SENP1-mediated de-SUMOylation of Rac1 to activate Rac1. Targeting Rac1 signaling by RNAi, expression of the dominant-negative Rac1 (Rac1 DN), or the specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 greatly inhibits mutant p53 GOF in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, mutant p53 expression is associated with enhanced Rac1 activity in clinical tumor samples. These results uncover a new mechanism for Rac1 activation in tumors and, most importantly, reveal that activation of Rac1 is an unidentified and critical mechanism for mutant p53 GOF in tumorigenesis, which could be targeted for therapy in tumors containing mutant p53. © 2017 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Replacing non-active video gaming by active video gaming to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, M. de; Seidell, J.; Vet, E. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  16. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  17. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A survey of health-related activities on second life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante; Keelan, Jennifer

    2009-05-22

    Increasingly, governments, health care agencies, companies, and private groups have chosen Second Life as part of their Web 2.0 communication strategies. Second Life offers unique design features for disseminating health information, training health professionals, and enabling patient education for both academic and commercial health behavior research. This study aimed to survey and categorize the range of health-related activities on Second Life; to examine the design attributes of the most innovative and popular sites; and to assess the potential utility of Second Life for the dissemination of health information and for health behavior change. We used three separate search strategies to identify health-related sites on Second Life. The first used the application's search engine, entering both generic and select illness-specific keywords, to seek out sites. The second identified sites through a comprehensive review of print, blog, and media sources discussing health activities on Second Life. We then visited each site and used a snowball method to identify other health sites until we reached saturation (no new health sites were identified). The content, user experience, and chief purpose of each site were tabulated as well as basic site information, including user traffic data and site size. We found a wide range of health-related activities on Second Life, and a diverse group of users, including organizations, groups, and individuals. For many users, Second Life activities are a part of their Web 2.0 communication strategy. The most common type of health-related site in our sample (n = 68) were those whose principle aim was patient education or to increase awareness about health issues. The second most common type of site were support sites, followed by training sites, and marketing sites. Finally, a few sites were purpose-built to conduct research in SL or to recruit participants for real-life research. Studies show that behaviors from virtual worlds can

  19. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Marbach-Ad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207 taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198 employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136 replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students. Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  20. Spectral Analysis of Quantum-Dash Lasers: Effect of Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Active-Gain Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2012-05-01

    The effect of the active region inhomogeneity on the spectral characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash (Qdash) lasers is examined theoretically by solving the coupled set of carrier-photon rate equations. The inhomogeneity due to dash size or composition fluctuation is included in the model by considering dispersive energy states and characterized by a Gaussian envelope. In addition, the technique incorporates multilongitudinal photon modes and homogeneous broadening of the optical gain. The results predict a red shift in the central lasing wavelength of Qdash lasers on increasing the inhomogeneous broadening either explicitly or implicitly, which supports various experimental observations. The threshold current density and the lasing bandwidth are also found to increase. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , and pre-existing medical condition; and secondarily on individual complications.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD). Data sources Major electronic databases from inception to February 2017 without language restrictions.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies...... Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall...... intervention effects across subgroups, for either gestational weight gain or composite outcomes. There was strong evidence that interventions reduced the odds of caesarean section (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99, I2=0%; 32 studies, 11 410 women), but not for other individual complications in IPD meta-analysis. When IPD...

  2. Effectiveness of physical activity interventions on preventing gestational diabetes mellitus and excessive maternal weight gain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Martínez, G; García-Hermoso, A; Poyatos-León, R; Álvarez-Bueno, C; Sánchez-López, M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V

    2015-08-01

    It is commonly accepted that pregnancy-related physiological changes (circulatory, respiratory, and locomotor) negatively influence the daily physical activity of pregnant women. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for assessing the effectiveness of physical exercise interventions during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus and excessive maternal weight gain. Keywords were used to conduct a computerised search in six databases: Cochrane Library Plus, Science Direct, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Healthy pregnant women who were sedentary or had low levels of physical activity were selected for RCTs that included an exercise programme. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Of 4225 articles retrieved, 13 RCTs (2873 pregnant women) met the inclusion criteria. Pooled relative risk (RR) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) (depending on the outcome measure) were calculated using a random-effects model. Overall, physical exercise programmes during pregnancy decreased the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.69; P = 0.009), particularly when the exercise programme was performed throughout pregnancy (RR = 0.64; P = 0.038). Furthermore, decreases were also observed in maternal weight (WMD = -1.14 kg; 95% CI -1.50 to -0.78; P physical exercise programmes during pregnancy decrease the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and diminish maternal weight gain, and seem to be safe for the mother and the neonate; however, further studies are needed to establish recommendations. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. [Life and activities of Chu Hyun Chik].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong Wan; Park, Hyoung Woo

    2008-06-01

    Chu Hyun Chik was one of those who graduated first from Jejungwon Medical School in 1908, and had carried on an independence movement as well as religious, educational, and social movement both as a doctor and a Christian. He opened the Inje Hospital in Sunch'on, North Pyeongan Province in 1909, and was put in prison on charges of being involved in Incident of '105 People' as he joined in Sinminhoe in which christians (Christians) frrom Gwanseo showed their initiative with 3.1 Movement as a momentum, he started to raise funds for an independence movement mainly in North Pyongan Province, as a councilor of the Ministry of Finance of Shanghai Provisional Government of Korea. After he moved into Andong, Manchuria, he continued to support the spread of an independence movement by connecting Shanghai Provisional Government of Korea with the country. In October, 1919, he came to Sanghai as an exile and lead diverse activities as a member of Shin Han young man party and one of the leading men of Korean Christendom, especially related to An Chang Ho and christians around him and joining in Hungsadan. In 1925 when he returned home, he opened the Dongje Hospital and devoted himself to the developments of religious, educational, and social movement as a president of YMCA, Sunch'on and an executive of a branch of Suyang Donguhoe in Sunch'on. By Incident of Suyang Donguhoe he was put in prison, resisting Japanese Imperialism and died in 1942.

  4. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. Methods We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. Results The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. Conclusions The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of ‘excessive’ non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI

  5. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Simons

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight.We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥ 2 hours/week non-active video game time adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140 (receiving active video games and encouragement to play or a waiting-list control group (n = 130. BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score, waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes. Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted.The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14, and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17 (overall effects. The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32 and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88 than the control group (overall effects. The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥ 1 hour/week during the whole intervention period.The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of 'excessive' non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI-SDS and skin folds than the intervention

  6. Health and quality of life vs. occupational activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of quality of life and health status of the population largely depends on the determinants related to occupational activity. The results of reviewed bibliography indicate a significant and growing importance of employment conditions on the quality of life and population health status in most countries of the world, especially in those with market economy. Of the evaluated determinants the following factors should be listed in particular: sources and the amount of income, stability of the income and employment, the nature of work and the degree of job satisfaction, as well as autonomy and career prospects. Moreover, they proved that the situation of persisting and long-term unemployment and precarious employment leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life and health, especially among young people. In conclusion, the study of quality of life and population health status should take into consideration factors related to occupational activity. Med Pr 2016;67(5:663–671

  7. Bioinorganic Life and Neural Activity: Toward a Chemistry of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christopher J

    2017-03-21

    Identifying what elements are required for neural activity as potential path toward consciousness, which represents life with the state or quality of awareness, is a "Holy Grail" of chemistry. As life itself arises from coordinated interactions between elements across the periodic table, the majority of which are metals, new approaches for analysis, binding, and control of these primary chemical entities can help enrich our understanding of inorganic chemistry in living systems in a context that is both universal and personal.

  8. Variation in behavioral engagement during an active learning activity leads to differential knowledge gains in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDage, Lara D; Tornello, Samantha L; Vallejera, Jennilyn M; Baker, Emily E; Yan, Yue; Chowdhury, Anik

    2018-03-01

    There are many pedagogical techniques used by educators in higher education; however, some techniques and activities have been shown to be more beneficial to student learning than others. Research has demonstrated that active learning and learning in which students cognitively engage with the material in a multitude of ways result in better understanding and retention. The aim of the present study was to determine which of three pedagogical techniques led to improvement in learning and retention in undergraduate college students. Subjects partook in one of three different types of pedagogical engagement: hands-on learning with a model, observing someone else manipulate the model, and traditional lecture-based presentation. Students were then asked to take an online quiz that tested their knowledge of the new material, both immediately after learning the material and 2 wk later. Students who engaged in direct manipulation of the model scored higher on the assessment immediately after learning the material compared with the other two groups. However, there were no differences among the three groups when assessed after a 2-wk retention interval. Thus active learning techniques that involve direct interaction with the material can lead to learning benefits; however, how these techniques benefit long-term retention of the information is equivocal.

  9. [Association between maternal physical activity, gestational weight gain and birth weight in a cohort of 118 pregnant women in Campina Grande, Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Jousilene de Sales; Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Barros, Viviane de Oliveira; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Takito, Monica Yuri; Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Alves

    2009-01-01

    This survey evaluated the effects of physical activity on gestational weight gain and birth weight of pregnant women attended by the Family Health Program in Campina Grande, Northeast of Brazil. A cohort study enrolling 118 pregnant women was conducted between 2005 and 2006. Evaluation of the initial nutritional status was performed following Atalah's criteria and gestational weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine. The pattern of physical activity was evaluated according to METs (metabolic equivalent) and its association with weight gain and birth weight was determined. The predominant physical activity pattern at 16 weeks was mild, in 85.6% of pregnant women. An important reduction of physical activity levels was observed with evolution of pregnancy and 98.3% of pregnant women were sedentary at 24 weeks and 100% at 32 weeks. In the initial evaluation of nutritional status 50% were normal, 23% had low weight and 27% had overweight/obesity. At second and third trimesters about 45% of pregnant women had excessive weight gain. Adequate birth weight for gestational age was found in 85.6% of neonates but macrosomia was highly frequent (8.5%). A significant association between METs at 24 weeks and gestational weight gain was found in the second trimester (p=0.045). All the pregnant women were sedentary in the third trimester and a significant association between physical activity pattern and gestational weight gain was found in the second trimester, but there was no association between this pattern and birth weight.

  10. The Relationship of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneloes E. Ruifrok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship of physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain (GWG and birth weight. Design. Combined data from two prospective studies: (1 nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions and (2 overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. Methods. Daily PA and sedentary behaviour were measured with an accelerometer around 15 and at 32–35 weeks of gestation. The association between time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA and in sedentary activities with GWG and birth weight was determined. Main outcome measures were GWG between 15 and 32 weeks of gestation, average GWG per week, and birth weight. Results. We studied 111 women. Early in pregnancy, 32% of women spent ≥30 minutes/day in at least moderate PA versus 12% in late pregnancy. No significant associations were found between time spent in MVPA or sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. Conclusions. We found no relation between MVPA and sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. The small percentage of women meeting the recommended levels of PA indicates the need to inform and support pregnant women to maintain regular PA, as there seems to be no adverse effect on birth weight and maintaining PA increases overall health.

  11. Perceived weight gain as a correlate of physical activity and energy intake among white, black, and Hispanic reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yen-Chi L; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2010-11-01

    To estimate the effects of perception of weight gain on women's physical activity and eating behaviors over time. A total of 608 women self-reported their experience regarding perceived weight gain and physical activity at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 36 months. Data about dietary habits were obtained every 12 months. Longitudinal relationships of perceived weight gain with physical activity and total energy intake were assessed using mixed model regression analysis after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, obesity, and lifestyle variables. Effect of body esteem scores on physical activity and energy intake was also examined. At baseline, of 608 reproductive-aged women, 129 (21.2%) reported perceived weight gain, whereas 479 (78.8%) did not. Perceived weight gain was not associated with changes in physical activity over the period of 36 months (-8.04 min/week, 95% confidence interval [CI] -20.80-4.72 min/week, p = 0.22). A separate mixed model based on annual follow-up data over 36 months showed that those who perceived weight gain were more likely to have higher energy intake over time (112 Kcal/day higher, 95% CI 23-200 Kcal/day, p = 0.01). Body esteem was not associated with changes in physical activity over time (-0.13 min, 95% CI -0.44-0.18 min, p = 0.41) or energy intake over time (esteem was associated with increased physical activity or decreased total energy intake. Rather, increased energy intake was observed among women who perceived weight gain. Future research should look at additional potential cues to action for behavior changes related to physical activity or energy intake.

  12. (ImPossible Conversations? Activism, Childhood and Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti-Melissa Nolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analytical exploration and points of connection between the categories of activism, childhood and everyday life. We are concerned with the lived experiences of activism and childhood broadly defined and especially with the ways in which people become aware, access, orient themselves to, and act on issues of common concern; in other words what connects people to activism. The paper engages with childhood in particular because childhood remains resolutely excluded from practices of public life and because engaging with activism from the marginalized position of children’s everyday lives provides an opportunity to think about the everyday, lived experiences of activism. Occupying a space ‘before method’, the paper engages with autobiographical narratives of growing up in the Communist left in the USA and the historical events of occupying Greek schools in the 1990s. These recounted experiences offer an opportunity to disrupt powerful categories currently in circulation for thinking about activism and childhood. Based on the analysis it is argued that future research on the intersections of activism, childhood and everyday life would benefit from exploring the spatial and temporal dimension of activism, to make visible the unfolding biographical projects of activists and movements alike, while also engaging with the emotional configurations of activists’ lives and what matters to activists, children and adults alike.

  13. Interrelationship among physical activity, quality of life, clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of complexities surround the health and well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes. These difficulties relate to self-care efforts and outcomes, and several other factors play regulatory functions. This study was carried out to investigate the inter-relationship among physical activity, quality of life, and clinical and ...

  14. Active immunization against ghrelin decreases weight gain and alters plasma concentrations of growth hormone in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, J A; Kirby, J D; Kim, S K; Galyean, M L

    2007-08-01

    Ghrelin has been implicated in the control of food intake and in the long-term regulation of body weight. We theorize that preventing the ability of ghrelin to interact with its receptors, would eventually lead to decreased appetite and thereby decrease body weight gain. To test our hypothesis, pigs were actively immunized against ghrelin. Ghrelin((1-10)) was conjugated to BSA and emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant and diethylaminoethyl-dextran. Primary immunization was given at 19 weeks of age (WOA), with booster immunizations given 20 and 40 days after primary immunization. Body weight (BW) and plasma samples were collected weekly beginning at 19 WOA, and feed intake was measured daily. Fourteen days after primary immunization, the percentage of bound (125)I-ghrelin in plasma from immunized pigs was increased compared with control animals (Pactively immunized against ghrelin compared with controls. By the end of the experiment, immunized pigs weighed 10% less than control animals (Pimmunized pigs. Apoptosis was not observed in post-mortem samples obtained from the fundic region of the stomach. Our observations suggest that immunization against ghrelin induces mild anorexia. This procedure could potentially be used as a treatment to control caloric intake and obesity.

  15. Group velocity manipulation in active fibers using mutually modulated cross-gain modulation: from ultraslow to superluminal propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K; Zhan, L; Zhang, L; Zhu, Z Q; Peng, J S; Gu, Z C; Hu, X; Luo, S Y; Xia, Y X

    2011-06-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the propagation of slow/fast light in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) using mutually modulated cross-gain modulation. The group velocity of the light signal can be manipulated by the effect of gain cross-saturation modulation by a saturating light at an arbitrary wavelength in the gain bandwidth of the EDF. The ultraslow propagation with a small group velocity of 5.6 × 10⁻³c (c is the light speed in free space) and superluminal propagation with a negative group velocity of -1.1 × 10⁻³c has been observed under different modulation phases.

  16. Comparison of passive and active leisure activities and life satisfaction with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongwook; Post, Jay; Kim, Sung Kyeom

    2017-11-28

    Many older adults face limitations to participating in active leisure activities as a result of their physical constraints from aging. Passive leisure activities become alternative leisure activities for older adults as a result of limited physical capacity. The present study sought to determine whether there exists a difference in the frequency of participation in passive and active leisure activities, and the effect of participation in passive and active leisure activities on the life satisfaction level of old adults. A total of 460 participants aged 60-95 years were randomly selected from 21 sites in the USA. The Life Satisfaction Index - Z and the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment were analyzed to examine older adults' life satisfaction and frequency of active or passive activities. The results showed that participation in passive leisure activities, such reading, talking on the telephone and watching TV/listening to the radio, is more frequent among older adults (P = 0.000). The regression coefficient found that club/organization or volunteering (P = 0.008), homemaking/maintenance (P = 0.017) and traveling (P = 0.017) for active leisure activities were statistically significant predictors of Life Satisfaction Index - Z for older adults. The current study shows that older adults spent much more times participating in passive leisure activities, such as radio/watching TV, talking on the phone and reading. The result also showed that active leisure activities, such as club/organization or volunteering, home making/maintenance and traveling, were significant predictors of life satisfaction for older adults controlling for covariates. The current study suggests marketing and programming plans to overcome the constraints that influence older adults' life satisfaction. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  18. Influence of socioeconomic factors on daily life activities and quality of life of Thai elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratana Somrongthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of older people is a significant issue in Thailand, resulted in growing demands of health and social welfare services. The study aim was to explore the influence of socioeconomic factors on activities of daily living and quality of life of Thai seniors. Design and methods: Using randomised cluster sampling, one province was sampled from each of the Central, North, Northeast and South regions, then one subdistrict sampled in each province, and a household survey used to identify the sample of 1678 seniors aged 60 years and over. The Mann-Whitney U-test and binary logistic regression were used to compare and determine the association of socioeconomic variables on quality of life and activities of daily living. Results: The findings showed that sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were significantly related to functional capacity of daily living. Education levels were strongly associated with daily life activities, with 3.55 adjusted ORs for respondents with secondary school education. Gender was important, with females comprising 61% of dependent respondents but only 47% of independent respondents. Seniors with low incomes were more likely to be anxious in the past, present and future and less likely to accept death in the late stage, with 1.40 Adjusted ORs (95%CI: 1.02-1.92, and 0.72 (95%CI: 0.53-0.98, respectively. However, they were more likely to engage in social activities. Conclusions: While socioeconomic factors strongly indicated the functional capacity to live independently, a good quality of life also required other factors leading to happiness and life satisfaction.

  19. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  20. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  1. In-vehicle and site-based observations of vehicles and cyclists : a small-scale ND study in The Netherlands. PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe PROLOGUE, Deliverable D3.4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van Pauwelussen, J. Mansvelders, R. Horst, A.R.A. van der & Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project PROLOGUE (PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe) is to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a large-scale European naturalistic driving observation study. The work described in this deliverable focused on

  2. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  3. Life and activities of Vasilije Oskanjan (1921-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The life and scientific, professional and other activities of Vasilije Oskanjan (1921-1989, one-time director of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, research fellow of the Belgrade and Byurakan Observatories, are presented, followed by the Bibliography of his works, the list of bibliographical items wherein his name is mentioned and the list of his name’s citations in the Science Citation Index in the period 1946 - July 1999.

  4. The active ageing as life experience: narratives of elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Nanci; Silva,Alcione Leite de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analyze the experience of active aging in the life's history of old people in the city of Franca (SP). Method: Study bibliographical, documentary and field research. Use the qualitative approach, we have opted for the oral history method, because it searches to explain the meanings of daily has grown significantly through the stories of lives, gathering information through interview. Results: The theoretical-methodology referential has found in following categories: 1) identity in ...

  5. Physical activity, symptoms, esteem, and life satisfaction during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships among physical activity (PA), symptom reporting, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life (SWL) in 133 women (M age=51.12, S.D.=4.10) of varying menopausal status. Multivariate analyses of co-variance (MANCOVA) revealed that independent of menopausal status, women who were more physically active reported significantly less severe vaso-somatic and general somatic symptoms, and higher levels of physical self-worth (PSW). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that expended MET-h/week, reported symptoms (frequency and severity, respectively), and PSW accounted for significant variance in SWL (R2 model=0.32, for symptom frequency, and 0.33, for symptom severity). Physical activity was significantly related to SWL through the mediation of PSW. However, both reported symptom frequency and severity retained significant association with SWL after controlling for PSW, although the original associations were significantly reduced. Finally, both symptoms and MET-h/week were independent contributors to the variance in PSW (R2 model=0.33 and 0.34). The results suggest that being physically active may reduce perceived severity of menopausal symptoms and enhance psychological well-being, and that the relationship between physical activity and QOL in mid-life women may be mediated by factors such as physical self-perceptions and menopausal symptoms.

  6. Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available Activities with high spinal loads should be avoided by patients with back problems. Awareness about these activities and knowledge of the associated loads are important for the proper design and pre-clinical testing of spinal implants. The loads on an instrumented vertebral body replacement have been telemetrically measured for approximately 1000 combinations of activities and parameters in 5 patients over a period up to 65 months postoperatively. A database containing, among others, extreme values for load components in more than 13,500 datasets was searched for 10 activities that cause the highest resultant force, bending moment, torsional moment, or shear force in an anatomical direction. The following activities caused high resultant forces: lifting a weight from the ground, forward elevation of straight arms with a weight in hands, moving a weight laterally in front of the body with hanging arms, changing the body position, staircase walking, tying shoes, and upper body flexion. All activities have in common that the center of mass of the upper body was moved anteriorly. Forces up to 1650 N were measured for these activities of daily life. However, there was a large intra- and inter-individual variation in the implant loads for the various activities depending on how exercises were performed. Measured shear forces were usually higher in the posterior direction than in the anterior direction. Activities with high resultant forces usually caused high values of other load components.

  7. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain and th...... was only to a minor degree influenced by mouse gain (and target sizes) indicating that stability of the forearm/hand is of significance during computer mouse control. The study has implications for ergonomists, pointing device manufacturers and software developers....

  8. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... into their experiences with and great challenges to participate in a worksite fitness programme as well as their work, family and everyday lives, their previous experiences with sport and exercise and their health-related knowledge, opinions and practices. Although each of the four articles had a different focus...... targeting cleaners or other marginalized groups of the population must pay specific attention to structural factors such as the organization of the labour market or to the gendered division of work....

  9. 78 FR 36829 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance...

  10. 75 FR 68040 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance...

  11. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment... Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life...

  12. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Ordinary Life Insurance, Replacement Insurance for Modified Life Reduced at Age 65, National Service Life Insurance, VA Form 29-8485. b. Application for Ordinary Life...

  13. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  15. Activity and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świtoń, Anna; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Niedźwiedzki, Łukasz; Gaździk, Tadeusz; Niedźwiedzki, Tadeusz

    2017-10-31

    Coxarthrosis is a chronic musculoskeletal condition that causes severe pain and considerable limi-tation of the patient's motor performance. Total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common and effective methods used in the treatment of advanced degenerative changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity and quality of life of patients after unilateral total hip arthroplasty. The study was conducted in a group of 189 patients who had undergone unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Goniometry was used to determine the range of motion of both hip joints. Patients' physical ability and pain severity were assessed based on the Harris Hip Score (HHS) questionnaire. The examination of the range of motion in the lower extremities revealed statistically significant diffe-rences in flexion (p<0.01), abduction (p=<0.01), adduction (p<0.01) and external rotation (p<0.01) between the operated and the healthy extremity. The greatest limitation of motion was demonstrated for external rotation (<14°). Approximately 14% of the patients were not able to perform this motion in their healthy hip joint, while 17.5% of them could not do so in the affected hip joint. Analysis of HHS results (mean = 79 pts) revealed that more than 50% of the patients described their functional ability and quality of life as good and excellent. It was demonstrated that 54% of patients did not suffer from pain, whereas minor or mild pain was noted in 35%. 1. A subjective clinical assessment of patients after total hip arthroplasty showed that their quality of life had improved. 2. It is necessary to perform physiotherapy after total hip arthroplasty, on both the operated and healthy side. 3. Exacerbation of pain and impaired activity in patients after total hip arthroplasty were associated with the female sex to a considerable extent.

  16. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patponce@iq.usp.br, e-mail: guilacaz@uol.com.br, e-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  17. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K. Lhachimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI, and smoking is an European Union (EU wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. Methods For eleven countries—approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population—we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the “worst practice”, “best practice”, and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Results Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively. Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases, whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases. Conclusion Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains

  18. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-08-05

    Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the "worst practice", "best practice", and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively) while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively). Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases), whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases). Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains. BMI, however, has comparatively large effects on morbidity. Future

  19. Motherlove, Initiation, Poverty, and Pride: Teaching "Getting the Facts of Life" by Paulette Childress White and "The Sky Is Gray" by Ernest Gaines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Deborah Smith

    2009-01-01

    In his frequently anthologized short story "The Sky Is Gray," Ernest J. Gaines presents a fictionalized account of a series of events that occurred in 1940s Louisiana when he was a mere boy suffering with a bad toothache. This physical ailment serves as a narrative catalyst, both driving the action and pulling the readers into a world…

  20. Quality of life and sports activities in patients with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON Mackensen, S

    2007-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a multidimensional construct pertaining to an individual's physical, emotional, mental, social and behavioural components of well-being and functioning. QoL can be assessed using both generic and disease-specific instruments. QoL assessment in haemophilia is a relatively new area of study; the first data were published in 1990 using generic QoL questionnaires. Only recently have haemophilia-specific questionnaires been developed, first for children and then for adults. Because sports activities include not only physical and functional aspects, but also have an impact on an individual's self-esteem and social interactions, they should play an essential role in QoL assessment. Until the 1970s, persons with haemophilia were advised to avoid any kind of physical activity because of the risk of bleeds. Nowadays, however, the attitude towards sports for patients with haemophilia has changed, and the World Federation of Haemophilia has formulated recommendations concerning physical activities for patients with haemophilia. Although sports activities are recommended, their importance as an integral element in haemophilia management has not yet been widely recognized. Awareness of the importance of sports activities for this patient group has increased, and several sports projects are ongoing. For example, a twice-annual sports camp for adult patients has been held in Germany for the past 2 years; and physical improvements, QoL and subjective training effects are being measured. Another study is investigating the prevalence of sports activities in Italian children with haemophilia and their attitudes towards sports and is also assessing QoL. In Israel, a study is planned in which haemophilic children will participate in a karate training programme, and a QoL evaluation will be added to the physical assessment. In conclusion, sports activities can improve not only physical well-being, but also the emotional and social well-being of persons with

  1. High-Performance 1.55-µm Superluminescent Diode Based on Broad Gain InAs/InGaAlAs/InP Quantum Dash Active Region

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the high-performance characteristics from superluminescent diodes (SLDs) based on four-stack InAs/InGaAlAs chirped-barrier thickness quantum dash (Qdash) in a well structure. The active region exhibits a measured broad gain spectrum of 140 nm, with a peak modal gain of ~41 cm-1. The noncoated two-section gainabsorber broad-area and ridge-waveguide device configuration exhibits an output power of > 20 mW and > 12 mW, respectively. The corresponding -3-dB bandwidths span ~82 nm and ~72 nm, with a small spectral ripple of <; 0.2 dB, related largely to the contribution from dispersive height dash ensembles of the highly inhomogeneous active region. These C-L communication band devices will find applications in various cross-disciplinary fields of optical metrology, optical coherent tomography, etc.

  2. Physical activity and aging: a life-long story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charansonney, Olivier L

    2011-09-01

    The benefits of physical activity in preventing premature mortality have been established by a large set of epidemiological studies. These benefits have been shown both in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Furthermore, the reduction of acute events such as myocardial infarction observed with higher levels of physical activity together with the increase in disease-free life expectancy among the most active individuals supports physical activity's anti-aging effect. This review highlights two models supporting this effect. The first model describes the path to frailty and the second explains that immobilization is a stressor which triggers stress-responses responsible for many chronic diseases. Aging reduces the physiological reserve and can lead to frailty when this reserve cannot allow an appropriate adaptation of the aging body to environmental challenges. The components of this physiological reserve can easily be measured by cardiorespiratory testing. Among them are heart rate reserve and VO(2max), the maximal body oxygen consumption. The opposite effects of exercise training and aging on the physiological reserve are detailed. Underlying mechanisms of both exercise training and aging are described. Sedentary lifestyle accelerates the effects of aging in susceptible individuals. Sedentary lifestyle induces mechanisms which lead to risk factors of chronic diseases and, eventually, to premature death. These pathological mechanisms and their consequences constitute the sedentary lifestyle syndrome.

  3. Assessment of daily life physical activities in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Mainguy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, the six-minute walk test (6MWT is believed to be representative of patient's daily life physical activities (DL(PA. Whether DL(PA are decreased in PAH and whether the 6MWT is representative of patient's DL(PA remain unknown. METHODS: 15 patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH and 10 patients with PAH associated with limited systemic sclerosis (PAH-SSc were matched with 15 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with limited systemic sclerosis without PAH. Each subject completed a 6MWT. The mean number of daily steps and the mean energy expenditure and duration of physical activities >3 METs were assessed with a physical activity monitor for seven consecutive days and used as markers of DL(PA. RESULTS: The mean number of daily steps and the mean daily energy expenditure and duration of physical activities >3 METs were all reduced in PAH patients compared to their controls (all p<0.05. The mean number of daily steps correlated with the 6MWT distance for both IPAH and PAH-SSc patients (r = 0.76, p<0.01 and r = 0.85, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: DL(PA are decreased in PAH and correlate with the 6MWT distance. Functional exercise capacity may thus be a useful surrogate of DL(PA in PAH.

  4. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-03-24

    Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12-16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents' measured BMI-SDS (SDS=adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents' self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents. Dutch Trial register NTR3228.

  5. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  6. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  7. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  8. The Role of Cognitive Dysfunction and Behavioral Activation System on Life Quality Life of Employees in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Darkhor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of cognitive dysfunction and Behavioral Activation System on the quality of life of employees has been tried to understand. In this study, we considered all the employees of Azad University of Bandar Abbas working in the year 2016 as subject. Using simple random sampling method, 90 employees of Azad University, Bandar Abbas were selected and data were collected by using Cognitive dysfunction, behavioral activation system and quality of life questionnaires. Obtained data were analyzed by using Pearson correlation coefficient and using SPSS software and the result revealed a significant and negative relationship between the quality of life with cognitive dysfunctions, including distraction, memory problems, unintentional mistakes and inability to memorize the names. Nevertheless, a significant and positive relationship between these cases and Behavioral Activation System has also been evidenced. Our results concluded that cognitive dysfunction and Behavioral Activation System are factors that affecting the quality of life.

  9. Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, M.A.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Verheijden, M.W.; Tilburg, T.G.; Visser, M.; Deeg, D.J; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults' participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life

  10. Impact of Organized Sports on Activity, Participation, and Quality of Life in People With Neurologic Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, K Barbara; Lexell, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise is the mainstay of chronic disease prevention and health maintenance for all people with and without a disability, and clear evidence exists of the benefits among various populations with neurologic disabilities. However, the potential benefits of organized sports for people with neurologic disabilities are not as well explored. In this narrative review, current evidence regarding the impact of organized sports on activity, participation, and quality of life in people with neurologic disabilities of all ages is summarized, and facilitators of and barriers to participation in sports for this population are discussed. The articles reviewed were divided into 2 sets: (1) children and adolescents and (2) adults. The subjects of almost all of the studies were persons with a spinal cord injury. Children and adolescents with a disability who engaged in sports reported self-concept scores close to those of able-bodied athletes, as well as higher levels of physical activity. Adults with a spinal cord injury who engaged in organized sports reported decreased depression and anxiety, increased life satisfaction, and increased opportunity for gainful employment compared with nonathletic persons with disabilities. General facilitators, regardless of age, were fitness, fun, health, competence, and social aspects, whereas overall barriers were lack of or inappropriate medical advice and facilities, decreased self-esteem, poor finances, dependency on others, and views held by others. The importance of this topic for further research is highlighted, and suggestions for future studies are proposed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  12. Educational status and active life expectancy among older blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnik, J M; Land, K C; Blazer, D; Fillenbaum, G G; Branch, L G

    1993-07-08

    Persons of low socioeconomic status are known to have reduced life expectancy. In a study of the relation of socioeconomic status to disability-free or active life expectancy among older persons, we analyzed prospectively gathered data on 2219 blacks and 1838 whites who were 65 years of age or older in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We defined disability as the inability to perform independently one or more basic functional activities such as walking, bathing, dressing, eating, and using the toilet. For subgroups defined by sex, race, and education, statistical models were used to estimate, for persons at each year of age, the probability of transition from not being disabled or being disabled at base line to not being disabled, being disabled, or having died one year later. These transition probabilities were then entered into increment-decrement life tables to generate estimates of total, active, and disabled life expectancy (with total life expectancy equal to active life expectancy plus disabled life expectancy). Sixty-five-year-old black men had a lower total life expectancy (11.4 years) and active life expectancy (10 years) than white men (total life expectancy, 12.6 years; active life expectancy, 11.2 years), although the differences were reduced after we controlled for education. The estimates for 65-year-old black women (total life expectancy, 18.7 years; active life expectancy, 15.9 years) were similar to those for white women. Black men and women 75 years old and older had higher values for total life expectancy and active life expectancy than whites, and the differences were larger after stratification for education. Education had a substantially stronger relation to total life expectancy and active life expectancy than did race. At the age of 65, those with 12 or more years of education had an active life expectancy that was 2.4 to 3.9 years longer than the values for those with less education in all the four subgroups defined by sex and race

  13. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: protocol for the POI follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Galland, Barbara C; Cameron, Sonya L; Lawrence, Julie A; Gray, Andrew R; Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Healey, Dione; Sayers, Rachel M; Hanna, Maha; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Hatch, Burt; Taylor, Barry J

    2016-08-11

    The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group); food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group); or both (Combination group), reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group). The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 %) and retention at 2 years (86 %). Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration. We speculate that enhanced self-regulatory behaviours may exist in the Sleep group. Self-regulation was not measured in our initial intervention, but extensive measures have been included in this follow-up study. Thus, the overall aim of the POI follow-up is to determine the extent to which augmented parental support and education on infant sleep, feeding, diet, and physical activity in the first 2 years of life reduces BMI at 3.5 and 5 years of age, and to determine the role of self-regulation in any such relationship. We will contact all 802 families and seek renewed consent to participate in the follow-up study. The families have received no POI intervention since the RCT finished at 2 years of age. Follow-up data collection will occur when the children are aged 3.5 and 5 years (i.e. up to 3 years post-intervention). Outcomes of interest include child anthropometry, body composition (DXA scan), diet (validated food frequency questionnaire), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (questionnaire and accelerometry), and self-regulation (questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment). Our follow-up study has been designed primarily to enable us to determine whether the intriguing benefit of the sleep intervention suggested at 2 years of age remains as children approach school age

  14. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: protocol for the POI follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael W. Taylor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group; food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group; or both (Combination group, reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group. The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 % and retention at 2 years (86 %. Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration. We speculate that enhanced self-regulatory behaviours may exist in the Sleep group. Self-regulation was not measured in our initial intervention, but extensive measures have been included in this follow-up study. Thus, the overall aim of the POI follow-up is to determine the extent to which augmented parental support and education on infant sleep, feeding, diet, and physical activity in the first 2 years of life reduces BMI at 3.5 and 5 years of age, and to determine the role of self-regulation in any such relationship. Methods/design We will contact all 802 families and seek renewed consent to participate in the follow-up study. The families have received no POI intervention since the RCT finished at 2 years of age. Follow-up data collection will occur when the children are aged 3.5 and 5 years (i.e. up to 3 years post-intervention. Outcomes of interest include child anthropometry, body composition (DXA scan, diet (validated food frequency questionnaire, physical activity (accelerometry, sleep (questionnaire and accelerometry, and self-regulation (questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment. Discussion Our follow-up study has been designed primarily to enable us to determine whether the intriguing benefit of the sleep intervention suggested at 2

  15. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Remembering with gains and losses: effects of monetary reward and punishment on successful encoding activation of source memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    The motivation of getting rewards or avoiding punishments reinforces learning behaviors. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of rewards on episodic memory have been demonstrated, there is little evidence of the effect of punishments on this memory. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of monetary rewards and punishments on activation during the encoding of source memories. During encoding, participants memorized words (item) and locations of presented words (source) under 3 conditions (Reward, Punishment, and Control). During retrieval, participants retrieved item and source memories of the words and were rewarded or penalized according to their performance. Source memories encoded with rewards or punishments were remembered better than those without such encoding. fMRI data demonstrated that the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and nucleus accumbens activations reflected both the processes of reward and punishment, whereas insular activation increased as a linear function of punishment. Activation in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex predicted subsequent retrieval success of source memories. Additionally, correlations between these reward/punishment-related regions and the hippocampus were significant. The successful encoding of source memories could be enhanced by punishments and rewards, and interactions between reward/punishment-related regions and memory-related regions could contribute to memory enhancement by reward and/or punishment.

  17. GQ-16, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) Ligand, Promotes Insulin Sensitization without Weight Gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, Angelica A.; Rajagopalan, Senapathy; Lin, Jean Z.; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Figueira, Ana C. M.; Lu, Jenny; Ayers, Stephen D.; Mottin, Melina; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Telles de Souza, Paulo; Mourao, Rosa H. V.; Saad, Mario J. A.; Togashi, Marie; Simeoni, Luiz A.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S. P.; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikparpov, Igor; Lima, Maria C. A.; Galdino, Suely L.; Brennan, Richard G.; Baxter, John D.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Webb, Paul; Phillips, Kevin J.; Neves, Francisco A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) targeted anti-diabetic drugs function by inhibiting Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor has provided a new viewpoint to evaluate and perhaps develop improved insulin-sensitizing agents. Herein we report

  18. Designing Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages to Increase Physical Activity among University Students Living in two Different Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Ozgur Polat

    2015-10-01

    The primary aim of this project is to gather information through using different methods and investigate the determinants of message persuasiveness in university students from the British and Turkish cultures in order to design effective physical activity messages leading intention, attitude and behaviour change. The results of the finalized studies showed the importance of using both qualitative and quantitative methods in message design process.

  19. The Positive Influence of Active Learning in a Lecture Hall: An Analysis of Normalised Gain Scores in Introductory Environmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Timothy J.; Knight, David B.; Gibbes, Badin

    2017-01-01

    Burgeoning college enrolments and insufficient funding to higher education have expanded the use of large lecture courses. As this trend continues, it is important to ensure that students can still learn in those challenging learning environments. Within education broadly and undergraduate engineering specifically, active learning pedagogies have…

  20. High-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation and weak-light superluminal solitons in active Raman gain media with two control fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengjie; Huang, Guoxiang

    2011-01-31

    We propose a scheme to generate superluminal optical solitons in a four-level atomic system with two control fields via an active Raman gain. We derive a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation with high-order corrections contributed from linear and differential absorption, nonlinear dispersion, and delay response of nonlinear refractive index of the system. We predict various optical solitons in different regimes of system parameters, and show that these optical solitons have superluminal propagating velocity and very low generation power.

  1. Normal hematopoiesis and lack of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts of patients and mice harboring Lrp5 gain of function mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galan-Diez, Marta; Isa, Adiba; Ponzetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts are emerging regulators of myeloid malignancies since genetic alterations in them, such as constitutive activation of β-catenin, instigate their appearance. The LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), initially proposed to be a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, in fact favors bone formation...... by suppressing gut-serotonin synthesis. This function of Lrp5 occurring in the gut is independent of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts. However, it is unknown whether Lrp5 can act directly in osteoblast to influence other functions that require β-catenin signaling, particularly, the deregulation...... of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5(A214V)) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5...

  2. Low-noise and high-gain Brillouin optical amplifier for narrowband active optical filtering based on a pump-to-signal optoelectronic tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Yahia; Taleb, Fethallah; Zheng, Junbo; Lee, Min Won; Du Burck, Frédéric; Roncin, Vincent

    2016-01-10

    We implement and characterize an optical narrowband amplifier based on stimulated Brillouin scattering with pump-to-signal relative frequency fluctuations overcome thanks to an active pump tracking. We achieve a precise characterization of this amplifier in terms of gain and noise degradation (noise figure). The performances of this stable selective amplification are compared to those of a conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifier in order to highlight the interest of the Brillouin amplification solution for active narrow optical filtering with a bandpass of 10 MHz. Thanks to the simple optoelectronic pump-to-signal tracking, the Brillouin active filter appears as a stable and reliable solution for narrowband optical processing in the coherent optical communication context and optical sensor applications.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation and comparison of different methods to evaluate baroreflex gain in conscious mice using telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Valdir A; Burmeister, Melissa A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid bodies are the primary sensors of systemic hypoxia. Although the pattern of responses elicited by peripheral chemoreceptor activation is well established in rats, lambs, and rabbits, the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation in conscious mice have not been delineated. Here we report that stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by potassium cyanide (KCN) in conscious mice elicits a unique biphasic response in blood pressure that is characterized by an initial and robust rise followed by a decrease in blood pressure, which is accompanied by a marked reduction in heart rate. The depressor and bradycardic responses to KCN were abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine, and the pressor response was abolished by alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin, suggesting that vagal and sympathetic drive to the heart and sympathetic drive to the vasculature mediate these cardiovascular responses. These studies characterized the chemoreflex in conscious mice and established the reliability of using them for studying hypoxia-related diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea. In another series of experiments, two methods for analyzing baroreflex sensitivity were compared: the classical pharmacological approach using phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside (i.e., the Oxford technique) or the sequence method for analyzing spontaneous baroreflex activity. Our findings indicate that both methods are reliable, and the sequence method certainly has its benefits as a predictive tool in the context of long-term noninvasive studies using telemetry. However, for absolute determination of baroreflex function, analysis of spontaneous baroreflex activity should be complemented by the classical pharmacological method.

  4. When your pain signifies my gain: neural activity while evaluating outcomes based on another person?s pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Cui; Xiangru Zhu; Ruolei Gu; Yue-jia Luo

    2016-01-01

    The overlap between pain and reward processing pathways leds researchers to hypothesize that there are interactions between them in the human brain. Two hypotheses have been proposed. The ?competition hypothesis? posits that reward can reduce pain-related neural activity and vice versa. The ?salience hypothesis? suggests that the motivational salience of pain and reward can be mutually reinforced. However, no study has tested these two hypotheses from temporal perspective as we know. In the p...

  5. [Active surveillance in prostate cancer and quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez Escrig, Jose L; Romero, Rocio

    2014-06-01

    Active surveillance was born as a therapeutic strategy for a well selected group of patients with low risk prostate cancer with the aim to defer or completely avoid the negative impact of secondary effects of curative therapies. Nevertheless, the patient who chooses this treatment does it at the expense of greater anxiety and doubts about the possible progression of the disease. The main psychological features influencing the quality of life of these patients are, on one hand anxiety, due to the uncertainty and fear to disease progression, and on the other hand, the difficult decision making process. Among the factors that seem to influence the election are: urologist's recommendation, effects on urinary function, age and impact of the therapy on sexual function. In the timorous journey walked, it is recommended to apply psycho-educational programs, with the objective of increasing the perceived control and adaptive confrontation. We propose an intervention with 4 group sessions, the objectives of which would be first to improve the decision making process and diminish the fear to progression and, second to reinforce the information already given at the time of diagnosis and increase the sensation of control, e.g promoting healthy habits.

  6. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, T. K.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Levitin, A. E.

    1995-11-01

    In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20-28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called `infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1) the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2) a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  7. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Breus

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20–28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called 'infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1 the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2 a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  8. Exploiting the high-resolution crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus MenH to gain insight into enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Florian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MenH (2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of menaquinone, catalyzing an unusual 2,5-elimination of pyruvate from 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate. Results The crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus MenH has been determined at 2 Å resolution. In the absence of a complex to inform on aspects of specificity a model of the enzyme-substrate complex has been used in conjunction with previously published kinetic analyses, site-directed mutagenesis studies and comparisons with orthologues to investigate the structure and reactivity of MenH. Conclusions The overall basic active site displays pronounced hydrophobic character on one side and these properties complement those of the substrate. A complex network of hydrogen bonds involving well-ordered water molecules serves to position key residues participating in the recognition of substrate and subsequent catalysis. We propose a proton shuttle mechanism, reliant on a catalytic triad consisting of Ser89, Asp216 and His243. The reaction is initiated by proton abstraction from the substrate by an activated Ser89. The propensity to form a conjugated system provides the driving force for pyruvate elimination. During the elimination, a methylene group is converted to a methyl and we judge it likely that His243 provides a proton, previously acquired from Ser89 for that reduction. A conformational change of the protonated His243 may be encouraged by the presence of an anionic intermediate in the active site.

  9. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Changes in Life-Space Mobility Among Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantakokko, Merja; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne; Kauppinen, Markku; Portegijs, Erja

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to study the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and subsequent changes in life-space mobility over 2 years among older people. Life-space mobility refers to the area a person moves through in daily life, taking into account frequency, and need of assistance. Life-space mobility and physical activity correlate, but whether different intensities of objectively assessed physical activity predicts decline in life-space mobility is not known. Prospective cohort study of the "Life-space Mobility in Old Age" (LISPE) project accelerometer substudy. Participants were community-dwelling older people aged 75-90 (n = 164). Life-space mobility was measured with the Life-Space Assessment at baseline face-to-face home interview and telephone follow-up interviews 1 and 2 years after baseline. Physical activity (step count and time spent in moderate activity, low activity, and sedentary behavior) was measured by a tri-axial accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days at baseline. Generalized estimating equations (GEE models) were used to compare changes in life-space mobility between participants categorized according to the baseline physical activity measures. Median age of the participants was 79.5 (IQR 6.7) and 64% were women. Over the 2 years, life-space mobility declined significantly among those with lower step counts and less time spent in moderate activity measured at baseline. Time spent in low activity and sedentary behavior did not predict changes in life-space mobility. In old age, more time spent walking outdoors and accumulation of moderate-intensity physical activity may help to maintain higher life-space mobility, a correlate of good quality of life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Gamer Girls, Gold Farmers, and Activism "In Real Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Megan L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay analyzes the graphic novel "In Real Life" as an example of Cory Doctorow and Jen Wang's intention to raise young people's awareness about gender and economic disparities within the gaming industry. Broadly, "In Real Life" combats the pervasive cultural anxiety that Jane McGonigal challenges in her book "Reality…

  11. Intervention fidelity in a school-based diet and physical activity intervention in the UK: Active for Life Year 5

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Rona; Rawlins, Emma; Wells, Sian; Kipping, Ruth R; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Peters, Tim J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Jago, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) is an educational programme for Year 5 children (aged 9-10) designed to increase children's physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviour and increase fruit and vegetable intake...

  12. Impact of active and stable psoriasis on health-related quality of life: the PSO-LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudén, E; Herrera, E; Puig, L; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Toribio, J; Perulero, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of psoriasis on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using different questionnaires. Prospective observational study of patients with plaque psoriasis of at least 6 months' duration stratified by active and stable disease. The patients were evaluated at baseline, 7 days, and 12 weeks. At the 3 visits, the investigators recorded sociodemographic and clinical data and the patients completed the following HRQOL questionnaires: the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI), and psoriasis quality of life questionnaire (PSO-LIFE). In total, 304 patients (182 with active psoriasis and 122 with stable psoriasis) were evaluated. The mean (SD) age was 45.3 (14.5) years, and 56.3% of the group were men. At baseline, the mean (SD) psoriasis and area severity index (PASI) score was 17.0 (7.4) in patients with active disease and 5.6 (5.3) in those with stable disease; a reduction was seen in PASI scores during the evaluation period (P<.01). The mean (SD) score on the PSO-LIFE questionnaire increased significantly from 57.4 (20.4) to 72.2 (19.6) in patients with active psoriasis and from 76.4 (20.6) to 82.3 (18.3) in those with stable disease (P<0.01 in both groups). The difference in standardized mean scores between the 2 groups was 0.79 for the DLQI, 0.62 for the PDI, and 0.85 for the PSO-LIFE questionnaire. The impact of psoriasis on HRQOL as assessed by the PSO-LIFE questionnaire was greater in patients with lesions in visible areas than in those with less visible lesions (P<.01). Changes in PSO-LIFE and PASI scores were moderately and significantly correlated (r=-0.4). The impact of psoriasis on HRQOL is higher in patients with active disease. The PSO-LIFE questionnaire showed a greater tendency to discriminate between active and stable psoriasis than either the DLQI or the PDI. PSO-LIFE scores correlated significantly with lesion site and disease severity as measured by PASI. Copyright

  13. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Breus

    Full Text Available In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20–28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called 'infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1 the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2 a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  14. Purpose in life is associated with physical activity measured by accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stephanie A; Masters, Kevin S

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that purpose in life, the belief that one's life is meaningful and goal-directed, is associated with greater engagement in self-reported physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between purpose in life and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Community volunteers (N = 104) completed measures of purpose in life and potential confounds and wore accelerometers for three consecutive days. Purpose in life was positively associated with objectively measured movement, moderate to vigorous physical activity, and with self-reported activity. These relationships were largely unchanged after controlling for potential confounds. These results suggest that purpose in life is a reliable correlate of physical activity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Activating FLT3 mutants show distinct gain-of-function phenotypes in vitro and a characteristic signaling pathway profile associated with prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Janke

    Full Text Available About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD. It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70% compared to FLT3-TKD (30%. In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations--including two novel mutations--showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  16. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  17. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse-Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Notice of Lapse--Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-389. b. Application for... government life insurance has lapsed or will lapse due to nonpayment of premiums. The claimant must complete...

  18. 75 FR 68038 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control Number: 2900-0212. Type of Review... Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) or to provide information upon which the insurance premium can be...

  19. 75 FR 52065 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity: Comment... solicits comments for information needed to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written...: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement, VA Form 29-8636. OMB Control Number: 2900-0212. Type of Review...

  20. 78 FR 53014 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. ] b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States Government...

  1. 76 FR 40455 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Inquiry) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Inquiry) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Inquiry, VA Form 29-0543. OMB Control Number: 2900-0501... insured under Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) completes VA Form 29-0543 to report any recent...

  2. 75 FR 73166 - Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States Government Life Insurance, (USGLI)), VA Form 29...

  3. 78 FR 58611 - Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance Statement) Activity Under OMB... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0212.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance... collection. Abstract: Veterans complete VA Form 29-8636 to decline Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance (VMLI) or...

  4. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity : implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life

  5. Life-style, aging and work ability among active Finnish workers in 1981-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, J; Ilmarinen, J

    1997-01-01

    Life-style is an important factor in explaining the changes in health and well-being in old age. In this study life-style was defined according to Abel's definition as combining life chances and life conduct. The main question concerned the change in life-style components and work ability over a 11-year period. The study population comprised workers who responded to a questionnaire in both 1981 and 1992 and were still working in 1992 (N = 924). The changes in the dimensions of life-style (hobbies, living habits, life satisfaction) were tested with Pearson's chi-square test. The associations between life-style, work ability, and health were analyzed by correspondence analysis. Physical activity was the life-style factor that showed a major change; it increased among both genders. All other leisure-time activities decreased during the follow-up. The women's satisfaction with their life situation increased, but the men were less satisfied at the end of the study. Work ability, as measured with the work ability index, was a crucial factor in these changes. If the work ability remained good, the respondents were also more active and more satisfied with their life. This effect of work ability was strong, especially with respect to the men's satisfaction with their life situation. Life-style, work ability, and perceived health are highly associated, and studying them separately may give a simplistic view of the interaction between aging and work. In the future, more comprehensive approaches should be applied.

  6. Effects of insufficient physical activity on mortality and life expectancy in Jiangxi province of China, 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains an under-researched field in terms of studying burden of disease at provincial level, and no studies have examined the effects of inactivity on life expectancy (LE in China. The purpose of this study was to estimate mortality risk and LE effects associated with insufficient levels of physical activity in Jiangxi province. METHODS/FINDINGS: Prevalence of risk factors and mortality counts were extracted from Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Survey (CDRFSS and Disease Surveillance Points system (DSP, respectively. Insufficient physical activity (IPA was defined as less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 60 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, accumulated across work, home, transport and discretionary domains. Population-attributable fractions (PAF were used to calculate the mortality attributable to risk factors, and life table methods were used to estimate the LE gains and LE shifts. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Overall, 5 885 (95% uncertainly interval (UI, 5 047-6 506 and 8 578 (95% UI, 8 227-9 789 deaths in Jiangxi province were attributable to IPA in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The LE gains for elimination of attributable deaths were 0.68 (95% UI, 0.61-076 in 2007, and increased to 0.91 (95% UI, 0.81-1.10 in 2010. If the prevalence of IPA in 2010 had been decreased by 50% or 30%, 3 678 (95% UI, 3 220-4 229 or 2 090 (95% UI, 1 771-2 533 deaths would be avoided, and 0.40 (95% UI, 0.34-0.53 or 0.23 (95% UI, 0.16-0.31 years of LE gained, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adults in Jiangxi province of China have a high and increasing prevalence of IPA. Due to the deaths and potential LE gains associated with IPA, there is an urgent need to promote physical activity, one of the most modifiable risk factors, within China's health care reform agenda.

  7. Patient–Provider Communication and Counseling about Gestational Weight Gain and Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study of the Perceptions and Experiences of Latinas Pregnant with their First Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lindsay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Latina women in the United States (U.S. are disproportionately affected by obesity and are more likely to begin pregnancy overweight and gain excessive weight during pregnancy. The prenatal care period represents a window of opportunity for women to access the healthcare system and receive preventive services, education, nutritional support, and other social services to improve pregnancy outcomes. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG has numerous negative short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and newborn. We explored nulliparous Latina women’s perceptions about their experiences communicating with their primary healthcare provider about GWG and physical activity (PA to identify possible intervention targets using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Bilingual, trained research staff conducted 23 interviews with first-time pregnant Latinas between 22 and 36 weeks of gestation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded, and grouped into categories. Women, including those who self-identified as being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, reported receiving limited or no advice from their healthcare providers about GWG or PA. Additionally, analysis revealed that although participants value information received from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program counselors, they would like to receive more information from their primary healthcare providers about adequate GWG. Furthermore, study findings indicate that some participants received conflicting information regarding PA during pregnancy. Study findings suggest the need for increased integration of communication and counseling about GWG and PA into prenatal care services to promote healthy weight gain and PA among low-income Latina women.

  8. End-of-life planning activities: an integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher M; Masters, Julie L; DeViney, Stanley

    2013-07-01

    This study examined end-of-life planning and whether common characteristics predicted completion of these decisions. Participants in the Nebraska End-of-Life Survey were asked whether they had heard about or completed five plans: a health care power of attorney agreement, a living will, a last will and testament, funeral or burial preplanning, and organ and tissue donation. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of these outcomes. Predictors of completing end-of-life plans, including funeral and burial preplanning, included older age, higher household income, and higher religiosity. This suggests that all of these decisions may be part of an integrated planning process at the end of life. Further, results from this study indicate that the role of religiosity, found in this study to predict both financial and health care planning, warrants further exploration.

  9. How Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source came to life and gained its niche : the view from an ecosystem perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C.; Office of The Director

    2008-02-25

    At first glance the story of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) appears to have followed a puzzling course. When researchers first proposed their ideas for an accelerator-driven neutron source for exploring the structure of materials through neutron scattering, the project seemed so promising that both Argonne managers and officials at the laboratory's funding agency, the Department of Energy (DOE), suggested that it be made larger and more expensive. But then, even though prototype building, testing, and initial construction went well a group of prominent DOE reviewers recommended in fall 1980 that it be killed, just months before it had been slated to begin operation, and DOE promptly accepted the recommendation. In response, Argonne's leadership declared the project was the laboratory's top priority and rallied to save it. In late 1982, thanks to another review panel led by the same scientist who had chaired the panel that had delivered the death sentence, the project was granted a reprieve. However, by the late 1980s, the IPNS was no longer top priority within the international materials science community, at Argonne, or within the DOE budget because prospects for another, larger materials science accelerator emerged. At just this point, the facility started to produce exciting scientific results. For the next two decades, the IPNS, its research, and its experts became valued resources at Argonne, within the U.S. national laboratory system, and within the international materials science community. Why did this Argonne project prosper and then almost suffer premature death, even though it promised (and later delivered) good science? How was it saved and how did it go on to have a long, prosperous life for more than a quarter of a century? In particular, what did an expert assessment of the quality of IPNS science have to do with its fate? Getting answers to such questions is important. The U.S. government

  10. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  11. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  12. Physical activity and health related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokye Nana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the relationship between Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL and physical activity (PA, to date, have rarely investigated how this relationship differ across objective and subjective measures of PA. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between HRQoL and PA, and examine how this relationship differs across objective and subjective measures of PA, within the context of a large representative national survey from England. Methods Using a sample of 5,537 adults (40–60 years from a representative national survey in England (Health Survey for England 2008, Tobit regressions with upper censoring was employed to model the association between HRQoL and objective, and subjective measures of PA controlling for potential confounders. We tested the robustness of this relationship across specific types of PA. HRQoL was assessed using the summary measure of health state utility value derived from the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D whilst PA was assessed via subjective measure (questionnaire and objective measure (accelerometer- actigraph model GT1M. The actigraph was worn (at the waist for 7 days (during waking hours by a randomly selected sub-sample of the HSE 2008 respondents (4,507 adults – 16 plus years, with a valid day constituting 10 hours. Analysis was conducted in 2010. Results Findings suggest that higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.026 to 0.072. This relationship is consistent across different measures and types of PA although differences in the magnitude of HRQoL benefit associated with objective and subjective (regression coefficient: 0.047 measures of PA are noticeable, with the former measure being associated with a relatively better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.072. Conclusion Higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL. Using an objective measure of PA compared with subjective shows a relatively better HRQoL.

  13. Activities of daily living and quality of life in Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, JA

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is known for placing a significant burden on caregivers, which includes social, psychological, physical or economic aspects. The disease decreases patients’ capacity for activities of daily living and quality of life. Information about functional status is useful in the interpretation of the quality of life assessment results. In this paper the most commonly used scales evaluating activities of daily living and quality of life in Alzheimer’s disease, either generic or specific, is presented. PMID:22802883

  14. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LI, Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  15. Potential of predictive computer models for preoperative patient selection to enhance overall quality-adjusted life years gained at 2-year follow-up: a simulation in 234 patients with adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taemin; Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Hostin, Richard; Robinson, Chessie; Gum, Jeffrey L; Schwab, Frank; Hart, Robert A; Lafage, Virginie; Burton, Douglas C; Bess, Shay; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Klineberg, Eric O; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) experience significant quality of life improvements after surgery. Treatment, however, is expensive and complication rates are high. Predictive analytics has the potential to use many variables to make accurate predictions in large data sets. A validated minimum clinically important difference (MCID) model has the potential to assist in patient selection, thereby improving outcomes and, potentially, cost-effectiveness. METHODS The present study was a retrospective analysis of a multiinstitutional database of patients with ASD. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥ 18 years, radiographic evidence of ASD, 2-year follow-up, and preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) > 15. Forty-six variables were used for model training: demographic data, radiographic parameters, surgical variables, and results on the health-related quality of life questionnaire. Patients were grouped as reaching a 2-year ODI MCID (+MCID) or not (-MCID). An ensemble of 5 different bootstrapped decision trees was constructed using the C5.0 algorithm. Internal validation was performed via 70:30 data split for training/testing. Model accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. The mean quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and QALYs gained at 2 years were calculated and discounted at 3.5% per year. The QALYs were compared between patients in the +MCID and -MCID groups. RESULTS A total of 234 patients met inclusion criteria (+MCID 129, -MCID 105). Sixty-nine patients (29.5%) were included for model testing. Predicted versus actual results were 50 versus 40 for +MCID and 19 versus 29 for -MCID (i.e., 10 patients were misclassified). Model accuracy was 85.5%, with 0.96 AUC. Predicted results showed that patients in the +MCID group had significantly greater 2-year mean QALYs (p = 0.0057) and QALYs gained (p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS A successful model with 85.5% accuracy and 0.96 AUC was constructed to predict which patients would reach

  16. Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puciato, Daniel; Borysiuk, Zbigniew; Rozpara, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity can be an effective means of prevention and therapy of many psychosomatic disorders. It can also have a significant impact on the quality of life of older working-age people. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships between quality of life and physical activity in older working-age people from Wrocław, Poland. The study group comprised 1,013 people, including 565 women and 448 men, aged 55-64 years (59.1±2.9 years). The study took form of a questionnaire survey. The participants assessed their physical activity and quality of life using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (IPAQ-SF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. The highest mean indices of general quality of life, perceived health status, and quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains were shown by respondents whose intensity of physical activity was the highest. Moreover, the odds of high assessment of overall quality of life increased with respondents' higher levels of physical activity. Quality of life improvement programs should also involve increased physical activity components.

  17. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  18. Web site for GAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Brænden, Stig; Gjerde, Stian; Hansen, Terje, TAR

    2001-01-01

    The project started with an inquiry from GAIN, Graphic Arts Intelligence Network, on the September 26. 2000. GAIN currently has a website that is static, and is not functioning in a satisfying way. The desire is therefore to establish a new dynamic web site with the possibility for the GAIN members to update the page via a browser interface, and maintain their own profiles. In addition to this they would like a brand new and more functional design. GAIN also wants to e...

  19. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  20. [Effects of social activities on life satisfaction among the elderly: four aspects in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hideaki

    2008-06-01

    The current study was performed to examine relationships between different aspects of social activities and life satisfaction among the elderly. This issue was investigated in men and women separately. Data for 612 older adults aged 65 to 84 years were obtained from a mail survey in an urban area. Life satisfaction was measured using the LSIK and social activities were assessed by asking respondents their degree of participation in each type of interaction. The focus was on four aspects: personal activities, socially-related activities, learning activities, and job activity. In order to examine relationships between different aspects of social activities and life satisfaction, the author used multiple regression analyses with the four types of social activity level as independent variables. All except job activity were categorized as lower, middle and higher levels, and work was categorized as low and high. Two models of multiple regression were employed. First, each of the four aspects of social activity was entered as an independent variable (Model 1); second, four aspects of social activity were entered as independent variables simultaneously (Model 2). The analyses were conducted separately for men and women, controlling for age, marital status, subjective economic status and IADL (instrumental activities of daily living). (1) The results of the multiple regression analyses (Model 1) were as follows: for both men and women, personal activities were positively associated with life satisfaction. For women, socially-related activities were also positively related to life satisfaction. For both men and women, learning activities and job activity exhibited statistically nonsignificant relationships with life satisfaction. (2) With Model 2, the results were as follows: among men, none of the aspects of social activity was significantly associated with life satisfaction. Among women, only personal activities were positively associated with life satisfaction. When all

  1. Dog Ownership, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Veterinary Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Virginia K; Pierce, Bess J; Hosig, Kathy

    2017-09-29

    The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between dog ownership and physical activity in veterinary students. The secondary objective was to gain an understanding of veterinary students' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and whether dog ownership and/or physical activity were associated with HRQOL measures. Veterinary students were invited to complete surveys between September and November 2015. The primary outcome for multivariate analyses was self-reported physical activity. Bivariate analyses and descriptive statistics were performed to assess student HRQOL. The survey response rate was 33% (152/460). Self-efficacy to exercise (pdog ownership (p=.01, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.31-8.71) independently predicted meeting physical activity guidelines when controlling for other variables. About two thirds of respondents met physical activity guidelines. Veterinary students had significantly worse self-reported mental health scores when compared to both national and state averages. Neither dog ownership nor meeting physical activity guidelines were significantly associated with measures of HRQOL. The poor mental health status of veterinary students remains a significant issue for the profession to address. Longitudinal studies are needed that examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health outcomes in this population.

  2. NKCC2 activity is inhibited by the Bartter's syndrome type 5 gain-of-function CaR-A843E mutant in renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmosino, Monica; Gerbino, Andrea; Hendy, Geoffrey N; Torretta, Silvia; Rizzo, Federica; Debellis, Lucantonio; Procino, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The gain-of-function A843E mutation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaR) causes Bartter syndrome type 5. Patients carrying this CaR variant show a remarkably reduced renal NaCl reabsorption in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop resulting in renal loss of NaCl in the absence of mutations in renal Na(+) and Cl(-) ion transporters. The molecular mechanisms underlying this clinical phenotype are incompletely understood. We investigated, in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells and porcine kidney epithelial (LLC-PK1) cells, the functional cross-talk of CaR-A843E with the Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) co-transporter, NKCC2, which provides NaCl reabsorption in the TAL. The expression of the CaR mutant did not alter the apical localisation of NKCC2 in LLC-PK1 cells. However, the steady-state NKCC2 phosphorylation and activity were decreased in cells transfected with CaR-A843E compared with the control wild-type CaR (CaR WT)-transfected cells. Of note, low-Cl(-)-dependent NKCC2 activation was also strongly inhibited upon the expression of CaR-A843E mutant. The use of either P450 ω-hydroxylase (CYP4)- or phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-blockers suggests that this effect is likely mediated by arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. The data suggested that the activated CaR affects intracellular pathways modulating NKCC2 activity rather than NKCC2 intracellular trafficking in renal cells, and throw further light on the pathological role played by active CaR mutants in Bartter syndrome type 5. © 2015 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physical activity, quality of life, and functional autonomy of adults with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Camilla Yuri; Greguol, Márcia

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities.

  4. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Laura Ekstrøm; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We....... They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...

  5. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline H D; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-08-10

    , 1·43-1·60; mid-childhood: 1·76, 1·69-1·91) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·07, 1·01-1·13; mid-childhood: 1·22, 1·15-1·30). Linear growth and relative weight gain were not associated with dysglycaemia, but a higher birthweight was associated with decreased risk of the disorder (0·89, 0·81-0·98). Interventions in countries of low and middle income to increase birthweight and linear growth during the first 2 years of life are likely to result in substantial gains in height and schooling and give some protection from adult chronic disease risk factors, with few adverse trade-offs. Wellcome Trust and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Late life leisure activities and risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Xin; Jin, Yinlong; Hendrie, Hugh C; Liang, Chaoke; Yang, Lili; Cheng, Yibin; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S; Murrell, Jill R; Li, Ping; Bian, Jianchao; Pei, Jin-Jing; Gao, Sujuan

    2013-02-01

    Studies concerning the effect of different types of leisure activities on various cognitive domains are limited. This study tests the hypothesis that mental, physical, and social activities have a domain-specific protection against cognitive decline. A cohort of a geographically defined population in China was examined in 2003-2005 and followed for an average of 2.4 years. Leisure activities were assessed in 1,463 adults aged 65 years and older without cognitive or physical impairment at baseline, and their cognitive performances were tested at baseline and follow-up examinations. High level of mental activity was related to less decline in global cognition (β = -.23, p activity was related to less decline in episodic memory (β = -.08, p activity was associated with less decline in global cognition (β = -.11, p activities experienced a significant global cognitive decline, those who engaged in any one of the activities maintained their cognition, and those who engaged in two or three activities improved their cognition. The same pattern was observed in men and in women. Leisure activities in old age may protect against cognitive decline for both women and men, and different types of activities seem to benefit different cognitive domains.

  7. The influence of farm activities on the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Resman, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a review of the literature on the subject of the influence of farm activities on the quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities. I tried to determine in what ways people with intellectual disabilities can work and relax on a farm, and how this activities influence their quality of life. I found that complementary activities on farms include various social services for people with intellectual disabilities, both in term of work and relaxation. In Slovenia, th...

  8. Impact of Disease Activity on the Quality of Life of Crohn’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Michael Vallis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD patients often suffer severe symptoms that impair their quality of life. A sample of 39 CD patients who were assessed using well validated measures of disease activity and disease-specific quality of life is reported. Twenty-six of these patients were reassessed an average of four months after the initial assessment to determine the impact of changes in disease activity on quality of life. For the total sample (n=39 disease activity did not predict quality of life for any of the scales of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ (r<0.13 for each. Thus, examining fluctuations in disease activity between patients did not demonstrate a disease activity-quality of life relationship. In contrast, changes in disease activity within the same individuals over time (the repeat assessment sample, n=26 were correlated with changes in quality of life; increases in disease activity predicted decreases in quality of life on the IBDQ bowel symptoms subscale (r=-0.463, P<0.01 and the IBDQ systemic symptoms subscale (r=0.44, P<0.05. The 10 patients with the largest decrease in disease activity over time (mean decrease of 43.54 points using the Dutch Activity Index had significant improvement in quality of life on the bowel and systemic subscales. In contrast, the nine patients with the largest increase in disease activity over time (mean increase of 20.57 points using the Dutch Activity Index had significant reduction in quality of life on the bowel and systemic symptoms subscales. These differences between extreme groups were significant for both the bowel symptoms (P<0.05 and systemic symptoms (P<0.05 subscales. The authors conclude that changes in disease activity affect some important aspects of quality of life: aspects related to disease-specific (bowel symptoms and nondisease-specific (systemic symptoms physical symptoms. Importantly, disease activity was not able to predict the emotional and social aspects of IBD

  9. Active coating and modified-atmosphere packaging to extend the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A; Gammariello, D; Di Giulio, S; Attanasio, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2009-03-01

    In this work the combination of active coating and modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese. The active coating was based on sodium alginate (8% wt/vol) containing lysozyme (0.25 mg/mL) and EDTA, disodium salt (Na(2)-EDTA, 50 mM). The MAP was made up of 30% CO(2), 5% O(2), and 65% N(2). The speed of quality loss for the Fior di Latte cheese, stored at 10 degrees C, was assessed by monitoring pH and weight loss, as well as microbiological and sensorial changes. Results showed that the combination of active coating and MAP improved Fior di Latte cheese preservation, increasing the shelf life to more than 3 d. In addition, the substitution of brine with coating could allow us to gain a double advantage: both preserving the product quality and reducing the cost of its distribution, due to the lower weight of the package.

  10. Moving through Life-Space Areas and Objectively Measured Physical Activity of Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegijs, Erja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity-an important determinant of health and function in old age-may vary according to the life-space area reached. Our aim was to study how moving through greater life-space areas is associated with greater physical activity of community-dwelling older people. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space area reached on different days by the same individual was studied using one-week longitudinal data, to provide insight in causal relationships. One-week surveillance of objectively assessed physical activity of community-dwelling 70-90-year-old people in central Finland from the "Life-space mobility in old age" cohort substudy (N = 174). In spring 2012, participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary including the largest life-space area reached (inside home, outside home, neighborhood, town, and beyond town). The daily step count, and the time in moderate (incl. walking) and low activity and sedentary behavior were assessed. Differences in physical activity between days on which different life-space areas were reached were tested using Generalized Estimation Equation models (within-group comparison). Participants' mean age was 80.4±4.2 years and 63.5% were female. Participants had higher average step counts (p activity time (p life-space areas were reached, from the home to the town area. Only low activity time continued to increase when moving beyond the town. Community-dwelling older people were more physically active on days when they moved through greater life-space areas. While it is unknown whether physical activity was a motivator to leave the home, intervention studies are needed to determine whether facilitation of daily outdoor mobility, regardless of the purpose, may be beneficial in terms of promoting physical activity.

  11. Sporting Activities and Quality of Life in Children With Hemophilia: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Barriuso, Ruben; Torres-Ortuño, Ana; Pérez-Alenda, Sofía; José Carrasco, Juan; Querol, Felipe; Nieto-Munuera, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Sports activities are part of multidisciplinary treatments in people with hemophilia. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of sports activities in the quality of life as perceived by children with hemophilia. A total of 53 children with hemophilia aged 7 to 13 years and 51 children without hemophilia were evaluated. The perception of quality of life, clinical variables, and the frequency of sports activities were registered. The joint condition of patients with hemophilia was measured with the Spanish version of the Haemophilia Joint Health Score. There were no significant differences in the perception of quality of life between children with hemophilia and children without hemophilia. Sports activities in people with hemophilia promoted a greater health satisfaction. Sports activity in children with hemophilia is associated with an improved quality of life and joint health. It is also associated with improved psychosocial wellness.

  12. Recognising Activities of Daily Life Using Hierarchical Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem, Usman; Bigham, John; Wang, Jinfu

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the smart home has been seen as a way of allowing elderly people to lead an independent life for longer, making sure they remain safe and in touch with their social and care communities. The assistance could be in the form of helping with everyday tasks, e.g. notifying them when the milk in the fridge will be finished or institute safeguards to mitigate risks. In order to achieve this effectively we must know what the elderly person is doing at any given time. This paper d...

  13. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    ‘second shift’ at home and had therefore great difficulty exercising. In addition, (lack of) previous experience of sport and recreational physical activity seemed to have a decisive influence on their current recreational physical activity practices. I conclude that health policy and initiatives...

  14. Physical activities in daily life and functional capacity compared to disease activity control in acromegalic patients: impact in self-reported quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Renata Aparecida Elias; Passos, Karine Elias; Porto, Lara Benigno; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Reis, Marcia Cristina; Naves, Luciana Ansaneli

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of life and its association with daily physical activity and disease control in acromegalic patients. A cross-sectional, case series study, composed of 42 patients recruited from the Neuroendocrinology Unit of the University Hospital of Brasilia. Level of physical activity was accessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ 6-short-form), which evaluates the weekly time spent on physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity in different contexts of life. Quality of life was evaluated by The Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire Short Form (SF-36). Data was compared to growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels. Students' t test and Fisher test were used, p physical activity, in the domains social functioning (75 CI 57.3-92.6), general health (75.5 CI 60.4-90.5), mental health (70 CI 57.8-82.1). In this study, the presence and severity of physical disability and pain were not associated with initial GH and IGF-1 levels or time of exposure to GH excess. However, the patients considered controlled, with normal a normal age-adjusted IGF-1, presented higher scores in SF-36, in physical and emotional domains, compared with patients with persistent hypersomatotrophism. These findings suggest benefits of metabolic control in self-reported quality of life.

  15. Physical activity, sedentary time and gain in overall and central body fat : 7-year follow-up of the ProActive trial cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubic, R.; Wijndaele, K.; Sharp, S. J.; Simmons, R. K.; Griffin, S. J.; Wareham, N. J.; Ekelund, U.; Brage, S.; de Jong, C.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the independent associations of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary (SED-time), with total and abdominal body fat (BF), and the bidirectionality of these associations in adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes.

  16. [Care at the end of life or active euthanasia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Stein; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe

    2005-06-30

    Estimates for the next 50 years indicate that the number of European citizens above 65 will increase from today's 15 - 20 % to 30 - 40 %. In the same period the number of patients suffering from dementia wills more than double. Norway has the largest percentage of beds in nursing facilities per capita in Europe, more than twice that of most European countries. The dramatic decrease in birth rates in most European countries, with women seeking education and employment, will make proper care for the majority of the weakest elderly a major European challenge. Painful and unnecessary treatments violating basic human rights for weak elderly people suffering from dementia are widespread. The unnecessary life-prolonging medical treatment of the dying in acute wards incurs enormous costs. Options for euthanasia or palliative care are much debated poles regarding the terminally ill in Europe. If a European aim is to guarantee the frail old, that means us, dignity in their last years of life, several needs must be met. Resources now used on acute medicine must be shared with long-term care. These necessary changes will require strong medical and ethical involvement from all physicians.

  17. 75 FR 68036 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type of Review: Extension of a... information needed to convert to a permanent plan of insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on...

  18. 78 FR 46420 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance)) Activity...: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type... solicits comments for information needed to convert to a permanent plan of insurance. DATES: Written...

  19. 76 FR 2756 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Conversion) (Government Life Insurance) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Conversion) (Government Life Insurance) Activity... No. 2900-0149.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Conversion (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-0152. OMB Control Number: 2900-0149. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  20. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  1. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and...

  2. Activity-based Costing (ABC and Activity-based Management(ABMImplementation – Is This the Solution for Organizations to Gain Profitability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Réka CARDOS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adherents of ABC/ABM systems claimed traditional management accounting systems generated misleading costs in a contemporary, tumultuous, often changing business environment and implementing ABC/ABM would remedy this. That is why activity-based costing (ABC and activity-based management (ABM represents the symbol of improved competitiveness and efficiency in every organization.The purpose of this article – after analyzing the existing literature in the field – is to emphasize that new cost systems such as ABC and ABM could be a strong couple that assures competitiveness and efficiency for each company. Another objective is to present that, besides its disadvantages, firms implement the ABC/ABM system because it permits better tracing of costs to objects, superior allocation of overheads to cost objects, financial and non-financial analysis and measures useful to managers and management accountants in the decision-making process.

  3. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  4. Interrelationship among physical activity, quality of life, clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    participants, including age, gender, occupation, level of education, marital status and duration since diagnosis was obtained from the subjects using the sociodemographic data questionnaire. Other information included history of ..... reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire among adults in Mexico.

  5. Extravehicular Activity Suit/Portable Life Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to mature technologies and systems that will enable future Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems. Advanced EVA systems have...

  6. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  7. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  8. Assessment of dual life stage antiplasmodial activity of british seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-10-22

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC(50)s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  9. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M.; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. PMID:24152562

  10. Sexual activities, sexual and life satisfaction, and successful aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloski-Wruble, Anna C; Oliel, Yulia; Leefsma, Miriam; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorith

    2010-07-01

    Sexuality for women at all ages is a vital aspect of life satisfaction and is based upon continuing growth, development, and adaptation. The successful aging model includes physical, mental/emotional, and social well-being. There is no known published literature on the topic of sexual activities of older women and its implications on life and sexual satisfaction. To investigate the sexual activities of older women in Israel, their levels of sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction, and to examine the relationship between the level of sexual activities, sexual satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Components of the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory, and the Life Satisfaction Index. A descriptive, correlational study guided by the theory of "successful aging" by Havighurst (1961) was conducted using a convenience sample of 127 women who attended a menopause clinic for routine and follow up care. The research findings described older women as being involved in varied, though limited, sexual activities. There was no significant relationship discovered between the number of sexual activities and age. The level of sexual satisfaction of the studied sample was found to be above the mean score. Most of the women reported good sexual/intimate communication with their partners. Women were not satisfied with the limited variety in their sex life. Women reported a high level of life satisfaction. Ultimately, a positive significant correlation was discovered between sexual satisfaction and level of current sexual activity, and between sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction. Older women are interested in continuing their sexual activities. It is a component of life satisfaction. The desire for sexual variety suggested an important area for patient education. Couple communication was deemed a priority. Health providers should include sexual health issues in their discussions with clients of all ages.

  11. Mediating role of daily physical activity on quality of life in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Heng-Hsin; Jan, Ming-Shan; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching; Huang, Hui-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the contribution of daily physical activity and functional status to quality of life in patients with heart failure has the potential to enable patients to achieve better outcomes. Nevertheless, research that examines the relationship between these 3 variables in heart failure patients in Taiwan is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to close this gap by exploring the relationship among daily physical activity, functional status, and quality of life in this population. This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design. A convenience sample of 108 heart failure patients was recruited, from November 2009 to September 2010, from 4 teaching hospitals in Taiwan. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire, New York Heart Association classification (functional status), Daily Physical Activity Status Index (daily physical activity), and Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (quality of life). Pearson correlations, hierarchical logistic regression, and the Sobel test were conducted to determine the relationship between functional status, daily physical activity, and quality of life. Propensity score analysis was used to adjust the inequality of the underlying diseases that the patients had and ensure the mediating effect. A significant mediating effect of daily physical activity on the relationship between functional status and quality of life was found. Multidisciplinary healthcare providers should work together to develop an intervention focused on enhancing daily physical activity and to evaluate the effectiveness of promoting quality of life for patients living with heart failure.

  12. When Product Life Cycle Meets Customer Activity Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian Ronald

    2007-01-01

    project in a global office furniture manufacturer, this paper attempts to uncover how a manufacturing company is making the move from selling office furniture to selling the benefit of workspace performance. A significant insight is that the definition of value is core to both relationship marketing......Manufacturing companies have traditionally focused their efforts on designing, developing and producing products to offer on the market. Today global competition and demands for greater company responsibility of products throughout their entire life cycle are driving manufacturing companies...... to shift market strategies from a transactional approach to an approach based on the establishment and management of customer relationships (Grönroos, 1999). A growing number of studies and research programmes have focused on the potentials of business strategies based on providing the value of utility...

  13. Pathways between physical activity and quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Rachel; Bonner, Timethia; Dobhal, Megha; Borra, Sujana; Killion, Jordan A; Paxton, Raheem

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have indicated that the relationship between physical activity and quality of life is not directed but mediated through various pathways. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of cancer-related fatigue, disability, and functional status as potential mediators in African-American breast cancer survivors. African-American breast cancer survivors (N = 135, mean age = 63) aged 55 years and older participated in a web-based survey consisting of measures assessing physical activity, functional status, cancer-related fatigue, disability, quality of life, and sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the structural relationships among the constructs. The initial structural model fit the data and revealed a significant relationship between physical activity and quality of life (β = 0.34, P life (β = 0.11, P > 0.05) and mediated through pathways of functional status and fatigue (total β = 0.16, P life. Our data suggest that physical activity may be indirectly related to quality of life through pathways consisting of fatigue and functional status. Further longitudinal studies are needed to test the pathways through which varying levels of physical activity influence cancer-related and quality of life outcomes in minority cancer survivors.

  14. Quantifying physical activity in daily life with questionnaires and motion sensors in COPD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitta, F; Troosters, T; Probst, V. S; Spruit, M. A; Decramer, M; Gosselink, R

    2006-01-01

    ...: June 1, 2005 Accepted December 18, 2005 Accurate assessment of the amount and intensity of physical activity in daily life is considered very important due to the close relationship between physical...

  15. The Arabidopsis gain-of-function mutant ssi4 requires RAR1 and SGT1b differentially for defense activation and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fasong; Mosher, Stephen; Tian, Miaoying; Sassi, Giovanna; Parker, Jane; Klessig, Daniel F

    2008-01-01

    A gain-of-function mutation in resistance (R) gene SSI4 causes constitutive activation of defense responses, spontaneous necrotic lesion formation, enhanced resistance against virulent pathogens, and a severe dwarf phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed that ssi4-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation and spontaneous cell death require RAR1, whereas ssi4-mediated stunting is dependent on SGT1b. By contrast, both RAR1 and SGT1b are required in a genetically additive manner for ssi4-induced disease resistance, SA accumulation, and lesion formation after pathogen infection. These data point to cooperative yet distinct functions of RAR1 and SGT1b in responses conditioned by a deregulated nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein. We also found that RAR1 and SGT1b together contribute to basal resistance because an ssi4 rar1 sgt1b triple mutant exhibited enhanced susceptibility to virulent pathogen infection compared with wild-type SSI4 plants. All ssi4-induced phenotypes were suppressed when plants were grown at 22 degrees C under high relative humidity. However, low temperature (16 degrees C) triggered ssi4-mediated cell death via an RAR1-dependent pathway even in the presence of high humidity. Thus, multiple environmental factors impact on ssi4 signaling, as has been observed for other constitutive defense mutants and R gene-triggered pathways.

  16. RESEARCH ON INCREASING ACTIVE LIFE OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin STĂNCIOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the exploitation of dies the defections that occur, due mainly to non operating rules of exploration, the improperly conditions of the machine (press in terms of cinematic precision and the wearing elements in relative motion (ram displacement, wearing guides, etc as the incorrect mounting of dies on the press. When installing dies must consider several aspects. Among the techniques used, especially for restoring the active elements in the work area are rectified frontal surfaces, hard chromating, hardening with electric sparks and charging welding. Were restored active profile and size of the work active elements so after reconditioning they corresponded in terms of dimensional precision and resistance to wear, like initial elements

  17. Physical activity and life satisfaction in adolescence: The mediating role of initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Skagseth, Inga Fjelltveit

    2008-01-01

    Background: The ability to take initiative is considered an important developmental task in adolescence. Organised leisure time activities have been suggested as especially conducive contexts for initiative development. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity, initiative, and life satisfaction in adolescence. The self-determination theory was used to identify factors that facilitate intrinsic motivation, initiative, and life...

  18. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with ...

  19. Weight gain in women who practice moderate physical activity during pregnancy and its influence on the total duration of labor: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodriguez-Blanque

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, OMS establishes that sedentarism and poor eating habits are two major problems of industrialized society, which cause high rates of overweight and obesity in the population. This fact also extends to women of reproductive age, which causes an excessive gain of weight during pregnancy, which can be a risk for the baby and for the mother. Objective: To know the benefits of moderate aquatic physical activity and its influence on the total duration of labor, according to the body mass index (BMI of pregnant women. Material and methods: Randomized clinical trial of 140 healthy pregnant women, ages between 21 and 43 years. A simple random sampling was used, the sample being conformed into two groups; Intervention (IG; n = 70 and Control (CG; n = 70. Each group was categorized according to the BMI, according to the OMS international classification. The recruitment was at 12 weeks of gestation in the ultrasound control of the first trimester, in the different obstetrical services of Granada. The program began at week 20 of gestation and ended at week 37. The perinatal results were obtained from the Labor Diagram of each woman, recorded in the Labor Ward Services of the University Hospital Complex of Granada. Results: The mean weight gain during pregnancy in the CG was 2.89 kg more compared to the IG. Significant differences were obtained in the total time of labor in the categories of BMI, Normopesus and Overweight. The Obesity variable shows that the results were not positive enough to reveal a statistical significance, although a difference of 531.89 min was recorded in the CG versus 374.14 min for the IG. This represents a difference of 2.63 hours on average, data that is clinically significant. Conclusion: Non-obese pregnant women, who have followed the SWEP method, present a statistically significant decrease in total delivery times between groups. However, in obese women there is a decrease in the total time of delivery

  20. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-Yue; Cai, Jie; Li, Ru-Jie; Liu, Wei; Wagner, Christian; Wong, Kam-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes depends on lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod-factors (NFs). The NF hydrolase MtNFH1 of Medicago truncatula is a symbiotic enzyme that hydrolytically inactivates NFs with a C16 : 2 acyl chain produced by the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MtNFH1 is related to class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18) but lacks chitinase activity. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of MtNFH1-related proteins. MtCHIT5a and MtCHIT5b of M. truncatula as well as LjCHIT5 of Lotus japonicus showed chitinase activity, suggesting a role in plant defence. The enzymes failed to hydrolyse NFs from S. meliloti. NFs from Rhizobium leguminosarum with a C18 : 4 acyl moiety were neither hydrolysed by these chitinases nor by MtNFH1. Construction of chimeric proteins and further amino acid replacements in MtCHIT5b were performed to identify chitinase variants that gained the ability to hydrolyse NFs. A single serine-to-proline substitution was sufficient to convert MtCHIT5b into an NF-cleaving enzyme. MtNFH1 with the corresponding proline-to-serine substitution failed to hydrolyse NFs. These results are in agreement with a substrate-enzyme model that predicts NF cleavage when the C16 : 2 moiety is placed into a distinct fatty acid-binding cleft. Our findings support the view that MtNFH1 evolved from the ancestral MtCHIT5b by gene duplication and subsequent symbiosis-related neofunctionalization. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  2. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela de Oliveira Nascimento Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of fibromyalgia (FM is a condition of chronic pain, general, difficult to treat and contributes to the decline of cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the association between physical activity and quality of life of women with FM. Was characterized as cross-sectional study and the population consisted 22 women with FM care in the city of Itabuna - BA. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to criteria to American College of Rheumatology. The data collection instrument was established by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Atividade física e qualidade de vida For data analysis, we used the procedure descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage and inferential (Chi-square test and Fisher's test, significance level of p≤0.05. The average age of respondents was 41.05 (SD = 6.543 years, ranging between 27 and 56 years. In general physical activity, 45.5% were considered physically active. By analyzing the dimensions of physical activity as a means transportation, only 31.8% are active and in the dimension of leisure, only 27.3%. The assessment of the level of quality of life of the subjects revealed that 72.7% had negative quality of life, while only 27.3% reported having a positive quality of life. The present study showed that fibromyalgia affects mainly women and that this syndrome interfere with the patients' quality of life.

  3. A life course model of cognitive activities, socioeconomic status, education, reading ability, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Angela L; Gibbons, Laura E; Rentz, Dorene M; Carvalho, Janessa O; Manly, Jennifer; Bennett, David A; Jones, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To cross-sectionally quantify the contribution of proxy measures of cognitive reserve reflective of the lifespan, such as education, socioeconomic status (SES), reading ability, and cognitive activities, in explaining late-life cognition. Prospective observational cohort study of aging. Retirement communities across the Chicago metropolitan area. Nine hundred fifty-one older adults free of clinical dementia in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (aged 79 ± 8, 74% female). Baseline data on multiple life course factors included early-, mid-, and late-life participation in cognitive activities; early-life and adult SES; education; and reading ability (National Adult Reading Test; NART). Path analysis quantified direct and indirect standardized effects of life course factors on global cognition and five cognitive domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, perceptual speed). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, education had the strongest association with global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, and visuospatial ability, whereas NART (followed by education) had the strongest association with working memory. Late-life cognitive activities had the strongest association with perceptual speed, followed by education. These cross-sectional findings suggest that education and reading ability are the most-robust proxy measures of cognitive reserve in relation to late-life cognition. Additional research leveraging path analysis is warranted to better understand how these life course factors, reflecting the latent construct of cognitive reserve, affect abnormal cognitive aging. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. HIV LIFE CYCLE AND POTENTIAl TARGETS FOR DRUG ACTIVITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cell cytoplasm: viral RNA genome, reverse transcriptase. (RT), integrase (IN), and virion regulatory proteins. RT begins assembling DNA copies (cDNA) of the HIV genome at a rate proportional to the activation state of the host cell. ... At I~a.st fivt other ro-re<:eptors havf been idfntififd; th6r rolf has not bet"n fully flucidaterl.

  5. HIV LIFE CYCLE AND POTENTIAl TARGETS FOR DRUG ACTIVITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusion is followed by uncoating of the viral core, and deposition of the following core components into the host cell cytoplasm: viral RNA genome, reverse transcriptase. (RT), integrase (IN), and virion regulatory proteins. RT begins assembling DNA copies (cDNA) of the HIV genome at a rate proportional to the activation ...

  6. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new measure of Active Life Expectancy, called Active Life Classification (ALC) in which the criterion for successful aging is a combination of good functional ability and high social participation. OBJECTIVES: 1) to describe the distribution of ALC among 75-year-old men...... were associated with ALC. CONCLUSIONS: It is an advantage to combine functional ability and social participation in the description of quality of life in old age, as 1) a high social participation may compensate for a poor functional ability, and vice versa, 2) the combined measure is meaningful...... for both sexes, and 3) it gives more information than the two concepts used as separate outcome measures....

  7. Active Life Expectancy and Functional Health Transition among Filipino Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace T. Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a baseline information on the functional health transition patterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALE using a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that females and urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of their remaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transition analysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex, place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health, drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health and mortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show any significant effect.

  8. Digital automatic gain control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  9. [Quality of life and physical activity of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agata; Kucio, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and comparison these results with control group. A group of 16 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and 13 healthy persons as a control group. In orderto estimate the quality of life, polish version of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) was used. The Second questionnaire that was used is WHOQOL-BREF (The World Health Organization Quality of Life). To assess the level of physical activity was applied the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ). All the results have been correlated to answer the question if there is any relationship between the quality of life and physical activity and if level of these parameters is different in control group. In the group of patients the lowest level of functioning were stated on bowel ailments field and emotional field. The most important roles in patients life are social relationship and sanity. The higher level of the caloric consumption was stated in the group of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases in comparison to control group. There was no significant difference in caloric consumption related with the recreation and house works. Because of the fact that all of the patients were in the remission period, it was impossible to verify if there is any relationship between quality of life and the stage of disease. The results of researches have not proved relationship between the level of physical activity and the quality of life among the patients as well as in the control group.

  10. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria: 21 years follow-up on the Steno-2 randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gæde, Peter; Oellgaard, Jens; Carstensen, Bendix; Rossing, Peter; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential long-term impact of a 7.8 years intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria in terms of gained years of life and years free from incident cardiovascular disease. The original intervention (mean treatment duration 7.8 years) involved 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria who were randomly assigned (using sealed envelopes) to receive either conventional therapy or intensified, multifactorial treatment including both behavioural and pharmacological approaches. After 7.8 years the study continued as an observational follow-up with all patients receiving treatment as for the original intensive-therapy group. The primary endpoint of this follow-up 21.2 years after intervention start was difference in median survival time between the original treatment groups with and without incident cardiovascular disease. Non-fatal endpoints and causes of death were adjudicated by an external endpoint committee blinded for treatment allocation. Thirty-eight intensive-therapy patients vs 55 conventional-therapy patients died during follow-up (HR 0.55 [95% CI 0.36, 0.83], p = 0.005). The patients in the intensive-therapy group survived for a median of 7.9 years longer than the conventional-therapy group patients. Median time before first cardiovascular event after randomisation was 8.1 years longer in the intensive-therapy group (p = 0.001). The hazard for all microvascular complications was decreased in the intensive-therapy group in the range 0.52 to 0.67, except for peripheral neuropathy (HR 1.12). At 21.2 years of follow-up of 7.8 years of intensified, multifactorial, target-driven treatment of type 2 diabetes with microalbuminuria, we demonstrate a median of 7.9 years of gain of life. The increase in lifespan is matched by time free from incident cardiovascular disease. ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00320008. The study was funded by

  11. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life......-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. RESULTS: After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.......03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P...

  12. Quality of life and physical activity as indicators of health-preserving competence of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Iu.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and physical activity of teachers of physical culture, basic of health, labour, the defense of Motherland and pedagogue-organizers from secondary schools Lviv region (Ukraine were investigated. The 402 persons (age 24-78 years were surveyed with the use of questionnaires MOS SF 36 and IPAQ. The highest quality of life and level of physical activity have teachers of physical culture. It is considered the quality of life of teachers of other subjects similar to persons with chronic diseases. The level of physical activity in leisure time was particularly low for teachers of Basic of Health and pedagogue-organizers. The teachers spent no more than 433 MET-min/ week for moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. The level of physical activity of teachers (besides the physical education teachers was insufficient to improve health and indicate about low level of health-preserving competence.

  13. [The significance of extracurricular activities in the life of junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, S; Muto, T

    2001-06-01

    In this study, the significance of extracurricular activities in the life of junior high school students were examined. Seventh and eighth graders participated in a two-stage questionnaire survey, administered in May and October. Based on developmental stage-environment fit theory (Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998), how well extracurricular activity settings fit needs of the students was analyzed. In support of the theory's hypothesis, results indicated that whether an extracurricular activity satisfied the student's developmental needs affected his/her sense of fulfillment and satisfaction in school life. In addition, the effect of seventh graders' commitment to extracurricular activities on their satisfaction of school life was stronger in October than in May. The findings suggested that for students who felt uneasy in class for whatever reasons, extracurricular activities provided an opportunity for relief.

  14. Thresholds of physical activities necessary for living a self-supporting life in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Hayato; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hara, Taketaka; Wang, Lixin; Suzuki, Takashi; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2007-12-01

    To decide the minimal levels (thresholds) of physical activities necessary for a self-supporting life using discriminate analysis between community-dwelling elderly individuals and daycare-service-receiving elderly individuals in Japan. A total of twenty-six elderly women, including twelve living a self-supporting life and fourteen using a daycare service, were recruited in this study. The parameters examined were physical performance, activities of daily living, exercise capacity. Discriminate analysis was used to determine the thresholds of physical activities needed to live a self-supporting life. Muscle masses, grip strength, lower-extremity muscle force, gait ability and balance function in elderly individuals living a self-supporting life were significant higher than those in elderly individuals using a daycare service. A threshold of physical ability over 75% classifies accurately using the methods of discriminate analysis indicate total body muscle mass, thigh muscle mass, knee extension force, 6 min walking distance (6MD), 10 m obstacle walking time, Activity of daily living (ADL) index and daily steps. The present study indicates that thresholds of physical activities including gait abilities, muscle force, and muscle mass are very important factors in maintaining a self-supporting life for elderly individuals. Thresholds of physical activities were more effective than standard values of physical activity for elderly individuals using a care service in meeting the goals of rehabilitation.

  15. Daily Life Satisfaction in Older Adults as a Function of (In)Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2017-07-01

    This 14-day daily diary study tested the between-person and within-person associations between sedentary behavior, physical activity, and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults (n = 100) wore ActivPAL3 activity monitors for 14 days and, at the end of each day, answered questions regarding their health behaviors and life satisfaction. Separate multilevel models were tested for self-reported and objectively measured behavioral data. In the model using objectively measured behavioral data, life satisfaction was (a) negatively associated with sedentary behavior at the within-person level and unassociated with sedentary behavior at the between-person level and (b) unassociated with physical activity at either the between-person or within-person level. In the model using self-reported behavioral data, life satisfaction was (a) unassociated with sedentary behavior at either the between-person or within-person level and (2) positively associated with physical activity at the within-person, but not at the between-person, level. Results indicated that daily deviations in objectively measured sedentary behavior and self-reported physical activity have implications for older adults' well-being. Interventions designed to enhance well-being and quality of life in older adults should consider targeting daily changes in total sedentary behavior and daily changes in the volume or frequency of physical activity.

  16. Motivational factors associated with physical activity and quality of life in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2016-12-02

    There has been increasing interest for investigating the role of motivation in physical activity among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Autonomous motivation has been suggested to have a potentially important role in adoption and maintenance of physical activity. However, the knowledge about factors that facilitate autonomous motivation among people with SMI is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with motivation for physical activity as well as the relationships between motivation, physical activity and health-related quality of life in individuals with SMI that were currently physically active. A cross-sectional design was used, and 88 participants were recruited from a public health network promoting physical activity for people with SMI. They answered a questionnaire package consisting of scales measuring psychological need support - psychological need satisfaction - and motivation for physical activity, physical activity and health-related quality of life. The majority of participants reported to be in regular physical activity. Associations between variables were tested according to the self-determination theory process model. Structural equation modelling yielded good fit of the process model to the data. Specifically, a need-supportive environment was positively associated with psychological need satisfaction, while psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous motivation and mental health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Physical activity was positively associated with autonomous motivation and physical health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with amotivation. This study indicates that individuals with SMI can be regularly physically active when provided with suitable opportunities. Furthermore, the present results suggest that it is vital for health-care practitioners to emphasise creating a need

  17. Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Nicholas J; Knoll, Andrew H; McLennan, Scott M

    2008-05-30

    In situ and orbital exploration of the martian surface has shown that acidic, saline liquid water was intermittently available on ancient Mars. The habitability of these waters depends critically on water activity (aH2O), a thermodynamic measure of salinity, which, for terrestrial organisms, has sharply defined limits. Using constraints on fluid chemistry and saline mineralogy based on martian data, we calculated the maximum aH2O for Meridiani Planum and other environments where salts precipitated from martian brines. Our calculations indicate that the salinity of well-documented surface waters often exceeded levels tolerated by known terrestrial organisms.

  18. Effects of 2 exercise training programs on physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Vanessa S; Kovelis, Demétria; Hernandes, Nídia A; Camillo, Carlos A; Cavalheri, Vinícius; Pitta, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different exercise training programs on the level of physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD remain to be investigated. In patients with COPD we compared the effects of 2 exercise/training regimens (a high-intensity whole-body endurance-and-strength program, and a low-intensity calisthenics-and-breathing-exercises program) on physical activity in daily life, exercise capacity, muscle force, health-related quality of life, and functional status. We randomized 40 patients with COPD to perform either endurance-and-strength training (no. = 20, mean ± SD FEV(1) 40 ± 13% of predicted) at 60-75% of maximum capacity, or calisthenics-and-breathing-exercises training (no. = 20, mean ± SD FEV(1) 39 ± 14% of predicted). Both groups underwent 3 sessions per week for 12 weeks. Before and after the training programs the patients underwent activity monitoring with motion sensors, incremental cycle-ergometry, 6-min walk test, and peripheral-muscle-force test, and responded to questionnaires on health-related quality of life and functional status (activities of daily living, pulmonary functional status, and dyspnea). Time spent active and energy expenditure in daily life were not significantly altered in either group. Exercise capacity and muscle force significantly improved only in the endurance-and-strength group. Health-related quality of life and functional status improved significantly in both groups. Neither training program significantly improved time spent active or energy expenditure in daily life. The training regimens similarly improved quality of life and functional status. Exercise capacity and muscle force significantly improved only in the high-intensity endurance-and-strength group.

  19. Physical activity across the life-course: Socio-cultural approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2017-01-01

    The subjective, lived elements of old age in physical activity promotion are central in defining how older people ascribe meaning to experiences of being active. Many such meanings are developed throughout the life course. From a longitudinal perspective, although continuity theory can be helpful...... be interdependent with how others define them, and how they define others. We offer recommendations about how this shift in perspective can empower older people to be active agents within figurations of physical activity promotion....

  20. Life Prediction of Large Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Active and Passive Balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State University; Anderson, Dyche [Ford Motor Company

    2017-07-03

    Lithium-ion battery packs take a major part of large-scale stationary energy storage systems. One challenge in reducing battery pack cost is to reduce pack size without compromising pack service performance and lifespan. Prognostic life model can be a powerful tool to handle the state of health (SOH) estimate and enable active life balancing strategy to reduce cell imbalance and extend pack life. This work proposed a life model using both empirical and physical-based approaches. The life model described the compounding effect of different degradations on the entire cell with an empirical model. Then its lower-level submodels considered the complex physical links between testing statistics (state of charge level, C-rate level, duty cycles, etc.) and the degradation reaction rates with respect to specific aging mechanisms. The hybrid approach made the life model generic, robust and stable regardless of battery chemistry and application usage. The model was validated with a custom pack with both passive and active balancing systems implemented, which created four different aging paths in the pack. The life model successfully captured the aging trajectories of all four paths. The life model prediction errors on capacity fade and resistance growth were within +/-3% and +/-5% of the experiment measurements.

  1. A Life-Long Approach to Physical Activity for Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Macpherson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that engaging in lifelong Physical activity (PA can help delay the onset of many chronic lifestyle related and non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type two diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Additionally, growing evidence also documents the importance of PA for brain health, with numerous studies indicating regular engagement in physical activities may be protective against cognitive decline and dementia in late life. Indeed, the link between PA and brain health may be different at each stage of life from childhood, mid-life and late life. Building on this emerging body of multidisciplinary research, this review aims to summarize the current body of evidence linking regular PA and brain health across the lifespan. Specifically, we will focus on the relationship between PA and brain health at three distinct stages of life: childhood and adolescence, mid-life, late life in cognitively healthy adults and later life in adults living with age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD and Alzheimer’s disease (AD.

  2. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine H; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p active and engaged in leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.

  3. Biomarkers of Inflammation Mediate an Association Between Sexual Activity and Quality of Life in Older Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory processes underlie biological mechanisms responsible for age-related disease and quality of life. Psychological stress can activate acute-phase reactants associated with inflammation, and sexual activity can assist in the management of stress. To test whether inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and white blood cell [WBC] count) would mediate an association between frequency of sexual activity and quality of life in older adulthood. Older adults from England (N = 4,554; 2,049 men, 2,505 women; mean age = 66.25 ± 8.89 years) provided blood samples and completed self-report questionnaires on sexual activity, quality of life, and health-related behavior. CRP (milligrams per liter), fibrinogen (grams per liter), WBC count (109 cells/L), and quality of life (self-report). Frequency of sexual activity had a negative association with CRP and fibrinogen. An age-moderated effect also showed that frequency of sexual activity had a negative association with WBC count in older participants in the sample (>70 years of age). CRP mediated a positive association between frequency of sexual activity and quality of life. An age-moderated mediation effect also showed that WBC count mediated the association between sexual activity and quality of life in the oldest participants in the sample. All analyses controlled for demographic, anthropometric, and health-related factors. More frequent sexual activity might be a useful auxiliary approach to lowering stress-related inflammation and improving quality of life. Strengths of this study include the large sample and multiple control variables. Limitations include the cross-sectional nature of the data and some loss in sample representativeness. Findings provide evidence that more sexually active older adults exhibit an anti-inflammatory status associated with a perception of higher quality of life. Further research using prospective designs and natural experimental methods is encouraged. Allen MS

  4. Prevention of excess gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Truesdale, K P; Wang, C-H; Cai, J

    2009-11-01

    Obesity prevention trials are designed to promote healthy weight. The success of these trials is often assessed using one of three metrics--means, incidence or prevalence. In this study, we point out conceptual shortcomings of these metrics and introduce an alternative that we call 'excess gain'. A mathematical demonstration using simulated data shows a scenario in which the statistical power of excess gain compares favorably with that of incidence and prevalence. Prevention of excess gain communicates an easily understood public health message that is applicable to all individuals regardless of weight status.

  5. The importance of group activities for quality of life of women in postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Calazans Negrão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of life of postmenopausal women who participate in different activities groups for elderly. Methods: We selected 59 women, divided as follows: hydrotherapy group (n = 15, physical activity and bingo group (n = 15, and a control group(n = 29. Data collection was done through a questionnaire evaluating the Quality of Life(WHOQOL-Bref, the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The assessments were conducted in two stages with an interval of two monthsbetween each one. Results: There was an improvement in quality of life of women participants in activities groups with respect to the control group, and in all domains of quality of life questionnaire, the control group had lower values. Significant differences occurred in the environment domain, in comparing the hydrotherapy group and physical activity/bingo groups, of which the latter showed better responses. Conclusion: The activities groups were positive for improving quality of life of postmenopausal women, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the practice of not only physical activities, but also those that stimulate the social and psychological profile of these women.

  6. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  7. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: effect modification by breast cancer subtypes and effective periods in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martina E; Steindorf, Karen; Mutschelknauss, Elke; Slanger, Tracy; Kropp, Silke; Obi, Nadia; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2008-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear how and in which life periods PA may be effective to reduce breast cancer risk. Moreover, the evidence is still not judged as 'convincing' as there is some heterogeneity among study results. Most studies regarded breast cancer as a single disease, at best separated by menopausal status. Yet, breast cancers are heterogeneous and likely have different etiologies. Therefore, we analyzed the association of PA with different breast cancer subtypes in 3,414 postmenopausal cases and 6,569 controls from a case-control study on breast cancer conducted 2002-2005 in Germany (MARIE study). PA in the age periods 30-49 and 50+ years was assessed, including leisure-time PA (sports, cycling, walking) and non-recreational PA (occupational and household activities). There was a significant protective effect of leisure-time PA for ER+/PR+ carcinomas (adjusted odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.85; trend P = 0.0001), but no effect for ER-/PR- carcinomas. Moreover, looking at physical activity pattern over time, the effect of PA after menopause on reducing breast cancer risk was more pronounced than the effect of PA before menopause. Overall, effects of PA were independent from adult weight gain, body mass index, and energy intake. These findings suggest that leisure-time PA after menopause may reduce postmenopausal breast cancer risk at least in part via hormonal pathways and not solely by changing body composition. Inactive postmenopausal women should be encouraged to become physically active even later in life.

  8. Integrating Physical Activity, Coach Collaboration, and Life Skill Development in Youth: School Counselors' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…

  9. The Effect of Leisure Activities on Life Satisfaction: The Importance of Holiday Trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nawijn (Jeroen); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDoes active leisure make life more satisfying? If so, what kind of leisure activity is the greatest contributor to happiness? These questions are answered by means of data from four waves of a large-scale continuous study of the general public in Germany. Cross-sectional analysis does

  10. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  11. Metamaterials with Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ortwin

    2012-02-01

    Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

  12. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    An increasing number of families has to meet the challenges of working in a 24-7 society and at the same time striving to take part in everyday family life. Research is not conclusive with respect to what degree atypical working hours has an impact on, for example, work-family balance, instable...... participate in together with their children (e.g. enjoying breakfasts together). On the other hand other research shows that factors like both parents having atypical working hours and small children in the home suggests a negative impact on family life. In addition, not much research has scrutinized...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....

  13. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life.

  14. SHELF-LIFE PREDICTION OF PLUM FOODS USING ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gh.Tatarova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The reducing activity and radical scavenging activity of hydrosoluble antioxidants in food compositions from plums during the storage were evaluated. The speeds of changing the reducing activity and radical scavenging activity were different. It was observed that the reducing activity diminished by 63.2% after 62...105 days of storage. The same modification of radical scavenging activity determined in vitro was discovered after 110...254 days of storage. Shelf-life of plum foods was calculated using Weibull distribution. The functional relationship of failure probabilities between the reducing and radical scavenging capacities have been detected (r2= 0. 94-0.98.

  15. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working...... group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across...... the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing. © 2016 The Author(s)....

  16. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing.......Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working...... group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across...

  17. The Impact Of Sports Activities On Quality Of Life Of Persons With A Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminović, Fadilj; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Pavlović, Dragan; Arsić, Sladjana; Otašević, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation). Methods The study included a total of 44 participants with spinal cord injury-paraplegia of both genders; 26 of them were athletes and 18 were not athletes. The athletes were training actively for the last two years, minimally 2-3 times per week. A specially designed questionnaire, medical documentation and the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Questionnaire (SCI QL-23) were used for research purposes. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between the groups, while multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences between the sets of variables. Results Among the participants, the athletes perceived higher quality of life than the non-athletes (male gender psports activities significantly improves quality of life in the population of people with spinal cord injury-paraplegia. However, sports activities only partially affect secondary health conditions. PMID:27284378

  18. [Active ageing and quality of life--Results of a WHO demonstration project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, O; David, K; Bill, P; Hikl, R

    2006-04-01

    Based on the Active Ageing Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), a demonstration project was conducted in a city in North-Rhine Westphalia between October 2002 and December 2004. The aim of the study was to promote an active ageing process, to maintain autonomy and independence among older people, and thereby to promote health and quality of life. The target group included people aged 55 to 80 years. The aim was to include older persons in a critical period of life due to loss of partner within the last five years and people undergoing a status change due to retirement within the last two years. 344 participants were visited at home to assess their health and psychosocial situation and to identify opportunities for activities. Participants were supported in their efforts to realise the agreed-upon activities. In this article results of the external evaluation are presented. It is analysed whether quality of life according to the WHOQOL Bref improves among participants in the course of the project. Results of non-parametric tests show small differences in quality of life between the three waves of interviews (at the beginning of the project, after one year, at the end of the project). This holds true when only those participants are analysed who retired within the last two years. However, quality of life significantly improves among older persons who lost their partner within the last five years. In terms of implementation of the WHO Active Ageing Programme results suggest application of a risk group strategy.

  19. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René

    2017-01-01

    with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Material and methods: Women...... vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients’ satisfaction with sex life. Patients’ and partners’ satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners’ timing of ejaculation. Patients’ reports of affectionate behavior were...

  20. Relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalina, A Z; Lee, V C; Kandiah, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among gastrointestinal cancer survivors attending the oncology outpatient clinic in Hospital Selayang, Malaysia. A total of 70 gastrointestinal cancer survivors with a mean age of 52.54 +/- 14.59 years (95% CI: 47.48 - 57.60) were included in this study. Results showed that 40% of the patients were classified as having low physical activity. The mean Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA) score was 10.27 +/- 7.36 (95% CI: 8.23-12.31) and nearly half the patients (48.6%) were identified as severely malnourished (Stage C). Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GQLFI) score was 103.57 +/- 23.85 (95% CI: 92.94-114.20), and about 24.3% of the patients were classified as having a low quality of life. Pearson's correlation test showed a highly significant negative relationship between nutritional status and quality of life (r = -0.661, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA), the better the quality of life of the survivors (high total mean score of GQLFI). There was a significant negative relationship between physical activity level and nutritional status score (r = -0.309, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA). This study shows a significant relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. Those low in nutritional status have a low quality of life while survivors with higher nutritional status have a better quality of life.

  1. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WORKING WOMEN THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES/ YOGIC EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanavee Ichchhaporia

    2017-01-01

    In today’s fast and globalized life style Women hold a key position in the shaping of the next generation, plays such an important part in the life of the family. Their value is beyond measure. The changing life style demands more financial steadiness, that’s why the percentage of women in the active work population has increased rapidly in many countries around the world, including ours. As a consequence, we have seen the proliferation of dual-income families where role expectations toward m...

  2. The biopsychosocial model and quality of life in persons with active epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O; Richardson, Virginia E

    2014-12-01

    Despite a long recognized need in the field of the importance of the psychological and social factors in persons with epilepsy (PWE), the medical community has continued to focus primarily on seizures and their treatment (the biological-biomedical model). From the biopsychosocial perspective, a person's lived experience needs to be incorporated into the understanding of quality of life. While the biopsychosocial model has gained prominence over the years, it has not been studied much in epilepsy. The study sample included 1720 PWE from the 2003 and the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data were analyzed using set correlation, as it allows for the examination of the relative contribution of sets of independent variables (biological, psychological, and social domains) and a set of dependent variables (quality of life) of interest, defined as self-rated health status, self-rated mental health status, and life satisfaction. Results provide strong evidence that the full biopsychosocial model explained a significantly larger amount of variance in quality of life (R(2) = 55.0%) compared with the biological-biomedical model alone (R(2) = 24.8%). When the individual domains of the biopsychosocial model were controlled for, the psychological (R(2) = 24.6%) and social (R(2) = 18.5%) domains still explained a greater amount of the variance in quality of life compared with the biological-biomedical model (R(2) = 14.3%). While seizure freedom will continue to be an important treatment goal in epilepsy, the psychological and social domains are an important consideration for both interventional programs and clinical research designed to improve quality of life in PWE. Better integration of social workers and psychologists into routine care may help address these disparities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease: improving quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barksdale H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heather Barksdale,1 Odinachi Oguh,21Department of Rehabilitation, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA Abstract: The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, to consider the effect that physical activity and exercise has on the quality of life in individuals with PD, identify types of physical activity and exercise most recently and best supported by research, and to explore ways to customize physical exercise to PD patients based on stage and severity. Through research, recommendations are made to encourage physical activity and overcome barriers that may hinder participation in physical activity and exercise across different stages of PD. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, physical activity, barriers, exercise, quality of life

  4. Reduction of physical activity in daily life and its determinants in smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Bisca, Gianna; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Zabatiero, Juliana; Proença, Mahara; Kovelis, Demétria; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In smokers without airflow obstruction, detailed, objective and controlled quantification of the level of physical inactivity in daily life has never been performed. This study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in daily life in adult smokers without airflow obstruction in comparison with matched non-smokers, and to investigate the determinants for daily physical activity in smokers. Sixty smokers (aged 50 (39-54) years) and 50 non-smokers (aged 48 (40-53) years) matched for gender, age, anthropometric characteristics, educational level, employment status and seasons of the year assessment period were cross-sectionally assessed regarding their daily physical activity with a step counter, besides assessment of lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, self-reported comorbidities carbon monoxide level, nicotine dependence and smoking habits. When compared with non-smokers, smokers walked less in daily life (7923 ± 3558 vs 9553 ± 3637 steps/day, respectively), presented worse lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Multiple regression analyses identified functional exercise capacity, Borg fatigue, self-reported motivation/physical activity behaviour and cardiac disease as significant determinants of number of steps/day in smokers (partial r(2)  = 0.10, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.05; b = 15, -997, 1207 and -2330 steps/day, respectively; overall fit of the model R(2)  = 0.38; P daily physical activity. Functional exercise capacity, extended fatigue sensation, aspects of motivation/physical activity behaviour and self-reported cardiac disease are significant determinants of physical activity in daily life in smokers. © 2014 The Authors. Respirology © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. [Rehabilitation with proper physical activities--what happens with patients' quality of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaasvaer, S; Stanghelle, J K

    1999-04-10

    During their rehabilitation stay at Beitostølen Healthsports Centre patients daily participate in varied forms of adapted physical activities, physiotherapy, and leisure and social activities. Support for mental and social problems is offered. A total of 189 patients were invited for quality of life assessment; 132 consented to participate, and 107 completed the investigation. Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Life Satisfaction Scale (LiSat) and three questions regarding self-rated physical and mental health and disability were used for assessment. For NHP total score, satisfaction with life as a whole (LiSat), and questions regarding self-rated physical/mental health and disability improvements from one month before until three months after the stay were statistically significant. Improvements were also significant for subscales regarding emotional reactions, energy, pain, sleep, sexual life, family life, hobbies/interests, leisure situation and social isolation. Although this study did not include controls, the results indicate that a rehabilitation stay with adapted physical activities improves the quality of life of the patients until at least three months after the stay. Effects are probably mediated through improvement of self-efficacy.

  6. Physical activity and quality of life of people with visual impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Češarek, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has a big impact on the quality of life of people with visual impairment. Physical activity contributes to mobility of an individual, managing everyday living skills and general ability to function normally in everyday situations. Because people with visual impairment are a heterogeneous group, the teacher for the visually impaired has to know how to measure and encourage physical activity and take into account their interests and abilities. Once the person accepts the physi...

  7. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  8. Activity and meaning-making in everyday life of people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Johannessen, Helle; Josephsson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore and understand how people with advanced cancer create meaning and handle everyday life through activity. Methods: A purposive sample of seven participants was recruited from a larger study. Data were collected through qualitative interviews and participant...... observations conducted in the participants’ home environments while they were engaged in activities to which they assigned particular value. Interpretive analysis was conducted using narrative theory and relevant literature. Results: The study shows how people in conditions of advanced cancer fashion....... “My little Mecca” was identified as a narrative reflecting the activity of life-confirming experiences and taking time out. Significance of results: The identified narratives performed and told in daily life may guide the development of palliative care services to support people with advanced cancer...

  9. The effect of Jewish religiosity of elderly Israelis on their life satisfaction, health, function and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, T; Weiner, C; Malik, L; Festinger, Y

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that make for 'successful aging'. In particular, we examined the relationship between the degree of religious or traditional observance on overall life satisfaction, health, function, and activity of an elderly population. The subjects chosen were aged from 68 to 75 and were divided into two groups: 37 percent were traditionally observant ('traditional') and 67 percent religiously observant ('religious'). Overall the sociodemographic features of both groups were similar. The results of the study did show, however, that the most significant factors in influencing the subjects' life satisfaction were religiosity and functional adequacy. Our conclusions from these findings indicate that the religious observant elderly person, who is religiously active, retains a social status that earns him respect because of this activity. This status even provides him with a source of power in his social group, as a result of which he functions more effectively and is more satisfied with life.

  10. Autonomous motivation and quality of life as predictors of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Bastos, Tânia; Probst, Michel; Seabra, André; Vilhena, Estela; Corredeira, Rui

    2018-02-08

    Being physically active is a complex behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. Several factors were identified as barriers to achieving active behaviours in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate among a number of barriers what predicts the most on physical activity (PA) in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 114 patients (28♀) with schizophrenia were included. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Autonomous and controlled motivation (Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire - 3), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version) and functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test - 6MWT) were evaluated. Multiple Regression Analysis was applied to assess the effect of these variables on Total PA per week (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short version). Autonomous motivation and domains of quality of life were positively correlated with Total PA per week. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that of all the candidate factors to predict PA, autonomous motivation and global domain of quality of life were found as significant predictors. Our findings help to understand the importance of autonomous motivation and quality of life for PA in patients with schizophrenia. Knowledge about these predictors may provide guidance to improve PA behaviour in this population.

  11. Physical activity classification meets daily life: Review on existing methodologies and open challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Mellone, Sabato; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the MEMS devices make it happen to wirelessly integrate miniature motion capturing devices with Smartphones and to use them in personal health care and physical activity monitoring in daily life. There is no ground truth, though, to measure the physical activity (PA) in daily life and because of this, there is no common validation procedure adapted by the researchers for benchmarking the performance of algorithms for PA classification. The major issue in the existing studies for PA classification is the utilization of structured protocol in a controlled setting or simulated daily environment, which limits their implementation in real life conditions where activities are unplanned and unstructured, both in occurrence and in duration. This study provides a critical review on the validation procedures used for PA classification, types of activities classified and limitations in the exiting studies to implement them in daily life settings. Only those studies are considered which classify PA based on wearable accelerometers as an objective measure. The pros and cons of existing methodologies are highlighted and future possibilities are addressed for the development of a robust PA classification system which is feasible under real life conditions.

  12. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  13. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneral, Paula A. G.; Wyse, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey…

  14. Detection of Extant Life in Extreme Environmentsby Phosphatase ActivitiesDetection of Extant Life in Extreme Environments by Measuring Phosphatase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Sato, Shuji; Naganawa, Kazuki; Itoh, Yuki; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Yukishige

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a candidate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in extreme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica soils, and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, the Pacific Ocean in 2001 and 2002, and in South Mariana hydrothermal systems, the Pacific Ocean in 2003, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline (or acid) Phosphatase activity in solid samples was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0 (or pH 6.5)) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluorometrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC and GC/MS. Significant enzymatic activities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. The ALP activity was diminished with EDTA and was recovered with addition of zinc ion. The present results showed that zinc-containing metalloenzymes are present in such environments as hydrothermal vent chimneys and Antarctica soils. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase

  15. The Impact Of Sports Activities On Quality Of Life Of Persons With A Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Dragana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation.

  16. Pandemic preparedness planning: will provisions for involuntary termination of life support invite active euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jeffrey T

    2010-01-01

    A number of influential reports on influenza pandemic preparedness include recommendations for extra-autonomous decisions to withdraw mechanical ventilation from some patients, who might still benefit from this technology, when demand for ventilators exceeds supply. An unintended implication of recommendations for nonvoluntary and involuntary termination of life support is that it make pandemic preparedness plans vulnerable to patients' claims for assisted suicide and active euthanasia. Supporters of nonvoluntary passive euthanasia need to articulate why it is both morally different and morally superior to voluntary active euthanasia if they do not wish to invite expansion of end-of-life options during health system catastrophe.

  17. Efficacy-mediated effects of spirituality and physical activity on quality of life: A path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopack James F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been established as an important determinant of quality of life, particularly among older adults. Previous research has suggested that physical activity’s influence on quality of life perceptions is mediated by changes in self-efficacy and health status. In the same vein, spirituality may be a salient quality of life determinant for many individuals. Methods In the current study, we used path analysis to test a model in which physical activity, spirituality, and social support were hypothesized to influence global quality of life in paths mediated by self-efficacy and health status. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 215 adults (male, n = 51; female, n = 164 over the age of 50 (M age = 66.55 years. Results The analysis resulted in a model that provided acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 33.10, df = 16, p  Conclusions These results support previous findings of an efficacy-mediated relationship between physical activity and quality of life, with the exception that self-efficacy in the current study was moderately associated with physical health status (.38 but not mental health status. Our results further suggest that spirituality may influence health and well-being via a similar, efficacy-mediated path, with strongest effects on mental health status. These results suggest that those who are more spiritual and physically active report greater quality of life, and the effects of these factors on quality of life may be partially mediated by perceptions of self-efficacy.

  18. Strategies to manage activities in everyday life after a pain rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallhed, Cecilia; Mårtensson, Lena

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the complexity of the pain experience, it is important to understand how persons with chronic pain manage their condition, in order to provide an indication of how occupational therapists can enable participation in meaningful everyday activities during pain rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with chronic pain reason about their use and choice of strategies to manage activities of everyday life. A qualitative approach was used to capture experiences of strategies employed to manage activities while living with chronic pain. Eight persons agreed to participate. An overall theme, 'adjusting to life with chronic pain', encompasses the underlying meaning and the relations between the categories: finding new ways to perform activities, reaching for a reasonable balance of activities and using activities to achieve other purposes. Persons with chronic pain use various strategies as means to enable performance in activities of everyday life despite living with pain, which supports the conception that occupational therapists should focus on activities and strategies rather than the pain condition during pain rehabilitation.

  19. Arm Activity During Daily Life in Individuals With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Mathur, Sunita; Romano, Julia Marie; Goldstein, Roger Samuel; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have decreased arm activity during daily life compared with healthy controls and explore the relationships between arm activity during daily life and arm functional measures in individuals with COPD. This was a prospective cross-sectional study that included 30 people with COPD and 14 healthy controls. Subjects attended a single assessment session in which measurements of arm exercise capacity, arm functional performance, self-perception of performance during activities of daily living (ADL), shoulder and elbow flexion force and biceps and triceps thickness were performed. On completion of this session, participants were issued a wrist actigraph and asked to wear the device on the dominant arm for 24 hours for 7 consecutive days. Compared with healthy controls, patients with COPD presented decreased total activity level in daily life (P = .001). When corrected for walking, the level of arm activity did not differ between individuals with COPD and healthy controls (P = .62). No correlations were found between arm activity and arm exercise capacity, arm functional performance, upper limb muscle strength, and self-perception of performance during ADL (r =-0.20 to 0.14; all P ≥ .10). Arm activity intensity in individuals with COPD did not differ from that of healthy controls when measured by a wrist actigraph. Moreover, arm activity was not associated with other clinical outcomes of arm function. Disability during ADL is multifactorial, and only limited inferences of function can be made from accelerometer data.

  20. Comfort-Supporting Nursing Activities for End-of-Life Patients in an Institutionalized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisvetrová, Helena; Vévodová, Šárka; Školoudík, David

    2017-09-04

    Comfort promotion plays a significant role in end-of-life patient care. The objective of this study was to determine the utilization rate of comfort supporting nursing activities in end-of-life patients in an institutionalized environment in the Czech Republic in relation to the age of the registered nurses (RNs), length of work experience, education level, and type of workplace. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was designed. A questionnaire with Likert scales included 31 activities of dying care and spiritual support interventions. The sample comprised 907 RNs working in 49 institutions in nine regions of the Czech Republic. The Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U post-hoc test with Bonferroni correction of significance, Spearman's correlation analysis, and logical regression model were used for statistical evaluation. The least frequently implemented activity by RNs was "Show the patient's willingness to discuss death" and the most frequent activity was "Threat to the patient's dignity and respect." The highest utilization rate of nursing activities was reported in the physical dimension, while the lowest utilization rate of nursing activities was in the social dimension set. Significant predictors for the high utilization rate of physical dimension set activities were hospice care departments, long-term care facilities (LTCFs), and the age of RNs. Hospice departments were also a predictor of high utilization rate of activities in the psychological, spiritual, and social dimension set activities. With the exception of hospice departments, RNs used activities encouraging psychological, spiritual, and social comfort for end-of-life patients less frequently than the physical dimension. RNs in hospitals and LTCFs focus insufficiently on the spiritual and psychosocial comfort of end-of-life patients. This study is of particular significance to educators who prepare the next generation of nurses. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  2. Relational Information Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Marco; Jaeger, Manfred; Frasconi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We introduce relational information gain, a refinement scoring function measuring the informativeness of newly introduced variables. The gain can be interpreted as a conditional entropy in a well-defined sense and can be efficiently approximately computed. In conjunction with simple greedy general......-to-specific search algorithms such as FOIL, it yields an efficient and competitive algorithm in terms of predictive accuracy and compactness of the learned theory. In conjunction with the decision tree learner TILDE, it offers a beneficial alternative to lookahead, achieving similar performance while significantly...

  3. The relationship between physical activity, meaning in life, and subjective vitality in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Haewon

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined the potential contribution of meaning in life to the relationship between physical activity and subjective vitality in older adults. Two-hundred and fifty community-dwelling elders completed the instruments assessing physical activity, meaning in life, and subjective vitality. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that physical activity was positively associated with both meaning in life and subjective vitality. Further, the relationship between physical activity and vitality was partially mediated by meaning in life. Although previous studies have consistently found a positive impact of physical activity on vitality, the current study suggested that it is more productive to focus not only on physical activity, but also on meaning in life, in order to vitalize elders. Further, a focus on meaning in life can be a productive way to continue to vitalize older adults who are unable to engage in regular physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cumulative Childhood Adversity, Educational Attainment, and Active Life Expectancy Among U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998–2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50–100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels. PMID:24281740

  5. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  6. Quality of life and physical activity among older adults living in institutions compared to the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesego M. Ramocha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The environment of older adults plays an important role in their well-being. It influences their quality of life and physical activity level. In South Africa, there is a dearth of literature concerning this issue.Methods: An analytic cross-sectional sample of 80 older adults living in old age homes and the community was compared in terms of level of physical activity and quality of life. The study was conducted in Soweto, Johannesburg. A computer-generated random sample of older adults aged 60 years and above participated. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE and RAND 36 questionnaires were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. Unpaired t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and chi-squared test explored the differences and associations between institutionalised and community living older adults.Results: Quality of life in old age home dwellers (M = 68.53 ± 19.55 was significantly lower (p = 0.025 than in community dwellers (M = 77.74 ± 16.25. The mean physical activity score was also significantly (p = 0.000 lower in old age home dwellers (M = 20.18 ± 24.52 compared with community dwellers (M = 190.31 ± 82.81.Conclusion: Older adults who live in the community have a higher quality of life and physical activity levels compared with those who live in institutions (old age homes.

  7. Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity: implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Burkhardt, Jürgen; Cockell, Charles S; Cray, Jonathan A; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Fox-Powell, Mark; Kee, Terence P; Kminek, Gerhard; McGenity, Terry J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Timson, David J; Voytek, Mary A; Westall, Frances; Yakimov, Michail M; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-02-01

    Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw ), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life on Earth inhabited high-salt environments, suggesting an ability to withstand low water-activity. The lower limit of water activity that enables cell division appears to be ∼ 0.605 which, until now, was only known to be exhibited by a single eukaryote, the sugar-tolerant, fungal xerophile Xeromyces bisporus. The first forms of life on Earth were, though, prokaryotic. Recent evidence now indicates that some halophilic Archaea and Bacteria have water-activity limits more or less equal to those of X. bisporus. We discuss water activity in relation to the limits of Earth's present-day biosphere; the possibility of microbial multiplication by utilizing water from thin, aqueous films or non-liquid sources; whether prokaryotes were the first organisms able to multiply close to the 0.605-aw limit; and whether extraterrestrial aqueous milieux of ≥ 0.605 aw can resemble fertile microbial habitats found on Earth. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. "Go4Life" exercise counseling, accelerometer feedback, and activity levels in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Warren G; Kuhle, Carol L; Koepp, Gabriel A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2014-01-01

    Older people are more sedentary than other age groups. We sought to determine if providing an accelerometer with feedback about activity and counseling older subjects using Go4Life educational material would increase activity levels. Participants were recruited from independent living areas within assisted living facilities and the general public in the Rochester, MN area. 49 persons aged 65-95 (79.5±7.0 years) who were ambulatory but sedentary and overweight participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial for one year. After a baseline period of 2 weeks, group 1 received an accelerometer and counseling using Go4Life educational material (www.Go4Life.nia.nih.gov) for 24 weeks and accelerometer alone for the next 24 weeks. Group 2 had no intervention for the first 24 weeks and then received an accelerometer and Go4Life based counseling for 24 weeks. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups. The intervention was not associated with a significant change in activity, body weight, % body fat, or blood parameters (p>0.05). Older (80-93) subjects were less active than younger (65-79) subjects (p=0.003). Over the course of the 48 week study, an increase in activity level was associated with a decline in % body fat (p=0.008). Increasing activity levels benefits older patients. However, providing an accelerometer and a Go4Life based exercise counseling program did not result in a 15% improvement in activity levels in this elderly population. Alternate approaches to exercise counseling may be needed in elderly people of this age range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Outdoor group activity, depression, and subjective well-being among retirees of China: The mediating role of meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of outdoor group activity on mental health and the potential mediating effect of meaning in life. Participants were 559 retired people. A self-developed questionnaire measured outdoor group activity; the Meaning in Life Scale, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessed meaning in life, subjective well-being, and depression, respectively. Results indicated outdoor group activity significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression; meaning in life fully mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and subjective well-being and partially mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and depression. The implications and limitations were also discussed.

  10. Sport activity and health-related quality of life after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, D; Cicognani, E; Mosconi, G; Totti, V; Roi, G S; Trerotola, M; Nanni Costa, A

    2014-09-01

    Considering the importance of sport activity for enhancing quality of life, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of regular sport activity on quality of life of kidney transplant recipients. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the use of the SF-36 questionnaire on a group of 118 active kidney transplant patients (AKTPs) practicing different sports at low to moderate intensity (5±4 h/wk). Scores were compared with those of 79 sedentary kidney transplant patients (SKTPs) and with 120 active healthy control subjects (AHCs). AKTPs reported higher scores than SKTPs in the SF-36 scales of Physical Functioning (P.05) on all the other scales. The effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on the General Health (Psport activity associated with higher HRQoL. The effect of sex was significant for Bodily Pain (P=.05; η2=0.02), Vitality (P=.08; η2=0.06), Social Functioning (P=.08; η2=0.05), and Mental Health (P=.05; η2=0.02), with male participants scoring higher than female participants. This study indicates that regular sport activity significantly improves different dimensions of HRQoL among kidney transplant recipients. The benefits of sport activity go beyond its impact on physical health to involve psychologic and social components of quality of life. Spontaneous and low to moderate sport activity may play an important role after kidney transplantation that has been largely underestimated in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do you want the good news or the bad news? Gain- versus loss-framed messages following health risk information: The effects on leisure time physical activity beliefs and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative effectiveness of chronic disease and psychological health risk information combined with gain- versus loss-framed leisure time physical activity (LTPA) messages for changing perceived personal risk, LTPA response efficacy (i.e., the belief that LTPA can effectively reduce risk), and LTPA intentions. A secondary purpose was to explore the relationship between message framing and cognitive processing. Baseline assessments of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and psychological health problems, LTPA response efficacy, and intentions were measured among 96 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants read population-specific information about the risk for inactivity-related disease and psychological health problems following SCI, and perceived risk was reassessed. Participants were then randomized to read LTPA response efficacy messages emphasizing the benefits of LTPA (gain framed) or the risks of inactivity (loss framed). Immediately following message exposure, cognitive processing (i.e., thought listing and message recall), LTPA response efficacy, and LTPA intentions were assessed. Changes in perceived risk were observed following exposure to health risk information. Changes in LTPA response efficacy and intentions were greater following loss-framed messages targeting psychological health compared with gain-framed messages. Greater cognitive processing was observed following loss-framed messages compared with gain-framed messages. Following exposure to psychological health risk information, loss-framed messages may be more effective than gain-framed messages for eliciting cognitive processing and changing LTPA beliefs and intentions.

  12. Disease activity in and quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, U; Gudbjornsson, B; Iversen, L

    2017-01-01

    capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60 years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early......Objective: To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Method: Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician......-assessed disease activity, and patient’s education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale...

  13. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P

    2015-09-19

    To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p academic study during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, p academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.

  14. Physical activities practicing among scholar professors: focus on their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the practice of physical activity among scholar professors focusing on their quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 121 professors at one of the campuses of a state university in the State of Paraná, using a questionnaire created by Baecke and adapted for the study. Results: The analyzed group presented a level of inadequate physical activity of 54.4%, with mean body mass of 26.20, considered overweight. Conclusion: The study indicated that professors do not practice physical activity at the level recommended by the World Health Organization; therefore, they are, for the most part, sedentary and have complaints of anxiety. It is advisable to carry out actions aimed at the health of the professors, directed to the modification in the lifestyle, with regular practice of physical activities and balanced diet, for the improvement of the quality of life.

  15. Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Mediators of Activity Involvement and Health in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz-Costa, Christina; Carr, Dawn C; McNamara, Tay K; James, Jacquelyn Boone

    2016-10-01

    The current study tests the indirect effect of activity-related physical activity, cognitive activity, social interaction, and emotional exchange on the relationship between activity involvement and health (physical and emotional) in later life. Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,442) were used to estimate a series of linear regression models. We found significant indirect effects for social interaction and benefit to others (emotional exchange) on emotional health (depressive symptoms) and indirect effects for use of body and benefit to others (physical) on physical health (frailty). The most potent indirect effect associated with emotional and physical health was experienced by those engaged in all four domains (use of body, use of mind, social interaction, and benefit to others). While effect sizes are small and results should be interpreted with caution, findings shed light on ways in which public health interventions aimed toward increasing role engagement in later life could be improved. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Investigating the function spiral in later life: Aging attitudes, physical activity, and gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R

    2017-06-01

    This study tests the Function Spiral Model, which proposes that functional decline often occurs prematurely: negative aging attitudes reduce activity engagement, which then advances functional decline via physical deconditioning. A total of 89 adults aged 61-96 ( M = 77) years completed a questionnaire assessing aging attitudes and physical activity and participated in a follow-up assessment of gait/balance and function. Results supported the process model: physical activity mediated the impact of negative aging attitudes on gait/balance, and gait/balance mediated the impact of physical activity on function. Findings highlight multiple points of intervention that could mitigate the acceleration of functional decline in later life.

  17. Daily life activity routine discovery in hemiparetic rehabilitation patients using topic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, J; Derungs, A; Schuster-Amft, C; Amft, O; Tröster, G

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring natural behavior and activity routines of hemiparetic rehabilitation patients across the day can provide valuable progress information for therapists and patients and contribute to an optimized rehabilitation process. In particular, continuous patient monitoring could add type, frequency and duration of daily life activity routines and hence complement standard clinical scores that are assessed for particular tasks only. Machine learning methods have been applied to infer activity routines from sensor data. However, supervised methods require activity annotations to build recognition models and thus require extensive patient supervision. Discovery methods, including topic models could provide patient routine information and deal with variability in activity and movement performance across patients. Topic models have been used to discover characteristic activity routine patterns of healthy individuals using activity primitives recognized from supervised sensor data. Yet, the applicability of topic models for hemiparetic rehabilitation patients and techniques to derive activity primitives without supervision needs to be addressed. We investigate, 1) whether a topic model-based activity routine discovery framework can infer activity routines of rehabilitation patients from wearable motion sensor data. 2) We compare the performance of our topic model-based activity routine discovery using rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary. We analyze the activity routine discovery in a dataset recorded with 11 hemiparetic rehabilitation patients during up to ten full recording days per individual in an ambulatory daycare rehabilitation center using wearable motion sensors attached to both wrists and the non-affected thigh. We introduce and compare rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary to process statistical and frequency acceleration features to activity words. Activity words were used for activity routine pattern discovery using topic models

  18. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Lim, Myong Cheol; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires...

  19. Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents' life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne Grete; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure act...

  20. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents’ satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure act...

  1. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  2. Rhetoric and reality of daily life in English care homes: the role of organised activities

    OpenAIRE

    Eyers, Ingrid; Arber, Sara; Luff, Rebekah; Young, Emma; Ellmers, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    In divergent ways, both government policy and care home practices influence the everyday life of older people living in English care homes. The rhetoric of choice for care home residents may be in conflict with the reality of government policy-driven service delivery. The aim of the article is to examine the role of organised activities in facilitating choice and active ageing among care home residents. Findings from a study of ten care homes in South East England exemplify the conflict betwe...

  3. Effectiveness of an online computer-tailored physical activity intervention in a real-life setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Spittaels (Heleen); I. Bourdeaudhuij, de (Ilse); J. Brug (Hans); C. Vandelanotte

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention delivered through the Internet in a real-life setting. Healthy adults (n = 526), recruited in six worksites, between 25 and 55 years of age were randomized to one of three

  4. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  5. Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan Dr; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E

    2014-01-01

    Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (aw) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can

  6. The Effects of Participating in Recreational Activities on Quality of Life and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Yener; Çankaya, Soner; Tasmektepligil, M. Yalçin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the differences and determine the relationships between the scores obtained from Minnesota job-satisfaction and quality-of-life scales applied to males' ages 18 to 40 who participate in recreational activities and those who do not. The samples of the study consisted of 282 volunteers (148 of whom participate…

  7. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  8. Educational Gymnastics: The Effectiveness of Montessori Practical Life Activities in Developing Fine Motor Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Punum; Davis, Alan; Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: A quasi-experiment was undertaken to test the effect of Montessori practical life activities on kindergarten children's fine motor development and hand dominance over an 8-month period. Participants were 50 children age 5 in 4 Montessori schools and 50 students age 5 in a kindergarten program in a high-performing suburban…

  9. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  10. Emotional Creativity and Real-Life Involvement in Different Types of Creative Leisure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Radek; Zahradnik, Martin; Kuška, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The role of emotional creativity in practicing creative leisure activities and in the preference of college majors remains unknown. This study aims to explore how emotional creativity measured by the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI; Averill, 1999) is interrelated with the real-life involvement in different types of specific creative leisure…

  11. Motivational Processes in Children's Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: School physical education (PE) not only offers and promotes health-related physical activity (PA), but also encompasses the promotion and development of health-related well-being such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Furthermore, assessing PA and HRQOL have become major issues in pediatric public health and also serve as a…

  12. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  14. HIV life cycle and potential targets for drug activity | Miller | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV life cycle and potential targets for drug activity. S Miller. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  15. Year impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on quality of life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a number of achievements as well as challenges. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 48 weeks HAART of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine on the quality of life of HIVinfected Nigerians. Materials and Method: ...

  16. Effectiveness of the "Cancer Home-Life Intervention" on everyday activities and quality of life in people with advanced cancer living at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Åse; Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen

    2016-01-01

    , and that they spend a considerable part of their time at home. Still, research on interventions to support the performance of and participation in everyday activities is only scarcely available. Therefore, the occupational therapy-based “Cancer Home-Life Intervention” consisting of tailored adaptive interventions...... by the responsible oncologist; and with a functional level 1–2 on the WHO performance scale. The primary outcome is the quality of performance of activities of daily living. Secondary outcomes are problems with prioritised everyday activities; autonomy and participation; and health-related quality of life...... applied in the participant’s home environment was developed. The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Cancer Home-Life Intervention compared to usual care on the performance of and participation in everyday activities and quality of life in people...

  17. Electromyographic pelvic floor activity: Is there impact during the female life cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Larissa Carvalho; Botelho, Simone; Marques, Joseane; Adami, Delcia B V; Alves, Fabiola K; Palma, Paulo; Riccetto, Cassio

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) electromyographic activity in different phases of the female life cycle, correlating electromyographic activity with age, Body Mass Index (BMI), parity as well as the presence and severity of urinary symptoms. A clinical, observational, transversal and controlled study was conducted in 384 women: 49 nulliparous, 103 primigravid pregnant, 92 primiparous postpartum (vaginal delivery: n = 43; cesarean section delivery: n = 49), 22 climacteric, 65 postmenopausal, and 53 women identified as being unable to perform voluntary maximum contraction. All subjects were evaluated with digital palpation and PFM surface electromyography (sEMG) and completed the questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ IU-SF) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB). Spearman's Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA were used to analyze the variables. The nulliparous women had higher PFM electromyographic activity than the other groups. The primigravid pregnant, cesarean section and vaginal delivery groups had higher electromyographic activity than the postmenopausal group. Studying PFM electromyographic activity with the factors evaluated, a negative correlation between age, parity, and the presence and severity of urinary symptoms was observed. There was no correlation between PFM electromyographic activity and BMI. Fourteen percent of women participating were not able to perform active contraction of the PFM. PFM electromyographic activity changed during the female life cycle. PFM electromyographic activity correlated inversely with age, parity, and the presence and severity of urinary symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Life events and change in leisure time physical activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Elina; Alen, Markku; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Peltonen, Juha E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Pekkarinen, Heikki

    2012-05-01

    The global epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases is closely related to changes in lifestyle, including decreasing leisure time physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major public health challenge. To respond to that challenge, it is essential to know which personal and environmental factors affect PA behaviour. Certain life events may be one contributing factor, by creating emotional distress and disrupting a person's daily routine. The aim was to examine the literature concerning the effects of life events on changes in PA. A systematic literature search was performed on studies that assessed at least one major change in life circumstances and a change in PA. To be included, studies had to assess PA at two timepoints at least (before and after the event). Diseases as life events were excluded from this review. Thirty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies examined the following life-change events: transition to university; change in employment status; marital transitions and changes in relationships; pregnancy/having a child; experiencing harassment at work, violence or disaster; and moving into an institution. The studies reviewed showed statistically significant changes in leisure PA associated with certain life events. In men and women, transition to university, having a child, remarriage and mass urban disaster decreased PA levels, while retirement increased PA. In young women, beginning work, changing work conditions, changing from being single to cohabiting, getting married, pregnancy, divorce/separation and reduced income decreased PA. In contrast, starting a new personal relationship, returning to study and harassment at work increased PA. In middle-aged women, changing work conditions, reduced income, personal achievement and death of a spouse/partner increased PA, while experiencing violence and a family member being arrested or jailed decreased PA. In older women, moving into an institution and interpersonal loss

  19. Gender, educational and ethnic differences in active life expectancy among older Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Rahul; Matchar, David B; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compute total life expectancy (TLE), active life expectancy (ALE) and inactive life expectancy among older Singaporeans by gender, education and ethnicity. Data from a longitudinal survey of older Singaporeans were used. No difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living was considered as "active." Transition probabilities across health states (active/inactive/dead) were assessed to develop multistate life tables, which estimated TLE, ALE and inactive life expectancy. At age 60 years, women, versus men, had significantly higher TLE (25.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-27.8 vs 21.6, 95% CI 20.1-23.1), but similar ALE (18.1, 95% CI 17.0-19.2 vs 18.9, 95% CI 17.7-20.2). Those with high (secondary or higher), versus low (primary or less), education had significantly higher TLE (28.5, 95% CI 25.0-32.0 vs 22.5, 95% CI 21.1-23.9) and ALE (23.5, 95% CI 21.2-25.7 vs 17.1, 95% CI 16.1-18.0) at age 60 years. Those of Chinese, versus non-Chinese, ethnicity had significantly higher ALE at age 60 years (19.4, 95% CI 18.4-20.3 vs 15.0, 95% CI 13.4-16.7). Unlike Western nations, there was no gender difference in ALE among older adults in Singapore. However, difference in ALE by education among older Singaporeans was similar to that observed in Western societies. Policies focusing specifically on improving women's health at all ages, in addition to policies that increase population education levels, are promising approaches to improving ALE. Recognizing ethnic differences in ALE will help target policies that increase ALE in multicultural societies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Adriana R; Aznar, Fábio D C; Tinós, Adriana M F G; Yamashita, Joselene M; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Sales-Peres, Silvia H C

    2014-12-01

    The impact of oral conditions on quality of life in overweight/obesity needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. This study was conducted at public schools in Brazil, on a sample of 202 adolescents, 12 years of age. For anthropometric evaluation, the body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used. In oral examinations, the Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth (DMFT), significant caries (SiC) and dental caries activity (DCA) indices were used (κ > 0.94). The Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index was applied. The sample was divided into two groups: O (overweight/obese; n = 101) and N (normal weight; n = 101). For data analysis, chi-square, odds ratio (OR), Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation tests were used (P Obesity, dental caries and quality of life were not correlated. Adolescents with normal weight presented a low perception of the impact of oral conditions on quality of life; however, it seemed to affect psychological aspects in their daily performances. Providing adolescents with nutritional assistance may prevent obesity and dental caries, and improve their quality of life. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. [Influence of physical activity on quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Eduardo Lucia; Costa, Marcelo Zanusso

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to conduct a review on the association between exercise and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A search was performed in PubMed, SciELO, SpringerLink and Sport Discus databases to identify relevant articles that addressed this association. We used the following descriptors in the English and Portuguese languages: osteoporosis, exercise, menopause, women, physical activity, quality of life/osteoporose, exercício físico, menopausa, mulheres, atividade física, qualidade de vida. Regarding quality of life and physical aspects like muscle strength and balance, with the exception of two studies, all others have reported improvement in quality of life and in physical domain of participants. Intervention with exercise has proved essential to improving the quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Activities that aim at the improvement of muscle strength and balance are essential to prevent falls, and consequently to reduce the incidence of fractures in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious...

  3. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-10-01

    Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. How voluntary is the active ageing life? A life-course study on the determinants of extending careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero-Cabib, Ignacio; Kaeser, Laure

    2016-03-01

    In Switzerland, as in many other European states, there is an increasing emphasis in public policy on promoting later retirement from the labour market. But this accelerating drive in Swiss policy-making to extend occupational activity does not mean that every worker is currently likely to retire late, nor does it imply that all those who do retire late do so voluntarily. This article uses a life-course approach, first to study the determinants of late retirement, and secondly to analyse whether the decision to postpone retirement is made voluntarily or involuntarily. Both objectives are addressed on the basis of data from the Swiss survey Vivre/Leben/Vivere. The results of logistic regression modelling indicate that, whereas self-employed and more highly educated individuals are more likely to retire late, people with access to private pension funds and workers who have benefited from periods of economic growth have a lower tendency to retire late. Regarding voluntariness, those who are more likely to opt for voluntary late retirement tend to be Swiss citizens, more highly educated, and also benefited from periods of economic expansion, while the self-employed, men and widowed individuals leaving the labour market late tend to do so involuntarily. In conclusion, the article discusses the absence of a social inequality debate in the design of active ageing policies.

  5. Learn and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  6. Gene activities that mediate increased life span of C. elegans insulin-like signaling mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Andrew V; Carr, Christopher E; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-11-15

    Genetic and RNA interference (RNAi) screens for life span regulatory genes have revealed that the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway plays a major role in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. This pathway converges on the DAF-16 transcription factor and may regulate life span by controlling the expression of a large number of genes, including free-radical detoxifying genes, stress resistance genes, and pathogen resistance genes. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes necessary for the extended life span of daf-2 mutants and identified approximately 200 gene inactivations that shorten daf-2 life span. Some of these gene inactivations dramatically shorten daf-2 mutant life span but less dramatically shorten daf-2; daf-16 mutant or wild-type life span. Molecular and behavioral markers for normal aging and for extended life span in low insulin/IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signaling were assayed to distinguish accelerated aging from general sickness and to examine age-related phenotypes. Detailed demographic analysis, molecular markers of aging, and insulin signaling mutant test strains were used to filter progeric gene inactivations for specific acceleration of aging. Highly represented in the genes that mediate life span extension in the daf-2 mutant are components of endocytotic trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes. These gene inactivations disrupt the increased expression of the DAF-16 downstream gene superoxide dismutase sod-3 in a daf-2 mutant, suggesting trafficking between the insulin-like receptor and DAF-16. The activities of these genes may normally decline during aging.

  7. Gender gaps and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, S

    1998-01-01

    Findings from studies conducted worldwide indicate that educating girls allows them to gain more control over their lives, which, in turn, means that they have fewer, healthier children. In patriarchal societies, however, this education must last 6 or 7 years to be fully beneficial. Education of girls is also among the best economic investments a country can make because it leads to increased productivity and economic growth. However, women still suffer from a gender gap that has resulted in lower literacy among women and lower school attendance and duration of schooling among girls. However, gains have been made, and the gender gap in enrollment is narrowing in some regions, such as Latin America and East Asia. The gender gap continues its stranglehold, however, in the most populous and impoverished countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Enrollment rates in secondary schools have risen faster than for primary schools worldwide, with striking gains in East Asia. In some regions, such as Latin America, the secondary school enrollment rates are actually higher for girls than for boys. Strategies to improve girls' educational participation include 1) building more schools, 2) providing "girl-friendly" facilities, 3) increasing the number of women teachers, 4) improving the quality and relevance of the curriculum, 5) promoting education among parents, 6) providing sexual health education and services to reduce pregnancy-related drop-outs, and 7) making school hours flexible to accommodate girls' schedules.

  8. Quality of life, fatigue, and activity in Australians with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ann; Caltabiano, Marie; Berlund, Lois

    2013-09-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between health-related quality of life, fatigue, and activity levels of people with anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease over a 12 month period following the introduction of an erythropoietin-stimulating agent. Using a longitudinal repeated-measure design, 28 people with chronic kidney disease completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Human Activity Profile and Fatigue Severity Scale at the commencement of an erythropoietin-stimulating agent, and then at 3, 6, and 12 months. Over a 12 month period, a significant change was found for health-related quality of life in relation to role-physical, vitality, mental health/emotional well-being, and overall mental health. However, activity levels did not significantly improve during that time. Renal nurses in dialysis units and chronic kidney disease outpatient clinics have repeated and frequent contact with people with chronic kidney disease over long periods of time, and are in an ideal position to routinely assess fatigue and activity levels and to institute timely interventions to optimize health-related quality of life and independent activity. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Physical activity history and end-of-life hospital and long-term care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantanen, Taina; Leinonen, Raija

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the early predictors of need for care in late life. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity from midlife onward was associated with hospital and long-term care in the last year of life. METHODS: We studied a decedent population of 846...... persons aged 66-98 years at death, who, on average 5.8 years prior to death, had participated in an interview about their current and earlier physical activity. Data on the use of care in the last year of life are register-based data and complete. RESULTS: Men needed on average 96 days (SD 7.0) and women...... had been consistently physically active, whereas use of long-term care did not correlate with physical activity history. Among women, the risk for long-term care was higher for those who had been sedentary (IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21) or only occasionally physically active (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1...

  10. Daily life physical activity in long-term survivors of nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waas, Marjolein; Wijnen, Mark; Hartman, Annelies; de Vries, Andrica C H; Pieters, Rob; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2013-07-01

    The risk of metabolic late effects after childhood cancer, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, can be positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle with sufficient physical activity. Nevertheless, studies on physical activity in adult survivors of childhood cancer are scarce and involve different and often nonvalidated questionnaires. We used the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH), which was developed and validated to assess daily life physical activity in the Dutch adult population. The aim of the study was to assess daily life physical activity in Dutch adult long-term nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma survivors. Sixty-seven nephroblastoma and 36 neuroblastoma survivors (median age, 30 y; range, 18 to 51 y) and 60 sociodemographically similar healthy control subjects (median age, 32 y; range, 18 to 62 y) were asked to complete the SQUASH during their regular follow-up visit. The adjusted mean physical activity score in male neuroblastoma survivors (mean, 7155; P=0.004) was significantly lower than in male controls (mean, 10,574), whereas it was not significantly lower in male nephroblastoma survivors (mean, 9122; P=0.108). Adjusted means for physical activity scores in females were not different from their controls. In conclusions, male neuroblastoma survivors were identified as performing less daily physical activity.

  11. Caffeine does not affect the rate of gain in spine bone in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, P T; Recker, R R

    1996-01-01

    The effect of nutrition and dietary caffeine consumption and physical activity on bone gain in women during the third decade of life was determined in a longitudinal, descriptive study of 145 healthy college-aged women. Estimates of caffeine and other dietary intakes were determined by repeated 7-day diet diaries. Measurements of bone mineral in the spine and total body mineral content were determined by dual-photon absorptiometry. Measures of physical activity were ascertained by physical activity monitor. The mean estimated caffeine, calcium and protein intakes for the young women students were 103 +/- 106 mg/day (mean +/- SEM), 831 +/- 334 mg/day (mean +/- SEM) and 66 +/- 16 g/day (mean +/- SEM) respectively. The median rates of bone gain were 5.9% for spine bone mineral content, 6.8% for spine bone mineral density and 12.5% for total body bone mineral. In a multiple regression analysis the significant predictors (+ or -) of the rate of gain were age (-), activity (+), calcium intake (+) and protein intake (-). Caffeine consumption was not associated with significant reduction in rates of bone gain. While calcium and protein nutrition affect bone gain in the third decade of life in women, moderate caffeine intake (one cup of coffee per day, or 103 mg) appears to be safe with respect to bone health in this age group.

  12. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Bovenkamp, van de M.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Brug, J.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  13. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents : rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  14. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: Rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C.; Brug, J.; Vet, E. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games -i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  15. Understanding weight gain at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Castelo-Branco, C; Chedraui, P; Lumsden, M A; Nappi, R E; Shah, D; Villaseca, P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the impact of the menopause transition on body weight and body composition. We conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2012) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'menopause', 'midlife', 'hormone therapy' or 'estrogen' combined with 'obesity', 'body weight' or 'body composition'. Whereas weight gain per se cannot be attributed to the menopause transition, the change in the hormonal milieu at menopause is associated with an increase in total body fat and an increase in abdominal fat. Weight excess at midlife is not only associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but also impacts adversely on health-related quality of life and sexual function. Animal and human studies indicate that this tendency towards central abdominal fat accumulation is ameliorated by estrogen therapy. Studies mostly indicate a reduction in overall fat mass with estrogen and estrogen-progestin therapy, improved insulin sensitivity and a lower rate of development of type 2 diabetes. The hormonal changes across the perimenopause substantially contribute to increased abdominal obesity which leads to additional physical and psychological morbidity. There is strong evidence that estrogen therapy may partly prevent this menopause-related change in body composition and the associated metabolic sequelae. However, further studies are required to identify the women most likely to gain metabolic benefit from menopausal hormone therapy in order to develop evidence-based clinical recommendations.

  16. A comparison of the function, activity and participation and quality of life between down syndrome children and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Kyoung; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] To compare function, activity, participation, and quality of life of Down syndrome children and typically developing children according to age. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 16 Down syndrome children and 20 children with typical development were included as subjects for this study. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Child and Youth version (CY) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a questionnaire were used to measure children's functioning, activity, and participation. To measure quality of life, KIDSCREEN 52-HRQOL questionnaire was used in this study. [Results] ICF-CY function, activity, participation, and quality of life showed statistically significant differences between Down syndrome children and typically developing children. Down syndrome children with higher functions showed higher activities and participation. Higher function, activity and participation features were correlated with better quality of life. Higher function resulted in better quality of life. [Conclusion] Function, activity, participation, quality of life, and several common factors of Down syndrome children depend on the ability of children. Function of Down syndrome children affects their activity, participation, and quality of life. Activities and participations also affect quality of life. Therefore, children's functional aspect is the foundation for quality of life.

  17. Disease activity, quality of life, and indirect costs of ulcerative colitis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Mossakowska, Małgorzata; Pilc, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) require expensive, lifelong treatment, which generates huge direct costs and has a significant impact on the quality of life, especially in the active state of the disease. To assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life, and clinical characteristics of patients with UC in Poland. Additionally, we investigated the association between activity of UC and productivity loss of patients in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Patient Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI) to assess disease activity, as well as the modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire to assess productivity loss. The quality of life was presented as utility calculated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Indirect costs were assessed with the Human Capital Approach and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros (€). Correlations were presented using the Spearman coefficient. We performed our analysis based on 202 full questionnaires collected. Mean patient age and age at disease onset were 33.14 years (standard deviation (SD): 9.90) and 26.35 years (SD: 8.89), respectively. The mean P-SCCAI score in the analysed group of patients was 8.26, and the mean utility was 0.8651. Average and median annual indirect costs per working person were €2043 and €1389 (8543 PLN and 5808 PLN), respectively, calculated using the gross domestic product, as well as €4791 and €3257 (20,026 PLN and 13,615 PLN), respectively, calculated using the gross value added. Total productivity loss was significantly correlated with the disease activity. Ulcerative colitis causes a decrease in the quality of life as well as patients' productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and with presenteeism.

  18. Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults’ participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life events, widowhood and retirement, and asked whether these major life events were associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sports participation. Methods Data from the first (1992–93) and second (1995–96) wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), a prospective cohort study among Dutch adults aged 55 and older, were used. Change in marital status and employment status between baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-report. Time spent in MVPA (min/d) and sports participation (yes/no) was calculated based on the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association of retirement and widowhood with MVPA and sports participation was assessed in separate multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Widowhood - N=136 versus 1324 stable married- was not associated with MVPA (B= 3.5 [95%CI:-57.9;64.9]) or sports participation (OR= 0.8 [95%CI:0.5;1.3]). Retired participants (N= 65) significantly increased their time spent in MVPA (B= 32.5 [95%CI:17.8;47.1]) compared to participants who continued to be employed (N= 121), but not their sports participation. Age was a significant effect modifier (B= 7.5 [90%CI:-1.1;13.8]), indicating a greater increase in MVPA in older retirees. Discussion Our results suggest that the associations found varied by the two major life events under investigation. MVPA increased after retirement, but no association with widowhood was seen. PMID:23245568

  19. Daily-life physical activity and related factors among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chien, Li-Yin; Kao, Woei-Yau; Chiang, Chi-Chen; Wang, Dao-Yeuan

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a chronic disease that patients need to live with, and a physically active lifestyle will benefit them. The objectives of the study were to detect the time spent on physical activity of different intensities in daily life among cancer patients during chemotherapy and to examine the factors influencing physical activity. A total of 91 cancer patients (mean age, 53.3 years) undergoing chemotherapy in Taiwan completed the questionnaires. The revised International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Multiple Classification Analysis were used to explore the various aspects of physical activity. With the exception of walking, the patients engaged in very few moderate or vigorous physical activities (both means, approximately 8 min/wk). Almost 40% of patients reached the recommended 150 min/week of moderate activity and/or 60 min/wk of vigorous-intensity physical activity, mainly by walking. Patients who held full-time jobs and who did not report symptoms of thirst engaged in more health-enhancing physical activities. Patients who were healthier perceived more benefits of and less barriers to exercise, and those who did not report symptoms of heart burn, chest pain, or pain in general spent more time engaging in light physical activity and less time sitting. Most patients led a sedentary life while on chemotherapy. Walking is the most frequent health-enhancing physical activity among cancer patients. Strategies to enhance cancer patients' physical activity level should include counseling patients to remain employed, offering symptom management such as pain relief, advising energy reserve skills, and providing appropriate places for exercise or walking.

  20. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with

  1. The role of midlife occupational complexity and leisure activity in late-life cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, Ross; Silverstein, Merril; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2015-03-01

    To examine whether occupational complexity of working with data or people, and cognitive or social leisure activity at midlife predicted cognition in advanced old age. We used 810 eligible participants from Longitudinal Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old, a Swedish nationally representative study of individuals aged 77+ with cognitive assessments (an abridged version of the Mini-Mental State Exam) administered in 1992 and 2002 and linked to information about their midlife occupation and leisure activities collected in 1968 and 1981. A bootstrapping technique was applied to examine the direct and interactive associations of occupational complexity and leisure activity with late-life cognition. Controlling for demographic and health-related factors from childhood, midlife, and late life, we found that greater work complexity, both with people and with data, and greater participation in cognitive or social leisure activities independently related to better late-life cognitive scores. The complexity-cognition link was moderated by leisure activity such that the cognitive benefit related to the complexity of work-especially complexity of working with people-was rendered insignificant when participation in leisure activities-especially social activities-was above average. Results are discussed in terms of using work complexity to compensate for lack of leisure activity as well as in terms of promoting leisure engagement to compensate for long-term cognitive disadvantage imposed by working in less challenging occupations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The association between physical activity and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woo-Kyoung; Song, Sihan; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eunsook; Kim, Zisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-06-30

    The quality of life for breast cancer survivors has become increasingly important because of their high survival rate and prolonged life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical activity following diagnosis and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in breast cancer survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study of breast cancer survivors. A total of 231 women aged 21-78 years who had been diagnosed with stages I to III breast cancer and had breast cancer surgery at least 6 months prior were recruited from three hospitals between September 2012 and April 2015 and were included in this study. We asked participants about their HRQOL and engagement in physical activity using structured questionnaires. We examined the association between HRQOL levels and physical activity using a generalized linear model. Breast cancer survivors in the high physical activity group (3rd tertile) were more likely to have lower scores for fatigue (p for trend = 0.001) and pain (p for trend = 0.02) and higher scores for sexual function (p for trend = 0.007) than those in the low physical activity group (1st tertile). When we stratified participants by stage, we found increasing scores for physical functioning (p for trend =0.01) and decreasing scores for fatigue (p for trend = 0.02) with increasing levels of physical activity in breast cancer survivors with stage I breast cancer. In survivors with stages II and III, we found statistically significant associations with fatigue (p for trend = 0.02) and sexual functioning (p for trend = 0.001). In conclusion, engagement in physical activity was related to better health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Our findings may warrant further prospective and intervention studies to support the benefit of physical activity in improving the quality of life and survival of Korean breast cancer survivors.

  3. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Arikan, Hülya; Coplu, Lutfi

    2015-01-01

    The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD. Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years) were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (Pdaily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (Pphysical activity in patients with COPD.

  4. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  5. Complexity in non-pharmacological caregiving activities at the end of life: an international qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Lindqvist

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In late-stage palliative cancer care, relief of distress and optimized well-being become primary treatment goals. Great strides have been made in improving and researching pharmacological treatments for symptom relief; however, little systematic knowledge exists about the range of non-pharmacological caregiving activities (NPCAs staff use in the last days of a patient's life. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Within a European Commission Seventh Framework Programme project to optimize research and clinical care in the last days of life for patients with cancer, OPCARE9, we used a free-listing technique to identify the variety of NPCAs performed in the last days of life. Palliative care staff at 16 units in nine countries listed in detail NPCAs they performed over several weeks. In total, 914 statements were analyzed in relation to (a the character of the statement and (b the recipient of the NPCA. A substantial portion of NPCAs addressed bodily care and contact with patients and family members, with refraining from bodily care also described as a purposeful caregiving activity. Several forms for communication were described; information and advice was at one end of a continuum, and communicating through nonverbal presence and bodily contact at the other. Rituals surrounding death and dying included not only spiritual/religious issues, but also more subtle existential, legal, and professional rituals. An unexpected and hitherto under-researched area of focus was on creating an aesthetic, safe, and pleasing environment, both at home and in institutional care settings. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data, we argue that palliative care in the last days of life is multifaceted, with physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential care interwoven in caregiving activities. Providing for fundamental human needs close to death appears complex and sophisticated; it is necessary to better distinguish nuances in such caregiving to acknowledge

  6. Active life expectancy for 10,000 Caucasian men and women in three communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, L G; Guralnik, J M; Foley, D J; Kohout, F J; Wetle, T T; Ostfeld, A; Katz, S

    1991-07-01

    Active life expectancies (ALEs) were calculated using increment-decrement life table techniques for 10,000 Caucasian men and women from three geographic areas. This technique is more appropriate than the single decrement model originally used, and resulting ALE was substantially greater among initially independent men and women aged 65 years: from 9.3 for men and 10.6 for women to 11.3 to 13.0 for men and 15.5 to 17.1 for women. These increases may be attributable to factors other than the change of method, however, including the change in time from 1975 to 1982 and the change from one state to three communities. The sex differences suggest that the added years of life that women have enjoyed over men are neither solely added years of vigor nor solely added years of disability, but added years with the same mix of independence/dependence that the shorter-lived males experience. The age patterns suggest that at any age the future presents a relatively constant expectation of the total duration of dependency, and concordantly, as one ages, there is a relatively uniform decrease in the proportion of active life to remaining years.

  7. The activities and quality of life of caregivers of patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Zanetti Marchi Altafim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the increase of the elderly population in our country and, simultaneously, the increasing morbidity rate of chronic-degenerative disease in general, the number of people seeking for attendance at day care centers and hospitals has also increased. Most of the time, these people are also dependent, when they return home, on the care provided by family members: the caregivers. To prevent and treat the problems caused by the stress factors among caregivers contribute to reduce or delay their hospitalization. In addition, improvement on the caregivers’ quality of life could allow them to better help the patients. In this context, this research tried to understand the reality of the lives of caregivers of chronically ill patients, and with this knowledge, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention proposal. Objective: To attenuate the stress conditions of care activities. Method: The research used interviews with caregivers; these interviews were taped and later transcribed to analyze the content of answers and elaborate the intervention plan, which, in this case, was a course. The course consisted of informative aspects on the disease and daily life activities, as well as the formative aspect on self-knowledge. A quality of life instrument named Caregiver Burden Scale was also applied. After the intervention (course, the Scale was once more applied to verify the data and check for efficacy. Results: Results show the importance of the intervention on the caregivers’ quality of life.

  8. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  10. Physical activity and quality of life: A study of a lower-limb amputee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Sarah A; McFadyen, Angus K; Rowe, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was initiated to investigate the relationship between physical activity and perceived quality of life in a lower-limb amputee population. The objective was to show which aspects of physical activity were most strongly linked to quality-of-life factors in this special patient group. The outcome measurements were two questionnaires: a section of the Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scales (TAPES) and the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQOL-Bref). The former measures activity restriction and has Athletic, Functional, and Social subscales. The latter includes Physical, Psychological, Social, and Environmental domains, and measures the individual's perception of their quality of life. The two questionnaires were sent by post to 75 male and female participants with either trans-tibial or trans-femoral amputation who were receiving prosthetic care from a Glasgow-based rehabilitation and mobility centre and who met the inclusion criteria. All participants were over 18 years of age (mean age 66 years). In total, 25 participants returned the questionnaires-a response rate of 33%. According to analysis, 8 of the 12 relationships found were statistically significant. There was a very strong correlation between scores on the social elements of each questionnaire. The correlations between scores on the functional and athletic elements of the TAPES questionnaire and scores on the social element of the WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire were less strong. Our findings support the need for greater acknowledgement by healthcare professionals involved in the care of those with amputation about the importance of the patient's social relationships with friends and family. Education about the importance of increasing and maintaining a level of physical activity conducive to health benefits should be implemented within a supportive sociable environment for the patient with lower-limb amputation.

  11. Physical Activity Program Is Helpful for Improving Quality of Life in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovic, Gordana; Stojanovich, Ljudmila; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Stanisavljevic, Natasa

    2015-11-01

    Given the crucial events in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) such as joint and muscle pain, fatigue, depression, obesity and osteoporosis, the very thought of exercising can be challenging. This prospective study included 60 patients diagnosed with SLE in stable condition. A randomly selected group of 30 women had aerobic training on a bicycle ergometer for a period of 15 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks, while the second group of 30 women performed isotonic exercises (to stretch and lengthen muscles and improve the range of motion) for 30 minutes, 3 times per week during the same period. Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Short Form 36 (SF36) questionnaire on the quality of life and Beck depression inventory (BDI) were analyzed at baseline and after 6 weeks. At baseline FSS score was 53.8 ± 5.7 and after the physical activity FSS score was 29.1 ± 7.8 (FSS ≥ 36; fatigue is present). The largest number of patients (66.7%) was in a moderate depressed state at the baseline, while after physical activities 61.7% of patients, had a mild mood disturbance. There were significant differences (p < 0.001) in values of all areas of quality of life questionnaire SF36 before and after the implementation of physical activity. The type of physical activity had no influence in FSS and BDI values. Continuous physical activity, regardless of its type, significantly improved quality of life of SLE patients. We recommend regular physical activity as an integral part of modern therapeutic approach in this patient population.

  12. Associations of Postdiagnosis Physical Activity and Change from Prediagnosis Physical Activity with Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Megan S; Kopciuk, Karen A; Courneya, Kerry S; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Wang, Qinggang; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2017-02-01

    This prospective study examined the associations between postdiagnosis physical activity and change from prediagnosis physical activity with quality of life (QoL) in prostate cancer survivors. Prostate cancer survivors (N = 830) who participated in a case-control study with invasive stage ≥II disease were followed up to 2007 to capture QoL outcomes. At baseline and three time points postdiagnosis (2000-2007), interviews/questionnaires were used to collect data on physical activity, general QoL measured by the SF-36, and other treatment/lifestyle factors. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the relation between postdiagnosis physical activity and QoL as well as the change in physical activity over the diagnostic period and QoL. Both total and recreational physical activities were positively associated with physical QoL. Furthermore, when comparing changes in physical activity levels from pre- to postdiagnosis, men who consistently met physical activity guidelines had significantly higher physical [β = 6.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.15-7.86] and mental (β = 2.32; 95% CI, 0.29-4.34) QoL scores compared with those who did not meet guidelines pre- or postdiagnosis. Furthermore, those who adopted and met guidelines had increased QoL, whereas those who relapsed experienced decreased QoL. Postdiagnosis recreational physical activity is associated with better physical QoL in prostate cancer survivors. Moreover, prostate cancer survivors who maintain or adopt physical activity after diagnosis report substantially higher QoL than men who never exercised or stopped exercising after diagnosis. Future intervention studies should focus on achieving and maintaining adherence to physical activity guidelines postdiagnosis in prostate cancer survivors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 179-87. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Disease activity in and quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, U; Gudbjornsson, B; Iversen, L

    2017-01-01

    -assessed disease activity, and patient’s education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale......). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM. Results: Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (33 ± 14 years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 ± 12 years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild...

  14. Adaptive physical activity improves mobility function and quality of life in chronic hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, Richard F; Benvenuti, Francesco; Stanhope, Steven; Macellari, Velio; Taviani, Antonia; Nesi, Barbara; Weinrich, Michael; Stuart, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an adaptive physical activity (APA) program on mobility function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic stroke patients. Twenty subjects with chronic hemiparesis completed a 2-month, combined group, class-home exercise regimen that emphasized mobility training. APA improved Berg Balance Scale scores (35 +/- 2 vs 45 +/- 2, p = 0.001), 6-minute walk distances (114 +/- 15 vs 142 +/- 7 m, p APA (p APA has the potential to improve gait, balance, and basic but not instrumental activities of daily living profiles in individuals with chronic stroke. Improved depression and SIS scores suggest APA improves stroke-specific outcomes related to QOL.

  15. STATE INSPECTION METHODOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY ACTIVITY FOCUSED ON THE LIFE CYCLE PROCESSESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniey Quiala Armenteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Environmental Regulatory Activity has on the Environmental State Inspection an instrument for control and monitoring of compliance of current legal standards regarding environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. In this research, a design methodology for effective implementation of environmental regulatory activity in Cuba directed to processes is proposed; based on the life cycle assessment and the applicable environmental management standards, including new performance indicators, which form a new tool based on scientific criterions for the Center of Environmental Inspection and Control.

  16. Prismatic louver active façades for natural illumination and thermal energy gain in high-rise and commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, A.; Volkmann, C.; Madamopoulos, N.

    2013-06-01

    High-rise and commercial buildings in urban centers present a great challenge in terms of their energy consumption. Due to maximization of rentable square footage, the preferred urban façade system over the past 50 years has been the "curtain wall", only a few inches thick and comprised of modular steel or aluminum framing and predominant glass infills. The perceived Achilles heel of these modern glass façade systems is their thermal inefficiency: They are inadequate thermal barriers and exhibit excessive solar gain. The excessive solar gain has a negative impact on lighting and cooling loads of the entire building. This negative impact will be further exacerbated with rising energy costs. However, rather than view the glass façade's uncontrolled solar gain merely as a weakness contributing to higher energy consumption, the condition could indeed be considered as related to an energy solution. These glass façades can be retrofitted to operate as a provider of daylight and energy for the rest of the building, taking advantage of the overexposure to the sun. With today's technology, the sun's abundant renewable energy can be the driving force for the energy transition of these building envelopes. Illumination, thermal energy, and electricity production can be directly supplied from the sun, and when correctly and efficiently managed, they can lead to a significantly less energy-intensive building stock. We propose a multi-purpose, prismatic, louver-based façade to perform both daylight and thermal energy harvesting with a goal of offering a better daylight environment for the occupants, and reduce the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the building. While decentralized air-conditioning units are commonly accepted as façade "plug-ins", such decentralization could be utilized with more benefits by passively managing the interior space conditions, without using any extra power. Just as living organisms respond and adapt to the environmental changes in

  17. Physical activity in daily life in physically independent elderly participating in community-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Nidia A; Probst, Vanessa S; Da Silva, Rubens A; Januário, Renata S B; Pitta, Fabio; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether participation in exercise programs specifically developed for elderly translates into a more active lifestyle. To compare the objectively measured level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) between physically independent elderly who participate or do not participate in community-based exercise programs; and to evaluate which factors are associated with the higher level of PADL in these subjects. 134 elderly participants in community-based exercise programs (PG) and 104 non-participants (NPG) had their level of PADL measured using pedometers during 7 days. 6-minute walking test (6MWT), incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT), muscle strength, flexibility and balance. The PG had higher 1-week mean daily step count than NPG (8314 [IQR 5971-10060] vs. 6250 [IQR 4346-8207] steps/day, pphysically active subjects (>8000 steps/day) in PG than in NPG (37% vs. 16%, respectively; pdaily steps count (model r(2)=0.56, pphysically independent elderly, a higher level of physical activity in daily life occurs in those who participate in community-based exercise programs, regardless of the weekday and including non-program days. Participation of elderly in community-based exercise programs should be more systematically available and encouraged due to its close link to higher activity levels and better exercise capacity.

  18. Dog ownership and physical activity in later life: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Dibben, Chris; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Sniehotta, Falko; Crombie, Iain K; McMurdo, Marion E T

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether dog ownership amongst community dwelling older adults (≥ 65 years) is associated with objectively measured physical activity (PA). We used data from the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland (PACS) which consists of 547 people aged 65 and over, resident in the community in Tayside, Scotland. The data was collected in 2009-2011. We assessed whether dog ownership is associated with objectively measured physical activity (accelerometry counts). The physical activity (PA) counts of 547 older people (mean age 79 (standard deviation (SD) 8 years, 54% female) were analysed. Linear mixed models showed that dog ownership was positively related to higher PA levels. This positive relationship remained after controlling for a large number of individual and contextual variables, including attitude towards exercise, physical activity intention and history of physical activity. Dog owners were found to be 12% more active (21,875 counts, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2810 to 40,939, pdog owners. Dog ownership is associated with physical activity in later life. Interventions to increase activity amongst older people might usefully attempt to replicate elements of the dog ownership experience. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Mutant p53 Gains Its Function via c-Myc Activation upon CDK4 Phosphorylation at Serine 249 and Consequent PIN1 Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Zeng, Shelya X; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Tianjian; Zhou, Fen; Cao, Bo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Del Sal, Giannino; Luo, Shiwen; Lu, Hua

    2017-11-23

    TP53 missense mutations significantly influence the development and progression of various human cancers via their gain of new functions (GOF) through different mechanisms. Here we report a unique mechanism underlying the GOF of p53-R249S (p53-RS), a p53 mutant frequently detected in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is highly related to hepatitis B infection and aflatoxin B1. A CDK inhibitor blocks p53-RS's nuclear translocation in HCC, whereas CDK4 interacts with p53-RS in the G1/S phase of the cells, phosphorylates it, and enhances its nuclear localization. This is coupled with binding of a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) to p53-RS, but not the p53 form with mutations of four serines/threonines previously shown to be crucial for PIN1 binding. As a result, p53-RS interacts with c-Myc and enhances c-Myc-dependent rDNA transcription key for ribosomal biogenesis. These results unveil a CDK4-PIN1-p53-RS-c-Myc pathway as a novel mechanism for the GOF of p53-RS in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A SCALE-UP Mock-Up: Comparison of Student Learning Gains in High- and Low-Tech Active-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneral, Paula A. G.; Wyse, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered learning environments with upside-down pedagogies (SCALE-UP) are widely implemented at institutions across the country, and learning gains from these classrooms have been well documented. This study investigates the specific design feature(s) of the SCALE-UP classroom most conducive to teaching and learning. Using pilot survey data from instructors and students to prioritize the most salient SCALE-UP classroom features, we created a low-tech “Mock-up” version of this classroom and tested the impact of these features on student learning, attitudes, and satisfaction using a quasi-­experimental setup. The same instructor taught two sections of an introductory biology course in the SCALE-UP and Mock-up rooms. Although students in both sections were equivalent in terms of gender, grade point average, incoming ACT, and drop/fail/withdraw rate, the Mock-up classroom enrolled significantly more freshmen. Controlling for class standing, multiple regression modeling revealed no significant differences in exam, in-class, preclass, and Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology Concept Inventory scores between the SCALE-UP and Mock-up classrooms. Thematic analysis of student comments highlighted that collaboration and whiteboards enhanced the learning experience, but technology was not important. Student satisfaction and attitudes were comparable. These results suggest that the benefits of a SCALE-UP experience can be achieved at lower cost without technology features. PMID:28213582

  1. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Caporicci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  2. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  3. Physical activity in daily life assessed by an accelerometer in kidney transplant recipients and hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, E V; Reboredo, M M; Gomes, E P; Teixeira, D R; Roberti, N C; Mendes, J O; Oliveira, J C A; Sanders-Pinheiro, H; Pinheiro, B V

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is a problem among hemodialysis (HD) patients, potentially attenuated after kidney transplantation. However, the effect of kidney transplantation on physical activity has not been thoroughly investigated. This study sought to evaluate the physical activity in daily life in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) compared with HD patients and to explore its relationship with clinical variables. A cross-sectional study enrolled KTRs who received transplants at least 6 months before the study (N = 23; 48.3 ± 10.3 years) and patients undergoing HD for at least 6 months (N = 20; 47.3 ± 12.6 years). Time spent in different activities (walking, standing, sitting, and lying down) and number of steps taken, measured by a multiaxial accelerometer used for 12 h/d on 2 consecutive days for KTRs and on 4 consecutive days for HD patients, were evaluated. KTRs engaged in more active time per day (sum of walking and standing time) than HD patients (311 ± 87 vs 196 ± 54 min/d; P = .001), with longer walking (106 ± 53 vs 70 ± 27 min/d; P = .008) and standing time (205 ± 55 vs 126 ± 42 min/d; P active (>7500 steps/d) compared with only 20% of the HD group (P active time. By using an accelerometer, a precise method, this study showed that KTRs are significantly more active in daily life than HD patients, and that daily physical activity increases with time since transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of lifestyle intervention on dietary intake, physical activity level, and gestational weight gain in pregnant women with different pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index in a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Amy Leung; Back, Lisa; Ludwig, Sora; Gardiner, Phillip; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Dean, Heather J; Sellers, Elisabeth; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Jiang, Depeng; Shen, Garry X

    2014-09-24

    The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 116 pregnant women (pregnancy) without diabetes were enrolled and 113 pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment. The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (≤24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p pregnancy BMI at 2 months after the onset of the intervention compared to the control group. The results of the present study demonstrated that the lifestyle intervention program decreased EGWG, GWG, offspring birth weight in pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake. NCT00486629.

  5. GAIN Technology Workshops Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    National and global demand for nuclear energy is increasing and United States (U.S.) global leadership is eroding. There is a sense of urgency with respect to the deployment of the innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) initiative is based on the simultaneous achievement of three strategic goals. The first is maintaining global technology leadership within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The second is enabling global industrial leadership for nuclear vendors and suppliers. The third is focused on utility optimization of nuclear energy within the clean energy portfolio. An effective public-private partnership is required to achieve these goals. DOEs recognizes the recent sense of urgency new developers and investors have in getting their concepts to market. They know that time to market for nuclear technology takes too long and the facilities needed to conduct the necessary research, development and demonstration (RD&D) activities are very expensive to develop and maintain. Early technologies, in the lower technology readiness levels (TRL) need materials testing, analysis, modeling, code development, etc., most of which currently exists in the DOE national laboratory system. However, mature technologies typically need large component testing and demonstration facilities, which are expensive and long-lead efforts. By understanding the needs of advanced nuclear technology developers, GAIN will connect DOE national laboratory capabilities (e.g., facilities, expertise, materials, and data) with industry RD&D needs. In addition, GAIN is working with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to streamline processes and increase understanding of the licensing requirements for advanced reactors.

  6. Ecological analysis of college women's physical activity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Dunn, Jacqueline; Morrow, James; Greenleaf, Christy

    2017-02-16

    Despite significant health benefits of regular physical activity, over 60 percent of college women do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines to promote their health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a comprehensive construct including physical and psychosocial health functioning. The major purpose of this study was to examine the influences of individual (e.g., self-efficacy, enjoyment), social (e.g., family and friend support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., crime safety) on college women's physical activity and HRQoL. Participants were 235 (Mean age = 21.0 years) college women from a public research university located in the southwest region of the United States. They completed validated surveys assessing their perceptions of physical activity, HRQoL, and social ecological factors during the spring semester of 2012. The findings of three multiple linear regressions, entering individual factors first, followed by social and physical environmental factors, revealed that self-efficacy and crime safety were significantly related to physical activity. For HRQoL-physical functioning, significant factors were self-efficacy, enjoyment, and crime safety. Enjoyment was the only factor related to HRQoL-psychosocial functioning. These findings indicated that physical activity professionals need to foster safe environments, enhance self-efficacy, and provide enjoyable activities to promote college women's physical activity and HRQoL.

  7. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  8. Vitamin D status and its association with quality of life, physical activity, and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkiewicz, Anna; Kisiel, Bartłomiej; Kulig, Maciej; Tłustochowicz, Witold

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may be related to disease activity. Population-based studies have shown the influence of vitamin D deficiency on quality of life (QoL), but it was not investigated in RA patients. The aim of the study was to determine possible relationship between vitamin D deficiency, QoL, physical activity (PA), and disease activity in RA. In 97 consecutive RA patients without vitamin D supplementation (86 women and 11 men, aged 59.4 ± 12 years), serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. The patients completed Short Form 36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory, and Health Assessment Questionnaire, assessed the intensity of pain, fatigue, and PA. Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints was used to assess disease activity. A comparison control group consisted of 28 osteoarthritis patients (25 women and 3 men aged 56.2 ± 15 years). Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 76.3% of RA and in 78.6% of osteoarthritis patients (P = 0.75). There was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D serum concentration and Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints in patients with active arthritis. There was a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and the level of PA and most aspects of SF-36, and negative correlation between serum 25(OH)D and Health Assessment Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory in patients with disease duration of 1 year or longer. After inclusion of PA into multivariable analysis, only the correlations between 25(OH)D and SF-36 mental subscale (MCS) and pain remained significant. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in RA patients and is associated with higher disease activity and worse QoL indices. Regular PA correlates with higher vitamin D titers and better QoL in RA. Further studies are needed to explain possible influence of vitamin D on RA activity.

  9. Factors associated with quality of life in active childhood epilepsy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2015-05-01

    Improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL), rather than just reducing seizures, should be the principal goal in comprehensive management of childhood epilepsy. There is a lack of population-based data on predictors of HRQOL in childhood epilepsy. The Children with Epilepsy in Sussex Schools (CHESS) study is a prospective, population-based study involving school-aged children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy (on one or more AED and/or had a seizure in the last year) in a defined geographical area in the UK. Eighty-five of 115 (74% of eligible population) children underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including measures of cognition, behaviour, and motor functioning. Parents of the children completed the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE).Clinical data on eligible children was extracted using a standardised pro forma. Linear regression analysis was undertaken to identify factors significantly associated with total Quality of Life in this population. Factors independently significantly associated (p QOLCE scores were seizures before 24 months, cognitive impairment (IQ QOLCE when children with IQ < 50 were excluded from analysis. The majority of factors associated with parent reported HRQOL in active childhood epilepsy are related to neurobehavioural and/or psychosocial aspects of the condition. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Results Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, pstudy during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, pstudy was associated with lower QoL (rho = -0.13, pStudy skills may be more important than duration spent studying, for academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study. PMID:26385285

  11. Arsenic-based Life: An active learning assignment for teaching scientific discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy Johnson, R

    2017-01-02

    Among recent high profile scientific debates was the proposal that life could exist with arsenic in place of phosphorous in its nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Soon after its initial publication, scientists across diverse disciplines began to question this extraordinary claim. Using the original article, its claims, its scientific support, and the ensuing counterarguments, a two-day, active learning classroom exercise was developed focusing on the presentation, evaluation, and discussion of scientific argumentation and discourse. In this culminating assignment of a first semester biochemistry course, undergraduate students analyze the scientific support from the original research articles and then present and discuss multiple scientific rebuttals in a lively, civil classroom debate. Through this assignment, students develop a sense of skepticism, especially for the original arsenic-based life claims, and learn to clearly articulate their counterarguments with scientific support and critical reasoning. With its direct integration into first-semester biochemistry curriculum and the excitement surrounding arsenic based life, this assignment provides a robust, simple, and stimulating framework for introducing scientific discourse and active learning into the undergraduate molecular science curriculum. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):40-45, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Interrupt-Based Step-Counting to Extend Battery Life in an Activity Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Young Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most activity monitors use an accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to characterize the wearer’s physical activity. The monitor measures the motion by polling an accelerometer or gyroscope sensor or both every 20–30 ms and frequent polling affects the battery life of a wearable device. One of the key features of a commercial daily-activity monitoring device is longer battery life so that the user can keep track of his or her activity for a week or so without recharging the battery of the monitoring device. Many low-power approaches for a step-counting system use either a polling-based algorithm or an interrupt-based algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses the tap interrupt of an accelerometer to count steps while consuming low power. We compared the accuracy of step counting and measured system-level power consumption to a periodic sensor-reading algorithm. Our tap interrupt approach shows a battery lifetime that is 175% longer than that of a 30 ms polling method without gyroscope. The battery lifetime can be extended up to 863% with a gyroscope by putting both the processor and the gyroscope into sleep state during the majority of operation time.

  13. Is there a common water-activity limit for the three domains of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Cray, Jonathan A; Williams, Jim P; Santos, Ricardo; Sahay, Richa; Neuenkirchen, Nils; McClure, Colin D; Grant, Irene R; Houghton, Jonathan DR; Quinn, John P; Timson, David J; Patil, Satish V; Singhal, Rekha S; Antón, Josefa; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Hocking, Ailsa D; Lievens, Bart; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Voytek, Mary A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Oren, Aharon; Timmis, Kenneth N; McGenity, Terry J; Hallsworth, John E

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and Bacteria constitute a majority of life systems on Earth but have long been considered inferior to Eukarya in terms of solute tolerance. Whereas the most halophilic prokaryotes are known for an ability to multiply at saturated NaCl (water activity (aw) 0.755) some xerophilic fungi can germinate, usually at high-sugar concentrations, at values as low as 0.650–0.605 aw. Here, we present evidence that halophilic prokayotes can grow down to water activities of Eurotium spp.). We also manipulated the balance of chaotropic and kosmotropic stressors for the extreme, xerophilic fungi Aspergillus penicilloides and X. bisporus and, via this approach, their established water-activity limits for mycelial growth (∼0.65) were reduced to 0.640. Furthermore, extrapolations indicated theoretical limits of 0.632 and 0.636 aw for A. penicilloides and X. bisporus, respectively. Collectively, these findings suggest that there is a common water-activity limit that is determined by physicochemical constraints for the three domains of life. PMID:25500507

  14. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  15. THE PRACTEAM MODEL REGARDING SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE TRANSITION. STUDENTS’ EXPECTANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca Otilia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The project “Practical training of economist’s students. Inter-regional partnership in the labor market between universities and the business environment” focuses on student’s transition from school to labor market. Concretely, it tries to highlight the general role of practical training – specifically the field related practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum, by identifying possibilities of interventions from supervisors. Starting with literature review regarding determinants of school to active life transition, the present contribution discusses the outline of the practical training set as a mandatory discipline in the curriculum. Within PRACTeam project the practical training itself is accompanied with a series of supplementary services (aptitude testing, counseling, career guidance, mentoring by a trained tutor, granting financial aid, awarding excellence over contests and internships. It represents an active partnership on the labor market meant to address directly students’ expectations regarding practical training, work, and entrepreneurship. At least two main benefits may be derived from the training and tutoring. First, as a dual type model of transition from school to active life, allowing students to become insiders in the labor market. Secondly, changes in supervisor’ patterns of interactions and behavior/attitudes toward work and employees may also occur, which in turn may improve the work. A pretest-posttest non-experimental design was applied for the PRACTeam evaluation. Using administered questionnaires and focus group method to students before and after they completed their practical stages we examined their attitudes and behavior towards elements of the dual model of transition. The paper concludes that a dual type model of transition from school to active life - that implies the education and practice occur simultaneously, successfully meets students’ expectancies and may be

  16. The effect of powered scooters on activity, participation and quality of life in elderly users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Ingvor; Hagberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Carin; Hermansson, Liselotte N

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to explore the effect of using a powered mobility device (PMD) on older peoples' activity, participation and quality of life (QoL). A pre- and post-intervention design with outcome measures for activity, participation (Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment, IPPA; World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2.0) and QoL (SF-36) were used. T-test was used to analyse the data. The magnitude of the effects was measured by Cohen's criteria for effect sizes (d). The sample consisted of 45 individuals (36 men) aged 66-88 years referred for prescription of a PMD. All were prescribed a powered scooter (PS). A statistically significant improvement with a large effect on IPPA in the ICF domains of Self-care (d = 2.47), Domestic life (d = 2.40), Interpersonal interactions and relationships (d = 2.08), and Community, social, and civic life (d = 2.36) was found. Medium-sized improvement on the WHODAS 2.0 domain of Participation and small improvements in the SF-36 domains of Physical Health and Role-Physical were also found. A PS has significant effects on the areas of activity, participation and QoL in elderly people. These findings have implications for prescriptions of a PS to this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Powered scooter interventions increased the performance of activities and increased participation in elderly people with mobility limitations. Actions from several parts of the community are required to prevent from mishaps from using powered scooters. The Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment is an adequate method to measure goal attainment in elderly users of powered scooters.

  17. REAL-LIFE ACTIVITIES: BOOSTING MY STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF HONESTY IN CREATING GENRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My students was strugled to write genre without copypasting sentences or texts from the internet. On the other hand, it was a huge challange for me to teach five big writing classes. Each class consisted of 25-30 students who tended (mostly collecting unoriginal writing works. This paper discusses the real-life activities that can be used to enhance my students’ aweareness of honesty in creating genre. My students must write some genres namely recount, descriptive (optional, spoof (optional, procedure, hortatory (optional and analytical exposition (optional text. I also took some benefits of ICT to equip the learning process. Browsing and experiencing the menu of premierskills.britishcouncil.org were the real-life activities that explore their personal memories to be told as the recount text. Then they defined the feature of one of the menu of the previous website to be informed as the descriptive text. Furthermore, they wrote their personal funny experiences which were related to the Indonesian culture as the spoof text. The procedure text can be produced by exploring the daily activities in the pictures such as how to make a cup of tea/coffee, cook a sunny side-up egg, insert sim card into mobile phone, etc. Next, my students visited the tourism and public places in Salatiga, and they observed the strength and weekness of those places as the production of hortatory or analytical exposition text. The real-life activities were able to foster my students’ awareness of honesty. It was fantastic that my students were able to create the genre honestly.

  18. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs.

  19. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saglam M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melda Saglam,1 Naciye Vardar-Yagli,1 Sema Savci,2 Deniz Inal-Ince,1 Ebru Calik Kutukcu,1 Hülya Arikan,1 Lutfi Coplu3 1Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; 2School of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Chest Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Background: The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg (n=18, and the control (PaO2 ≥60 mmHg (n=21 groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.Results: The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05. Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05.Conclusion: Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. Keywords: COPD, hypoxemia, 6-minute walk test

  20. End-of-Life Caregiver Social Support Activation: The Roles of Hospice Clinicians and Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of those with life-limiting illness face many complicated tasks, including providing direct patient care, communicating with professionals, and managing the logistical demands of daily activities. To assist with caregiving responsibilities, caregivers require social support from social network members at all points in the illness process. This study analyzes themes from interviews with 61 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to identify the types of support caregivers mobilize from new social network members for social support during the end-of-life care process. Themes indicate that caregivers receive accessible, immediate, caregiver-centered emotional support from hospice health care professionals, and situationally tailored, understandable informational support from other types of professionals. In addition, caregivers received overlapping emotional and informational support from hospice health care professionals. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers receive tailored emotional and informational support.

  1. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Built environment characteristics are closely related to transport behavior, but observed variations could be due to residents own choice of neighborhood called residential self-selection. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neighborhood walkability and residential...... self-selection across life stages in relation to active transport behavior. METHODS: The IPEN walkability index, which consists of four built environment characteristics, was used to define 16 high and low walkable neighborhoods in Aarhus, Denmark (250.000 inhabitants). Transport behavior was assessed...... and transport behavior i.e. walking, cycling and motorized transport adjusted for residential self-selection and life stages. RESULTS: A total of 642 adults aged 20-65 years completed the questionnaire. The highest rated self-selection preference across all groups was a safe and secure neighborhood followed...

  2. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of lower limb prosthesis on activity, participation, and quality of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Kersti A M; Töytäri, Outi; Salminen, Anna-Liisa; Brandt, Ase

    2012-06-01

    Effects presented on the use of assistive devices such as prosthesis are often based on laboratory findings (i.e. efficacy). To summarise and evaluate findings from studies on effectiveness of lower limb prostheses for adults in real life contexts, primarily in terms of activity, participation, and quality of life (QoL) and secondarily in terms of user satisfaction, use/non-use, and/or cost-effectiveness. Systematic review. We included controlled studies and non-controlled follow-up studies including both baseline and follow-up data. Using 14 different databases supplemented with manual searches, we searched for studies published from 1998 until June 2009. Out of an initial 818 identified publications, eight met the inclusion criteria. Four studies reported on the effectiveness of a microprocessor-controlled knee (MP-knee) compared to a non-microprocessor-controlled knee (NMP-knee). Results were inconsistent except for quality of life and use/non-use, where the authors reported an improvement with the MP-knee compared to the NMP-knee. The remaining four studies included a diversity of prosthetic intervention measures and types of endpoints. Overall, there was an inconsistency in results and study quality. This review highlights the need for high-quality research studies that reflect the effectiveness of different prosthesis interventions in terms of users' daily living and QoL. Clinical guidelines are important to every practitioner. Information on expected effectiveness from assistive devices should be well founded and contain both facts about the device quality and its contribution to users' daily lives. Thus, studies based on users' experiences from prosthetic use in everyday life activities are of great importance.

  4. Understanding determinants of nutrition, physical activity and quality of life among older adults: the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and physical activity are major determinants of health and quality of life; however, there exists little research focusing on determinants of these behaviours in older adults. This is important, since just as these behaviours vary according to subpopulation, it is likely that the determinants also vary. An understanding of the modifiable determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults to take into account the specific life-stage context is required in order to develop effective interventions to promote health and well-being and prevent chronic disease and improve quality of life. Methods The aim of this work is to identify how intrapersonal, social and environmental factors influence nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults living in urban and rural areas. This study is a cohort study of adults aged 55-65 years across urban and rural Victoria, Australia. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline in 2010 and will complete follow-up questionnaires in 2012 and 2014. Self-report questionnaires will be used to assess outcomes such as food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, anthropometry and quality of life. Explanatory variables include socioeconomic position, and measures of the three levels of influence on older adults’ nutrition and physical activity behaviours (intrapersonal, social and perceived environmental influences. Discussion Obesity and its determinant behaviours, physical inactivity and poor diet are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of the quality of life among the ageing population. There is a critical need for a better understanding of the determinants of nutrition and physical activity in this important target group. This research will provide evidence for the development of effective policies and programs to promote and support increased physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among older

  5. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  6. Engagement in Play Activities as a Means for Youth in Detention to Acquire Life Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Chi-Kwan; Siu, Andrew M H

    2016-09-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists in a community-based programme, Occupational Therapy Training Program (OTTP), use play activities to facilitate the acquisition of life skills by youth in detention. This pilot study explored the extent of engagement of male and female inmates aged 14 to 18 years old in structured play activities on topics such as interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, cultural celebrations and the transition to community. Retrospective analysis of data collected from surveys using the Engagement in OTTP Activities Questionnaire (EOAQ), completed by youth participants at the end of each group session, was used to measure the extent of occupational engagement. Worksheets and artworks produced by OTTP participants during those group sessions were also analysed. The participants reported very high engagement in OTTP. Engagement scores for male participants were higher than those for female participants, and male and female participants had higher engagement scores for different activities. Over 90% of the worksheets and artworks were found to be complete and relevant to the topic of the session. Play activities could be an appropriate way for occupational therapists to encourage youth in detention to acquire life skills. Demographic information and the actual number of participants are unknown because of how the existing data were collected. Future studies examining the potential gender-related preferences for specific topics deserve further investigation as well as research comparing the youth's engagement in OTTP interventions using play activities to other group interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Relationships between activities, participation, personal factors, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M; Post, Marcel W; Westers, Paul; van der Woude, Lucas H; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe; Slootman, Hans; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    To clarify relationships between activities, participation, mental health, and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and specify how personal factors (self-efficacy, neuroticism, appraisals) interact with these components. We hypothesized that (1) activities are related directly to participation, participation is related directly to mental health and life satisfaction, and mental health and life satisfaction are 2 interrelated outcome variables; and (2) appraisals are mediators between participation and mental health and life satisfaction, and self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and life satisfaction and indirectly through appraisals. Follow-up measurement of a multicenter prospective cohort study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with specialized SCI units. Persons (N=143) aged 18 to 65 years at the onset of SCI. Not applicable. Mental health was measured by using the Mental Health subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and life satisfaction with the sum score of "current life satisfaction" and "current life satisfaction compared with life satisfaction before SCI." Structural equation modeling showed that activities and neuroticism were related to participation and explained 49% of the variance in participation. Self-efficacy, neuroticism, and 2 appraisals were related to mental health and explained 35% of the variance in mental health. Participation, 3 appraisals, and mental health were related to life satisfaction and together explained 50% of the total variance in life satisfaction. Mental health and life satisfaction can be seen as 2 separate but interrelated outcome variables. Self-efficacy and neuroticism are related directly to mental health and indirectly to life satisfaction through the mediating role of appraisals. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  9. Adolescents and young adult cancer survivors: exercise habits, quality of life and physical activity preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, A; Gough, K; Thompson, K; Holland, L; Conyers, R

    2015-02-01

    Given the decades of survivorship for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors, it is important to promote behaviours that enhance physical and mental well-being and quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to explore the exercise programming preferences and information needs of AYA survivors and to examine the impact of a cancer diagnosis on physical activity behavior and QoL. Participants aged 15-25 years at time of diagnosis and referred to a specialist AYA cancer service between January 2008 and February 2012 were recruited. Eligible participants were mailed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographic and disease-related information, physical activity levels over time and exercise information preferences. QoL was measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life-6D (AQoL-6D). Seventy-four (response rate 52 %) participants completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 23 years with 54 % female, with prevalent diagnoses included hematological malignancy (45 %) and sarcoma (24 %). Results indicated a significant reduction in the average minutes of physical activity post diagnosis (p =healthy lifestyle behaviours would be well accepted within this population and may be essential to improve their long-term health and QoL during survivorship.

  10. Acculturation, Gender, and Active Life Expectancy in the Mexican-Origin Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marc A; Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Melvin, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the potential effects of nativity and acculturation on active life expectancy (ALE) among Mexican-origin elders. We employ 17 years of data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to calculate ALE at age 65 with and without disabilities. Native-born males and foreign-born females spend a larger fraction of their elderly years with activities of daily living (ADL) disability. Conversely, both foreign-born males and females spend a larger fraction of their remaining years with instrumental activities of daily life (IADL) disability than the native-born. In descriptive analysis, women with low acculturation report higher ADL and IADL disability. Men manifest similar patterns for IADLs. Although foreign-born elders live slightly longer lives, they do so with more years spent in a disabled state. Given the rapid aging of the Mexican-origin population, the prevention and treatment of disabilities, particularly among the foreign born, should be a major public health priority. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Impact of untreated dental caries on quality of life of preschool children: different stages and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Pordeus, Isabela A; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Marques, Leandro S; Paiva, Saul M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between untreated dental caries, considering stages and activity, and the impact on OHRQoL among preschool children and their parents/caregivers. A randomly selected sample of 451 Brazilian preschool children aged three to 5 years underwent a clinical oral examination for the assessment of dental caries using the ICDAS II criteria. Parents/caregivers were asked to answer two questionnaires: one on the OHRQoL of the children (ECOHIS) and another on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the children and families. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models. The prevalence of early childhood caries was 51.2%. The majority of teeth with caries exhibited severe decay (60.6%). Untreated severe decay, such as active lesions within visible dentin (P cavity without pulp exposure or fistula (P cavity with pulp exposure and absence of fistula (P = 0.003) and root remnant (P = 0.002), were associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Active and inactive untreated severe carious lesions were associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschoolers and their parents/caregivers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Left-handed graduate students: difficulties found and proposals presented to daily life activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Assis Amaroa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify, through the application of questionnaires, the daily difficulties of left-handed college students and to list their proposals to solve the problems found. One hundred thirty-eight left-handed students participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire composed of eight essay questions and five alternative questions which included information on laterality, school, labor and daily life activities, and on suggestions to improve their activities. It was verified that the main difficulties reported by left-handed college students on daily life, work, and school environment are opening cans, bad arrangement of objects in space, and inadequacy of school desks, respectively. Aiming to improve the performance of their activities within these three aspects, the most cited suggestions are related to improvement/availability of left-handed adapted desks and development of objects adapted to this group. The study shows data on difficulties and coherent suggestions, and the advances proposed are of easy solution and great value for such population.

  13. Active Life Expectancy and Functional Health Transition among Filipino Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe study provides a baseline information on the functional health transitionpatterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALEusing a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that femalesand urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of theirremaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transitionanalysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex,place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health,drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health andmortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show anysignificant effect.FrenchCette étude présente une base de données sur les tendances fonctionnelles deschangements d’état de santé chez les personnes âgées et analyse l’espérance devie active (EVA en utilisant une méthode de table de survie multiple. Lesrésultats de l’EVA démontrent que les femmes et les résidents urbains viventplus longtemps et passent une plus grande proportion de la fin de leur vie dansun état d’activité que leurs homologues. L’analyse des changements d’état desanté indique qu’une proportion importante d’entre eux se rétablit suite à unemaladie. L’âge, le sexe, le lieu de résidence, l’état et les habitudes de santé(auto-évaluation de la santé, consommation d’alcool et exercice ont uneinfluence importante sur l’état de santé futur et la trajectoire de mortalité bienque, et ceci est surprenant, le niveau d’éducation semble ne pas avoir d’impactimportant.

  14. 26 CFR 1.1014-5 - Gain or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gain or loss. 1.1014-5 Section 1.1014-5 Internal... TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-5 Gain or loss. (a) Sale or other disposition of a... October 9, 1969, of a term interest in property, gain or loss from a sale or other disposition of a life...

  15. The child with poor weight gain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-11

    Apr 11, 2007 ... Healthy newborn babies grow and progress almost visibly on a day- to-day basis. Indeed, the rate of weight gain and growth is never again as rapid as in the first year of life, during which the average baby will have trebled its birth weight and grown by almost half of its length at birth. The first-contact health ...

  16. Classification of late-life leisure activities among elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Leung, Kwok Fai; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa

    2011-09-01

    To develop a classification to describe leisure activities of elderly Hong Kong Chinese based on the functions fulfilled, namely: intellectual, physical, social, and recreational. A focus group comprising care-for-the-elderly professionals was invited to identify leisure activities commonly practised by elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. An independent panel of occupational therapists in the field of geriatrics and psychiatry was invited to classify the activities into physical, intellectual, social, and recreational categories based on their professional opinion in the context of local practice. The classification was then validated against the opinions of a non-depressed elderly convenience sample with relatively preserved cognition. A total of 33 types of activities were identified, of which 13 were classified as intellectual, 8 as social, 9 as recreational, and 3 as physical. The 3 types of physical activities (mind-body exercise, strenuous aerobic exercise, and stretching and toning exercise) were further divided into different subtypes. An easy-to-understand classification of late-life leisure activities among Chinese has been developed.

  17. Atividade física e qualidade de vida Physical activity and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sinnott Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se na atividade física como uma forma de restaurar a saúde dos efeitos nocivos que a rotina estressante do trabalho/estudo traz. O estudo constitui uma pesquisa transversal que objetiva analisar as associações da prática de atividades esportivas na qualidade de vida dos indivíduos. A amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, 111 funcionários e 638 estudantes da Universidade Católica de Pelotas (UCPel, totalizando 863 participantes. Foram utilizados como instrumentos o WHOQOL-breve/OMS para avaliar a qualidade de vida e questionário de atividades físicas habituais traduzido e modificado por NahasNuPAF/UFSC, 2001. Do total, 394 são do sexo masculino e 469 do sexo feminino. Destes, 313 são moderadamente ativos, 210 inativos, 207 ativos e 136 são muito ativos. Pode-se observar que, em média, quanto mais ativa a pessoa é, melhor sua qualidade de vida. Além disso, dentre as diferenças na qualidade de vida das pessoas que praticam atividades físicas comparadas com as que não praticam, não estão apenas os aspectos de saúde física, mas também aspectos psicológicos e cognitivos. Estes resultados servem de estímulo a profissionais de diferentes áreas para incentivarem e apoiarem a definição de rotinas de atividades físicas para seus pacientes.Physical activity is believed to be a form to restore the health of the harmful effects caused by a stressful work/study routine. The study comprises a transversal research which aims at analyzing the associations of the practice of sports activities in the quality of life of individuals. The sample was comprised 107 professors, 111 employees and 638 students of the Universidade Católica de Pelotas UCPEL-RS, totalizing 863 participants. WHOQOL-brief/OMS were used as a tool to evaluate quality of life as well as the Questionnaire of habitual physical activities translated and modified by Nahas - NuPAF/UFSC, 2001. Of the total, 394 are males and 469 are females. Of these, 313

  18. Kinetic energy budgets during the life cycle of intense convective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Synoptic-scale data at three- and six-hour intervals are employed to study the relationship between changing kinetic energy variables and the life cycles of two severe squall lines. The kinetic energy budgets indicate a high degree of kinetic energy generation, especially pronounced near the jet-stream level. Energy losses in the storm environment are due to the transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion; large-scale upward vertical motion carries aloft the kinetic energy generated by storm activity at lower levels. In general, the time of maximum storm intensity is also the time of maximum energy conversion and transport.

  19. MuRF2 regulates PPARγ1 activity to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and enhance weight gain induced by a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Quintana, Megan T; Sullivan, Jenyth; L Parry, Traci; J Grevengoed, Trisha; Schisler, Jonathan C; Hill, Joseph A; Yates, Cecelia C; Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel; Stansfield, William E; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Han, Yipin; Clarke, Brian A; Willis, Monte S

    2015-08-05

    In diabetes mellitus the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease is increased and represents an important independent mechanism by which heart disease is exacerbated. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy involves the enhanced activation of PPAR transcription factors, including PPARα, and to a lesser degree PPARβ and PPARγ1. How these transcription factors are regulated in the heart is largely unknown. Recent studies have described post-translational ubiquitination of PPARs as ways in which PPAR activity is inhibited in cancer. However, specific mechanisms in the heart have not previously been described. Recent studies have implicated the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase muscle ring finger-2 (MuRF2) in inhibiting the nuclear transcription factor SRF. Initial studies of MuRF2-/- hearts revealed enhanced PPAR activity, leading to the hypothesis that MuRF2 regulates PPAR activity by post-translational ubiquitination. MuRF2-/- mice were challenged with a 26-week 60% fat diet designed to simulate obesity-mediated insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mice were followed by conscious echocardiography, blood glucose, tissue triglyceride, glycogen levels, immunoblot analysis of intracellular signaling, heart and skeletal muscle morphometrics, and PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ1-regulated mRNA expression. MuRF2 protein levels increase ~20% during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by high fat diet. Compared to littermate wildtype hearts, MuRF2-/- hearts exhibit an exaggerated diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by an early onset systolic dysfunction, larger left ventricular mass, and higher heart weight. MuRF2-/- hearts had significantly increased PPARα- and PPARγ1-regulated gene expression by RT-qPCR, consistent with MuRF2's regulation of these transcription factors in vivo. Mechanistically, MuRF2 mono-ubiquitinated PPARα and PPARγ1 in vitro, consistent with its non-degradatory role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However

  20. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  1. Physical activity and diet behaviour in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: associations with quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimer Raylene A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between colorectal cancer (CRC risk and physical activity and dietary habits has been well-established, but less is known about the relationship between these behaviours and quality of life (QOL post-diagnosis. Moreover, it is unknown whether this relationship is consistent across cancer stage or treatment setting. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess current diet and physical activity behaviour in CRC survivors receiving systemic chemotherapy, and to examine potential associations between these behaviours and quality of life. A secondary purpose was to examine the association between social support, diet, and physical activity behaviour in this population. Methods Using a cross-sectional survey, 67 CRC survivors currently receiving chemotherapy in Calgary, Alberta completed the survey package. Measures included demographic and medical data, physical activity levels, diet behaviour, QOL, and social support. Results In a largely metastatic sample (63%, approximately half were meeting national dietary guidelines (58%, less were meeting national physical activity guidelines (26%, and a small number were meeting both (17%. However, only 12.3% (n = 8 reported completely sedentary behaviour, and 7 of these 8 participants were receiving metastatic treatment. Neither behaviour was significantly associated with QOL or perceived social support. Furthermore, there were no significant QOL differences between those treated with palliative intent or adjuvant therapy. Important group differences emerged between those meeting and not meeting the guidelines, and associations between QOL, age, BMI, and provisions of social support. Conclusion These findings provide insight into lifestyle behaviours of CRC survivors currently receiving systemic chemotherapy, and the differences in perceived QOL as affected by severity of disease and treatment setting. Prospective studies in a larger sample of CRC survivors on

  2. Gain Coupling VECSELs (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    consists of 14 InGaAs compressive strained quantum wells 8 nm thick surrounded by GaAsP strain compensation layers and AlGaAs pump-absorbing barriers. A...cavity with the active region (semiconductor between the DBR and air), Γp is the fraction of the quantum well within the active region, ΓR is the RPG... quantum wells with the geometric cavity. With this understanding, for a particular cavity where the overlaps and lifetimes are fixed, only two of of the

  3. Prevalence of Chronic Pain, Treatments, Perception, and Interference on Life Activities: Brazilian Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Dirce Maria Navas; de Oliveira Junior, Jose Oswaldo; da Fonseca, Paulo Renato Barreiros; Posso, Irimar de Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic pain affects between 30% and 50% of the world population. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Brazil, describe and compare differences between pain types and characteristics, and identify the types of therapies adopted and the impact of pain on daily life. Methods Cross-sectional study of a population-based survey with randomized sample from a private database. The interviews were conducted by phone. 78% of the respondents aged 18 years or more agreed to be interviewed, for a total of 723 respondents distributed throughout the country. Independent variables were demographic data, pain and treatment characteristics, and impact of pain on daily life. Comparative and associative statistical analyses were conducted to select variables for nonhierarchical logistic regression. Results Chronic pain prevalence was 39% and mean age was 41 years with predominance of females (56%). We found higher prevalence of chronic pain in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Pain treatment was not specific to gender. Dissatisfaction with chronic pain management was reported by 49% of participants. Conclusion 39% of interviewed participants reported chronic pain, with prevalence of females. Gender-associated differences were found in intensity perception and interference of pain on daily life activities. PMID:29081680

  4. Active life expectancy of Americans with diabetes: risks of heart disease, obesity, and inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2015-01-01

    Few researchers have studied whether diabetes itself is responsible for high rates of disability or mortality, or if factors associated with diabetes contribute importantly. We estimated associations of diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and physical inactivity with life expectancy (LE), the proportion of life with disability (DLE), and disability in the last year of life. Data were from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1999-2011 and 1986, African American and white women and men ages 55+, n=1,980, 17,352 person-years). Activities of daily living defined disability. Multinomial logistic Markov models estimated disability transition probabilities adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and the health factors. Microsimulation measured outcomes. White women and men exemplify results. LE was, for women: 3.5 years less with diabetes than without (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.0), 11.1 less (10.3-12.0) adding heart disease, 21.9 less with all factors (15.3-28.5), all pheart disease, 52.9% (38.9-66.8) with all factors, all pheart disease, obesity, and inactivity, risks that can be modified by health behaviors and medical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic activation of dopamine D1 and TrkB receptors mediate gain control of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Li

    Full Text Available Fear memory formation is thought to require dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and zinc release in the basolateral amygdala (BLA, as well as the induction of long term potentiation (LTP in BLA principal neurons. However, no study to date has shown any relationship between these processes in the BLA. Here, we have used in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recording from BLA principal neurons to investigate how dopamine, BDNF, and zinc release may interact to modulate the LTP induction in the BLA. LTP was induced by either theta burst stimulation (TBS protocol or spaced 5 times high frequency stimulation (5xHFS. Significantly, both TBS and 5xHFS induced LTP was fully blocked by the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. LTP induction was also blocked by the BDNF scavenger, TrkB-FC, the zinc chelator, DETC, as well as by an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, gallardin. Conversely, prior application of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, GBR12783, or the D1 receptor agonist, SKF39393, induced robust and stable LTP in response to a sub-threshold HFS protocol (2xHFS, which does not normally induce LTP. Similarly, prior activation of TrkB receptors with either a TrkB receptor agonist, or BDNF, also reduced the threshold for LTP-induction, an effect that was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, but not by zinc chelation. Intriguingly, the TrkB receptor agonist-induced reduction of LTP threshold was fully blocked by prior application of SCH23390, and the reduction of LTP threshold induced by GBR12783 was blocked by prior application of TrkB-FC. Together, our results suggest a cellular mechanism whereby the threshold for LTP induction in BLA principal neurons is critically dependent on the level of dopamine in the extracellular milieu and the synergistic activation of postsynaptic D1 and TrkB receptors. Moreover, activation of TrkB receptors appears to be dependent on concurrent release of zinc and activation of MMPs.

  6. The impact of regular physical activity on fatigue, depression and quality of life in persons with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minahan Clare L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare fatigue, depression and quality of life scores in persons with multiple sclerosis who do (Exercisers and do not (Non-exercisers regularly participate in physical activity. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 121 patients with MS (age 25–65 yr living in Queensland, Australia was conducted. Physical activity level, depression, fatigue and quality of life were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Health Status Questionnaire Short Form 36, Becks Depression Inventory and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Results 52 participants performed at least two 30-min exercise sessions·wk-1 (Exercisers and 69 did not participate in regular physical activity (Non-exercisers. Exercisers reported favourable fatigue, depression and quality of life scores when compared to Non-exercisers. Significant weak correlations were found between both leisure-time and overall reported physical activity levels and some subscales of the quality of life and fatigue questionnaires. Additionally, some quality of life subscale scores indicated that regular physical activity had a greater benefit in subjects with moderate MS. Conclusion Favourable fatigue, depression and quality of life scores were reported by persons with MS who regularly participated in physical activity, when compared to persons with MS who were classified as Non-exercisers.

  7. A prospective longitudinal study testing relationships between meaningful activities, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether change in meaningful activity over an 11-month period could help explain change in meaning in life in a sample of 174 undergraduate and graduate students. The Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as indicators of the constructs of meaningful activity, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning and purpose in life. The findings were in support of the study hypotheses and indicated that change in meaningful activity explained both change in basic psychological needs fulfillment (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness) and change in meaning in life. Further, this study reports findings consistent with results from cross-sectional studies in support of the hypothesis that change in meaningful activity may influence change in meaning in life through two pathways: a direct path of influence from meaningful activity to meaning in life and an indirect path through change in basic psychological needs fulfillment. The current study contributes to a growing literature implicating subjective evaluations of day-to-day action (or meaningful activity) as a fruitful means for exploring relationships between occupation and well-being. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy weight, visit Physical Activity for Healthy Weight . Self-monitoring You may also find it helpful to weigh yourself on a regular basis. If you see a few pounds creeping on, take the time to examine your lifestyle. With these strategies, you make it more likely that you’ll ...

  9. Turning loss into gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The exploitation of non-Hermitian quantum physics concepts in classical photonics has spawned much research activity during 2017. We conclude the year with a focus issue on parity-time symmetry and concepts with overlapping goals, in particular topological and non-reciprocal photonics.

  10. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  11. Ability to Gain Control Over One’s Own Brain Activity and its Relation to Spiritual Practice: A Multimodal Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia E. Kober

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual practice, such as prayer or meditation, is associated with focusing attention on internal states and self-awareness processes. As these cognitive control mechanisms presumably are also important for neurofeedback (NF, we investigated whether people who pray frequently (N = 20 show a higher ability of self-control over their own brain activity compared to a control group of individuals who rarely pray (N = 20. All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and one session of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 12–15 Hz based NF training. Individuals who reported a high frequency of prayer showed improved NF performance compared to individuals who reported a low frequency of prayer. The individual ability to control one’s own brain activity was related to volumetric aspects of the brain. In the low frequency of prayer group, gray matter volumes in the right insula and inferior frontal gyrus were positively associated with NF performance, supporting prior findings that more general self-control networks are involved in successful NF learning. In contrast, participants who prayed regularly showed a negative association between gray matter volume in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann’s area (BA 10 and NF performance. Due to their regular spiritual practice, they might have been more skillful in gating incoming information provided by the NF system and avoiding task-irrelevant thoughts.

  12. Effect of life skills training on physical activity patterns amongst school adolescents in Delhi: a non-randomized interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Meena, Gajendra Singh; Kishore, Jugal; Yadav, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Effect of life skills on physical activity behavior of adolescents is little explored. To assess impact of life-skills training on the level of physical activity amongst adolescents. A nonrandomized interventional study with a control group. All students studying in Class IX and XI of two schools in Delhi were included. Data was collected at baseline, 15 days and 3 months after the life-skills training. Two life-skills training sessions were conducted for each standard following collection of baseline data. There were 180 students in the intervention and 183 students in the control group. A significant increase was noted in the level of light-moderate, vigorous physical activity, and stretching and strengthening exercises (pskills-based approach helped to improve the level of physical activity amongst the school adolescents.

  13. Effect of exclusive enteral nutrition on health-related quality of life for adults with active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Wu, Rong; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yi; Gu, Lili; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2013-08-01

    Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective and safe remission induction treatment for Crohn's disease in adults. Its influence on adults' health-related quality of life remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EEN on health-related quality of life in adults with active Crohn's disease. Patients recruited were treated with a polymeric enteral feed that was taken orally in the daytime and via a self-intubated nasogastric tube at night for 4 weeks. Prospective evaluation of disease activity (Crohn's Disease Activity Index, CDAI) and health-related quality of life (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, IBDQ) were performed at enrollment and after 4 weeks of treatment. Patients' feelings about EEN were also investigated through 2 questions. Thirteen patients were treated with 4-week EEN. They had a significant improvement in total IBDQ score (P emotional status (P life significantly in adults with active Crohn's disease and was acceptable by most patients.

  14. Triggers of myocardial ischemia during daily life in patients with coronary artery disease: physical and mental activities, anger and smoking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabbay, F H; Krantz, D S; Kop, W J; Hedges, S M; Klein, J; Gottdiener, J S; Rozanski, A

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the potency of physical and mental activities and emotions (anger and anxiety) and smoking and other substance use as proximate triggers of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease during daily life...

  15. Closeout Report for the Refractory Metal Accelerated Heat Pipe Life Test Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Reid, R.; Stewart, E.; Hickman, R.; Mireles, O.

    2013-01-01

    With the selection of a gas-cooled reactor, this heat pipe accelerated life test activity was closed out and its resources redirected. The scope of this project was to establish the long-term aging effects on Mo-44.5%Re sodium heat pipes when subjected to space reactor temperature and mass fluences. To date, investigators have demonstrated heat pipe life tests of alkali metal systems up to .50,000 hours. Unfortunately, resources have not been available to examine the effect of temperature, mass fluence, or impurity level on corrosion or to conduct post-test forensic examination of heat pipes. The key objective of this effort was to establish a cost/time effective method to systematically test alkali metal heat pipes with both practical and theoretical benefits. During execution of the project, a heat pipe design was established, a majority of the laboratory test equipment systems specified, and operating and test procedures developed. Procurements for the heat pipe units and all major test components were underway at the time the stop work order was issued. An extremely important outcome was the successful fabrication of an annular wick from Mo-5%Re screen (the single, most difficult component to manufacture) using a hot isostatic pressing technique. This Technical Publication (TP) includes specifics regarding the heat pipe calorimeter water-cooling system, vendor design for the radio frequency heating system, possible alternative calorimeter designs, and progress on the vanadium equilibration technique. The methods provided in this TP and preceding project documentation would serve as a good starting point to rapidly implement an accelerated life test. Relevant test data can become available within months, not years, and destructive examination of the first life test heat pipe might begin within 6 months of test initiation. Final conclusions could be drawn in less than a quarter of the mission duration for a long-lived, fission-powered, deep space probe.

  16. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-02-22

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA's effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study's findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.

  17. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  18. Catalytic activity in individual cracking catalyst particles imaged throughout different life stages by selective staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurmans, Inge L C; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Knowles, William V; van der Beek, David; Bergwerff, Jaap A; Vogt, Eelco T C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2011-09-18

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the major conversion process used in oil refineries to produce valuable hydrocarbons from crude oil fractions. Because the demand for oil-based products is ever increasing, research has been ongoing to improve the performance of FCC catalyst particles, which are complex mixtures of zeolite and binder materials. Unfortunately, there is limited insight into the distribution and activity of individual zeolitic domains at different life stages. Here we introduce a staining method to visualize the structure of zeolite particulates and other FCC components. Brønsted acidity maps have been constructed at the single particle level from fluorescence microscopy images. By applying a statistical methodology to a s