Sample records for active length verification

  1. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)


    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  2. Evaluation of the Vocal Tract Length Normalization Based Classifiers for Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hussein


    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates classifiers based on Vocal Tract Length Normalization (VTLN in a text-dependent speaker verification (SV task with short testing utterances. This type of tasks is important in commercial applications and is not easily addressed with methods designed for long utterances such as JFA and i-Vectors. In contrast, VTLN is a speaker compensation scheme that can lead to significant improvements in speech recognition accuracy with just a few seconds of speech samples. A novel scheme to generate new classifiers is employed by incorporating the observation vector sequence compensated with VTLN. The modified sequence of feature vectors and the corresponding warping factors are used to generate classifiers whose scores are combined by a Support Vector Machine (SVM based SV system. The proposed scheme can provide an average reduction in EER equal to 14% when compared with the baseline system based on the likelihood of observation vectors.

  3. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.


    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  4. Telomerase activity and telomere length in Daphnia. (United States)

    Schumpert, Charles; Nelson, Jacob; Kim, Eunsuk; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C


    Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and juvenile stages but very little somatic cell proliferation occurs during adult and senescent stages. The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging states that telomeres serve as an internal mitotic clock and telomere length erosion leads to cellular senescence and eventual cell death. In this report, we have examined telomerase activity, processivity, and telomere length in Daphnia, an organism that grows continuously throughout its life. Similar to insects, Daphnia telomeric repeat sequence was determined to be TTAGG and telomerase products with five-nucleotide periodicity were generated in the telomerase activity assay. We investigated telomerase function and telomere lengths in two closely related ecotypes of Daphnia with divergent lifespans, short-lived D. pulex and long-lived D. pulicaria. Our results indicate that there is no age-dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity, or processivity in short-lived D. pulex. On the contrary, a significant age dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity and processivity is observed during life span in long-lived D. pulicaria. While providing the first report on characterization of Daphnia telomeres and telomerase activity, our results also indicate that mechanisms other than telomere shortening may be responsible for the strikingly short life span of D. pulex.

  5. 78 FR 6852 - Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900... a student's certification of actual attendance and verification of the student's...

  6. 77 FR 67737 - Proposed Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity: Comment Request (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity: Comment Request...: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900-0465. Type of Review... of actual attendance and verification of the student's continued enrollment in courses leading to...

  7. Telomere length and telomerase activity in the context of menopause. (United States)

    Pines, A


    Telomere length is a marker of cell aging, since shorter telomeres and a higher rate of telomere shortening with time are associated with poorer health status and survival. Various factors may determine telomere length and the function of the telomere maintenance system, including the hereditary load and several modifiable variables such as diet and lifestyle. Telomere length and telomerase activity were investigated extensively in a variety of diseases, such as malignancies (i.e. breast and colon cancer), cardiovascular disease and its related metabolic risk factors, cognitive, mental and psychiatric conditions, and many others. Some evidence points at an association between longer endogenous estrogen exposure (length of reproductive years of life) and greater telomere length and lower telomerase activity. However, there is probably no correlation in regard to menopause per se or the use of hormone therapy. Changing the nutrition and implementing healthy lifestyles may improve the telomere/telomerase parameters in postmenopausal women, but better understanding of this system is still needed.

  8. Length regulation of active biopolymers by molecular motors. (United States)

    Johann, Denis; Erlenkämper, Christoph; Kruse, Karsten


    For biopolymers like cytoskeletal actin filaments and microtubules, assembly and disassembly are inherently dissipative processes. Molecular motors can affect the rates of subunit removal at filament ends. We introduce a driven lattice-gas model to study the effects of motor-induced depolymerization on the length of active biopolymers and find that increasing motor activity sharpens unimodal steady-state length distributions. Furthermore, for sufficiently fast moving motors, the relative width of the length distribution is determined only by the attachment rate of motors. Our results show how established molecular processes can be used to robustly regulate the size of cytoskeletal structures like mitotic spindles.

  9. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera. (United States)

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková


    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual.

  10. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.


    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  11. First Exon Length Controls Active Chromatin Signatures and Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole I. Bieberstein


    Full Text Available Here, we explore the role of splicing in transcription, employing both genome-wide analysis of human ChIP-seq data and experimental manipulation of exon-intron organization in transgenic cell lines. We show that the activating histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K9ac map specifically to first exon-intron boundaries. This is surprising, because these marks help recruit general transcription factors (GTFs to promoters. In genes with long first exons, promoter-proximal levels of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac are greatly reduced; consequently, GTFs and RNA polymerase II are low at transcription start sites (TSSs and exhibit a second, promoter-distal peak from which transcription also initiates. In contrast, short first exons lead to increased H3K4me3 and H3K9ac at promoters, higher expression levels, accuracy in TSS usage, and a lower frequency of antisense transcription. Therefore, first exon length is predictive for gene activity. Finally, splicing inhibition and intron deletion reduce H3K4me3 levels and transcriptional output. Thus, gene architecture and splicing determines transcription quantity and quality as well as chromatin signatures.

  12. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.


    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  13. A solenoid-based active hydraulic engine mount: modelling, analysis, and verification


    Hosseini, Ali


    The focus of this thesis is on the design, modelling, identification, simulation, and experimental verification of a low-cost solenoid-based active hydraulic engine mount. To build an active engine mount, a commercial On-Off solenoid is modified to be used as an actuator and it is embedded inside a hydraulic engine mount. The hydraulic engine mount is modelled and tested, solenoid actuator is modelled and identified, and finally the models were integrated to obtain the analytical model of the...

  14. Single-cell telomere-length quantification couples telomere length to meristem activity and stem cell development in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    González-García, Mary-Paz; Pavelescu, Irina; Canela, Andrés; Sevillano, Xavier; Leehy, Katherine A; Nelson, Andrew D L; Ibañes, Marta; Shippen, Dorothy E; Blasco, Maria A; Caño-Delgado, Ana I


    Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein caps that protect chromosome ends assuring cell division. Single-cell telomere quantification in animals established a critical role for telomerase in stem cells, yet, in plants, telomere-length quantification has been reported only at the organ level. Here, a quantitative analysis of telomere length of single cells in Arabidopsis root apex uncovered a heterogeneous telomere-length distribution of different cell lineages showing the longest telomeres at the stem cells. The defects in meristem and stem cell renewal observed in tert mutants demonstrate that telomere lengthening by TERT sets a replicative limit in the root meristem. Conversely, the long telomeres of the columella cells and the premature stem cell differentiation plt1,2 mutants suggest that differentiation can prevent telomere erosion. Overall, our results indicate that telomere dynamics are coupled to meristem activity and continuous growth, disclosing a critical association between telomere length, stem cell function, and the extended lifespan of plants.

  15. Modelling and Verification of Web Services Business Activity Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri; Vighio, Saleem


    WS-Business Activity specification defines two coordination protocols in order to ensure a consistent agreement on the outcome of long-running distributed applications. We use the model checker Uppaal to analyse the Business Agreement with Coordination Completion protocol type. Our analyses show...

  16. One-Quarter-Car Active SuspensionModel Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyniova Katerina


    Full Text Available Suspension system influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. In the paper, energy recuperation and management in automotive suspension systems with linear electric motors that are controlled by a designed H∞ controller to generate a variable mechanical force for a car damper is presented. Vehicle shock absorbers in which forces are generated in response to feedback signals by active elements obviously offer increased design flexibility compared to the conventional suspensions with passive elements (springs and dampers. The main advantage of the proposed solution that uses a linear AC motor is the possibility to generate desired forces acting between the unsprung (wheel and sprung (one-quarter of the car body mass masses of the car, providing good insulation of the car sprung mass from the road surface roughness and load disturbances. As shown in the paper, under certain circumstances linear motors as actuators enable to transform mechanical energy of the vertical car vibrations to electrical energy, accumulate it, and use it when needed. Energy flow control enables to reduce or even eliminate the demands on the external power source. In particular, the paper is focused on experiments with active shock absorber that has been taken on the designed test bed and the way we developed an appropriate input signal for the test bed that as real road disturbance acts upon the vibration absorber and the obtained results are evaluated at the end. Another important point the active suspension design should satisfy is energy supply control that is made via standard controller modification, and which allows changing amount of energy required by the system. Functionality of the designed controller modification was verified taking various experiments on the experiment stand as mentioned in the paper.

  17. Locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster selected for different wing lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noach, EJK; De Jong, G; Scharloo, W


    Locomotor activity and its plasticity were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for Long and for Short wings at two different temperatures. Flies were tested in a locometer at two different Activity temperatures. Locomotor activity, a physiological character, showed phenotypic plas

  18. CHANG'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer: ground verification test (United States)

    Guo, Dongya; Peng, Wenxi; Cui, XingZhu; Wang, Huanyu

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang’E-3 rover Yutu, with which the major elemental composition of lunar soils and rocks can be measured on site. In order to assess the instrument performance and the accuracy of determination, ground verification test was carried out with two blind samples(basaltic rock, powder). Details of the experiments and data analysis method are discussed. The results show that the accuracy of quantitative analysis for major elements(Mg,Al,Si,K,Ca,Ti,Fe) is better than 15%.

  19. Evaluation of micro-parallel liquid chromatography as a method for HTS-coupled actives verification. (United States)

    Simeonov, Anton; Yasgar, Adam; Klumpp, Carleen; Zheng, Wei; Shafqat, Naeem; Oppermann, Udo; Austin, Christopher P; Inglese, James


    The identification of biologically active compounds from high-throughput screening (HTS) can involve considerable postscreening analysis to verify the nature of the sample activity. In this study we evaluated the performance of micro-parallel liquid chromatography (microPLC) as a separation-based enzyme assay platform for follow-up of compound activities found in quantitative HTS of two different targets, a hydrolase and an oxidoreductase. In an effort to couple secondary analysis to primary screening we explored the application of microPLC immediately after a primary screen. In microPLC, up to 24 samples can be loaded and analyzed simultaneously via high-performance liquid chromatography within a specially designed cartridge. In a proof-of-concept experiment for screen-coupled actives verification, we identified, selected, and consolidated the contents of "active" wells from a 1,536-well format HTS experiment into a 384-well plate and subsequently analyzed these samples by a 24-channel microPLC system. The method utilized 0.6% of the original 6-microl 1,536-well assay for the analysis. The analysis revealed several non-biological-based "positive" samples. The main examples included "false" enzyme activators resulting from an increase in well fluorescence due to fluorescent compound or impurity. The microPLC analysis also provided a verification of the activity of two activators of glucocerebrosidase. We discuss the benefits of microPLC and its limitations from the standpoint of ease of use and integration into a seamless postscreen workflow.

  20. Feasibility of proton-activated implantable markers for proton range verification using PET. (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Titt, Uwe; Paganetti, Harald; Kerr, Matthew; Mawlawi, Osama


    Proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) currently relies on proton activation of tissue, the products of which decay with a short half-life and necessitate an on-site PET scanner. Tissue activation is, however, negligible near the distal dose fall-off region of the proton beam range due to their high interaction energy thresholds. Therefore Monte Carlo simulation is often supplemented for comparison with measurement; however, this also may be associated with systematic and statistical uncertainties. Therefore, we sought to test the feasibility of using long-lived proton-activated external materials that are inserted or infused into the target volume for more accurate proton beam range verification that could be performed at an off-site PET scanner. We irradiated samples of ≥98% (18)O-enriched water, natural Cu foils, and >97% (68)Zn-enriched foils as candidate materials, along with samples of tissue-equivalent materials including (16)O water, heptane (C7H16), and polycarbonate (C16H14O3)n, at four depths (ranging from 100% to 3% of center of modulation (COM) dose) along the distal fall-off of a modulated 160 MeV proton beam. Samples were irradiated either directly or after being embedded in Plastic Water® or balsa wood. We then measured the activity of the samples using PET imaging for 20 or 30 min after various delay times. Measured activities of candidate materials were up to 100 times greater than those of the tissue-equivalent materials at the four distal dose fall-off depths. The differences between candidate materials and tissue-equivalent materials became more apparent after longer delays between irradiation and PET imaging, due to the longer half-lives of the candidate materials. Furthermore, the activation of the candidate materials closely mimicked the distal dose fall-off with offsets of 1 to 2 mm. Also, signals from the foils were clearly visible compared to the background from the activated Plastic Water

  1. Length adaptation of smooth muscle contractile filaments in response to sustained activation. (United States)

    Stålhand, Jonas; Holzapfel, Gerhard A


    Airway and bladder smooth muscles are known to undergo length adaptation under sustained contraction. This adaptation process entails a remodelling of the intracellular actin and myosin filaments which shifts the peak of the active force-length curve towards the current length. Smooth muscles are therefore able to generate the maximum force over a wide range of lengths. In contrast, length adaptation of vascular smooth muscle has attracted very little attention and only a handful of studies have been reported. Although their results are conflicting on the existence of a length adaptation process in vascular smooth muscle, it seems that, at least, peripheral arteries and arterioles undergo such adaptation. This is of interest since peripheral vessels are responsible for pressure regulation, and a length adaptation will affect the function of the cardiovascular system. It has, e.g., been suggested that the inward remodelling of resistance vessels associated with hypertension disorders may be related to smooth muscle adaptation. In this study we develop a continuum mechanical model for vascular smooth muscle length adaptation by assuming that the muscle cells remodel the actomyosin network such that the peak of the active stress-stretch curve is shifted towards the operating point. The model is specialised to hamster cheek pouch arterioles and the simulated response to stepwise length changes under contraction. The results show that the model is able to recover the salient features of length adaptation reported in the literature.

  2. The effect of muscle length on force depression after active shortening in soleus muscle of mice. (United States)

    Van Noten, Pieter; Van Leemputte, Marc


    Isometric muscle force after active shortening is reduced [force depression (FD)]. The mechanism is incompletely understood but work delivered during shortening has been suggested to be the main determinant of FD. However, whether muscle length affects the sensitivity of FD to work is unknown, although this information might add to the understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of this study is to investigate the length dependence of the FD/work ratio (Q). Therefore, isometric force production (ISO) of 10 incubated mouse soleus muscles was compared to isometric force after 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mm shortening (IAS) at different end lengths ranging from L(0) - 3 to L(0) + 1.8 mm in steps of 0.6 mm. FD was calculated as the force difference between an ISO and IAS contraction at the same activation time (6 s) and end length. We confirm the strong relation between FD and work at L(0) (R² = 0.92) and found that FD is length dependent with a maximum of 8.8 ± 0.3% at L(0) + 1.2 mm for 0.6 mm shortening amplitude. Q was only constant for short muscle lengths (muscle length. The observed length dependence of Q indicates that FD is not only determined by work produced during shortening but also by a length-dependent factor, possibly actin compliance, which should be incorporated in any mechanism explaining FD.

  3. Active Mirror Predictive and Requirements Verification Software (AMP-ReVS) (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.


    This software is designed to predict large active mirror performance at various stages in the fabrication lifecycle of the mirror. It was developed for 1-meter class powered mirrors for astronomical purposes, but is extensible to other geometries. The package accepts finite element model (FEM) inputs and laboratory measured data for large optical-quality mirrors with active figure control. It computes phenomenological contributions to the surface figure error using several built-in optimization techniques. These phenomena include stresses induced in the mirror by the manufacturing process and the support structure, the test procedure, high spatial frequency errors introduced by the polishing process, and other process-dependent deleterious effects due to light-weighting of the mirror. Then, depending on the maturity of the mirror, it either predicts the best surface figure error that the mirror will attain, or it verifies that the requirements for the error sources have been met once the best surface figure error has been measured. The unique feature of this software is that it ties together physical phenomenology with wavefront sensing and control techniques and various optimization methods including convex optimization, Kalman filtering, and quadratic programming to both generate predictive models and to do requirements verification. This software combines three distinct disciplines: wavefront control, predictive models based on FEM, and requirements verification using measured data in a robust, reusable code that is applicable to any large optics for ground and space telescopes. The software also includes state-of-the-art wavefront control algorithms that allow closed-loop performance to be computed. It allows for quantitative trade studies to be performed for optical systems engineering, including computing the best surface figure error under various testing and operating conditions. After the mirror manufacturing process and testing have been completed, the

  4. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity. (United States)

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi


    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  5. Lack of correlation between telomere length and telomerase activity and expression in leukemic cells. (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Wysoki, Jacek; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Pernak, Monika; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Nowak, Jerzy


    The expression of three components of telomerase complex (hTR, hTERT, TP1) along with telomerase activity and telomere length in leukemic cells was investigated. Cells were isolated from peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of children with acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and non-lymphoblastic (ANLL) leukemia. Expression of three components of telomerase as well as telomerase activity was found in all leukemic cells. Chemiluminescent detection of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) from DNA isolated from ALL cells showed variable patterns expressing considerable heterogeneity of telomere length. The ALL cells appeared to have both long and short telomere lengths, in contrast to normal peripheral lymphocytes, which produced limited pattern of TRF. The ANLL cells produced predominantly short telomere pattern despite high telomerase activity and expression. It can be concluded that high telomerase activity and expression in leukemic cells is not always correlated with long telomeres (TRF pattern).

  6. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Kerr, Matthew D.; Amos, Richard A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Marom, Edith M.; Truong, Mylene T.; Palacio, Diana M.; Betancourt, Sonia L.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; DeGroot, Patricia M.; Carter, Brett W.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Sabloff, Bradley S.; Benveniste, Marcelo F.; Godoy, Myrna C.; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R.


    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials (18O, Cu, and 68Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm-3) and beef (~1.0 g cm-3) were embedded with Cu or 68Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm3). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils’ PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  7. Active tension adaptation at a shortened arterial muscle length: inhibition by cytochalasin-D. (United States)

    Bednarek, Melissa L; Speich, John E; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H


    Unlike the static length-tension curve of striated muscle, airway and urinary bladder smooth muscles display a dynamic length-tension curve. Much less is known about the plasticity of the length-tension curve of vascular smooth muscle. The present study demonstrates that there were significant increases of ∼15% in the phasic phase and ∼10% in the tonic phase of a third KCl-induced contraction of a rabbit femoral artery ring relative to the first contraction after a 20% decrease in length from an optimal muscle length (L(0)) to 0.8-fold L(0). Typically, three repeated contractions were necessary for full length adaptation to occur. The tonic phase of a third KCl-induced contraction was increased by ∼50% after the release of tissues from 1.25-fold to 0.75-fold L(o). The mechanism for this phenomenon did not appear to lie in thick filament regulation because there was no increase in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation to support the increase in tension nor was length adaptation abolished when Ca(2+) entry was limited by nifedipine and when Rho kinase (ROCK) was blocked by H-1152. However, length adaptation of both the phasic and tonic phases was abolished when actin polymerization was inhibited through blockade of the plus end of actin by cytochalasin-D. Interestingly, inhibition of actin polymerization when G-actin monomers were sequestered by latrunculin-B increased the phasic phase and had no effect on the tonic phase of contraction during length adaptation. These data suggest that for a given level of cytosolic free Ca(2+), active tension in the femoral artery can be sensitized not only by regulation of MLC phosphatase via ROCK and protein kinase C, as has been reported by others, but also by a nonmyosin regulatory mechanism involving actin polymerization. Dysregulation of this form of active tension modulation may provide insight into alterations of large artery stiffness in hypertension.

  8. SU-E-J-141: Activity-Equivalent Path Length Approach for the 3D PET-Based Dose Reconstruction in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attili, A; Vignati, A; Giordanengo, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Kraan, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dalmasso, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Battistoni, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Milano, Milano (Italy)


    Purpose: Ion beam therapy is sensitive to uncertainties from treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of induced positron emitter distributions is a practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of ion beam treatments. Treatment verification is usually done by comparing measured activity distributions with reference distributions, evaluated in nominal conditions. Although such comparisons give valuable information on treatment quality, a proper clinical evaluation of the treatment ultimately relies on the knowledge of the actual delivered dose. Analytical deconvolution methods relating activity and dose have been studied in this context, but were not clinically applied. In this work we present a feasibility study of an alternative approach for dose reconstruction from activity data, which is based on relating variations in accumulated activity to tissue density variations. Methods: First, reference distributions of dose and activity were calculated from the treatment plan and CT data. Then, the actual measured activity data were cumulatively matched with the reference activity distributions to obtain a set of activity-equivalent path lengths (AEPLs) along the rays of the pencil beams. Finally, these AEPLs were used to deform the original dose distribution, yielding the actual delivered dose. The method was tested by simulating a proton therapy treatment plan delivering 2 Gy on a homogeneous water phantom (the reference), which was compared with the same plan delivered on a phantom containing inhomogeneities. Activity and dose distributions were were calculated by means of the FLUKA Monte Carlo toolkit. Results: The main features of the observed dose distribution in the inhomogeneous situation were reproduced using the AEPL approach. Variations in particle range were reproduced and the positions, where these deviations originated, were properly identified. Conclusions: For a simple inhomogeneous phantom the 3D dose reconstruction from PET-activity

  9. Verification of relationships between anthropometric variables among ureteral stents recipients and ureteric lengths: a challenge for Vitruvian-da Vinci theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acelam PA


    Full Text Available Philip A Acelam Walden University, College of Health Sciences, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: To determine and verify how anthropometric variables correlate to ureteric lengths and how well statistical models approximate the actual ureteric lengths. Materials and methods: In this work, 129 charts of endourological patients (71 females and 58 males were studied retrospectively. Data were gathered from various research centers from North and South America. Continuous data were studied using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric variables (age, body surface area, body weight, obesity, and stature were utilized as predictors of ureteric lengths. Linear regressions and correlations were used for studying relationships between the predictors and the outcome variables (ureteric lengths; P-value was set at 0.05. To assess how well statistical models were capable of predicting the actual ureteric lengths, percentages (or ratios of matched to mismatched results were employed. Results: The results of the study show that anthropometric variables do not correlate well to ureteric lengths. Statistical models can partially estimate ureteric lengths. Out of the five anthropometric variables studied, three of them: body frame, stature, and weight, each with a P<0.0001, were significant. Two of the variables: age (R2=0.01; P=0.20 and obesity (R2=0.03; P=0.06, were found to be poor estimators of ureteric lengths. None of the predictors reached the expected (match:above:below ratio of 1:0:0 to qualify as reliable predictors of ureteric lengths. Conclusion: There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that anthropometric variables can reliably predict ureteric lengths. These variables appear to lack adequate specificity as they failed to reach the expected (match:above:below ratio of 1:0:0. Consequently, selections of ureteral stents continue to remain a challenge. However, height (R2=0.68 with the (match:above:below ratio of 3:3:4 appears suited for use as

  10. Experimental verification of the effect of cable length on voltage distribution in stator winding of an induction motor under surge condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyegoke, B.S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics


    This paper presents the results of surge distribution tests performed on a stator of a 6 kV induction motor. The primary aim of these tests was to determine the wave propagation properties of the machine winding fed via cables of different lengths. Considering the measured resorts, conclusions are derived regarding the effect of cable length on the surge distribution within the stator winding of an ac motor. (orig.) 15 refs.

  11. Amplification of Frequency-Modulated Similariton Pulses in Length-Inhomogeneous Active Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zolotovskii


    Full Text Available The possibility of an effective gain of the self-similar frequency-modulated (FM wave packets is studied in the length-inhomogeneous active fibers. The dynamics of parabolic pulses with the constant chirp has been considered. The optimal profile for the change of the group-velocity dispersion corresponding to the optimal similariton pulse amplification has been obtained. It is shown that the use of FM pulses in the active (gain and length-inhomogeneous optical fibers with the normal group-velocity dispersion can provide subpicosecond optical pulse amplification up to the energies higher than 1 nJ.

  12. Applied and engineering versions of the theory of elastoplastic processes of active complex loading part 2: Identification and verification (United States)

    Peleshko, V. A.


    The deviator constitutive relation of the proposed theory of plasticity has a three-term form (the stress, stress rate, and strain rate vectors formed from the deviators are collinear) and, in the specialized (applied) version, in addition to the simple loading function, contains four dimensionless constants of the material determined from experiments along a two-link strain trajectory with an orthogonal break. The proposed simple mechanism is used to calculate the constants of themodel for four metallic materials that significantly differ in the composition and in the mechanical properties; the obtained constants do not deviate much from their average values (over the four materials). The latter are taken as universal constants in the engineering version of the model, which thus requires only one basic experiment, i. e., a simple loading test. If the material exhibits the strengthening property in cyclic circular deformation, then the model contains an additional constant determined from the experiment along a strain trajectory of this type. (In the engineering version of the model, the cyclic strengthening effect is not taken into account, which imposes a certain upper bound on the difference between the length of the strain trajectory arc and the module of the strain vector.) We present the results of model verification using the experimental data available in the literature about the combined loading along two- and multi-link strain trajectories with various lengths of links and angles of breaks, with plane curvilinear segments of various constant and variable curvature, and with three-dimensional helical segments of various curvature and twist. (All in all, we use more than 80 strain programs; the materials are low- andmedium-carbon steels, brass, and stainless steel.) These results prove that the model can be used to describe the process of arbitrary active (in the sense of nonnegative capacity of the shear) combine loading and final unloading of originally

  13. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  14. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren


    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JeongSuk, J.; Kim, G.


    We propose an active handwritten Hangul segmentation method. A manageable structure based on Run-length code is defined in order to apply to preprocessing and segmentation. Also three fundamental candidate estimation functions are in- troduced to detect the clues on touching points, and the classifi

  16. Effects of physical activity in telomere length: Systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Mundstock, Eduardo; Zatti, Helen; Louzada, Fernanda Mattos; Oliveira, Suelen Goecks; Guma, Fátima T C R; Paris, Mariana Migliorini; Rueda, Angélica Barba; Machado, Denise Greff; Stein, Renato T; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sarria, Edgar E; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Mattiello, Rita


    The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of exercise on telomeres length. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Scopus, LILACS, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from inception to August 2014. All articles that assessed the effects of exercise in telomere length were included in this review. The search strategy used the following combinations of terms: telomere AND "motor activity" OR exercise OR "physical activity". Two reviewers, working independently, screened all titles and abstracts to identify studies that could meet inclusion criteria. Whenever possible, and if appropriate, we performed a random-effect meta-analysis of study outcomes. Thirty-seven original studies were included in this systematic review, including 41,230 participants. Twenty articles did not find statistically significant association, whereas 15 described a positive association. Two papers found an inverted "U" correlation. There is a tendency toward demonstrating an effect of exercise on telomere length. Few prospective studies were found, many studies did not reach statistical significance and there was an important methodological diversity. For this reason, a possible significant association between physical activity and telomere length remains an open question.

  17. A Method Based on Active Appearance Model and Gradient Orientation Pyramid of Face Verification as People Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Xiang Du


    Full Text Available Face verification in the presence of age progression is an important problem that has not been widely addressed. In this paper, we propose to use the active appearance model (AAM and gradient orientation pyramid (GOP feature representation for this problem. First, we use the AAM on the dataset and generate the AAM images; we then get the representation of gradient orientation on a hierarchical model, which is the appearance of GOP. When combined with a support vector machine (SVM, experimental results show that our approach has excellent performance on two public domain face aging datasets: FGNET and MORPH. Second, we compare the performance of the proposed methods with a number of related face verification methods; the results show that the new approach is more robust and performs better.

  18. Length and activity of the root apical meristem revealed in vivo by infrared imaging. (United States)

    Bizet, François; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice


    Understanding how cell division and cell elongation influence organ growth and development is a long-standing issue in plant biology. In plant roots, most of the cell divisions occur in a short and specialized region, the root apical meristem (RAM). Although RAM activity has been suggested to be of high importance to understand how roots grow and how the cell cycle is regulated, few experimental and numeric data are currently available. The characterization of the RAM is difficult and essentially based upon cell length measurements through destructive and time-consuming microscopy approaches. Here, a new non-invasive method is described that couples infrared light imaging and kinematic analyses and that allows in vivo measurements of the RAM length. This study provides a detailed description of the RAM activity, especially in terms of cell flux and cell division rate. We focused on roots of hydroponic grown poplars and confirmed our method on maize roots. How the RAM affects root growth rate is studied by taking advantage of the high inter-individual variability of poplar root growth. An osmotic stress was applied and did not significantly affect the RAM length, highlighting its homeostasis in short to middle-term responses. The methodology described here simplifies a lot experimental procedures, allows an increase in the number of individuals that can be taken into account in experiments, and means new experiments can be formulated that allow temporal monitoring of the RAM length.

  19. Active aging as a way of keeping diseases at arm’s length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    Active ageing has increasingly become the ideal of how to live later life. Concepts of activity, participation and independence are central to how elderly see themselves and practice aging (Katz 2000). The elderly are encouraged and expected to stay active and independent. This is believed...... to be good for their quality of life, health, functionality and the economy (Sundhedsstyrelsen 2008, EC 2006, WHO 2002). At the same time active aging is inscribed into a general health care focus, which individualizes the responsibility for health and disease. This requires subjects ready to self......-care, by paying attention to the signals of the body and leading healthy lives (Rose 2001). However, active aging seems to contain an ambiguity in this aspect, as the practice of active aging is often a way for elderly to keep diseases at arm’s length, and not a way to sense the possible abnormalities in the body...

  20. Effect of grass silage chop length on chewing activity and digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmo, T.H.; Randby, Å.T.; Eknæs, M.;


    Round bale grass silage harvested early (D-value 757 g kg-1 DM) or at a normal (D-value 696 g kg-1 DM) time was used to study the effect of harvesting time, chop length and their interaction on chewing activity and digestibility by dairy cows. Six early lactating Norwegian Red cows were used in a 6...... x 6 Latin square with 3-week periods. Chewing activity was measured using IGER Behaviour recorders, and digestibility was measured by total collection of faeces. The two silages were fed long (170 mm), coarsely chopped (55 mm), or finely chopped (24 mm median particle length). Cows were fed silage...... ad libitum and supplemented with 6 kg concentrate. Early harvested silage significantly decreased total ration eating (ET), rumination (RT) and chewing time (CT) per kg silage DM compared with normal harvested silage (CT = 38 vs. 46 min kg-1 DM). Chopping of silage reduced CT significantly, mainly...

  1. Length of activity season drives geographic variation in body size of a widely distributed lizard


    Horváthová, Terézia; Cooney, Christopher R.; Fitze, Patrick S; Oksanen, Tuula; Jelic, Dusan; Ghira, Ioan; Uller, Tobias; Jandzik, David


    Understanding the factors that drive geographic variation in life history is an important challenge in evolutionary ecology. Here, we analyze what predicts geographic variation in life-history traits of the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara, which has the globally largest distribution range of all terrestrial reptile species. Variation in body size was predicted by differences in the length of activity season, while we found no effects of environmental temperature per se. Females experiencing r...

  2. Telomerase activity and telomere length in human tumor cells with acquired resistance to anticancer agents. (United States)

    Smith, V; Dai, F; Spitz, M; Peters, G J; Fiebig, H H; Hussain, A; Burger, A M


    Telomeres and telomerase are targets for anticancer drug development and specific inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. However, it has been reported that standard cytotoxic agents can affect telomere length and telomerase activity suggesting that they also have of a role in drug resistance. in this study, telomere lengths and telomerase activity as well as drug efflux pump expression, glutathione (GSH) levels and polyadenosine-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage were assessed in a panel of human tumor cell lines made resistant to vindesine, gemcitabine and cisplatin. these included two lung cancer cell lines resistant to vindesine (LXFL 529L/Vind, LXFA 526L/Vind), a renal cancer cell line (RXF944L/Gem) and an ovarian cancer cell line (AG6000) resistant to gemcitabine, and one resistant to cisplatin (ADDP). The resistant clones were compared to their parental lines and evaluated for cross resistance to other cytotoxic agents. Several drug specific resistance patterns were found, and various complex patterns of cross resistance emerged from some cell lines, but these mechanisms of resistance could not be related to drug efflux pump expression, GSH levels or pARp cleavage. However, all displayed changes in telomerase activity and/or telomere length. Our studies present evidence that telomere maintenance should be taken into consideration in efforts not only to overcome drug resistance, but also to optimize the use of telomere-based therapeutics.

  3. Influence of linker length and composition on enzymatic activity and ribosomal binding of neomycin dimers. (United States)

    Watkins, Derrick; Kumar, Sunil; Green, Keith D; Arya, Dev P; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie


    The human and bacterial A site rRNA binding as well as the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) activity against a series of neomycin B (NEO) dimers is presented. The data indicate that by simple modifications of linker length and composition, substantial differences in rRNA selectivity and AME activity can be obtained. We tested five different AMEs with dimeric NEO dimers that were tethered via triazole, urea, and thiourea linkages. We show that triazole-linked dimers were the worst substrates for most AMEs, with those containing the longer linkers showing the largest decrease in activity. Thiourea-linked dimers that showed a decrease in activity by AMEs also showed increased bacterial A site binding, with one compound (compound 14) even showing substantially reduced human A site binding. The urea-linked dimers showed a substantial decrease in activity by AMEs when a conformationally restrictive phenyl linker was introduced. The information learned herein advances our understanding of the importance of the linker length and composition for the generation of dimeric aminoglycoside antibiotics capable of avoiding the action of AMEs and selective binding to the bacterial rRNA over binding to the human rRNA.

  4. Effect of rain boot shaft length on lower extremity muscle activity during treadmill walking (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae


    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the extent of lower extremity muscle activity before and after walking based on rain boot shaft length. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects, 12 young and healthy females, were divided into three groups based on rain boot shaft length (long, middle, and short). They walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius was measured using electromyography before and after walking. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the muscle activities of each group. [Results] There were no significant differences in terms of the interactive effects between group and time for all muscles, the main effects of group, or the main effects of time. [Conclusion] The results of this study may indicate that movement of the lower extremities was not significantly limited by friction force based on the characteristics of the boot material or the circumference of the boot shaft. Thus, it may be helpful instead to consider the material of the sole or the weight of the boots when choosing which rain boots to wear. PMID:27799685

  5. Active Stream Length Dynamics in Headwater Catchments Spanning Physiographic Provinces in the Appalachian Highlands (United States)

    Jensen, C.; McGuire, K. J.


    One of the most basic descriptions of streams is the presence of channelized flow. However, this seemingly simple query goes unanswered for the majority of headwater networks, as stream length expands and contracts with the wetness of catchments seasonally, interannually, and in response to storm events. Although streams are known to grow and shrink, a lack of information on longitudinal dynamics across different geographic regions precludes effective management. Understanding the temporal variation in temporary network length over a broad range of settings is critical for policy decisions that impact aquatic ecosystem health. This project characterizes changes in active stream length for forested headwater catchments spanning four physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Highlands: the New England at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire; Valley and Ridge at Poverty Creek and the North Fork of Big Stony Creek in Jefferson National Forest, Virginia; Blue Ridge at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina; and Appalachian Plateau at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Multivariate statistical analysis confirms these provinces exhibit characteristic topographies reflecting differences in climate, geology, and environmental history and, thus, merit separate consideration. The active streams of three watersheds (<45 ha) in each study area were mapped six times to capture a variety of moderate flow conditions that can be expected most of the time (i.e., exceedance probabilities between 25 to 75%). The geomorphic channel and channel heads were additionally mapped to determine how active stream length variability relates to the development of the geomorphic network. We found that drainage density can vary up to four-fold with discharge. Stream contraction primarily proceeds by increasing disconnection and disintegration into pools, while the number of flow origins remains constant except at high and low extremes of discharge. This work demonstrates

  6. An Origin AS Verification Mechanism Based on the Length of Prefix Assignment Path for Securing BG P%基于前缀分配路径长度的BGP源自治系统验证机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 张建辉; 马海龙; 汪斌强


    The paper found that current origin Autonomous System (AS) verification mechanisms to secure BGP which security property have been widely recognized, such as S-BGP, have the vulnerability that they are based on the assignment path of a prefix,only guarantee that a prefix is originated by the AS which is authorized by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) at the assignment path of the prefix,not guarantee that it is originated by the AS authorized by the last ISP, which owns the prefix. Only the AS authorized by the ISP owns a prefix is the prefix's legitimate origin AS. As a result, these mechanisms suffer from a ' the upper ISP' prefix hijacking.The paper proposes a novel origin AS verification mechanism based on the length of a prefix assignment path for securing BGP, called LAP (the Length of Assignment Path). The basic idea is that all Ases must provide the assignment path and attestations of their originated prefixes, and for a prefix, the AS provides the longest valid assignment path is its legitimate origin AS.LAP protect inter-domain routing system against valid prefix hijacking, sub-prefix hijacking and unused prefix hijacking, especially ' the upper ISP' prefix hijacking, and it can be seamlessly applied in current BGP secure solutions and some next generation inter-domain routing protocols.%发现目前安全性得到广泛认可的BGP源自治系统验证机制(如S-BGP)会受到一种上层ISP(Internet Service Provider,Internet服务提供商)前缀劫持攻击.这些机制基于前缀的分配路径,仅能保证前缀被分配路径上的ISP授权自治系统发起,不能保证被分配路径上最后一个ISP(即前缀的拥有ISP)授权自治系统发起.只有获得前缀拥有ISP授权的自治系统才是该前缀的合法源自治系统.本文提出了一种基于前缀分配路径长度的源自治系统验证机制--LAP (the Length of Assignment Path,分配路径长度).基本思想是任一发出前缀可达路由通告的自治系统都必须

  7. Biomass density and filament length synergistically affect activated sludge settling: systematic quantification and modeling. (United States)

    Jassby, D; Xiao, Y; Schuler, A J


    Settling of the biomass produced during biological treatment of wastewater is a critical and often problematic process. Filamentous bacteria content is the best-known factor affecting biomass settleability in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems, and varying biomass density has recently been shown to play an important role as well. The objective of this study was to systematically determine how filament content and biomass density combine to affect microbial biomass settling, with a focus on density variations over the range found in full-scale systems. A laboratory-scale bioreactor system was operated to produce biomass with a range of filamentous bacterium contents. Biomass density was systematically varied in samples from this system by addition of synthetic microspheres to allow separation of filament content and density effects on settleability. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization indicated that the culture was dominated by Sphaerotilus natans, a common contributor to poor settling in full-scale systems. A simple, image-based metric of filament content (filament length per floc area) was linearly correlated with the more commonly used filament length per dry biomass measurement. A non-linear, semi-empirical model of settleability as a function of filament content and density was developed and evaluated, providing a better understanding of how these two parameters combine to affect settleability. Filament content (length per dry biomass weight) was nearly linearly related to sludge volume index (SVI) values, with a slightly decreasing differential, and biomass density exhibited an asymptotic relationship with SVI. The filament content associated with bulking was shown to be a function of biomass density. The marginal effect of filament content on settleability increased with decreasing biomass density (low density biomass was more sensitive to changes in filament content than was high density biomass), indicating a synergistic relationship between these

  8. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin


    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a quant

  9. Rational Design for Rotaxane Synthesis through Intramolecular Slippage: Control of Activation Energy by Rigid Axle Length. (United States)

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi


    We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit.

  10. Effects of cisplatin on telomerase activity and telomere length in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Telomerase activity was inhibited in a dose and time-dependent manner with the treatment of cisplatin for 24, 48, or 72 h in a concentration ranged from 0.8 to 50 μM in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells. There were no changes in expression pattern of three telomerase subunits, its catalytic reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT), its RNA component (hTR) or the associated protein subunit (TP1), after cisplatin treated for 72 h with indicated concentrations. Mean telomere lengths were decreased by the cisplatin treatment. Cell growth inhibition and cell cycle accumulation in G2/M phase were found to be correlated with telomerase inhibition in the present study, but percentages of cell apoptosis did not change markedly during the process.

  11. Leukocyte telomere length and mortality among U.S. adults: Effect modification by physical activity behaviour. (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Loenneke, Jeremy P


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mortality (outcome variable), with consideration by physical activity behaviour. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed (N = 6,611; 20-85 yrs), with follow-up mortality assessment through 31 December 2006. DNA was extracted from whole blood to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared to those in the first LTL tertile, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for those in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) LTL tertiles, respectively, was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.60-1.12; P = .22) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.50-1.14; P = .18). However, after adjustments, LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1) was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.93; P = .03) for those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise. Similarly, LTL was associated with CVD-specific mortality for those who engaged in moderate-intensity exercise (HR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04-0.73; P = .02). Longer telomeres are associated with increased survival, particularly among men and those who are active, underscoring the importance of promotion of physical activity behaviour.

  12. Ground-based verification and data processing of Yutu rover Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Dongya; Peng, Wenxi; Cui, Xingzhu; Zhang, Chengmo; Liu, Yaqing; Liang, Xiaohua; Dong, Yifan; Wang, Jinzhou; Gao, Min; Yang, Jiawei; Zhang, Jiayu; Li, Chunlai; Zou, Yongliao; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhang, Liyan; Fu, Xiaohui


    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads on board the Yutu rover of Chang'E-3 mission. In order to assess the instrumental performance of APXS, a ground verification test was done for two unknown samples (basaltic rock, mixed powder sample). In this paper, the details of the experiment configurations and data analysis method are presented. The results show that the elemental abundance of major elements can be well determined by the APXS with relative deviations < 15 wt. % (detection distance = 30 mm, acquisition time = 30 min). The derived detection limit of each major element is inversely proportional to acquisition time and directly proportional to detection distance, suggesting that the appropriate distance should be < 50mm.

  13. Ground-based verification and data processing of Yutu rover Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dong-Ya; WANG Huan-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; CUI Xing-Zhu; ZHANG Cheng-Mo; LIU Ya-Qing; LIANG Xiao-Hua


    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads on board the Yutu rover of the Chang'E-3 mission.In order to assess the instrumental performance of APXS,a ground verification test was performed for two unknown samples (basaltic rock,mixed powder sample).In this paper,the details of the experiment configurations and data analysis method are presented.The results show that the elemental abundance of major elements can be well determined by the APXS with relative deviations <15 wt.% (detection distance=30 mm,acquisition time=30 min).The derived detection limit of each major element is inversely proportional to acquisition time and directly proportional to detection distance,suggesting that the appropriate distance should be <50 mm.

  14. Purification and activity testing of the full-length YycFGHI proteins of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Türck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The YycFG two-component regulatory system (TCS of Staphylococcus aureus represents the only essential TCS that is almost ubiquitously distributed in gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C-content. YycG (WalK/VicK is a sensor histidine-kinase and YycF (WalR/VicR is the cognate response regulator. Both proteins play an important role in the biosynthesis of the cell envelope and mutations in these proteins have been involved in development of vancomycin and daptomycin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present high yield expression and purification of the full-length YycG and YycF proteins as well as of the auxiliary proteins YycH and YycI of Staphylococcus aureus. Activity tests of the YycG kinase and a mutated version, that harbours an Y306N exchange in its cytoplasmic PAS domain, in a detergent-micelle-model and a phosholipid-liposome-model showed kinase activity (autophosphorylation and phosphoryl group transfer to YycF only in the presence of elevated concentrations of alkali salts. A direct comparison of the activity of the kinases in the liposome-model indicated a higher activity of the mutated YycG kinase. Further experiments indicated that YycG responds to fluidity changes in its microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of high yield expression, purification and activity testing of membrane and membrane-associated proteins provides an excellent experimental basis for further protein-protein interaction studies and for identification of all signals received by the YycFGHI system.

  15. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.


    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  16. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length. (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D


    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  17. Influence of alkyl chain length on the surface activity of antibacterial polymers derived from ROMP. (United States)

    Altay, Esra; Yapaöz, Melda Altıkatoğlu; Keskin, Bahadır; Yucesan, Gundoğ; Eren, Tarik


    The purpose of this study is to understand the antibacterial properties of cationic polymers on solid surfaces by investigating the structure-activity relationships. The polymer synthesis was carried via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of oxanorbornene derivatives. Modulation of molecular weights and alkyl chain lengths of the polymers were studied to investigate the antibacterial properties on the glass surface. Fluorescein (Na salt) staining contact angle measurements were used to characterize the positive charge density and hydrophobicity on the polymer coated surfaces. Positive charge density for the surface coated polymers with molecular weights of 3000 and 10,000 g mol(-1) is observed to be in the range of 2.3-28.5 nmol cm(-2). The ROMP based cationic pyridinium polymer with hexyl unit exhibited the highest bactericidal efficiency against Escherichia coli on solid surface killing 99% of the bacteria in 5 min. However, phenyl and octyl functionalized quaternary pyridinium groups exhibited lower biocidal properties on the solid surfaces compared to their solution phase biocidal properties. Studying the effect of threshold polymer concentrations on the antibacterial properties indicated that changing the concentrations of polymer coatings on the solid surface dramatically influences antibacterial efficiency.

  18. Estimation of active force-length characteristics of human vastus lateralis muscle. (United States)

    Ichinose, Y; Kawakami, Y; Ito, M; Fukunaga, T


    The length and angles of fascicles were determined for the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) using ultrasonography in 6 subjects performing ramp isometric knee extension. The subject increased torque from zero (relax) to maximum (MVC) with the knee positioned every 15 degrees, from 10 degrees to 100 degrees flexion (0 degrees = full extension). As the knee was positioned closer to extension, fascicle length was shorter [116 +/- 4.7 (mean +/- SEM) mm at 100 degrees vs. 88 +/- 4.1 mm at 10 degrees (relax)]. The fascicle length of the VL decreased with increasing torque at each knee position [116 +/- 4.7 (relax) to 92 +/- 4.3 mm (MVC) at 100 degrees]. On the other hand, fascicle angles increased with an increase in torque. These changes reflected the compliance of the muscle-tendon complex which increased as the knee reached a straight position. The estimated muscle force of the VL was maximal (2,052 +/- 125 N) for a fascicle length of 78 +/- 2.7 mm (i.e. optimum length) with the knee positioned at 70 degrees of flexion. The relationship between muscle force and fascicle length indicated that the VL uses the ascending (knee 70 degrees) of the force-length curve.

  19. Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis Is Related With Telomerase Activity and Treatment Duration. (United States)

    Stefanidis, Ioannis; Voliotis, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Vassilios; Chronopoulou, Ioanna; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Kowald, Axel; Zintzaras, Elias; Tsezou, Aspasia


    Telomere shortening to a critical limit is associated with replicative senescence. This process is prevented by the enzyme telomerase. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are factors accelerating telomere loss. Chronic hemodialysis, typically accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation, may be also associated with replicative senescence. To test this hypothesis, we determined telomere length and telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a cross-sectional study. Hemodialysis patients at the University Hospital Larissa and healthy controls were studied. Telomere length was determined by the TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay and telomerase activity by Telomerase PCR-ELISA (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). We enrolled 43 hemodialysis patients (17 females; age 65.0 ± 12.7 years) and 23 controls (six females; age 62.1 ± 15.7 years). Between the two groups, there was no difference in telomere length (6.95 ± 3.25 vs. 7.31 ± 1.96 kb; P = 0.244) or in telomerase activity (1.82 ± 2.91 vs. 2.71 ± 3.0; P = 0.085). Telomere length correlated inversely with vintage of hemodialysis (r = -0.332, P = 0.030). In hemodialysis patients, positive telomerase activity correlated with telomere length (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Only age, and neither telomere length nor telomerase activity, was an independent survival predictor (hazard ratio 1.116, 95% confidence interval 1.009-1.234, P = 0.033). In this study, telomere length and telomerase activity in PBMCs are not altered in hemodialysis patients compared with healthy controls. Long duration of hemodialysis treatment is associated with telomere shortening and positive telomerase activity with an increased telomere length in PBMCs of hemodialysis patients. The underlying mechanism and clinical implications of our findings require further investigation.

  20. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, N; Hansen, E R;


    We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients...... compared with PBMC from normal donors. This increase was most pronounced in the subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells, which were significantly above the activity of the CD8(+) T cells in atopic dermatitis, psoriasis patients, and control persons. The telomere length was significantly reduced in all T cell...... subsets from both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients compared with normal individuals. Furthermore, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in CD4(+) memory T cells compared with the CD4(+) naive T cells, and both of the cell subsets from diseases were shown to be of significantly...

  1. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy


    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  2. SBA-15 mesoporous silica activated by metal ions - Verification of molecular structure on the basis of Raman spectroscopy supported by numerical simulations (United States)

    Laskowska, Magdalena; Laskowski, Lukasz; Jelonkiewicz, Jerzy


    In the paper we investigate the molecular structure of SBA-15 mesoporous silica containing propyl metal phosphonate groups, to examine the efficiency of synthesis route. Proposed method can be generalized and applied to synthesis efficiency examination in the case of relatively complex silica-based nanomaterials. Considered verification route is based on Raman scattering supported by numerical simulation. We demonstrated considered procedure on the example of SBA-15 mesoporous silica containing propyl phosphonate units activated by nickel, copper and iron ions. We showed that unambiguously verification of activation process related to phosphonic acid units incorporated inside SBA-15 silica into metal phosphonate groups is possible. On the base of comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical Raman spectra we were able to eliminate the case of incomplete or unsuccessful activation.

  3. Activation of brain areas following ankle dorsiflexion versus plantar flexion Functional magnetic resonance imaging verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianyu Jiang; Weiping Wu; Xinglin Wang; Changshui Weng; Qiuhua Wang; Yanmei Guo


    Changes in activated areas of the brain during ankle active dorsiflexion and ankle active plantar flexion were observed in six healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging.Excited areas of ankle active dorsiflexion involved the bilateral primary motor area and the primary somatosensory area, as well as the bilateral supplementary sensory area, the primary visual area, the right second visual area, and the vermis of cerebellum.Excited areas of ankle active plantar flexion included the ipsilateral supplementary motor area, the limbic system, and the contralateral corpus striatum.Fine movements of the cerebral cortex control the function of the ankle dorsiflexion to a larger extent than ankle plate flexion, and the function of ankle plate flexion is more controlled by the subcortical area.

  4. Simulated sudden increase in geomagnetic activity and its effect on heart rate variability: Experimental verification of correlation studies (United States)

    Caswell, Joseph M.; Singh, Manraj; Persinger, Michael A.


    Previous research investigating the potential influence of geomagnetic factors on human cardiovascular state has tended to converge upon similar inferences although the results remain relatively controversial. Furthermore, previous findings have remained essentially correlational without accompanying experimental verification. An exception to this was noted for human brain activity in a previous study employing experimental simulation of sudden geomagnetic impulses in order to assess correlational results that had demonstrated a relationship between geomagnetic perturbations and neuroelectrical parameters. The present study employed the same equipment in a similar procedure in order to validate previous findings of a geomagnetic-cardiovascular dynamic with electrocardiography and heart rate variability measures. Results indicated that potential magnetic field effects on frequency components of heart rate variability tended to overlap with previous correlational studies where low frequency power and the ratio between low and high frequency components of heart rate variability appeared affected. In the present study, a significant increase in these particular parameters was noted during geomagnetic simulation compared to baseline recordings.

  5. Telomere Lengths and Telomerase Activity in Dog Tissues: A Potential Model System to Study Human Telomere and Telomerase Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Nasir


    Full Text Available Studies on telomere and telomerase biology are fundamental to the understanding of aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. However, human studies have been hindered by differences in telomere biology between humans and the classical murine animal model system. In this paper, we describe basic studies of telomere length and telomerase activity in canine normal and neoplastic tissues and propose the dog as an alternative model system. Briefly, telomere lengths were measured in normal canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, a range of normal canine tissues, and in a panel of naturally occurring soft tissue tumours by terminal restriction fragment (TRF analysis. Further, telomerase activity was measured in canine cell lines and multiple canine tissues using a combined polymerase chain reaction/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. TRF analysis in canine PBMCs and tissues demonstrated mean TRF lengths to range between 12 and 23 kbp with heterogeneity in telomere lengths being observed in a range of normal somatic tissues. In soft tissue sarcomas, two subgroups were identified with mean TRFs of 22.2 and 18.2 kbp. Telomerase activity in canine tissue was present in tumour tissue and testis with little or no activity in normal somatic tissues. These results suggest that the dog telomere biology is similar to that in humans and may represent an alternative model system for studying telomere biology and telomerase-targeted anticancer therapies.

  6. Experimental verification and molecular basis of active immunization against fungal pathogens in termites. (United States)

    Liu, Long; Li, Ganghua; Sun, Pengdong; Lei, Chaoliang; Huang, Qiuying


    Termites are constantly exposed to many pathogens when they nest and forage in the field, so they employ various immune strategies to defend against pathogenic infections. Here, we demonstrate that the subterranean termite Reticulitermes chinensis employs active immunization to defend against the entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed that allogrooming frequency increased significantly between fungus-treated termites and their nestmates. Through active social contact, previously healthy nestmates only received small numbers of conidia from fungus-treated individuals. These nestmates experienced low-level fungal infections, resulting in low mortality and apparently improved antifungal defences. Moreover, infected nestmates promoted the activity of two antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and upregulated the expression of three immune genes (phenoloxidase, transferrin, and termicin). We found 20 differentially expressed proteins associated with active immunization in R. chinensis through iTRAQ proteomics, including 12 stress response proteins, six immune signalling proteins, and two immune effector molecules. Subsequently, two significantly upregulated (60S ribosomal protein L23 and isocitrate dehydrogenase) and three significantly downregulated (glutathione S-transferase D1, cuticle protein 19, and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme) candidate immune proteins were validated by MRM assays. These findings suggest that active immunization in termites may be regulated by different immune proteins.

  7. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  8. Sarcomere length-dependence of activity-dependent twitch potentiation in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIntosh Brian R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that potentiation of a skeletal muscle twitch response is proportional to muscle length with a negative slope during staircase, and a positive slope during posttetanic potentiation. This study was done to directly compare staircase and posttetanic responses with measurement of sarcomere length to compare their length-dependence. Methods Mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were dissected to small bundles of fibers, which permit measurement of sarcomere length (SL, by laser diffraction. In vitro fixed-end contractions of EDL fiber bundles were elicited at 22°C and 35°C at sarcomere lengths ranging from 2.35 μm to 3.85 μm. Twitch contractions were assessed before and after 1.5 s of 75 Hz stimulation at 22°C or during 10 s of 10 Hz stimulation at 22°C or 35°C. Results Staircase potentiation was greater at 35°C than 22°C, and the relative magnitude of the twitch contraction (Pt*/Pt was proportional to sarcomere length with a negative slope, over the range 2.3 μm – 3.7 μm. Linear regression yielded the following: Pt*/Pt = -0.59·SL+3.27 (r2 = 0.74; Pt*/Pt = -0.39·SL+2.34 (r2 = 0.48; and Pt*/Pt = -0.50·SL+2.45 (r2 = 0.80 for staircase at 35°C, and 22°C and posttetanic response respectively. Posttetanic depression rather than potentiation was present at long SL. This indicates that there may be two processes operating in these muscles to modulate the force: one that enhances and a second that depresses the force. Either or both of these processes may have a length-dependence of its mechanism. Conclusion There is no evidence that posttetanic potentiation is fundamentally different from staircase in these muscles.

  9. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.


    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser-machine...

  10. The changes in telomerase activity and telomere length in HeLa cells undergoing apop- tosis induced by sodium butyrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The changes in telomerase activity and telomere length during apoptosis in HeLa cells as induced by sodium butyrate (SB) have been studied. After a 48 h SB treatment, HeLa cells demonstrated characteristic apoptotic hallmarks including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA Laddering which were caused by the cleavage and degradation of DNA between nucleosomes. There were no significant changes in telomerase activity of apoptotic cells, while the telomere length shortened markedly. In the meanwhile, cells became more susceptible to apoptotic stimuli and telomere became more vulnerable to degradation after telomerase activity was inhibited. All the results suggest that the apoptosis induced by SB is closely related to telomere shortening, while telomerase enhances resistance of HeLa cells to apoptotic stimuli by protecting telomere.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of full-length and proteolytically activated pyruvate oxidase from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, Annett; Neumann, Piotr; Wille, Georg; Stubbs, Milton T.; Tittmann, Kai, E-mail: [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät I, Institut für Biochemie und Biotechnologie, Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, D-06120 Halle (Germany)


    The peripheral membrane flavoprotein pyruvate oxidase from E. coli has been crystallized in the full-length form and as a proteolytically activated truncation variant lacking the last 23 amino acids at the C-terminus. The thiamine diphosphate- and flavin-dependent peripheral membrane enzyme pyruvate oxidase from Escherichia coli (EcPOX) has been crystallized in the full-length form and as a proteolytically activated C-terminal truncation variant which lacks the last 23 amino acids (Δ23 EcPOX). Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using either protamine sulfate (full-length EcPOX) or 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (Δ23 EcPOX) as precipitants. Native data sets were collected at a X-ray home source to a resolution of 2.9 Å. The two forms of EcPOX crystallize in different space groups. Whereas full-length EcPOX crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 with two monomers per asymmetric unit, the crystals of Δ23 EcPOX belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and contain 12 monomers per asymmetric unit.

  12. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation. (United States)

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio


    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament "on-off" switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca(2+)-dependent on-off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on-off switching, but not the Ca(2+)-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation.

  13. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)


    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  14. Biochemical Activities of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Homology Region 2 Domains of Sarcomere Length Short (SALS) Protein. (United States)

    Tóth, Mónika Ágnes; Majoros, Andrea Kinga; Vig, Andrea Teréz; Migh, Ede; Nyitrai, Miklós; Mihály, József; Bugyi, Beáta


    Drosophila melanogaster sarcomere length short (SALS) is a recently identified Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain protein involved in skeletal muscle thin filament regulation. SALS was shown to be important for the establishment of the proper length and organization of sarcomeric actin filaments. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of the biochemical activities of the tandem WH2 domains of SALS (SALS-WH2). Our results revealed that SALS-WH2 binds both monomeric and filamentous actin and shifts the monomer-filament equilibrium toward the monomeric actin. In addition, SALS-WH2 can bind to but fails to depolymerize phalloidin- or jasplakinolide-bound actin filaments. These interactions endow SALS-WH2 with the following two major activities in the regulation of actin dynamics: SALS-WH2 sequesters actin monomers into non-polymerizable complexes and enhances actin filament disassembly by severing, which is modulated by tropomyosin. We also show that profilin does not influence the activities of the WH2 domains of SALS in actin dynamics. In conclusion, the tandem WH2 domains of SALS are multifunctional regulators of actin dynamics. Our findings suggest that the activities of the WH2 domains do not reconstitute the presumed biological function of the full-length protein. Consequently, the interactions of the WH2 domains of SALS with actin must be tuned in the cellular context by other modules of the protein and/or sarcomeric components for its proper functioning.

  15. Design information verification (DIV) of operating geological repositories (SAGOR activity 3b)[Nuclear waste disposal; Security; Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, J


    Following IAEA Advisory and Consultants Group meetings in September 1988 and in May 1991 respectively an IAEA multi-national Support Programme Task was initiated to consider the 'Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories' (SAGOR). A 'Technical Coordination Committee' (TCC) was set up with invited representatives from those Member State Support Programmes wishing to be involved. The joint programme, through the TCC, was given the task of studying the safeguards requirements in: conditioning plant (where the spent fuel is prepared for transfer to the repository); operating repositories (i.e. those in which the fuel is being emplaced); closed repositories. At the first meeting of the TCC in Washington in July 1994 the UK undertook to provide a study of the Design Information Verification (DIV) required in all three areas. For this activity the requirements, techniques and procedures for the Design Information Verification (DIV) of operating repositories have been considered. In completing the study the findings reported for activities 1b and 2b (descriptions of a Model Repository and Potential Diversion Paths, respectively) have been used in formulating any conclusions reached. As with any facility there are a number of stages in its lifetime. For the purposes of this report the operating life of a repository is deemed to extend from its inception to when it is finally closed and the ground surface returned to being a green field. Areas where repositories differ from other safeguarded activities are highlighted in the model facility described in SAGOR activity 1b/c. Their impact makes it inevitable that DIV will play a key role in safeguarding an operational repository. They include: continual expansion during its operational life (the only current possible exception is that being proposed in Finland), flexible design during construction as geological features may be exposed which require that the

  16. Design information verification (DIV) of conditioning plant for geological repositories (SAGOR activity 3a)[Nuclear waste disposal; Security; Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, J


    Following IAEA Advisory and Consultants Group meetings in September 1988 and in May 1991 respectively an IAEA multi-national Support Programme Task was initiated to consider the 'Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories' (SAGOR). A Technical Coordination Committee (TCC) was set up with invited representatives from those Member State Support Programmes wishing to be involved. The joint programme, through the TCC, was given the task of studying the safeguards requirements in: conditioning plant (where the spent fuel is prepared for transfer to the repository); operating repositories (i.e. those in which the fuel is being emplaced); closed repositories. At the first meeting of the TCC in Washington in July 1994 the UK undertook to provide a study of the Design Information Verification (DIV) required in all three areas. For this activity the requirements, techniques and procedures for the Design Information Verification (DIV) of conditioning plant have been considered. In completing the study the findings reported for Activities 1a and 2a (descriptions of a Model Facility and Potential Diversion Paths, respectively) have been used in formulating any conclusions reached. The findings of Activity 1a show that a conditioning plant will be far simpler in concept than is a reprocessing plant. From this it must be concluded that DIV is unlikely to present any significant problems; experience based on reprocessing plant shows that it can be done both efficiently and effectively using proven techniques. In section 3.2, however, a number of valuable techniques which are currently being developed are also described. These have potential for effecting better DIV and could provide further evidence that the declared designs are (or are not) being fully complied with. More general DIV requirements are described in section 4. Like the detailed considerations mentioned above, these are no different from those already being applied

  17. Design information verification (DIV) of closed geological repositories (SAGOR activity 3c)[Nuclear waste disposal; Security; Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, J


    Following IAEA Advisory and Consultants Group meetings in September 1988 and in May 1991 respectively an IAEA multi-national Support Programme Task was initiated to consider the 'Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories' (SAGOR). A 'Technical Coordination Committee' (TCC) was set up with invited representatives from those Member State Support Programmes wishing to be involved. The joint programme, through the TCC, was given the task of studying the safeguards requirements in: conditioning plant (where the spent fuel is prepared for transfer to the repository); operating repositories (i.e., those in which the fuel is being emplaced); closed repositories. At the first meeting of the TCC in Washington in July 1994 the UK undertook to provide a study of the Design Information Verification (DIV) required in all three areas. For this activity the requirements, techniques and procedures for the Design Information Verification (DIV) of closed repositories have been considered. In completing the study the findings reported for activities 1b/c and 2c (descriptions of a Model Repository and Potential Diversion Paths, respectively) have been used in formulating any conclusions reached. It is also debatable as to whether this activity is strictly speaking DIV or is one of surveillance. As undeclared access can only be made to the emplacement areas of the repository by altering the physical makeup of the surrounding area; i.e. physically changing the 'design' of the surrounding area, however, this is deemed to be DIV. Although the techniques used appear to be those of surveillance they are being applied in this case as the tools of DIV. As with any facility there are a number of stages in its lifetime. For the purposes of this report the operating life of a repository is defined as being the time from inception to when it is finally decommissioned and sealed with the ground surface returned to being a

  18. Swarm Verification (United States)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev; Groce, Alex


    Reportedly, supercomputer designer Seymour Cray once said that he would sooner use two strong oxen to plow a field than a thousand chickens. Although this is undoubtedly wise when it comes to plowing a field, it is not so clear for other types of tasks. Model checking problems are of the proverbial "search the needle in a haystack" type. Such problems can often be parallelized easily. Alas, none of the usual divide and conquer methods can be used to parallelize the working of a model checker. Given that it has become easier than ever to gain access to large numbers of computers to perform even routine tasks it is becoming more and more attractive to find alternate ways to use these resources to speed up model checking tasks. This paper describes one such method, called swarm verification.

  19. Nutrient demand interacts with grass particle length to affect digestion responses and chewing activity in dairy cows. (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S


    Effects of grass particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 15 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.6 to 29.8 kg/d (mean=25.8 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 29.2 to 56.9 kg/d (mean=41.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage chopped to either (a) 19-mm (long) or (b) 10-mm (short) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Grass silages contained approximately 46% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained 50% forage, 23% forage NDF, and 28% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Grass particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield, milk composition, or rumen pH. Long particle length tended to decrease DMI compared with short particle length, which might have been limited by rumen fill or chewing time, or both. Passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between long and short particle lengths and were not related to level of intake. As pDMI increased, long particles decreased ruminal digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF at a faster rate than short particles. As a result, long particles decreased or tended to decrease rates of ruminal turnover for NDF, organic matter, and dry matter and increased their rumen pools compared with short particles for cows with high pDMI. Long particles increased eating time, which affected cows with high intake to the greatest extent, and total chewing time

  20. Stretch and shortening of skeletal muscles activated along the ascending limb of the force-length relation. (United States)

    Rassier, Dilson E; Pun, Clara


    There is a history dependence of skeletal muscle contraction. When muscles are activated and subsequently stretched, they produce a long lasting force enhancement. When muscles are activated and subsequently shortened, they produce a long-lasting force depression. The purposes of the studies shown in this chapter were (1) to evaluate if force enhancement and force depression are present along the ascending limb of the force-length (FL) relation, (2) to evaluate if the history-dependent properties of force production are associated with sarcomere length (SL) non-uniformity, and (3) to determine the effects of cross-bridge (de)activation on force depression. Isolated myofibrils were activated by either Ca²(+) or MgADP and were subjected to consecutive stretches or shortenings along the ascending limb of the FL relation, separated by periods (approximately 5 s) of isometric contraction. Force after stretch was higher than force after shortening when the contractions were produced at similar SLs. The difference in force could not be explained by SL non-uniformity. After shortening, MgADP activation produced forces that were higher than Ca²(+) activation. Since MgADP induces the formation of strongly bound cross-bridges, the result suggests that force depression following shortening is associated with cross-bridge deactivation.

  1. Immobilization of lipases on alkyl silane modified magnetic nanoparticles: effect of alkyl chain length on enzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqian Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biocatalytic processes often require a full recycling of biocatalysts to optimize economic benefits and minimize waste disposal. Immobilization of biocatalysts onto particulate carriers has been widely explored as an option to meet these requirements. However, surface properties often affect the amount of biocatalysts immobilized, their bioactivity and stability, hampering their wide applications. The aim of this work is to explore how immobilization of lipases onto magnetite nanoparticles affects their biocatalytic performance under carefully controlled surface modification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Magnetite nanoparticles, prepared through a co-precipitation method, were coated with alkyl silanes of different alkyl chain lengths to modulate their surface hydrophobicity. Candida rugosa lipase was then directly immobilized onto the modified nanoparticles through hydrophobic interaction. Enzyme activity was assessed by catalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. The activity of immobilized lipases was found to increase with increasing chain length of the alkyl silane. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of lipases immobilized on trimethoxyl octadecyl silane (C18 modified Fe(3O(4 were a factor of 2 or more than the values reported from other surface immobilized systems. After 7 recycles, the activities of the lipases immobilized on C18 modified nanoparticles retained 65%, indicating significant enhancement of stability as well through hydrophobic interaction. Lipase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles facilitated easy separation and recycling with high activity retaining. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The activity of immobilized lipases increased with increasing alkyl chain length of the alkyl trimethoxy silanes used in the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticles. Lipase stability was also improved through hydrophobic interaction. Alkyl silane modified magnetite nanoparticles are thus highly attractive carriers for

  2. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou


    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  3. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity. (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J; Kuipers, Oscar P


    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g., in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called "hinge region" of nisin (residues NMK) was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  4. A narrative review of maternal physical activity during labour and its effects upon length of first stage. (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R


    Women in western countries generally lie semi-recumbent during first stage of labour, when perhaps it is more natural to move around. Consequently carers are unaware of what constitutes instinctive behaviours and their outcomes. With this in mind, a structured narrative review of the literature identified what prior research has shown about the impact of maternal movement upon length of first stage; results are ambiguous, with 11 studies reporting no alteration to length and 7 reporting shortening. These studies fail to adequately detail time spent mobilising and what in fact constituted walking, squatting, upright, lying lateral, supine or semi-recumbent, and their direct effects upon progress of first stage. Advancements in knowledge are required to progress understanding about maternal activity during labour and its outcomes.

  5. Postpartum reproductive activities and gestation length in Martina Franca jennies, an endangered Italian donkey breed. (United States)

    Tosi, Umberto; Bernabò, Nicola; Verni, Fabiana; Valbonetti, Luca; Muttini, Aurelio; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara


    The donkey reproductive physiology is still partially known despite the increasing risk of extinction involving several breeds. The present study was designed to describe the postpartum (PP) reproductive performance of an Italian endangered breed: the Martina Franca donkey. To this aim, 52 jennies were monitored to define the foal-heat (FH) and the first and second PP estrus episodes (1st PPe and 2nd PPe). The data indicate that jennies spontaneously recovered reproduction in approximately 10 days after delivery. Then heats occur with a regular interval of approximately 23 days. Estrus length was 1 week in FH and the 2nd PPe and significantly shorter in the 1st PPe. Estrus-ovulation, and delivery-ovulation interval and follicle growth were similar in all animals tested. Pregnancy rate (PR) was lower when natural mating occurred during the FH and 2nd PPe (approximately 60%) than during the 1st PPe (approximately 70%; P 80%; P < 0.01) was recorded in jennies when the FH occurred after the first week PP and it dropped (<50%) in early FH animals. The PR was also affected by the season and by age: it significantly declined during the autumn-winter season and in subjects older than the sixth year of age. For the first time, the reproductive performance of PP donkeys were defined on a large number of Martina Franca jennies thus offering useful information to improve farm management with an immediate benefit to increase livestock production. This aspect of management improvement might be particularly important if applied to an endangered breed such as Martina Franca donkeys.

  6. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik;


    , and this was parallel by the largest reduction in number of viable bacteria. CONCLUSION: We found that chain length but not type of cationic amino acid influenced the antibacterial activity of a series of synthetic α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras. The synthetic chimeras exert their killing effect by permeabilization......BACKGROUND: Characterization and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires that their mode of action is determined. The interaction of membrane-active peptides with their target is often established using model membranes, however, the actual permeabilization of live bacterial cells...... acid only had a minor effect on MIC values, whereas chain length had a profound influence on activity. All chimeras were less active against Serratia marcescens (MICs above 46 μM). The chimeras were bactericidal and induced leakage of ATP from Staphylococcus aureus and S. marcescens with similar time...

  7. Honey, I Shrunk the DNA : DNA Length as a Probe for Nucleic-Acid Enzyme Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, Antoine M. van


    The replication, recombination, and repair of DNA are processes essential for the maintenance of genomic information and require the activity of numerous enzymes that catalyze the polymerization or digestion of DNA. This review will discuss how differences in elastic properties between single- and d

  8. Activated carbon load equalization of gas-phase toluene: effect of cycle length and fraction of time in loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Moe; Kodi L. Collins; John D. Rhodes [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    Fluctuating pollutant concentrations pose challenges in the design and operation of air pollution control devices such as biofilters. Effective load equalization could decrease or eliminate many of these difficulties. In research described here, experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of cycle length and fraction of time contaminants are supplied on the degree of load equalization achieved by passively operated granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Columns packed with bituminous coal based Calgon BPL 4 x 6 mesh GAC were subjected to a variety of cyclic loading conditions in which toluene was supplied at concentrations of 1000 or 250 ppmv during loading intervals, and uncontaminated air flowed through the columns during no-loading intervals. The fraction of time when toluene was supplied ranged from 1/2 to 1/6, and cycle lengths ranged from 6 to 48 h. Results demonstrate that passively operated GAC columns can temporarily accumulate contaminants during intervals of high influent concentration and desorb contaminants during intervals of no loading, resulting in appreciable load equalization without need for external regeneration by heating or other means. Greater load equalization was achieved as the fraction of time toluene was loaded decreased and as the cycle length decreased. A pore and surface diffusion model, able to predict the level of contaminant concentration attenuation in GAC columns with reasonable accuracy, was used to further explore the range of load equalization performance expected from columns of various packed bed depths. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Load rather than length sensitive feedback contributes to soleus muscle activity during human treadmill walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    af Klint, Richard; Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    .045), but no significant difference was observed for the SLR (P = 0.13). Similarly, the effect of the BWS was measured on the unload response, i.e., the depression in soleus activity following a plantar-flexion perturbation ( approximately 5.6 degrees, 203-247 degrees/s), quantified over a 50 ms analysis window....... The unload response decreased with decreased load (P > 0.001), but was not significantly affected (P = 0.45) by tizanidine induced depression of the MLR (P = 0.039, n = 6). Since tizanidine is believed to depress the group II afferent pathway, these results are consistent with the idea that force...

  10. NMR characterization of full-length farnesylated and non-farnesylated H-Ras and its implications for Raf activation. (United States)

    Thapar, Roopa; Williams, Jason G; Campbell, Sharon L


    The C terminus, also known as the hypervariable region (residues 166-189), of H-, N-, and K-Ras proteins has sequence determinants necessary for full activation of downstream effectors such as Raf kinase and PI-3 kinase as well as for the correct targeting of Ras proteins to lipid rafts and non-raft membranes. There is considerable interest in understanding how residues in the extreme C terminus of the different Ras proteins and farnesylation of the CaaX box cysteine affect Ras membrane localization and allosteric activation of Raf kinase. To provide insights into the structural and dynamic changes that occur in Ras upon farnesylation, we have used NMR spectroscopy to compare the properties of truncated H-Ras (1-166), to non-processed full-length H-Ras (residues 1-185) and full-length (1-189) farnesylated H-Ras. We report that the C-terminal helix alpha-5 extends to residue N172, and the remaining 17 amino acid residues in the C terminus are conformationally averaged in solution. Removal of either 23 or 18 amino acid residues from the C terminus of full length H-Ras generates truncated H-Ras (1-166) and H-Ras (1-171) proteins, respectively, that have been structurally characterized and are biochemical active. Here we report that C-terminal truncation of H-Ras results in minor structural and dynamic perturbations that are propagated throughout the H-Ras protein including increased flexibility of the central beta-sheet and the C-terminal helix alpha-5. Ordering of residues in loop-2, which is involved in Raf CRD binding is also observed. Farnesylation of full-length H-Ras at C186 does not result in detectable conformational changes in H-Ras. Chemical shift mapping studies of farnesylated and non-farnesylated forms of H-Ras with the Raf-CRD show that the farnesyl moiety, the extreme H-Ras C terminus and residues 23-30, contribute to H-Ras:Raf-CRD interactions, thereby increasing the affinity of H-Ras for the Raf-CRD.

  11. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur


    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...... to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 +/- 80 vs. 487 +/- 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 +/- 18.3 vs. 40.2 +/- 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar...

  12. Photocatalytic Activity and Photocurrent Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Influenced by Calcination Temperature and Tube Length (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Zhang, Min; Yan, Guotian; Yang, Jianjun


    In this article, titanium oxide nanotube arrays (TiO2-NTAs) were fabricated by anodic oxidation in an ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte solution containing 0.25 wt.% NH4F. By varying anodized time and annealed temperature, the obtained nanotube arrays behaved different photocatalytic (PC) activities and photocurrent properties. These samples were characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). It was indicated in SEM images that TiO2 nanotube manifests highly ordered structure which, however, has been completely destroyed when the temperature comes to 800°C. XRD manifested that TiO2 nanotubes with various kinds of length all possessed anatase crystallite when annealed at 500°C; meanwhile, with certain length, TiO2-NTAs annealed at series calcination temperature range of 300-600°C also presented anatase crystallite, which is gradually enhanced with the increment of temperature. At 700°C, mixed structure was observed which was made up of proportions of overwhelming anatase and toothful rutile. Methyl blue (MB) degradation and photocurrent measurement testified that TiO2-NTAs under 4 h oxidation and 3 h of 600°C calcination manifested the highest activity and photocurrent density.

  13. Linker length and flexibility induces new cellobiohydrolase activity of PoCel6A from Penicillium oxalicum. (United States)

    Gao, Le; Wang, Lushan; Jiang, Xukai; Qu, Yinbo


    In a previous study, a novel cellobiohydrolase, PoCel6A, with new enzymatic activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), was purified from Penicillium oxalicum. The cellulose-binding module and catalytic domain of PoCel6A showed a high degree of sequence similarity with other fungal Cel6As. However, PoCel6A had 11 more amino acids in the linker region than other Cel6As. To evaluate the relationship between the longer linker of PoCel6A and its enzymatic activity, 11 amino acids were deleted from the linker region of PoCel6A. The shortened PoCel6A linker nullified the enzymatic activity against pNPC but dramatically increased the enzyme's capacity for crystalline cellulose degradation. The shortened linker segment appeared to have no effect on the secondary structural conformation of PoCel6A. Another variant (PoCel6A-6pro) with six consecutive proline residues in the interdomain linker had a higher rigid linker, and no enzymatic activity was observed against soluble and insoluble substrate. The flexibility of the linker had an important function in the formation of active cellulase. The length and flexibility of the linker is clearly able to modify the function of PoCel6A and induce new characteristics of Cel6A.

  14. On the role of code comparisons in verification and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.


    This report presents a perspective on the role of code comparison activities in verification and validation. We formally define the act of code comparison as the Code Comparison Principle (CCP) and investigate its application in both verification and validation. One of our primary conclusions is that the use of code comparisons for validation is improper and dangerous. We also conclude that while code comparisons may be argued to provide a beneficial component in code verification activities, there are higher quality code verification tasks that should take precedence. Finally, we provide a process for application of the CCP that we believe is minimal for achieving benefit in verification processes.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells with high telomerase expression do not actively restore their chromosome arm specific telomere length pattern after exposure to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graakjaer, Jesper; Christensen, Rikke; Kolvraa, Steen;


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that telomeres in somatic cells are not randomly distributed at the end of the chromosomes. We hypothesize that these chromosome arm specific differences in telomere length (the telomere length pattern) may be actively maintained. In this study we...... investigate the existence and maintenance of the telomere length pattern in stem cells. For this aim we studied telomere length in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and their telomerase-immortalised counterpart (hMSC-telo1) during extended proliferation as well as after irradiation. Telomere lengths...... were measured using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (Q-FISH). RESULTS: A telomere length pattern was found to exist in primary hMSC's as well as in hMSC-telo1. This pattern is similar to what was previously found in lymphocytes and fibroblasts. The cells were then exposed to a high dose of ionizing...

  16. Flame Length (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  17. [Synergetic Inhibitory Effect of Free Ammonia and Aeration Phase Length Control on the Activity of Nitrifying Bacteria]. (United States)

    Sun, Hong-wei; Lü, Xin-tao; Wei, Xue-fen; Zhao, Hua-nan; Ma, Juan; Fang, Xiao-hang


    Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) labeled with R(Ahead), R(Exact) and R(Exceed) were employed to investigate the synergetic inhibition effect of free ammonia (FA) and length of aeration phase on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria ( AOB) and nitrite- oxidizing bacteria (NOB) after shortcut nitritation was achieved in the systems. The experiments were conducted under the conditions of three FA concentrations (0.5, 5. 1, 10.1 mg · L⁻¹) combined with three kinds of aeration time (t(Exact): the time when ammonia oxidation was completed; t(Ahead): 30 min ahead of the time when ammonia oxidation was completed; t(Exceed): 30 min exceeded when the time ammonia oxidation was completed). It was found that short-cut nitrification could be successfully established in three reactors with a FA level of 10.1 mg · L⁻¹. Meanwhile, the speed of achieving nitritation was in the sequence of R(Ahead) > R(Exact) > R(Exceed) with operational cycles of 56, 62 and 72, respectively. Compared to AOB, NOB in the three reactors was observed to be more sensitive to FA, resulting in AOB activity higher than NOB activity throughout the whole experimental period. Moreover, there was great difference in the activity coefficient ( η) between AOB and NOB. The activity coefficients of AOB were in the order of η(RExact) > η(RExceed) > η(RAhead) with the values of 104.4%, 100% and 85.8%, respectively. Nevertheless, the activity coefficients of NOB were in the order of η(RExceed) > η(RExact) > η(RAhead) with the values of 71.2%, 64.9% and 50.2%, respectively.

  18. On power consumption issues in FIR filters with application to communication receivers: complexity, word length, and switching activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havashki, Asghar


    channel estimation must be upheld, in particular at medium-to-high Channel Signal to Noise Ratios (CSNR). Furthermore, reducing the power consumption through word-length optimization, when realizing such estimators, is an attractive approach. Due to the characteristics of the input signal to such estimators, a special treatment of channel estimation error due to quantization of estimator filter coefficients is needed. In this thesis we investigate the impact of finite coefficient word length on channel estimator performance. A theoretical analysis of the increase in channel estimation error due to quantization of estimator coefficients is performed, and the behavior of this error in different fading environments and for different filter orders is studied. The power consumed in a channel estimator is also influenced by the switching activity in the input signal of the estimator. Characterizing the switching activity in the input signal, including how this activity changes in different environments, e.g., in the presence of noise, is a subject of the work performed in this thesis. In this study we give an expression for direct calculation of the correlation coefficient for the most significant bit in a signal, using the word-level correlation coefficient. We also derive expressions for accurately calculating the variance and word-level correlation coefficient for a correlated signal, when an additional noise of a given variance is added to the signal. This can be used to estimate the bit-level switching activity in a signal in the presence of noise, based on the Dual Bit Type (DBT) method. The impact the additional noise has on the switching activity of a correlated signal has also been studied. These results make it possible for a designer to model the actual input switching activity in different real life noisy environments, enabling realistic power consumption estimation. A study on switching activity reduction in estimator filters using a coefficient reordering method

  19. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eMazelet


    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  20. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification (United States)


    Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way...information exchange, and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. REPORT DOCUMENTATION ...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VERIFICATION GAMES: CROWD-SOURCED FORMAL VERIFICATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750

  1. Adsorption and biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol by mixed culture using activated carbon as a supporting medium-reactor performance and model verification (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hui


    A non-steady-state mathematical model system for the kinetics of adsorption and biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) by attached and suspended biomass on activated carbon process was derived. The mechanisms in the model system included 2-CP adsorption by activated carbon, 2-CP mass transport diffusion in biofilm, and biodegradation by attached and suspended biomass. Batch kinetic tests were performed to determine surface diffusivity of 2-CP, adsorption parameters for 2-CP, and biokinetic parameters of biomass. Experiments were conducted using a biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor system with high recycled rate to approximate a completely mixed flow reactor for model verification. Concentration profiles of 2-CP by model predictions indicated that biofilm bioregenerated the activated carbon by lowering the 2-CP concentration at the biofilm-activated carbon interface as the biofilm grew thicker. The removal efficiency of 2-CP by biomass was approximately 98.5% when 2-CP concentration in the influent was around 190.5 mg L-1 at a steady-state condition. The concentration of suspended biomass reached up to about 25.3 mg L-1 while the thickness of attached biomass was estimated to be 636 μm at a steady-state condition by model prediction. The experimental results agree closely with the results of the model predictions.

  2. Verification and Validation of Flight Critical Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Verification and Validation is a multi-disciplinary activity that encompasses elements of systems engineering, safety, software engineering and test. The elements...

  3. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu


    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global dataset of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global dataset, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of temperature and growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  4. Rer1p maintains ciliary length and signaling by regulating γ-secretase activity and Foxj1a levels. (United States)

    Jurisch-Yaksi, Nathalie; Rose, Applonia J; Lu, Huiqi; Raemaekers, Tim; Munck, Sebastian; Baatsen, Pieter; Baert, Veerle; Vermeire, Wendy; Scales, Suzie J; Verleyen, Daphne; Vandepoel, Roel; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Yaksi, Emre; de Ravel, Thomy; Yost, H Joseph; Froyen, Guy; Arrington, Cammon B; Annaert, Wim


    Cilia project from the surface of most vertebrate cells and are important for several physiological and developmental processes. Ciliary defects are linked to a variety of human diseases, named ciliopathies, underscoring the importance of understanding signaling pathways involved in cilia formation and maintenance. In this paper, we identified Rer1p as the first endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi-localized membrane protein involved in ciliogenesis. Rer1p, a protein quality control receptor, was highly expressed in zebrafish ciliated organs and regulated ciliary structure and function. Both in zebrafish and mammalian cells, loss of Rer1p resulted in the shortening of cilium and impairment of its motile or sensory function, which was reflected by hearing, vision, and left-right asymmetry defects as well as decreased Hedgehog signaling. We further demonstrate that Rer1p depletion reduced ciliary length and function by increasing γ-secretase complex assembly and activity and, consequently, enhancing Notch signaling as well as reducing Foxj1a expression.

  5. Genetic basis of incidence and period length of circadian rhythm for locomotor activity in populations of a seed beetle. (United States)

    Harano, T; Miyatake, T


    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in a wide variety of organisms, although their genetic variation has been analyzed in only a few species. We found genetic differences in the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity among strains of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, which differed in origin and have been maintained in isolation. All beetles in some strains clearly had free-running rhythms in constant darkness whereas most beetles in other strains were arrhythmic. The period of free-running rhythm varied from approximately 19 to 23 h between the strains. F(1) males from reciprocal crosses among strains with different periods of circadian rhythms had circadian periods that were intermediate between their parental strains. Segregation of the circadian rhythm appeared in the F(2) generation. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in the period length of circadian rhythm is explained by a major autosomal gene with additive effects and no dominance. This hypothesis was supported by the joint scaling test for the free-running period in the F(1) and F(2) generations. We discuss possible causes for genetic variation in circadian rhythm in the C. chinensis strains in terms of random factors and selection.

  6. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu


    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  7. Repair activity of oxidatively damaged DNA and telomere length in human lung epithelial cells after exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghini, Andrea; Roursgaard, Martin; Andreassi, Maria Grazia;


    the cells toward replicative senescence, assessed by attrition of telomeres. To investigate this, H2O2 and KBrO3 were used to induce DNA damage in the cells and the effect of pre-exposure to MWCNT tested for a change in repair activity inside the cells or in the extract of treated cells. The effect of MWCNT...... exposure on telomere length was investigated for concentration and time response. We report a significantly increased repair activity in A549 cells exposed to MWCNTs compared to non-exposed cells, suggesting that DNA repair activity may be influenced by exposure to MWCNTs. The telomere length was decreased...

  8. Verification Account Management System (VAMS) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Verification Account Management System (VAMS) is the centralized location for maintaining SSA's verification and data exchange accounts. VAMS account management...

  9. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.


    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instr

  10. Monocyte activation in response to polyethylene glycol hydrogels grafted with RGD and PHSRN separated by interpositional spacers of various lengths. (United States)

    Schmidt, David Richard; Kao, Weiyuan John


    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is often cited as a "stealth" polymer, capable of resisting both protein adsorption and cell adhesion. By extension, PEG would then be expected to limit the host response. Monocyte-derived macrophages play an integral role in inflammation, and thus their response to a material can potentially dictate the overall host response to a biomaterial. In the present study, monocyte responses following interaction with a photopolymerized PEG hydrogel were compared with those from standard tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Additionally, the effect of the spacing between RGD and PHSRN, the corresponding synergy sequence on fibronectin (FN), was evaluated using peptides with differing spacer lengths grafted to the PEG hydrogel. Monocyte adherent density on the PEG-only hydrogel was comparable with that of TCPS; however, the secretion of the proinflammatory molecules interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increased dramatically following monocyte interaction with PEG-only hydrogels as compared with TCPS. The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) concentration was similar for all surfaces, while both the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and FN concentrations were above the range of the assay for all substrates. Cell density was higher on the PHSRNG(13)RGD grafted substrate as compared with PHSRNG(6)RGD, but neither sequence increased cell density versus RGD alone. Although protein concentration did sometimes vary with different peptides, this variation was minimal in comparison with the surface effects between TCPS and the PEG-only hydrogel. This study explores the roles of PEG and FN-derived peptides on monocyte activation.

  11. The Study on the Variation of the Cavity Length's Influence on the Output Pulse Train of the Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hong-e; TIAN Xiao-jian; GAO Bo


    The influence of actively mode-locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser(EDFL) cavity length variation on the noises of an optical pulse train is investigated, in theory and in MATLAB simulation. Using a simple model, the noise characteristics of the output pulse train are studied. The results show that the noises of the output pulse train increase with the increasing of the variation of the cavity length. The theory analysis and the simulation results agree well. This result is very significant for us to improve the reliability and the stability of the actively mode-locked fiber laser.

  12. Lack of activation of UCP1 in isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria by glucose-O-ω-modified saturated fatty acids of various chain lengths. (United States)

    Breen, Eamon P; Pilgrim, Wayne; Clarke, Kieran J; Yssel, Cristy; Farrell, Mark; Zhou, Jian; Murphy, Paul V; Porter, Richard K


    We previously demonstrated that uncoupling protein 1 activity, as measured in isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria (and as a native protein reconstituted into liposome membranes), was not activated by the non-flippable modified saturated fatty acid, glucose-O-ω-palmitate, whereas activity was stimulated by palmitate alone (40 nM free final concentration). In this study, we investigated whether fatty acid chain length had any bearing on the ability of glucose-O-ω-fatty acids to activate uncoupling protein 1. Glucose-O-ω-saturated fatty acids of various chain lengths were synthesized and tested for their potential to activate GDP-inhibited uncoupling protein 1-dependent oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue mitochondria, and the results were compared with equivalent non-modified fatty acid controls. Here we demonstrate that laurate (12C), palmitate (16C) and stearate (18C) could activate GDP-inhibited uncoupling protein 1-dependent oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue mitochondria, whereas there was no activation with glucose-O-ω-laurate (12C), glucose-O-ω-palmitate (16C), glucose-O-ω-stearate (18C), glucose-O-ω-arachidate (20C) or arachidate alone. We conclude that non-flippable fatty acids cannot activate uncoupling protein 1 irrespective of chain length. Our data further undermine the cofactor activation model of uncoupling protein 1 function but are compatible with the model that uncoupling protein 1 functions by flipping long-chain fatty acid anions.

  13. Increased in vitro glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, telomerase activity, and telomere length after productive human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in murine astrocytes. (United States)

    Ojeda, Diego; López-Costa, Juan José; Sede, Mariano; López, Ester María; Berria, María Isabel; Quarleri, Jorge


    Although HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) result from injury and loss of neurons, productive infection routinely takes place in cells of macrophage lineage. In such a complex context, astrocytosis induced by local chemokines/cytokines is one of the hallmarks of HIV neuropathology. Whether this sustained astrocyte activation is able to alter telomere-aging process is unknown. We hypothesized that interaction of HIV with astrocytes may impact astrocyte telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length in a scenario of astrocytic activation measured by expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). To test this hypothesis, cultured murine astrocytes were challenged with pseudotyped HIV/vesicular stomatitis virus (HIV/VSV) to circumvent the absence of viral receptors; and GFAP, telomerase activity, and telomere length were quantified. As an early and transient event after HIV infection, both TA activity and telomere length were significantly augmented (P telomere length, that may attenuate cell proliferation and enhance the astrocyte dysregulation, contributing to HIV neuropathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms involved in HIV-mediated persistence by altering the telomere-related aging processes could aid in the development of therapeutic modalities for neurological complications of HIV infection.

  14. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, P.K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ludewig, G., E-mail: [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  15. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat


    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  16. Verification and Examination Management of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Ruud


    Full Text Available As ship systems become more complex, with an increasing number of safety-critical functions, many interconnected subsystems, tight integration to other systems, and a large amount of potential failure modes, several industry parties have identified the need for improved methods for managing the verification and examination efforts of such complex systems. Such needs are even more prominent now that the marine and offshore industries are targeting more activities and operations in the Arctic environment. In this paper, a set of requirements and a method for verification and examination management are proposed for allocating examination efforts to selected subsystems. The method is based on a definition of a verification risk function for a given system topology and given requirements. The marginal verification risks for the subsystems may then be evaluated, so that examination efforts for the subsystem can be allocated. Two cases of requirements and systems are used to demonstrate the proposed method. The method establishes a systematic relationship between the verification loss, the logic system topology, verification method performance, examination stop criterion, the required examination effort, and a proposed sequence of examinations to reach the examination stop criterion.

  17. Development and verification of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for the active shields onboard ASTRO-H (United States)

    Ohno, M.; Kawano, T.; Edahiro, I.; Shirakawa, H.; Ohashi, N.; Okada, C.; Habata, S.; Katsuta, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Mizuno, T.; Fukazawa, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Miyake, K.; Ono, K.; Kato, Y.; Furuta, Y.; Murota, Y.; Okuda, K.; Wada, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Mimura, T.; Kataoka, J.; Ichinohe, Y.; Uchida, Y.; Katsuragawa, M.; Yoneda, H.; Sato, G.; Sato, R.; Kawaharada, M.; Harayama, A.; Odaka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Ohta, M.; Watanabe, S.; Kokubun, M.; Takahashi, T.; Takeda, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Yamaoka, K.; Tajima, H.; Yatsu, Y.; Uchiyama, H.; Saito, S.; Yuasa, T.; Makishima, K.


    The hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard ASTRO-H demonstrate high sensitivity to hard X-ray (5-80 keV) and soft gamma-rays (60-600 keV), respectively. To reduce the background, both instruments are actively shielded by large, thick Bismuth Germanate scintillators. We have developed the signal processing system of the avalanche photodiode in the BGO active shields and have demonstrated its effectiveness after assembly in the flight model of the HXI/SGD sensor and after integration into the satellite. The energy threshold achieved is about 150 keV and anti-coincidence efficiency for cosmic-ray events is almost 100%. Installed in the BGO active shield, the developed signal processing system successfully reduces the room background level of the main detector.

  18. Voltage verification unit (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.


    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  19. SSN Verification Service (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The SSN Verification Service is used by Java applications to execute the GUVERF02 service using the WebSphere/CICS Interface. It accepts several input data fields...

  20. Standard Verification System (SVS) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SVS is a mainframe program that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform SSN verifications. This program is called by SSA Internal applications to verify SSNs. There is also...

  1. Feature-Aware Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, Sven; Wendler, Philipp; von Rhein, Alexander; Beyer, Dirk


    A software product line is a set of software products that are distinguished in terms of features (i.e., end-user--visible units of behavior). Feature interactions ---situations in which the combination of features leads to emergent and possibly critical behavior--- are a major source of failures in software product lines. We explore how feature-aware verification can improve the automatic detection of feature interactions in software product lines. Feature-aware verification uses product-line verification techniques and supports the specification of feature properties along with the features in separate and composable units. It integrates the technique of variability encoding to verify a product line without generating and checking a possibly exponential number of feature combinations. We developed the tool suite SPLverifier for feature-aware verification, which is based on standard model-checking technology. We applied it to an e-mail system that incorporates domain knowledge of AT&T. We found that feat...

  2. Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration. (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Loram, Ian D; Stannard, Stephen R; Rittweger, Jörn


    It has been suggested that vibration causes small changes in muscle length, but to the best of our knowledge, these have yet to be demonstrated during whole-body vibration (WBV). This was an observational study to determine whether acute WBV would result in muscle lengthening. We hypothesized that acute WBV would increase electromyography (EMG) activity concurrently with measurable changes in muscle contractile length. Nine healthy males performed two conditions on a Galileo vibration machine for 15 s at 0 HZ (resting) and 6 HZ at a set knee angle of 18 degrees. Muscle tendon complex length, contractile tissue displacement of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and EMG of soleus, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis muscles were measured. At 6 HZ the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle tendon complex (MTC) amplitude (375 microm) was significantly greater (P EMG modulation were found for all muscles during the 6 HZ compared to the 0 HZ condition. The major finding was that approximately 50% of the elongation occurred within the muscle itself and was associated with preceding changes in EMG. This indicates muscle lengthening may be a prerequisite for eliciting stretch reflexes. In conclusion, there is a temporal association between EMG activity and muscle contractile tissue displacement where low-frequency WBV results in small muscle length changes and increases muscle activation.

  3. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 through spatial structuring and particle size control: from subnanometric to submillimetric length scale. (United States)

    Aprile, Carmela; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo


    This review summarizes the physical approaches towards enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide by controlling this semiconductor in a certain length scale from subnanometric to submillimetric distances and provides examples in which the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 is not promoted by doping or changes in the chemical composition, but rather by application of physical concepts and spatial structuring of the semiconductor. Thus, encapsulation inside the micropores and cavities of zeolites (about 1 nm) renders small titanium oxide clusters with harnessed photocatalytic activity. On the other hand, nanometric titanium particles can be ordered forming structured periodic mesoporous materials with high specific surface area and well defined porosity. Titiania nanotubes of micrometric length, either independent or forming a membrane, also exhibit unique photocatalytic activity as consequence of the long diffusion length of charge carriers along the nanotube axis. Finally, photonic crystals with an inverse opal structure and the even more powerful concept of photonic sponges can serve to slow down visible light photons inside the material, increasing the effective optical path in such a way that light absorption near the absorption onset of the material is enhanced considerably. All these physical-based approaches have shown their potential in enhancing the photocatalytic activity of titania, paving the way for a new generation of novel structured photocatalysts in which physical and chemical concepts are combined.

  4. Development and verification of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for the active shields onboard ASTRO-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, M., E-mail: [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawano, T.; Edahiro, I.; Shirakawa, H.; Ohashi, N.; Okada, C.; Habata, S.; Katsuta, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Mizuno, T.; Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Miyake, K.; Ono, K.; Kato, Y.; Furuta, Y.; Murota, Y.; Okuda, K. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others


    The hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard ASTRO-H demonstrate high sensitivity to hard X-ray (5–80 keV) and soft gamma-rays (60–600 keV), respectively. To reduce the background, both instruments are actively shielded by large, thick Bismuth Germanate scintillators. We have developed the signal processing system of the avalanche photodiode in the BGO active shields and have demonstrated its effectiveness after assembly in the flight model of the HXI/SGD sensor and after integration into the satellite. The energy threshold achieved is about 150 keV and anti-coincidence efficiency for cosmic-ray events is almost 100%. Installed in the BGO active shield, the developed signal processing system successfully reduces the room background level of the main detector. - Highlights: • A detail of development of signal processing system for ASTRO-H is presented. • Digital filer with FPGA instead of discrete analog circuit is applied. • Expected performance is verified after integration of the satellite.

  5. Effects of chronic treatment with the eNOS stimulator Impaza on penis length and sexual behaviors in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity. (United States)

    Chu, X; Zhavbert, E S; Dugina, J L; Kheyfets, I A; Sergeeva, S A; Epstein, O I; Agmo, A


    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has an important role in erection, and it also affects aspects of sexual behavior. In this experiment, we determined whether a compound enhancing the activity of eNOS, Impaza, could stimulate any aspect of sexual behavior and increase penis length in rats with a high baseline of sexual activity. For comparison, the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was included. Male rats were orally treated with Impaza or sildenafil for 28 days. Impaza (3 ml kg(-1)) was given daily while sildenafil (3 mg kg(-1)) was given twice weekly. Tests for sexual incentive motivation and copulatory behavior were performed just before drug treatment and at days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. In addition, the length of the protruding penis at mount, intromission and ejaculation was measured. Impaza but not sildenafil increased penis length at mount after 14 and 28 days of treatment. The compounds failed to modify sexual incentive motivation or copulatory behavior. It is suggested that Impaza enhanced intracavernous pressure, as such a pressure increase is the most likely explanation for enhanced penis length at mount. This effect, together with an absence of motivational actions, suggests that Impaza may be the most valuable treatment for erectile dysfunction.

  6. Liposome encapsulation of lipophilic N-alkyl-propanediamine platinum complexes: impact on their cytotoxic activity and influence of the carbon chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica


    Antitumor platinum(II) complexes derived from N-alkyl-propanediamine differing in the length of their carbon chain (C8, C10, C12 and C14) were incorporated in liposomes and the cytotoxic activity of these formulations was evaluated against tumor (A{sub 549}, MDA-MB-231, B16-F1 and B16-F10) and non-tumor (BHK-21 and CHO) cell lines. Stable and monodisperse liposome suspensions incorporating the platinum complexes were obtained from the lipid composition consisting of distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000) at 5:3:0.3 molar ratio. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of the platinum complexes in liposomes increased with the carbon chain length. EE% was higher than 80% in C12- and C14-derivatives. The effect of liposome encapsulation on the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was found to depend on the carbon chain length. These data indicate that the highest drug bioavailability from liposome formulations was achieved with the complex showing intermediate carbon chain length and partition between the liposome membrane and aqueous phase. (author)

  7. Investigating the role of chain and linker length on the catalytic activity of an H 2 production catalyst containing a β-hairpin peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reback, Matthew L.; Ginovska, Bojana; Buchko, Garry W.; Dutta, Arnab; Priyadarshani, Nilusha; Kier, Brandon L.; Helm, Monte L.; Raugei, Simone; Shaw, Wendy J.


    Building on our recent report of an active H2 production catalyst [Ni(PPh2NProp-peptide)2]2+ (Prop=para-phenylpropionic acid, peptide (R10)=WIpPRWTGPR-NH2, p=D-proline, and P2N=1-aza-3,6-diphosphacycloheptane) that contains structured -hairpin peptides, here we investigate how H2 production is effected by: (1) the length of the hairpin (eight or ten residues) and (2) limiting the flexibility between the peptide and the core complex by altering the length of the linker: para-phenylpropionic acid (three carbons) or para-benzoic acid (one carbon). Reduction of the peptide chain length from ten to eight residues increases or maintains the catalytic current for H2 production for all complexes, suggesting a non-productive steric interaction at longer peptide lengths. While the structure of the hairpin appears largely intact for the complexes, NMR data are consistent with differences in dynamic behavior which may contribute to the observed differences in catalytic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that complexes with a one-carbon linker have the desired effect of restricting the motion of the hairpin relative to the complex; however, the catalytic currents are significantly reduced compared to complexes containing a three-carbon linker as a result of the electron withdrawing nature of the -COOH group. These results demonstrate the complexity and interrelated nature of the outer coordination sphere on catalysis.

  8. Peptide length and folding state govern the capacity of staphylococcal β-type phenol-soluble modulins to activate human formyl-peptide receptors 1 or 2. (United States)

    Kretschmer, Dorothee; Rautenberg, Maren; Linke, Dirk; Peschel, Andreas


    Most staphylococci produce short α-type PSMs and about twice as long β-type PSMs that are potent leukocyte attractants and toxins. PSMs are usually secreted with the N-terminal formyl group but are only weak agonists for the leukocyte FPR1. Instead, the FPR1-related FPR2 senses PSMs efficiently and is crucial for leukocyte recruitment in infection. Which structural features distinguish FPR1 from FPR2 ligands has remained elusive. To analyze which peptide properties may govern the capacities of β-type PSMs to activate FPRs, full-length and truncated variants of such peptides from Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were synthesized. FPR2 activation was observed even for short N- or C-terminal β-type PSM variants once they were longer than 18 aa, and this activity increased with length. In contrast, the shortest tested peptides were potent FPR1 agonists, and this property declined with increasing peptide length. Whereas full-length β-type PSMs formed α-helices and exhibited no FPR1-specific activity, the truncated peptides had less-stable secondary structures, were weak agonists for FPR1, and required N-terminal formyl-methionine residues to be FPR2 agonists. Together, these data suggest that FPR1 and FPR2 have opposed ligand preferences. Short, flexible PSM structures may favor FPR1 but not FPR2 activation, whereas longer peptides with α-helical, amphipathic properties are strong FPR2 but only weak FPR1 agonists. These findings should help to unravel the ligand specificities of 2 critical human PRRs, and they may be important for new, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory strategies.

  9. Verification of threshold activation detection (TAD) technique in prompt fission neutron detection using scintillators containing 19F (United States)

    Sibczynski, P.; Kownacki, J.; Moszyński, M.; Iwanowska-Hanke, J.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Gójska, A.; Gierlik, M.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Jakubowska, E.; Kędzierski, G.; Kujawiński, Ł.; Wojnarowicz, J.; Carrel, F.; Ledieu, M.; Lainé, F.


    In the present study ⌀ 5''× 3'' and ⌀ 2''× 2'' EJ-313 liquid fluorocarbon as well as ⌀ 2'' × 3'' BaF2 scintillators were exposed to neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source and a Sodern Genie 16GT deuterium-tritium (D+T) neutron generator. The scintillators responses to β- particles with maximum endpoint energy of 10.4 MeV from the n+19F reactions were studied. Response of a ⌀ 5'' × 3'' BC-408 plastic scintillator was also studied as a reference. The β- particles are the products of interaction of fast neutrons with 19F which is a component of the EJ-313 and BaF2 scintillators. The method of fast neutron detection via fluorine activation is already known as Threshold Activation Detection (TAD) and was proposed for photofission prompt neutron detection from fissionable and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in the field of Homeland Security and Border Monitoring. Measurements of the number of counts between 6.0 and 10.5 MeV with a 252Cf source showed that the relative neutron detection efficiency ratio, defined as epsilonBaF2 / epsilonEJ-313-5'', is 32.0% ± 2.3% and 44.6% ± 3.4% for front-on and side-on orientation of the BaF2, respectively. Moreover, the ⌀ 5'' EJ-313 and side-on oriented BaF2 were also exposed to neutrons from the D+T neutron generator, and the relative efficiency epsilonBaF2 / epsilonEJ-313-5'' was estimated to be 39.3%. Measurements of prompt photofission neutrons with the BaF2 detector by means of data acquisition after irradiation (out-of-beam) of nuclear material and between the beam pulses (beam-off) techniques were also conducted on the 9 MeV LINAC of the SAPHIR facility.

  10. Active site modification of the β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase FabF3 of Streptomyces coelicolor affects the fatty acid chain length of the CDA lipopeptides. (United States)

    Lewis, Richard A; Nunns, Laura; Thirlway, Jenny; Carroll, Kathleen; Smith, Colin P; Micklefield, Jason


    Using site directed mutagenesis we altered an active site residue (Phe107) of the enzyme encoded by fabF3 (SCO3248) in the Streptomyces coelicolor gene cluster required for biosynthesis of the calcium dependent antibiotics (CDAs), successfully generating two novel CDA derivatives comprising truncated (C4) lipid side chains and confirming that fabF3 encodes a KAS-II homologue that is involved in determining CDA fatty acid chain length.

  11. Formal Verification of UML Profil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar


    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is based on the Model Driven Development (MDD) approach which capturing the system functionality using the platform-independent model (PMI) and appropriate domain-specific languages. In UML base system notations, structural view is model by the class, components...... and object diagrams and behavioral view model by the activity, use case, state, and sequence diagram. However, UML does not provide the formal syntax, therefore its semantics is not formally definable, so for assure of correctness, we need to incorporate semantic reasoning through verification, specification...

  12. Ten1p promotes the telomeric DNA-binding activity of Cdc13p: implication for its function in telomere length regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Qian; Jianyong Wang; Na-Na Jin; Xiao-Hong Fu; Yi-Chien Lin; Jing-Jer Lin; Jin-Qiu Zhou


    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential gene CDC13 encodes a telomeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein that interacts with Stnlp and Tenlp genetically and physically, and is required for telomere end protection and te-Iomere length control. The molecular mechanism by which Ten1 participates in telomere length regulation and chro-mosome end protection remains elusive. In this work, we observed a weak interaction of Cdc13p and Tenlp in a gel-filtration analysis using purified recombinant Cdc13p and Ten lp. Ten 1p itself exhibits a weak DNA-binding activity, but enhances the telomeric TG1-3 DNA-binding ability of Cdc13p. Cdc13p is co-immunoprecipitated with Ten1p. In the mutant ten1-55 or ten1-66 cells, the impaired interaction between Ten1p and Cdc13p results in much longer telomeres, as well as a decreased association of Cdc13p with telomeric DNA. Consistently, the Ten1-55 and Ten1-66 mutant proteins fail to stimulate the telomeric DNA-binding activity of Cdc13p in vitro. These results suggest that Ten1p enhances the telomeric DNA-binding activity of Cdc13p to negatively regulate telomere length.

  13. 45 CFR 261.63 - When is a State's Work Verification Plan due? (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a State's Work Verification Plan due? 261... When is a State's Work Verification Plan due? (a) Each State must submit its interim Work Verification Plan for validating work activities reported in the TANF Data Report and, if applicable, the...

  14. Wind gust warning verification (United States)

    Primo, Cristina


    Operational meteorological centres around the world increasingly include warnings as one of their regular forecast products. Warnings are issued to warn the public about extreme weather situations that might occur leading to damages and losses. In forecasting these extreme events, meteorological centres help their potential users in preventing the damage or losses they might suffer. However, verifying these warnings requires specific methods. This is due not only to the fact that they happen rarely, but also because a new temporal dimension is added when defining a warning, namely the time window of the forecasted event. This paper analyses the issues that might appear when dealing with warning verification. It also proposes some new verification approaches that can be applied to wind warnings. These new techniques are later applied to a real life example, the verification of wind gust warnings at the German Meteorological Centre ("Deutscher Wetterdienst"). Finally, the results obtained from the latter are discussed.

  15. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.


    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  16. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark


    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  17. Revisiting the prediction of solar activity based on the relationship between the solar maximum amplitude and max-max cycle length

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, V M S; Gallego, M C


    It is very important to forecast the future solar activity due to its effect on our planet and near space. Here, we employ the new version of the sunspot number index (version 2) to analyse the relationship between the solar maximum amplitude and max-max cycle length proposed by Du (2006). We show that the correlation between the parameters used by Du (2006) for the prediction of the sunspot number (amplitude of the cycle, Rm, and max-max cycle length for two solar cycles before, Pmax-2) disappears when we use solar cycles prior to solar cycle 9. We conclude that the correlation between these parameters depends on the time interval selected. Thus, the proposal of Du (2006) should definitively not be considered for prediction purposes.

  18. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells. (United States)

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele


    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health.

  19. Integrated Java Bytecode Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael


    Existing Java verifiers perform an iterative data-flow analysis to discover the unambiguous type of values stored on the stack or in registers. Our novel verification algorithm uses abstract interpretation to obtain definition/use information for each register and stack location in the program...

  20. Quantitative Verification in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Larsen, Kim G.


    Soon after the birth of model checking, the first theoretical achievements have been reported on the automated verification of quanti- tative system aspects such as discrete probabilities and continuous time. These theories have been extended in various dimensions, such as con- tinuous probabilities

  1. Solar cycle length hypothesis appears to support the IPCC on global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper


    warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The "solar hypothesis" claims that solar activity causes a significant component of the global mean temperature to vary in phase opposite to the filtered solar cycle lengths. In an earlier paper we have demonstrated that for data covering...... lengths with the "corrected" temperature anomalies is substantially better than with the historical anomalies. Therefore our findings support a total reversal of the common assumption that a verification of the solar hypothesis would challenge the IPCC assessment of man-made global warming.......Since the discovery of a striking correlation between 1-2-2-2-1 filtered solar cycle lengths and the 11-year running average of Northern Hemisphere land air temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global...

  2. Structural properties of the active layer of discotic hexabenzocoronene/perylene diimide bulk hetero junction photovoltaic devices: The role of alkyl side chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hussein, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Hesse, H.C.; Weickert, J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience(CeNS), Amalienstr.54, 80799 Munich (Germany); Doessel, L.; Feng, X.; Muellen, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schmidt-Mende, L. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience(CeNS), Amalienstr.54, 80799 Munich (Germany)


    We investigate thin blend films of phenyl-substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronenes (HBC) with various alkyl side chain lengths ((CH{sub 2})n, n = 6, 8, 12 and 16)/perylenediimide (PDI). These blends constitute the active layers in bulk-hetero junction organic solar cells we studied recently [1]. Their structural properties are studied by both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The results support the evidence for the formation of HBC donor-PDI acceptor complexes in all blends regardless of the side chain length of the HBC molecule. These complexes are packed into a layered structure parallel to the substrate for short side chain HBC molecules (n = 6 and 8). The layered structure is disrupted by increasing the side chain length of the HBC molecule and eventually a disordered structure is formed for long side chains (n > 12). We attribute this behavior to the size difference between the aromatic parts of the HBC and PDI molecules. For short side chains, the size difference results in a room for the side chains of the two molecules to fill in the space around the aromatic cores. For long side chains (n > 12), the empty space will not be enough to accommodate this increase, leading to the disruption of the layered structure and a rather disordered structure is formed. Our results highlight the importance of the donor-acceptor interaction in a bulk heterojunction active layer as well as the geometry of the two molecules and their role in determining the structure of the active layer and thus their photovoltaic performance.

  3. Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine micelles sustain the activity of Dengue non-structural (NS) protein 3 protease domain fused with the full-length NS2B. (United States)

    Huang, Qiwei; Li, Qingxin; Joy, Joma; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Ruiz-Carrillo, David; Hill, Jeffrey; Lescar, Julien; Kang, Congbao


    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the flavivirus genus, affects 50-100 million people in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The DENV protease domain is located at the N-terminus of the NS3 protease and requires for its enzymatic activity a hydrophilic segment of the NS2B that acts as a cofactor. The protease is an important antiviral drug target because it plays a crucial role in virus replication by cleaving the genome-coded polypeptide into mature functional proteins. Currently, there are no drugs to inhibit DENV protease activity. Most structural and functional studies have been conducted using protein constructs containing the NS3 protease domain connected to a soluble segment of the NS2B membrane protein via a nine-residue linker. For in vitro structural and functional studies, it would be useful to produce a natural form of the DENV protease containing the NS3 protease domain and the full-length NS2B protein. Herein, we describe the expression and purification of a natural form of DENV protease (NS2BFL-NS3pro) containing the full-length NS2B protein and the protease domain of NS3 (NS3pro). The protease was expressed and purified in detergent micelles necessary for its folding. Our results show that this purified protein was active in detergent micelles such as lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine (LMPC). These findings should facilitate further structural and functional studies of the protease and will facilitate drug discovery targeting DENV.

  4. Full length and protease domain activity of chikungunya virus nsP2 differ from other alphavirus nsP2 proteases in recognition of small peptide substrates


    Saisawang, Chonticha; Sillapee, Pornpan; Sinsirimongkol, Kwanhathai; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R.; Ketterman, Albert J.


    Alphavirus nsP2 proteins are multifunctional and essential for viral replication. The protease role of nsP2 is critical for virus replication as only the virus protease activity is used for processing of the viral non-structural polypeptide. Chikungunya virus is an emerging disease problem that is becoming a world-wide health issue. We have generated purified recombinant chikungunya virus nsP2 proteins, both full length and a truncated protease domain from the C-terminus of the nsP2 protein. ...

  5. Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999–2007: an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and course of peak activity (spread across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijer Adam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS has collected clinical and virological data on influenza since 1996 in an increasing number of countries. The EISS dataset was used to characterise important epidemiological features of influenza activity in Europe during eight winters (1999–2007. The following questions were addressed: 1 are the sentinel clinical reports a good measure of influenza activity? 2 how long is a typical influenza season in Europe? 3 is there a west-east and/or south-north course of peak activity ('spread' of influenza in Europe? Methods Influenza activity was measured by collecting data from sentinel general practitioners (GPs and reports by national reference laboratories. The sentinel reports were first evaluated by comparing them to the laboratory reports and were then used to assess the timing and spread of influenza activity across Europe during eight seasons. Results We found a good match between the clinical sentinel data and laboratory reports of influenza collected by sentinel physicians (overall match of 72% for +/- 1 week difference. We also found a moderate to good match between the clinical sentinel data and laboratory reports of influenza from non-sentinel sources (overall match of 60% for +/- 1 week. There were no statistically significant differences between countries using ILI (influenza-like illness or ARI (acute respiratory disease as case definition. When looking at the peak-weeks of clinical activity, the average length of an influenza season in Europe was 15.6 weeks (median 15 weeks; range 12–19 weeks. Plotting the peak weeks of clinical influenza activity reported by sentinel GPs against the longitude or latitude of each country indicated that there was a west-east spread of peak activity (spread of influenza across Europe in four winters (2001–2002, 2002–2003, 2003–2004 and 2004–2005 and a south-north spread in three winters (2001–2002, 2004–2005 and 2006

  6. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  7. Robust verification analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, William, E-mail: [Sandia National Laboratories, Center for Computing Research, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Witkowski, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Verification and Validation, Uncertainty Quantification, Credibility Processes Department, Engineering Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Kamm, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Methods and Algorithms Group, Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wildey, Tim [Sandia National Laboratories, Center for Computing Research, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)


    We introduce a new methodology for inferring the accuracy of computational simulations through the practice of solution verification. We demonstrate this methodology on examples from computational heat transfer, fluid dynamics and radiation transport. Our methodology is suited to both well- and ill-behaved sequences of simulations. Our approach to the analysis of these sequences of simulations incorporates expert judgment into the process directly via a flexible optimization framework, and the application of robust statistics. The expert judgment is systematically applied as constraints to the analysis, and together with the robust statistics guards against over-emphasis on anomalous analysis results. We have named our methodology Robust Verification. Our methodology is based on utilizing multiple constrained optimization problems to solve the verification model in a manner that varies the analysis' underlying assumptions. Constraints applied in the analysis can include expert judgment regarding convergence rates (bounds and expectations) as well as bounding values for physical quantities (e.g., positivity of energy or density). This approach then produces a number of error models, which are then analyzed through robust statistical techniques (median instead of mean statistics). This provides self-contained, data and expert informed error estimation including uncertainties for both the solution itself and order of convergence. Our method produces high quality results for the well-behaved cases relatively consistent with existing practice. The methodology can also produce reliable results for ill-behaved circumstances predicated on appropriate expert judgment. We demonstrate the method and compare the results with standard approaches used for both code and solution verification on well-behaved and ill-behaved simulations.

  8. Estimation of genome length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The genome length is a fundamental feature of a species. This note outlined the general concept and estimation method of the physical and genetic length. Some formulae for estimating the genetic length were derived in detail. As examples, the genome genetic length of Pinus pinaster Ait. and the genetic length of chromosome Ⅵ of Oryza sativa L. were estimated from partial linkage data.

  9. Inhibition mechanism of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by mPEG-PLA and influence of PLA chain length on P-glycoprotein inhibition activity. (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Xinru; Gao, Yajie; Zhou, Yanxia; Ma, Shujin; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jinwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinglin; Yin, Dongdong


    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) on the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells and further unravel the relationship between PLA chain length in mPEG-PLA and influence on P-gp efflux and the action mechanism. The transport results of rhodamine 123 (R123) across Caco-2 cell monolayers suggested that mPEG-PLA unimers were responsible for its P-gp inhibitory effect. Furthermore, transport studies of R123 revealed that the inhibitory potential of P-gp efflux by mPEG-PLA analogues was strongly correlated with their structural features and showed that the hydrophilic mPEG-PLA copolymers with an intermediate PLA chain length and 10.20 of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance were more effective at inhibiting P-gp efflux in Caco-2 cells. The fluorescence polarization measurement results ruled out the plasma membrane fluidization as a contributor for inhibition of P-gp by mPEG-PLA. Concurrently, mPEG-PLA inhibited neither basal P-gp ATPase (ATP is adenosine triphosphate) activity nor substrate stimulated P-gp ATPase activity, suggesting that mPEG-PLA seemed not to be a substrate of P-gp and a competitive inhibitor. No evident alteration in P-gp surface level was detected by flow cytometry upon exposure of the cells to mPEG-PLA. The depletion of intracellular ATP, which was likely to be a result of partial inhibition of cellular metabolism, was directly correlated with inhibitory potential for P-gp mediated efflux by mPEG-PLA analogues. Hence, intracellular ATP-depletion appeared to be possible explanation to the inhibition mechanism of P-gp by mPEG-PLA. Taken together, the establishment of a relationship between PLA chain length and impact on P-gp efflux activity and interpretation of action mechanism of mPEG-PLA on P-gp are of fundamental importance and will facilitate future development of mPEG-PLA in the drug delivery area.

  10. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics. (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep


    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.

  11. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P


    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  12. International Cooperative for Aerosol Prediction Workshop on Aerosol Forecast Verification (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Colarco, Peter R.


    The purpose of this workshop was to reinforce the working partnership between centers who are actively involved in global aerosol forecasting, and to discuss issues related to forecast verification. Participants included representatives from operational centers with global aerosol forecasting requirements, a panel of experts on Numerical Weather Prediction and Air Quality forecast verification, data providers, and several observers from the research community. The presentations centered on a review of current NWP and AQ practices with subsequent discussion focused on the challenges in defining appropriate verification measures for the next generation of aerosol forecast systems.

  13. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.


    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  14. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip


    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  15. Full length and protease domain activity of chikungunya virus nsP2 differ from other alphavirus nsP2 proteases in recognition of small peptide substrates. (United States)

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Sillapee, Pornpan; Sinsirimongkol, Kwanhathai; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J


    Alphavirus nsP2 proteins are multifunctional and essential for viral replication. The protease role of nsP2 is critical for virus replication as only the virus protease activity is used for processing of the viral non-structural polypeptide. Chikungunya virus is an emerging disease problem that is becoming a world-wide health issue. We have generated purified recombinant chikungunya virus nsP2 proteins, both full length and a truncated protease domain from the C-terminus of the nsP2 protein. Enzyme characterization shows that the protease domain alone has different properties compared with the full length nsP2 protease. We also show chikungunya nsP2 protease possesses different substrate specificity to the canonical alphavirus nsP2 polyprotein cleavage specificity. Moreover, the chikungunya nsP2 also appears to differ from other alphavirus nsP2 in its distinctive ability to recognize small peptide substrates.

  16. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor. (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan


    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  17. Survey on Offline Finger Print Verification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suman, R.; Kaur, R.


    The fingerprint verification, means where "verification" implies a user matching a fingerprint against a single fingerprint associated with the identity that the user claims. Biometrics can be classified into two types Behavioral (signature verification, keystroke dynamics, etc.) And Physiological (

  18. T cell activation but not polyfunctionality after primary HIV infection predicts control of viral load and length of the time without therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cossarizza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Immune changes occurring after primary HIV infection (PHI have a pivotal relevance. Our objective was to characterize the polyfunctionality of immune response triggered by PHI, and to characterize immune activation and regulatory T cells, correlating such features to disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We followed 11 patients experiencing PHI for 4 years. By polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied every month, for the first 6 months, T lymphocyte polyfunctionality after cell stimulation with peptides derived from HIV-1 gag and nef. Tregs were identified by flow cytometry, and T cell activation studied by CD38 and HLA-DR expression. RESULTS: An increase of anti-gag and anti-nef CD8+ specific T cells was observed 3 months after PHI; however, truly polyfunctional T cells, also able to produce IL-2, were never found. No gross changes in Tregs were present. T lymphocyte activation was maximal 1 and 2 months after PHI, and significantly decreased in the following period. The level of activation two months after PHI was strictly correlated to the plasma viral load 1 year after infection, and significantly influenced the length of period without therapy. Indeed, 80% of patients with less than the median value of activated CD8+ (15.5% or CD4+ (0.9% T cells remained free of therapy for >46 months, while all patients over the median value had to start treatment within 26 months. CONCLUSIONS: T cell activation after PHI, more than T cell polyfunctionality or Tregs, is a predictive marker for the control of viral load and for the time required to start treatment.

  19. Verification of LHS distributions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton


    This document provides verification test results for normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions that are used in Sandia's Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) software. The purpose of this testing is to verify that the sample values being generated in LHS are distributed according to the desired distribution types. The testing of distribution correctness is done by examining summary statistics, graphical comparisons using quantile-quantile plots, and format statistical tests such as the Chisquare test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Anderson-Darling test. The overall results from the testing indicate that the generation of normal, lognormal, and uniform distributions in LHS is acceptable.

  20. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels


    With the number of privately owned cars increasing, the issue of locating an available parking space becomes apparant. This paper deals with the verification of vacant parking spaces, by using a vision based system looking over parking areas. In particular the paper proposes a binary classifier...... system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  1. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta


    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  2. Polyester hydrolytic and synthetic activity catalyzed by the medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) depolymerase from Streptomyces venezuelae SO1. (United States)

    Santos, Marta; Gangoiti, Joana; Keul, Helmut; Möller, Martin; Serra, Juan L; Llama, María J


    The extracellular medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanote (MCL-PHA) depolymerase from an isolate identified as Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass and pI of the purified enzyme were approximately 27 kDa and 5.9, respectively. The depolymerase showed its maximum activity in the alkaline pH range and 50 °C and retained more than 70 % of its initial activity after 8 h at 40 °C. The MCL-PHA depolymerase hydrolyzes various p-nitrophenyl-alkanoates and polycaprolactone but not polylactide, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, and polyethylene succinate. The enzymatic activity was markedly enhanced by the presence of low concentrations of detergents and organic solvents, being inhibited by dithiothreitol and EDTA. The potential of using the enzyme to produce (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate in aqueous media or to catalyze ester-forming reactions in anhydrous media was investigated. In this sense, the MCL-PHA depolymerase catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate to monomeric units and the ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone and lactides, while ε-caprolactone and pentadecalactone were hardly polymerized.

  3. Using SysML for verification and validation planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George


    This paper provides an overview of the tool, language, and methodology used for Verification and Validation Planning on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project. LSST has implemented a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach as a means of defining all systems engineering planning and definition activities that have historically been captured in paper documents. Specifically, LSST has adopted the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) standard and is utilizing a software tool called Enterprise Architect, developed by Sparx Systems. Much of the historical use of SysML has focused on the early phases of the project life cycle. Our approach is to extend the advantages of MBSE into later stages of the construction project. This paper details the methodology employed to use the tool to document the verification planning phases, including the extension of the language to accommodate the project's needs. The process includes defining the Verification Plan for each requirement, which in turn consists of a Verification Requirement, Success Criteria, Verification Method(s), Verification Level, and Verification Owner. Each Verification Method for each Requirement is defined as a Verification Activity and mapped into Verification Events, which are collections of activities that can be executed concurrently in an efficient and complementary way. Verification Event dependency and sequences are modeled using Activity Diagrams. The methodology employed also ties in to the Project Management Control System (PMCS), which utilizes Primavera P6 software, mapping each Verification Activity as a step in a planned activity. This approach leads to full traceability from initial Requirement to scheduled, costed, and resource loaded PMCS task-based activities, ensuring all requirements will be verified.

  4. HDL to verification logic translator (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.


    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  5. Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology Based Reusable Verification Environment for Efficient Verification of Image Signal Processing IPS/SOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology based Reusable Verification Environment for efficient verification of Image Signal Processing IP’s/SoC’s. With the tight schedules on all projects it is important to have a strong verification methodology which contributes to First Silicon Success. Deploy methodologies which enforce full functional coverage and verification of corner cases through pseudo random test scenarios is required. Also, standardization of verification flow is needed. Previously, inside imaging group of ST, Specman (e/Verilog based Verification Environment forIP/Subsystem level verification and C/C++/Verilog based Directed Verification Environment for SoC Level Verification was used for Functional Verification. Different Verification Environments were used at IP level and SoC level. Different Verification/Validation Methodologies were used for SoC Verification across multiple sites. Verification teams were also looking for the ways how to catch bugs early in the design cycle? Thus, Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology (UVM based Reusable Verification Environment is required to avoid the problem of having so many methodologies and provides a standard unified solution which compiles on all tools.

  6. Clinical Verification of Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Van Wassenhoven


    Full Text Available The world is changing! This is certainly true regarding the homeopathic practice and access to homeopathic medicine. Therefore our first priority at the ECH-LMHI [1] has been to produce a yearly report on the scientific framework of homeopathy. In the 2010 version a new chapter about epidemic diseases has been added including the Leptospirosis survey on the Cuban population. A second priority has been to review the definition of the homeopathic medicines respecting the new framework generated by the official registration procedure and the WHO report. We are working now on a documented (Materia Medica and provings list of homeopathic remedies to facilitate the registration of our remedies. The new challenges are: first of all more good research proposals and as such more funding (possible through ISCHI + Blackie Foundation as examples [2]; international acceptance of new guidelines for proving and clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms (Proposals are ready for discussion; total reconsideration of the homeopathic repertories including results of the clinical verification of the symptoms. The world is changing, we are part of the world and changes are needed also for homeopathy!

  7. Shortened telomere length is demonstrated in T-cell subsets together with a pronounced increased telomerase activity in CD4 positive T cells from blood of patients with mycosis fungoides and parapsoriasis. (United States)

    Wu, K D; Hansen, E R


    We have recently demonstrated that telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in lymphocytes from peripheral blood of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In order to determine which cell type has increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length, CD4+, CD8+, CLA+ CD3+ and CLA- CD3+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of 25 patients, including 15 patients with mycosis fungoides and 10 patients with parapsoriasis. Eleven healthy individuals were used as controls; CD19+ B cells were separated from each individual as an internal control. The results showed that the increased telomerase activity was significantly predominating in the CD4+ T-cell subset. Significantly shortened telomere length was found in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets from the patients compared with the same cell subsets obtained from healthy individuals. However, no difference was observed between the subsets; CD19+ B cells collected from patients and healthy control individuals had similar telomerase activity and telomere length which was significantly different from the values found in T cells. The telomere length was significantly shorter in CLA+ CD3+ subset than in CLA- CD3+ subset. Interestingly, increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length was also detected in CD4+ T cells from patients with parapsoriasis indicating that alteration of telomerase activity and telomere length in CD4+ T cells is an early event in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Thus, the results indicate that a significant high level of telomerase activity and shortened telomere length frequently occur in T cells of patients with CTCL and may reflect tumorigenesis.

  8. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  9. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  10. Online fingerprint verification. (United States)

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K


    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  11. Crystal Structure of Full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Glycogen Branching Enzyme; Insights of N-Terminal [beta]-Sandwich in Sustrate Specifity and Enzymatic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kuntal; Kumar, Shiva; Sharma, Shikha; Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Suhail; Xu, H. Eric; Agrawal, Pushpa; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (IMT-India)


    The open reading frame Rv1326c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv encodes for an {alpha}-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (MtbGlgB, EC, Uniprot entry Q10625). This enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13 and catalyzes the branching of a linear glucose chain during glycogenesis by cleaving a 1 {yields} 4 bond and making a new 1 {yields} 6 bond. Here, we show the crystal structure of full-length MtbGlgB (MtbGlgBWT) at 2.33-{angstrom} resolution. MtbGlgBWT contains four domains: N1 {beta}-sandwich, N2 {beta}-sandwich, a central ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} domain that houses the catalytic site, and a C-terminal {beta}-sandwich. We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues deleted) Mtb{Delta}108GlgB protein. The N1 {beta}-sandwich, which is formed by the first 105 amino acids and superimposes well with the N2 {beta}-sandwich, is shown to have an influence in substrate binding in the amylase assay. Also, we have checked and shown that several GH13 family inhibitors are ineffective against MtbGlgBWT and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism, for the amylase activity (1 {yields} 4 bond breakage) and isomerization (1 {yields} 6 bond formation), which occurs in the same catalytic pocket. The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (EC{Delta}112GlgB).

  12. 40 CFR 1065.307 - Linearity verification. (United States)


    ... linearity verification generally consists of introducing a series of at least 10 reference values to a... reference values of the linearity verification. For pressure, temperature, dewpoint, and GC-ECD linearity verifications, we recommend at least three reference values. For all other linearity verifications select...

  13. NADH oxidase activity (NOX) and enlargement of HeLa cells oscillate with two different temperature-compensated period lengths of 22 and 24 minutes corresponding to different NOX forms (United States)

    Wang, S.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.


    NOX proteins are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone (NADH) oxidases with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity. A defining characteristic of NOX proteins is that the two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. HeLa cells exhibit at least two forms of NOX. One is tumor-associated (tNOX) and is inhibited by putative quinone site inhibitors (e.g., capsaicin or the antitumor sulfonylurea, LY181984). Another is constitutive (CNOX) and refractory to inhibition. The periodic alternation of activities and drug sensitivity of the NADH oxidase activity observed with intact HeLa cells was retained in isolated plasma membranes and with the solubilized and partially purified enzyme. At least two activities were present. One had a period length of 24 min and the other had a period length of 22 min. The lengths of both the 22 and the 24 min periods were temperature compensated (approximately the same when measured at 17, 27 or 37 degrees C) whereas the rate of NADH oxidation approximately doubled with each 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The rate of increase in cell area of HeLa cells when measured by video-enhanced light microscopy also exhibited a complex period of oscillations reflective of both 22 and 24 min period lengths. The findings demonstrate the presence of a novel oscillating NOX activity at the surface of cancer cells with a period length of 22 min in addition to the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells and tissues with a period length of 24 min.

  14. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.


    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  15. Corepressor effect on androgen receptor activity varies with the length of the CAG encoded polyglutamine repeat and is dependent on receptor/corepressor ratio in prostate cancer cells. (United States)

    Buchanan, Grant; Need, Eleanor F; Barrett, Jeffrey M; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Thompson, Vanessa C; Butler, Lisa M; Marshall, Villis R; Tilley, Wayne D; Coetzee, Gerhard A


    The response of prostate cells to androgens reflects a combination of androgen receptor (AR) transactivation and transrepression, but how these two processes differ mechanistically and influence prostate cancer risk and disease outcome remain elusive. Given recent interest in targeting AR transrepressive processes, a better understanding of AR/corepressor interaction and responses is warranted. Here, we used transactivation and interaction assays with wild-type and mutant ARs, and deletion AR fragments, to dissect the relationship between AR and the corepressor, silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT). We additionally tested how these processes are influenced by AR agonist and antagonist ligands, as well as by variation in the polyglutamine tract in the AR amino terminal domain (NTD), which is encoded by a polymorphic CAG repeat in the gene. SMRT was recruited to the AR ligand binding domain by agonist ligand, and as determined by the effect of strategic mutations in activation function 2 (AF-2), requires a precise conformation of that domain. A distinct region of SMRT also mediated interaction with the AR-NTD via the transactivation unit 5 (TAU5; residues 315-538) region. The degree to which SMRT was able to repress AR increased from 17% to 56% as the AR polyglutamine repeat length was increased from 9 to 42 residues, but critically this effect could be abolished by increasing the SMRT:AR molar ratio. These data suggest that the extent to which the CAG encoded polyglutamine repeat influences AR activity represents a balance between corepressor and coactivator occupancy of the same ligand-dependent and independent AR interaction surfaces. Changes in the homeostatic relationship of AR to these molecules, including SMRT, may explain the variable penetrance of the CAG repeat and the loss of AR signaling flexibility in prostate cancer progression.

  16. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E


    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  17. Simulation environment based on the Universal Verification Methodology (United States)

    Fiergolski, A.


    Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) is a standardized approach of verifying integrated circuit designs, targeting a Coverage-Driven Verification (CDV). It combines automatic test generation, self-checking testbenches, and coverage metrics to indicate progress in the design verification. The flow of the CDV differs from the traditional directed-testing approach. With the CDV, a testbench developer, by setting the verification goals, starts with an structured plan. Those goals are targeted further by a developed testbench, which generates legal stimuli and sends them to a device under test (DUT). The progress is measured by coverage monitors added to the simulation environment. In this way, the non-exercised functionality can be identified. Moreover, the additional scoreboards indicate undesired DUT behaviour. Such verification environments were developed for three recent ASIC and FPGA projects which have successfully implemented the new work-flow: (1) the CLICpix2 65 nm CMOS hybrid pixel readout ASIC design; (2) the C3PD 180 nm HV-CMOS active sensor ASIC design; (3) the FPGA-based DAQ system of the CLICpix chip. This paper, based on the experience from the above projects, introduces briefly UVM and presents a set of tips and advices applicable at different stages of the verification process-cycle.

  18. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification (United States)

    Windley, Phillip J.


    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  19. Biometric verification with correlation filters (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit


    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification.

  20. Numident Online Verification Utility (NOVU) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — NOVU is a mainframe application that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform real-time SSN verifications. This program is called by other SSA online programs that serve as...

  1. Verification, Validation and Accreditation (United States)


    bilinear- elastoplastic model linear-elastic model primary structural material linear-elastic model component occurrence [1.2] [1.1] length 2 + Product...139 Libraries & Databases Classification Codes, Materials, Personnel, Procedures, … b0. Federated Descriptive Models Damaged Stability FEA Abaqus

  2. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications (United States)

    March, Paul


    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  3. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids. (United States)

    Touchette, Megan H; Bommineni, Gopal R; Delle Bovi, Richard J; Gadbery, John E; Nicora, Carrie D; Shukla, Anil K; Kyle, Jennifer E; Metz, Thomas O; Martin, Dwight W; Sampson, Nicole S; Miller, W Todd; Tonge, Peter J; Seeliger, Jessica C


    Although they are classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl β-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids known as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. Here, we show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl β-diol substrate analogues. By applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinases PknB and PknE modify PapA5 on three overlapping Thr residues and that a fourth Thr is unique to PknE phosphorylation. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and indicate post-translational modifications that warrant further elucidation for their roles in the regulation of DIM biosynthesis.

  4. Organics Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Niewolny, Laurie A.; Johnston, Robert K.


    Sinclair and Dyes Inlets near Bremerton, Washington, are on the State of Washington 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue. Because significant cleanup and source control activities have been conducted in the inlets since the data supporting the 1998 303(d) listings were collected, two verification studies were performed to address the 303(d) segments that were listed for metal and organic contaminants in marine sediment. The Metals Verification Study (MVS) was conducted in 2003; the final report, Metals Verification Study for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington, was published in March 2004 (Kohn et al. 2004). This report describes the Organics Verification Study that was conducted in 2005. The study approach was similar to the MVS in that many surface sediment samples were screened for the major classes of organic contaminants, and then the screening results and other available data were used to select a subset of samples for quantitative chemical analysis. Because the MVS was designed to obtain representative data on concentrations of contaminants in surface sediment throughout Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, and Rich Passage, aliquots of the 160 MVS sediment samples were used in the analysis for the Organics Verification Study. However, unlike metals screening methods, organics screening methods are not specific to individual organic compounds, and are not available for some target organics. Therefore, only the quantitative analytical results were used in the organics verification evaluation. The results of the Organics Verification Study showed that sediment quality outside of Sinclair Inlet is unlikely to be impaired because of organic contaminants. Similar to the results for metals, in Sinclair Inlet, the distribution of residual organic contaminants is generally limited to nearshore areas already within the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bulgakova


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents a semi-automatic speaker verification system based on comparing of formant values, statistics of phone lengths and melodic characteristics as well. Due to the development of speech technology, there is an increased interest now in searching for expert speaker verification systems, which have high reliability and low labour intensiveness because of the automation of data processing for the expert analysis. System Description. We present a description of a novel system analyzing similarity or distinction of speaker voices based on comparing statistics of phone lengths, formant features and melodic characteristics. The characteristic feature of the proposed system based on fusion of methods is a weak correlation between the analyzed features that leads to a decrease in the error rate of speaker recognition. The system advantage is the possibility to carry out rapid analysis of recordings since the processes of data preprocessing and making decision are automated. We describe the functioning methods as well as fusion of methods to combine their decisions. Main Results. We have tested the system on the speech database of 1190 target trials and 10450 non-target trials, including the Russian speech of the male and female speakers. The recognition accuracy of the system is 98.59% on the database containing records of the male speech, and 96.17% on the database containing records of the female speech. It was also experimentally established that the formant method is the most reliable of all used methods. Practical Significance. Experimental results have shown that proposed system is applicable for the speaker recognition task in the course of phonoscopic examination.

  6. Evaluation of the response of ruminal fermentation and activities of nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes to particle length of corn silage in dairy cows. (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Tafaj, M; Junck, B; Olschläger, V; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W


    The main objective of this study was to evaluate effects of particle length (PL) of corn silage (CS) on distribution of dietary particle fractions, contents of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF), cows' intake patterns and sorting activity, fermentation pro-file, and activities of nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes as well as degradation in the rumen and total tract in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, weighing 624 +/- 50 kg and 60 +/- 8 d in milk, were fed ad libitum 3 total mixed rations [about 16% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 7 MJ of net energy of lactation/kg of dry matter (DM)] containing on DM basis 50% concentrate, 10% grass hay, and 40% CS with 3 different theoretical PL at harvesting (14, 8.1, and 5.5 mm for long, medium, and short, respectively). Results showed that the amount of DM retained on sieves with 19- and 8-mm screens of Penn State Particle Separator decreased linearly with decreasing PL of CS. The latter was reflected in a significant decrease in the content of dietary peNDF including both the DM (peNDF(>8)) and the NDF (peNDF(>8-NDF)) retained on 19- and 8-mm screens. In contrast, the fraction of particles retained between the 1.18- and 8-mm screens was increased, such that no differences among the diets were observed regarding the content of peNDF that includes DM of particles >1.18 mm (peNDF(>1.18)). The intake of particles retained between the 1.18- and 8-mm screens increased linearly, whereas the intake of peNDF(>1.18) increased quadratically with decreasing PL of CS. Sorting consumption was reduced by feeding the short CS, which was reflected in a reduced proportion of propionate and increased acetate-to-propionate ratio and butyrate pro-portion in the rumen. In contrast, no effects of PL of CS were observed on the concentration of total volatile fatty acids and pH in the rumen. In general, decreasing the PL of CS significantly increased the activities of

  7. Telomerase inhibitor imetelstat has preclinical activity across the spectrum of non-small cell lung cancer oncogenotypes in a telomere length dependent manner. (United States)

    Frink, Robin E; Peyton, Michael; Schiller, Joan H; Gazdar, Adi F; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D


    Telomerase was evaluated as a therapeutic oncotarget by studying the efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to determine the range of response phenotypes and identify potential biomarkers of response. A panel of 63 NSCLC cell lines was studied for telomere length and imetelstat efficacy in inhibiting colony formation and no correlation was found with patient characteristics, tumor histology, and oncogenotypes. While there was no overall correlation between imetelstat efficacy with initial telomere length (ranging from 1.5 to 20 kb), the quartile of NSCLC lines with the shortest telomeres was more sensitive than the quartile with the longest telomeres. Continuous long-term treatment with imetelstat resulted in sustained telomerase inhibition, progressive telomere shortening and eventual growth inhibition in a telomere-length dependent manner. Cessation of imetelstat therapy before growth inhibition was followed by telomere regrowth. Likewise, in vivo imetelstat treatment caused tumor xenograft growth inhibition in a telomere-length dependent manner. We conclude from these preclinical studies of telomerase as an oncotarget tested by imetelstat response that imetelstat has efficacy across the entire oncogenotype spectrum of NSCLC, continuous therapy is necessary to prevent telomere regrowth, and short telomeres appears to be the best treatment biomarker.

  8. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris


    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  9. 10 CFR 300.11 - Independent verification. (United States)


    ... skills required for verification are often cross-disciplinary. For example, an individual verifier...) Companies that provide verification services must use professionals that possess the necessary skills and...: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants; American National Standards Institute's...

  10. Functional verification coverage measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Piziali, Andrew


    This book addresses a means of quantitatively assessing functional verification progress. Without this process, design and verification engineers, and management, are left guessing whether or not they have completed verifying the device they are designing.

  11. Comparison of intensities and rest periods for VO2max verification testing procedures. (United States)

    Nolan, P B; Beaven, M L; Dalleck, L


    We sought to determine the incidence of 'true' VO2max confirmation with the verification procedure across different protocols. 12 active participants (men n=6, women n=6) performed in random order 4 different maximal graded exercises tests (GXT) and verification bout protocols on 4 separate days. Conditions for the rest period and verification bout intensity were: A - 105% intensity, 20 min rest; B - 105% intensity, 60 min rest; C - 115% intensity, 20 min rest; D - 115% intensity, 60 min rest. VO2max confirmation (difference between peak VO2 GXT and verification trialrest periods. We recommend the use of 105% of the maximal GXT workload and 20 min rest periods when using verification trials to confirm VO2max in normally active populations.

  12. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R


    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  13. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line


    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  14. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D


    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  15. Observations on oesophageal length. (United States)

    Kalloor, G J; Deshpande, A H; Collis, J L


    The subject of oesophageal length is discussed. The great variations in the length of the oesophagus in individual patients is noted, and the practical use of its recognition in oesophageal surgery is stressed. An apprasial of the various methods available for this measurement is made; this includes the use of external chest measurement, endoscopic measurement, and the measurement of the level of the electrical mucosal potential change. Correlative studies of these various methods are made, and these show a very high degree of significance. These studies involved simultaneous measurement of external and internal oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, 42 patients with sliding type hiatal hernia, and 17 patients with a peptic stricture in association with hiatal hernia. The method of measuring oesophageal length by the use of the external chest measurement, that is, the distance between the lower incisor teeth and the xiphisternum, measured with the neck fully extended and the patient lying supine, is described in detail, its practical application in oesophageal surgery is illustrated, and its validity tested by internal measurements. The findings of this study demonstrate that the external chest measurement provides a mean of assessing the true static length of the oesophagus, corrected for the size of the individual. Images PMID:941114

  16. Equilibrium CO bond lengths (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.


    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  17. Guidance for the verification and validation of neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pullum, L; Darrah, M


    Guidance for the Verification and Validation of Neural Networks is a supplement to the IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation, IEEE Std 1012-1998. Born out of a need by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's safety- and mission-critical research, this book compiles over five years of applied research and development efforts. It is intended to assist the performance of verification and validation (V&V) activities on adaptive software systems, with emphasis given to neural network systems. The book discusses some of the difficulties with trying to assure adaptive systems in general, presents techniques and advice for the V&V practitioner confronted with such a task, and based on a neural network case study, identifies specific tasking and recommendations for the V&V of neural network systems.

  18. Experimental verification of proton beam monitoring in a human body by use of activity image of positron-emitting nuclei generated by nuclear fragmentation reaction. (United States)

    Nishio, Teiji; Miyatake, Aya; Inoue, Kazumasa; Gomi-Miyagishi, Tomoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kameoka, Satoru; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ogino, Takashi


    Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy that enables concentration of dose on a tumor by use of a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair-annihilation gamma rays from positron-emitting nuclei generated by the nuclear fragmentation reaction of the incident protons on target nuclei using a PET apparatus. The activity of the positron-emitting nuclei generated in a patient was measured with a PET-CT apparatus after proton beam irradiation of the patient. Activity measurement was performed in patients with tumors of the brain, head and neck, liver, lungs, and sacrum. The 3-D PET image obtained on the CT image showed the visual correspondence with the irradiation area of the proton beam. Moreover, it was confirmed that there were differences in the strength of activity from the PET-CT images obtained at each irradiation site. The values of activity obtained from both measurement and calculation based on the reaction cross section were compared, and it was confirmed that the intensity and the distribution of the activity changed with the start time of the PET imaging after proton beam irradiation. The clinical use of this information about the positron-emitting nuclei will be important for promoting proton treatment with higher accuracy in the future.

  19. Telomerase inhibitor imetelstat has preclinical activity across the spectrum of non-small cell lung cancer oncogenotypes in a telomere length dependent manner


    Frink, Robin E.; Peyton, Michael; Schiller, Joan H.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Shay, Jerry W.; Minna, John D.


    Telomerase was evaluated as a therapeutic oncotarget by studying the efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to determine the range of response phenotypes and identify potential biomarkers of response. A panel of 63 NSCLC cell lines was studied for telomere length and imetelstat efficacy in inhibiting colony formation and no correlation was found with patient characteristics, tumor histology, and oncogenotypes. While there was no overal...

  20. Status and verification strategy for ITER neutronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, Michael, E-mail: [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Angelone, Maurizio [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Batistoni, Paola [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bertalot, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Eskhult, Jonas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 Nyköping (Sweden); Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Pampin, Raul [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Polevoi, Alexei; Polunovskiy, Eduard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    The paper summarizes the current status of neutronics at ITER and a first set of proposals for experimental programmes to be conducted in the early operational life-time of ITER are described for the more crucial areas. These include a TF coils heating benchmark, a streaming benchmark and streaming measurements by activation on ITER itself. Also on ITER the measurement of activated water from triton burn-up should be planned and performed. This will require the measurement of triton burn-up in DD phase. Measurements of neutron flux in the tokamak building during DD operations should also be carried out. The use of JET for verification of shut down dose rate estimates is desirable. Other facilities to examine the production and behaviour of activated corrosion products and the shielding properties of concretes to high energy (6 MeV) gamma-rays are recommended.

  1. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer


    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for verifying timed temporal properties of continuous dynamical systems, and to develop a method for verifying the safety of an interconnection of continuous systems. The methods must be scalable in the number of continuous variables and the verif...

  2. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.


    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and size

  3. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies. (United States)

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S


    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.

  4. Structure-Antibacterial Activity Relationships of Imidazolium-Type Ionic Liquid Monomers, Poly(ionic liquids) and Poly(ionic liquid) Membranes: Effect of Alkyl Chain Length and Cations. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qiming; Guo, Jiangna; Qin, Jing; Mao, Hailei; Wang, Bin; Yan, Feng


    The structure-antibacterial activity relationship between the small molecular compounds and polymers are still elusive. Here, imidazolium-type ionic liquid (IL) monomers and their corresponding poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) and poly(ionic liquid) membranes were synthesized. The effect of chemical structure, including carbon chain length of substitution at the N3 position and charge density of cations (mono- or bis-imidazolium) on the antimicrobial activities against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was investigated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activities of both ILs and PILs were improved with the increase of the alkyl chain length and higher charge density (bis-cations) of imidazolium cations. Moreover, PILs exhibited lower MIC values relative to the IL monomers. However, the antibacterial activities of PIL membranes showed no correlation to those of their analogous small molecule IL monomers and PILs, which increased with the charge density (bis-cations) while decreasing with the increase of alkyl chain length. The results indicated that antibacterial property studies on small molecules and homopolymers may not provide a solid basis for evaluating that in corresponding polymer membranes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.


    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Building 3550 Slab. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey is to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) to document that the final radiological condition of the slab meets the release guidelines. Verification survey activities on the Building 3550 Slab that included scans, measurements, and the collection of smears. Scans for alpha, alpha plus beta, and gamma activity identified several areas that were investigated.

  6. Design verification and validation plan for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) provides the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for drying spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins. This document presents the both completed and planned design verification and validation activities.

  7. Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis? An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length. (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; O'Donovan, Aoife; Lin, Jue; Puterman, Eli; Lazaro, Alanie; Chan, Jessica; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Wolkowitz, Owen; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa


    Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising caregivers for dementia partners (n=14) and age- and BMI-matched non-caregivers provided home sampling of cortisol-saliva samples at waking, 30 min after waking, and bedtime, and a 12-hour overnight urine collection. They were also exposed to an acute laboratory stressor throughout which they provided saliva samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from a fasting blood sample and assayed for telomere length. As hypothesized, greater cortisol responses to the acute stressor were associated with shorter telomeres, as were higher overnight urinary free cortisol levels and flatter daytime cortisol slopes. While robust physiological responses to acute stress serve important functions, the long-term consequences of frequent high stress reactivity may include accelerated telomere shortening.

  8. Mappability and Read Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian eLi


    Full Text Available Power-law distributions are the main functional form forthe distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size offragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeatsequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome canbe as long as $10^4$ bases, or $10^5-10^6$ bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of $10^3$ bases.With the read length of exactly 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of theassembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1kbreads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the humangenome (8% in GRCh37. The slow decay (long tail ofthe power-law function implies a diminishing return in convertingunmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of theread length, with the understanding that increasing read length willalways move towards the direction of 100% mappability.

  9. Verification of key odorants in rose oil by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis, odour activity value and aroma recombination. (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Li, Jing; Niu, Yunwei; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Junhua


    Rose oil is much too expensive but very popular. It's well known that the flower oil's aroma profile hasn't been intensively investigated. In order to verify the aroma profile of rose oil, the synthetic blend of odorants was prepared and then compared with the original rose oil using electronic nose analysis (ENA) combined with quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The odorants from rose oils were screened out by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) combined with odour activity value (OAV). Both ENA and QDA indicated the recombination model derived from OAV and GC-O/AEDA closely resembled the original rose oil. The experiment results show that rose oxide, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, nonanal, heptanal citronellal, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β-citronellol, hexyl acetate, β-ionone, nerol, etc. are very important constituent to rose oil aroma profile.

  10. Verification of the viability of virions detection using neutron activation analysis; Verificacao da viabilidade de deteccao de virions atraves da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacha, R.; Silva, A.X. da; Crispim, V.R [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Couceiro, J.N.S.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Microbiologia Professor Paulo de Goes. Dept. de Virologia


    The use of nuclear techniques, as Neutron Activation Analysis, can be an alternative way for the microbiological diagnosis, bringing a significant profit in the analysis time, for not needing pre cultivated samples in appropriate way. In this technique, the samples are collected and submitted to a thermal neutron beam. The interaction of these neutrons with the samples generates gamma rays whose energy spectre is a characteristic of the elemental composition of these samples. Of this done one, a virus presence can be detected in the sample through the distinction of its respective elemental compositions allowing, also, carrying through the analysis in real time. In this work, computational simulations had been become fulfilled using the radiation transport code based on the Monte Carlo Method, MCNP4B, to verify the viability of the application of this system for the virus particle detection in its natural collection environment. (author)

  11. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related cardiac troponin C L29Q mutation alters length-dependent activation and functional effects of phosphomimetic troponin I*.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Y Li

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+ binding properties of the FHC-associated cardiac troponin C (cTnC mutation L29Q were examined in isolated cTnC, troponin complexes, reconstituted thin filament preparations, and skinned cardiomyocytes. While higher Ca(2+ binding affinity was apparent for the L29Q mutant in isolated cTnC, this phenomenon was not observed in the cTn complex. At the level of the thin filament in the presence of phosphomimetic TnI, L29Q cTnC further reduced the Ca(2+ affinity by 27% in the steady-state measurement and increased the Ca(2+ dissociation rate by 20% in the kinetic studies. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that L29Q destabilizes the conformation of cNTnC in the presence of phosphomimetic cTnI and potentially modulates the Ca(2+ sensitivity due to the changes of the opening/closing equilibrium of cNTnC. In the skinned cardiomyocyte preparation, L29Q cTnC increased Ca(2+ sensitivity in a highly sarcomere length (SL-dependent manner. The well-established reduction of Ca(2+ sensitivity by phosphomimetic cTnI was diminished by 68% in the presence of the mutation and it also depressed the SL-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+ sensitivity. This might result from its modified interaction with cTnI which altered the feedback effects of cross-bridges on the L29Q cTnC-cTnI-Tm complex. This study demonstrates that the L29Q mutation alters the contractility and the functional effects of the phosphomimetic cTnI in both thin filament and single skinned cardiomyocytes and importantly that this effect is highly sarcomere length dependent.

  12. Bis(alkyl) rare-earth complexes coordinated by bulky tridentate amidinate ligands bearing pendant Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]O and Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]NR groups. Synthesis, structures and catalytic activity in stereospecific isoprene polymerization. (United States)

    Rad'kova, Natalia Yu; Tolpygin, Aleksei O; Rad'kov, Vasily Yu; Khamaletdinova, Nadia M; Cherkasov, Anton V; Fukin, Georgi K; Trifonov, Alexander A


    A series of new tridentate amidines 2-[Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]X]C6H4NHC(tBu)[double bond, length as m-dash]N(2,6-R2C6H3) (X = O, R = iPr (1); X = S, R = Me (2); X = NPh, R = Me (3); X = N(2,6-Me2C6H3), R = Me (4)) bearing various types of donor Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]X groups in a pendant chain was synthesized. Bis(alkyl) complexes {2-[Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]X]C6H4NC(tBu)N(2,6-R2C6H3)}Ln(CH2SiMe3)2 (Ln = Y, X = O, R = iPr (5); Ln = Er, X = O, R = iPr (6); Ln = Lu, X = O, R = iPr (7); Ln = Y, X = NPh, R = Me (8); Ln = Lu, X = NPh, R = Me (9); Ln = Lu, X = N(2,6-Me2C6H3), R = Me (10)) were prepared using alkane elimination reactions of 1, 3 and 4 with Ln(CH2SiMe3)3(THF)2 (Ln = Y, Er, Lu) in toluene and were isolated in 45 (5), 62 (6), 56 (7), 65 (8), 60 (9), and 60 (10) % yields respectively. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that complexes 6-8 are solvent free and feature intramolecular coordination of the P[double bond, length as m-dash]X (X = O, NPh) group to the lanthanide ions. The ternary systems 5-10/borate/AlR3 (borate = [PhNHMe2][B(C6F5)4], [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], AlR3 = AliBu3, AliBu2H; molar ratio = 1/1/10 or 1/1/1, toluene) proved to be active in isoprene polymerization and enable complete conversion of 1000-10 000 equivalents of the monomer into a polymer at 25 °C within 0.5-24 h affording polyisoprenes with polydispersities Mw/Mn = 1.22-3.18. A comparative study of the catalytic performance of the bis(alkyl) complexes coordinated by tridentate amidinate ligands containing different pendant donor groups demonstrated that replacement of the Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]O group by Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]NPh leads to a switch of stereoselectivity in isoprene polymerization from cis-1,4 (up to 98.5%) to trans-1,4 (up to 84.8%). And conversely introduction of methyl substituents in the 2,6 positions of the phenyl group of the Ph2P[double bond, length as m-dash]NPh fragment allows us to restore the 1,4-cis

  13. Program Verification of Numerical Computation


    Pantelis, Garry


    These notes outline a formal method for program verification of numerical computation. It forms the basis of the software package VPC in its initial phase of development. Much of the style of presentation is in the form of notes that outline the definitions and rules upon which VPC is based. The initial motivation of this project was to address some practical issues of computation, especially of numerically intensive programs that are commonplace in computer models. The project evolved into a...

  14. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.


    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  15. COS Wavecal Lamp Verification (United States)

    Welty, Alan


    As part of the recovery of COS following its 4/40/12 suspend event, we want to test the lamp that was on at the time of the anomaly to verify that it is behaving nominally before proceeding with FUV recovery activities.1} The LINE1 lamp current will be set to MEDIUM {as it was for 12715 visit 11, last exposure}.2} The LINE1 lamp will be turned ON.3} Wait 10 minutes.4} The LINE1 lamp will be turned OFF.

  16. Online Signature Verification Based on DCT and Sparse Representation. (United States)

    Liu, Yishu; Yang, Zhihua; Yang, Lihua


    In this paper, a novel online signature verification technique based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) and sparse representation is proposed. We find a new property of DCT, which can be used to obtain a compact representation of an online signature using a fixed number of coefficients, leading to simple matching procedures and providing an effective alternative to deal with time series of different lengths. The property is also used to extract energy features. Furthermore, a new attempt to apply sparse representation to online signature verification is made, and a novel task-specific method for building overcomplete dictionaries is proposed, then sparsity features are extracted. Finally, energy features and sparsity features are concatenated to form a feature vector. Experiments are conducted on the Sabancı University's Signature Database (SUSIG)-Visual and SVC2004 databases, and the results show that our proposed method authenticates persons very reliably with a verification performance which is better than those of state-of-the-art methods on the same databases.

  17. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions


    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.


    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  18. Fingerprint verification based on wavelet subbands (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Aviyente, Selin


    Fingerprint verification has been deployed in a variety of security applications. Traditional minutiae detection based verification algorithms do not utilize the rich discriminatory texture structure of fingerprint images. Furthermore, minutiae detection requires substantial improvement of image quality and is thus error-prone. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for fingerprint verification using the statistics of subbands from wavelet analysis. One important feature for each frequency subband is the distribution of the wavelet coefficients, which can be modeled with a Generalized Gaussian Density (GGD) function. A fingerprint verification algorithm that combines the GGD parameters from different subbands is proposed to match two fingerprints. The verification algorithm in this paper is tested on a set of 1,200 fingerprint images. Experimental results indicate that wavelet analysis provides useful features for the task of fingerprint verification.

  19. Towards the Verification of Human-Robot Teams (United States)

    Fisher, Michael; Pearce, Edward; Wooldridge, Mike; Sierhuis, Maarten; Visser, Willem; Bordini, Rafael H.


    Human-Agent collaboration is increasingly important. Not only do high-profile activities such as NASA missions to Mars intend to employ such teams, but our everyday activities involving interaction with computational devices falls into this category. In many of these scenarios, we are expected to trust that the agents will do what we expect and that the agents and humans will work together as expected. But how can we be sure? In this paper, we bring together previous work on the verification of multi-agent systems with work on the modelling of human-agent teamwork. Specifically, we target human-robot teamwork. This paper provides an outline of the way we are using formal verification techniques in order to analyse such collaborative activities. A particular application is the analysis of human-robot teams intended for use in future space exploration.

  20. Design and Verification of Critical Pressurised Windows for Manned Spaceflight (United States)

    Lamoure, Richard; Busto, Lara; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben; Leal, Mendes M.


    The Window Design for Manned Spaceflight (WDMS) project was tasked with establishing the state-of-art and explore possible improvements to the current structural integrity verification and fracture control methodologies for manned spacecraft windows.A critical review of the state-of-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice was conducted. Shortcomings of the methodology in terms of analysis, inspection and testing were identified. Schemes for improving verification practices and reducing conservatism whilst maintaining the required safety levels were then proposed.An experimental materials characterisation programme was defined and carried out with the support of the 'Glass and Façade Technology Research Group', at the University of Cambridge. Results of the sample testing campaign were analysed, post-processed and subsequently applied to the design of a breadboard window demonstrator.Two Fused Silica glass window panes were procured and subjected to dedicated analyses, inspection and testing comprising both qualification and acceptance programmes specifically tailored to the objectives of the activity.Finally, main outcomes have been compiled into a Structural Verification Guide for Pressurised Windows in manned spacecraft, incorporating best practices and lessons learned throughout this project.

  1. Design, Implementation, and Verification of the Reliable Multicast Protocol. Thesis (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd L.


    This document describes the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) design, first implementation, and formal verification. RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears an undue portion of the communications load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These guarantees are selectable on a per message basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, a client/server model of delivery, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has been commonly believed that total ordering of messages can only be achieved at great performance expense. RMP discounts this. The first implementation of RMP has been shown to provide high throughput performance on Local Area Networks (LAN). For two or more destinations a single LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any other protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast technology. The design, implementation, and verification activities of RMP have occurred concurrently. This has allowed the verification to maintain a high fidelity between design model, implementation model, and the verification model. The restrictions of implementation have influenced the design earlier than in normal sequential approaches. The protocol as a whole has matured smoother by the inclusion of several different perspectives into the product development.

  2. MOV reliability evaluation and periodic verification scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunte, B.D.


    The purpose of this paper is to establish a periodic verification testing schedule based on the expected long term reliability of gate or globe motor operated valves (MOVs). The methodology in this position paper determines the nominal (best estimate) design margin for any MOV based on the best available information pertaining to the MOVs design requirements, design parameters, existing hardware design, and present setup. The uncertainty in this margin is then determined using statistical means. By comparing the nominal margin to the uncertainty, the reliability of the MOV is estimated. The methodology is appropriate for evaluating the reliability of MOVs in the GL 89-10 program. It may be used following periodic testing to evaluate and trend MOV performance and reliability. It may also be used to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications and maintenance activities such as packing adjustments. In addition, it may be used to assess the impact of new information of a generic nature which impacts safety related MOVs.

  3. Wind-farm power performance verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P. [DEWI German Wind Energy Institute, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    Details of wind farm power performance verification procedures were presented. Verifications were performed at the DEWI test site at Wilhelmhaven, Germany. Types of power performance guarantees included power performance of individual turbines with IEC verification measurement, and Nacelle anemometer verification. In addition, availability guarantees were examined, as well as issues concerning energy production guarantees of complete wind farms in relation to nearby meteorology masts. An evaluation of power curve verification measurements was presented as well as measurement procedures relating to IEC standards. Methods for Nacelle anemometry verification included calibration of the anemometer; documentation of its exact position and chain signal; and end-to-end calibration from sensor to SCADA data base. Classification of anemometers included impact of dynamical effects; and influence on annual energy production. An example of a project for performance verification of a wind farm with 9 identical wind turbines was presented. The significance of status signals was discussed, as well as alternative methods for power-curve measurements. Evaluation procedures for energy yield and power curve verifications were presented. The upcoming set of IEC standards concerning power curve measurements was discussed. Various alternative verification procedures for wind farm power performance were reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Verification of Loop Diagnostics (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.


    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

  5. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy


    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  6. Kinetic analysis of anionic surfactant adsorption from aqueous solution onto activated carbon and layered double hydroxide with the zero length column method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Natasja; Ham, Louis G.J. van der; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Haan, André B. de


    Low cost adsorption technology offers high potential to clean-up laundry rinsing water. From an earlier selection of adsorbents, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and granular activated carbon (GAC) proved to be interesting materials for the removal of anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate

  7. An Effective Fingerprint Verification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoi, Minakshi


    This paper presents an effective method for fingerprint verification based on a data mining technique called minutiae clustering and a graph-theoretic approach to analyze the process of fingerprint comparison to give a feature space representation of minutiae and to produce a lower bound on the number of detectably distinct fingerprints. The method also proving the invariance of each individual fingerprint by using both the topological behavior of the minutiae graph and also using a distance measure called Hausdorff distance.The method provides a graph based index generation mechanism of fingerprint biometric data. The self-organizing map neural network is also used for classifying the fingerprints.

  8. Formal Verification of NTRUEncrypt Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Moghissi


    Full Text Available In this paper we explore a mechanized verification of the NTRUEncrypt scheme, with the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. More precisely, the functional correctness of this algorithm, in its reduced form, is formally verified with computer support. We show that this scheme is correct what is a necessary condition for the usefulness of any cryptographic encryption scheme. Besides, we present a convenient and application specific formalization of the NTRUEncrypt scheme in the Isabelle/HOL system that can be used in further study around the functional and security analysis of NTRUEncrypt family.

  9. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander


    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present...... and demonstrate that our platform allows for the declarative specification of a large class of properties. Even though tools that are specialized to checking particular properties perform better than our generic approach, we show with a real-world case study that our approach is practically feasible. We finally...

  10. A verification environment for bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas


    We present the BigMC tool for bigraphical reactive systems that may be instantiated as a verification tool for any formalism or domain-specific modelling language encoded as a bigraphical reactive system. We introduce the syntax and use of BigMC, and exemplify its use with two small examples......: a textbook “philosophers” example, and an example motivated by a ubiquitous computing application. We give a tractable heuristic with which to approximate interference between reaction rules, and prove this analysis to be safe. We provide a mechanism for state reachability checking of bigraphical reactive...

  11. Telomerase activity and telomere length in the colorectal polyp-carcinoma sequence Actividad de la telomerasa y longitud del telómero en la secuencia pólipo-carcinoma colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Valls Bautista


    Full Text Available Objective: the role of telomerase activity and telomere length in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colon carcinogenesis has not been well established. The objective of this study was to determine telomerase activity and telomere length patterns in patients with adenomatous polyps either associated or not with colorectal cancer, as well as the role of telomeric instability in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Patients and methods: we included in the study 14 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer and/or polyps. In 6 of these patients fresh samples of tumor tissue, polyps, and normal mucosa were obtained; in the 8 remaining cases, we collected only polyps and normal mucosa. We used the fluorescent-telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay (TRAP-F to determine telomerase activity and telomere length using Southern-blot testing. Results: telomerase activity was detected in 86% of polyps and 50% of associated normal mucosa. Mean telomerase activity in polyp tissue was 5.85; in the normal mucosa it was 0.58 TPG. Mean telomere length was 6.78 Kbp and 7.78, respectively. Polyps in patients without synchronous cancer had a telomerase activity that was significantly higher (9.4 than in those with cancer (1.1. Conclusions: telomerase activity increases in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, concurrently with a decrease in telomere length. The presence of synchronous cancer modifies telomerase activity in polyps.Objetivo: el papel de la actividad de la telomerasa y la longitud del telómero en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma de la carcinogénesis colónica no ha sido bien establecido. El objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento de la actividad de la telomerasa y la longitud del telómero en pacientes con pólipos adenomatosos asociados o no a cáncer colorrectal y conocer el papel de la inestabilidad telomérica en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma. Pacientes y métodos: se estudiaron 14 pacientes intervenidos de cáncer colorrectal y

  12. Workgroup for Hydraulic laboratory Testing and Verification of Hydroacoustic Instrumentation (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.


    An international workgroup was recently formed for hydraulic laboratory testing and verification of hydroacoustic instrumentation used for water velocity measurements. The activities of the workgroup have included one face to face meeting, conference calls and an inter-laboratory exchange of two acoustic meters among participating laboratories. Good agreement was found among four laboratories at higher tow speeds and poorer agreement at the lowest tow speed.

  13. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.E.


    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  14. A Correlation-Based Fingerprint Verification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, Asker M.; Verwaaijen, Gerben T.B.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Veelenturf, Leo P.J.; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan


    In this paper, a correlation-based fingerprint verification system is presented. Unlike the traditional minutiae-based systems, this system directly uses the richer gray-scale information of the fingerprints. The correlation-based fingerprint verification system first selects appropriate templates i

  15. Face verification for mobile personal devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Qian


    In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face sequenc

  16. A Model for Collaborative Runtime Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, Bas; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi


    Runtime verification concerns checking whether a system execution satisfies a given property. In this paper we propose a model for collaborative runtime verification where a network of local monitors collaborates in order to verify properties of the system. A local monitor has only a local view on t

  17. On Verification Modelling of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Ed; Mader, Angelika


    Computer-aided verification of embedded systems hinges on the availability of good verification models of the systems at hand. Such models must be much simpler than full design models or specifications to be of practical value, because of the unavoidable combinatorial complexities in the verificatio

  18. Verification and Performance Analysis for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems.......This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems....

  19. Verification Support for Object Database Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, David


    In this thesis we have developed a verification theory and a tool for the automated analysis of assertions about object-oriented database schemas. The approach is inspired by the work of [SS89] in which a theorem prover is used to automate the verification of invariants for transactions on a relatio

  20. Solar cycle length hypothesis appears to support the ipcc on global warming (United States)

    Laut, P.; Gundermann, J.


    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between 1-2-2-2-1 filtered solar cycle lengths and the 11-year running average of northern hemisphere land air temperatures, there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The solar hypothesis (as we shall term this assumption) claims that solar activity causes a significant component of the global mean temperature to vary in phase opposite to the filtered solar cycle lengths. In an earlier article we have demonstrated that for data covering the period 1860-1980 the solar hypothesis does not rule out any significant contribution from man-made greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. The present analysis goes a step further. We analyse the period 1579-1987 and find that the solar hypothesis-instead of contradicting-appears to support the assumption of a significant warming due to human activities. We have tentatively corrected the historical northern hemisphere land air temperature anomalies by removing the assumed effects of human activities. These are represented by northern hemisphere land air temperature anomalies calculated as the contributions from man-made greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols by using an upwelling diffusion-energy balance model similar to the model of [Wigley and Raper, 1993] employed in the Second Assessment Report of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It turns out that the agreement of the filtered solar cycle lengths with the corrected temperature anomalies is substantially better than with the historical anomalies, with the mean square deviation reduced by 36% for a climate sensitivity of 2.5°C, the central value of the IPCC assessment, and by 43% for the best-fit value of 1.7°C. Therefore our findings support a total reversal of the common assumption that a verification of the solar hypothesis would challenge the IPCC assessment of

  1. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification (United States)

    Larson, Steve


    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  2. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.


    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  3. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. II. Meristem length and mitotic activity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska


    Full Text Available Incubation in 5 and 12.5 per cent extract from Rheum officinale rhizomes causes disturbance of the dynamic equilibrium between the number of dividing cells and the number of those passing to the elongation zone. The zone of meristematic cells is shortened to 2/3 and the zone of mitoses to 1/2 after 24-h incubation in 5 per cent extract. 12-h incubation in 12.5 per cent extract does not reduce the zone of meristematic cells, although it shortens the mitosis zone to 1/5. This suggests that a high concentration of the inhibitor arrests elongation. growth. Mitotic activation of the meristem in the beginning of postincubation period occurs on a wide area since the last mitotic cycle runs in the cells of the basal part of the meristem. During further postincubation (48 and 72 h after 5% and 72 h after 12.5% extract the meristematic zone is greatly shortened and the zone of highest mitosis frequency shifts in apical direction. The mitotic activity in the apical sector much higher than in the control suggests, that the quiscent centre takes part in the reconstruction of the meristem.

  4. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen


    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  5. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels;


    BACKGROUND: Reduced production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in fetal vessels in pregnant smokers may lower the blood flow to the fetus and result in lower birth weight, length, and head circumference. The present study measured endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in fetal umbilical...... and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... in endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P

  6. A Cache System Design for CMPs with Built-In Coherence Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Dalui


    Full Text Available This work reports an effective design of cache system for Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs. It introduces built-in logic for verification of cache coherence in CMPs realizing directory based protocol. It is developed around the cellular automata (CA machine, invented by John von Neumann in the 1950s. A special class of CA referred to as single length cycle 2-attractor cellular automata (TACA has been planted to detect the inconsistencies in cache line states of processors’ private caches. The TACA module captures coherence status of the CMPs’ cache system and memorizes any inconsistent recording of the cache line states during the processors’ reference to a memory block. Theory has been developed to empower a TACA to analyse the cache state updates and then to settle to an attractor state indicating quick decision on a faulty recording of cache line status. The introduction of segmentation of the CMPs’ processor pool ensures a better efficiency, in determining the inconsistencies, by reducing the number of computation steps in the verification logic. The hardware requirement for the verification logic points to the fact that the overhead of proposed coherence verification module is much lesser than that of the conventional verification units and is insignificant with respect to the cost involved in CMPs’ cache system.

  7. SU-E-J-138: On the Ion Beam Range and Dose Verification in Hadron Therapy Using Sound Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourkal, E [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Veltchev, I [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gayou, O [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nahirnyak, V [Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi (Ukraine)


    Purpose: Accurate range verification is of great importance to fully exploit the potential benefits of ion beam therapies. Current research efforts on this topic include the use of PET imaging of induced activity, detection of emerging prompt gamma rays or secondary particles. It has also been suggested recently to detect the ultrasound waves emitted through the ion energy absorption process. The energy absorbed in a medium is dissipated as heat, followed by thermal expansion that leads to generation of acoustic waves. By using an array of ultrasound transducers the precise spatial location of the Bragg peak can be obtained. The shape and intensity of the emitted ultrasound pulse depend on several variables including the absorbed energy and the pulse length. The main objective of this work is to understand how the ultrasound wave amplitude and shape depend on the initial ion energy and intensity. This would help guide future experiments in ionoacoustic imaging. Methods: The absorbed energy density for protons and carbon ions of different energy and field sizes were obtained using Fluka Monte Carlo code. Subsequently, the system of coupled equations for temperature and pressure is solved for different ion pulse intensities and lengths to obtain the pressure wave shape, amplitude and spectral distribution. Results: The proposed calculations show that the excited pressure wave amplitude is proportional to the absorbed energy density and for longer ion pulses inversely proportional to the ion pulse duration. It is also shown that the resulting ionoacoustic pressure distribution depends on both ion pulse duration and time between the pulses. Conclusion: The Bragg peak localization using ionoacoustic signal may eventually lead to the development of an alternative imaging method with sub-millimeter resolution. It may also open a way for in-vivo dose verification from the measured acoustic signal.

  8. MFTF sensor verification computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, H.K.


    The design, requirements document and implementation of the MFE Sensor Verification System were accomplished by the Measurement Engineering Section (MES), a group which provides instrumentation for the MFTF magnet diagnostics. The sensors, installed on and around the magnets and solenoids, housed in a vacuum chamber, will supply information about the temperature, strain, pressure, liquid helium level and magnet voltage to the facility operator for evaluation. As the sensors are installed, records must be maintained as to their initial resistance values. Also, as the work progresses, monthly checks will be made to insure continued sensor health. Finally, after the MFTF-B demonstration, yearly checks will be performed as well as checks of sensors as problem develops. The software to acquire and store the data was written by Harry Chow, Computations Department. The acquired data will be transferred to the MFE data base computer system.

  9. Code Verification of the HIGRAD Computational Fluid Dynamics Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buren, Kendra L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Jesse M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sauer, Jeremy A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The purpose of this report is to outline code and solution verification activities applied to HIGRAD, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and used to simulate various phenomena such as the propagation of wildfires and atmospheric hydrodynamics. Code verification efforts, as described in this report, are an important first step to establish the credibility of numerical simulations. They provide evidence that the mathematical formulation is properly implemented without significant mistakes that would adversely impact the application of interest. Highly accurate analytical solutions are derived for four code verification test problems that exercise different aspects of the code. These test problems are referred to as: (i) the quiet start, (ii) the passive advection, (iii) the passive diffusion, and (iv) the piston-like problem. These problems are simulated using HIGRAD with different levels of mesh discretization and the numerical solutions are compared to their analytical counterparts. In addition, the rates of convergence are estimated to verify the numerical performance of the solver. The first three test problems produce numerical approximations as expected. The fourth test problem (piston-like) indicates the extent to which the code is able to simulate a 'mild' discontinuity, which is a condition that would typically be better handled by a Lagrangian formulation. The current investigation concludes that the numerical implementation of the solver performs as expected. The quality of solutions is sufficient to provide credible simulations of fluid flows around wind turbines. The main caveat associated to these findings is the low coverage provided by these four problems, and somewhat limited verification activities. A more comprehensive evaluation of HIGRAD may be beneficial for future studies.

  10. On the verification of polynomial system solvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changbo CHEN; Marc MORENO MAZA; Wei PAN; Yuzhen XI


    We discuss the verification of mathematical software solving polynomial systems symbolically by way of triangular decomposition. Standard verification techniques are highly resource consuming and apply only to polynomial systems which are easy to solve. We exhibit a new approach which manipulates constructible sets represented by regular systems. We provide comparative benchmarks of different verification procedures applied to four solvers on a large set of well-known polynomial systems. Our experimental results illustrate the high effi-ciency of our new approach. In particular, we are able to verify triangular decompositions of polynomial systems which are not easy to solve.

  11. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan


    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  12. A hybrid framework for verification of satellite precipitation products (United States)

    Li, J.; Hsu, K.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sorooshian, S.


    Advances in satellite technology have led to the development of many remote-sensing algorithms to estimate precipitation at quasi-global scales. A number of satellite precipitation products are provided at high spatial and temporal resolutions that are suitable for short-term hydrologic applications. Several coordinated validation activities have been established to evaluate the accuracy of satellite precipitation. Traditional verification measures summarize pixel-to-pixel differences between observation and estimates. Object-based verification methods, however, extend pixel based validation to address errors related to spatial patterns and storm structure, such as the shape, volume, and distribution of precipitation rain-objects. In this investigation, a 2D watershed segmentation technique is used to identify rain storm objects and is further adopted in a hybrid verification framework to diagnose the storm-scale rainfall objects from both satellite-based precipitation estimates and ground observations (radar estimates). Five key scores are identified in the objective-based verification framework, including false alarm ratio, missing ratio, maximum of total interest, equal weight and weighted summation of total interest. These scores indicate the performance of satellite estimates with features extracted from the segmented storm objects. The proposed object-based verification framework was used to evaluate PERSIANN, PERSIANN-CCS, CMORPH, 3B42RT against NOAA stage IV MPE multi-sensor composite rain analysis. All estimates are evaluated at 0.25°x0.25° daily-scale in summer 2008 over the continental United States (CONUS). The five final scores for each precipitation product are compared with the median of maximum interest (MMI) of the Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE). The results show PERSIANN and CMORPH outperform 3B42RT and PERSIANN-CCS. Different satellite products presented distinct features of precipitation. For example, the sizes of

  13. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.F.


    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System. The Manager, Richland Operations Office (RL), initiated a combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 Integrated Safety Management Verification review to confirm that PNNL had successfully submitted a description of their ISMS and had implemented ISMS within the laboratory facilities and processes. A combined review was directed by the Manager, RL, based upon the progress PNNL had made in the implementation of ISM. This report documents the results of the review conducted to verify: (1) that the PNNL integrated safety management system description and enabling documents and processes conform to the guidance provided by the Manager, RL; (2) that corporate policy is implemented by line managers; (3) that PNNL has provided tailored direction to the facility management; and (4) the Manager, RL, has documented processes that integrate their safety activities and oversight with those of PNNL. The general conduct of the review was consistent with the direction provided by the Under Secretary`s Draft Safety Management System Review and Approval Protocol. The purpose of this review was to provide the Manager, RL, with a recommendation to the adequacy of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and, to provide an evaluation of the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further, this review was intended to provide a model for other DOE Laboratories. In an effort to reduce the time and travel costs associated with ISM verification the team agreed to conduct preliminary training and orientation electronically and by phone. These

  14. Field Verification Project for Small Wind Turbines, Quarterly Report: April - June 2001; 2nd Quarter, Issue No.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Project for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.

  15. Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines, Quarterly Report: 3rd Quarter, Issue No.2, July-September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal. J.; Tu, P.


    This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.

  16. Field Verification Project for Small Wind Turbines Quarterly Report; July-September 2001, 3rd Quarter, Issue#6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Project for Small Wind Turbines conducted at the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.

  17. Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines: Quarterly Report for October-December 2000; 4th Quarter, Iss. No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, J.


    This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.

  18. Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines: Quarterly Report for January-March 2001; 1st Quarter, Issue No.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T.; Cardinal, J.


    This newsletter provides a brief overview of the Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines conducted out of the NWTC and a description of current activities. The newsletter also contains case studies of current projects.

  19. Engineering drawing field verification program. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulk, P.F.


    Safe, efficient operation of waste tank farm facilities is dependent in part upon the availability of accurate, up-to-date plant drawings. Accurate plant drawings are also required in support of facility upgrades and future engineering remediation projects. This supporting document establishes the procedure for performing a visual field verification of engineering drawings, the degree of visual observation being performed and documenting the results. A copy of the drawing attesting to the degree of visual observation will be paginated into the released Engineering Change Notice (ECN) documenting the field verification for future retrieval and reference. All waste tank farm essential and support drawings within the scope of this program will be converted from manual to computer aided drafting (CAD) drawings. A permanent reference to the field verification status will be placed along the right border of the CAD-converted drawing, referencing the revision level, at which the visual verification was performed and documented.

  20. Tackling Verification and Validation for Prognostics (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Verification and validation (V&V) has been identified as a critical phase in fielding systems with Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) solutions to...

  1. MAMA Software Features: Quantification Verification Documentation-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document reviews the verification of the basic shape quantification attributes in the MAMA software against hand calculations in order to show that the calculations are implemented mathematically correctly and give the expected quantification results.

  2. Calibration and verification of environmental models (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Weinberg, N.; Hiser, H.


    The problems of calibration and verification of mesoscale models used for investigating power plant discharges are considered. The value of remote sensors for data acquisition is discussed as well as an investigation of Biscayne Bay in southern Florida.

  3. Data Exchanges and Verifications Online (DEVO) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEVO is the back-end application for processing SSN verifications and data exchanges. DEVO uses modern technology for parameter driven processing of both batch and...

  4. Procedure Verification and Validation Toolset Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is aimed at investigating a procedure verification and validation toolset, which will allow the engineers who are responsible for developing...

  5. Seismic design verification of LMFBR structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report provides an assessment of the seismic design verification procedures currently used for nuclear power plant structures, a comparison of dynamic test methods available, and conclusions and recommendations for future LMFB structures.

  6. Standard Verification System Lite (SVS Lite) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SVS Lite is a mainframe program used exclusively by the Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE) to perform batch SSN verifications. This process is exactly the...


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  8. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)


    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  9. State of the Art in the Research of Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna-M. Edgar


    Full Text Available In recent years research in formal verification of hardware and software has reached important progresses in the development of methodologies and tools to meet the increasing complexity of systems. The explicit role of Formal Verification is to find errors and to improve the reliability on the accuracy of system design, which implies a challenge for software engineering of this century. The purpose of this research is to perform a systematic review of the literature to establish the state of the art of research in formal verification during the last 10 years and to identify the approaches, methods, techniques and methodologies used, as well as the intensity of those research activities. During the process it was found that research in this field has doubled since 2005, and that the mean value of researches conducted year after year remains the same and that prevail the application in control and interaction systems. Additionally it was found that, the case study is the most used method and that empirical research is the most applied type.

  10. An Assembler Driven Verification Methodology (ADVM)

    CERN Document Server

    Macbeth, John S; Gray, Ken


    This paper presents an overview of an assembler driven verification methodology (ADVM) that was created and implemented for a chip card project at Infineon Technologies AG. The primary advantage of this methodology is that it enables rapid porting of directed tests to new targets and derivatives, with only a minimum amount of code refactoring. As a consequence, considerable verification development time and effort was saved.

  11. GRIMHX verification and validation summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D.; Toffer, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Turmble, E.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)


    As part of the software quality assurance requirements, the reactor analyses codes used for the calculation of key reactor operating and safety parameters require formal verification and validation. The GRIMHX code is used in such applications; this document summarizes the past efforts in this area and combines them with recent new analyses performed by WSRC and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). As such, this document is the most up-to-date compilation of verification and validation information pertaining to the GRIMHX code.

  12. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay


    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  13. Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Thermal Model Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev


    FRAPCON fuel performance code is being modified to be able to model performance of the nuclear fuels of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The present report documents the effort for verification of the FRAPCON thermal model. It was found that, with minor modifications, FRAPCON thermal model temperature calculation agrees with that of the commercial software ABAQUS (Version 6.4-4). This report outlines the methodology of the verification, code input, and calculation results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja


    Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Estimation of gestational age of fetus is of great medicolegal importance. Multiple parameters of the fetal anatomical measurements are in use. However, gestational age assessment may be difficult in fetus with anencephaly, hydrocephalus, short limb dysplasia, post mortem destruction or in mutilated case. Study of literature suggests that fetal foot has a characteristic pattern of normal growth and the fetal foot shows gradual increase in length relative to the length of the embryo and could be used to estimate gestational age. The purpose of the present study is to determine the accuracy in estimating gestational age using fetal foot and hand length by studying its relation with crown rump length in the foetuses of Manipuri origin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1 To study the relationship between fetal crown rump length and fetal hand and foot length, thereby determining the accuracy in estimating gestational age by a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 formalin fixed fetuses of Manipuri origin, obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, were included in the study, carried out in the Department of Anatomy, from February 2015 to July 2015. The parameters studied were crown rump length, foot length and hand length of fetuses. The data was analysed using SPSS software by regression analysis. Graphs were also plotted to determine pattern of growth and their correlation with crown rump length if any. RESULTS A total of 100 fetuses were studied, of which 43 were females and 57 were males. The mean foot length and hand length progressively increased with increase in crown rump length. Measurements were not significantly different in right or left side or among male and female fetuses. A statistically significant linear relationship was seen between foot length and crown rump length of the fetus (r=0.980, p<0.0001 and hand length and crown rump length of the fetus

  16. Effects of Tea Saponin on Seed Germination, Root Lengths and Soil Enzyme Activities%茶皂素对种子发芽、根长及土壤酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊杰; 李宁宁; 吕辉雄; 曾巧云; 吴启堂


    Tea saponin, as a biosurfactant, has great potential to be applied to the environmental remediation. However, it has certain biologi-cal toxicity to soil ecosystem. In this study, seeds of Chinese flowering cabbage(Brassica parachinensis), mung bean(Vigna radiata L.)and maize(Zea mays L.)were selected to examine the influences of tea saponin added to soil on seed germination rates, root elongations, and the activities of soil catalase and polyphenol oxidase. Results showed that the seed germination rates(excluding mung bean)and root lengths of three plant species were significantly inhibited by tea saponin at the experimental concentrations. The inhibitory effects aggravated with in-creasing concentrations of tea saponin. When tea saponin concentration was 0.2%, the root lengths significantly decreased more than 33.1%and the germination rates reduced more than 10%, compared with the control(without tea saponin). The inhibition of tea saponin on germi-nation rates and root lengths were dependent on the plant types. The germination rates decreased in order of maize﹥Chinese flowering cab-bage﹥mung bean, while root lengths decreased in order of Chinese flowering cabbage﹥maize﹥mung bean. With increasing concentrations of tea saponin, catalase activity in soil decreased significantly, while soil polyphenol oxidase activity increased significantly.%选取玉米、绿豆和菜心作为研究对象,调查茶皂素对3种作物种子发芽及根伸长的影响情况,同时研究茶皂素对土壤过氧化氢酶活性和多酚氧化酶活性的影响。结果表明:试验浓度范围内,茶皂素溶液对玉米、绿豆和菜心种子的发芽率及根伸长均具有显著的抑制作用(绿豆种子发芽率除外),0.2%处理对3种种子根伸长的抑制率达33.1%以上,其根长显著低于对照处理,对玉米和菜心种子发芽率的抑制率达10%;茶皂素对种子发芽率及根长抑制作用的强弱与种子类型有关

  17. STAR-CCM+ Verification and Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code STAR-CCM+ provides general purpose finite volume method solutions for fluid dynamics and energy transport. This document defines plans for verification and validation (V&V) of the base code and models implemented within the code by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors (CASL). The software quality assurance activities described herein are port of the overall software life cycle defined in the CASL Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Plan [Sieger, 2015]. STAR-CCM+ serves as the principal foundation for development of an advanced predictive multi-phase boiling simulation capability within CASL. The CASL Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) team develops advanced closure models required to describe the subgrid-resolution behavior of secondary fluids or fluid phases in multiphase boiling flows within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of the code. These include wall heat partitioning models that describe the formation of vapor on the surface and the forces the define bubble/droplet dynamic motion. The CASL models are implemented as user coding or field functions within the general framework of the code. This report defines procedures and requirements for V&V of the multi-phase CFD capability developed by CASL THM. Results of V&V evaluations will be documented in a separate STAR-CCM+ V&V assessment report. This report is expected to be a living document and will be updated as additional validation cases are identified and adopted as part of the CASL THM V&V suite.

  18. Context-aware approach for formal verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Benabbou


    Full Text Available The Context-aware approach has proven to be an effective technique for software model-checking verification. It focuses on the explicit modelling of environment as one or more contexts. In this area, specifying precise requirement is a challenged task for engineer since often environmental conditions lack of precision. A DSL, called CDL, has been proposed to facilitate the specification of requirement and context. However, such language is still low-level and error prone, difficult to grasp on complex models and assessment about its usability is still mitigated. In this paper, we propose a high level formalism of CDL to facilitate specifying contexts based on interaction overview diagrams that orchestrate activity diagrams automatically transformed from textual use cases. Our approach highlights the boundaries between the system and its environment. It is qualified as model checking context-aware that aims to reduce the semantic gap between informal and formal requirements, hence the objective is to assist and encourage engineers to put sufficient details to accomplish effectively the specification process.

  19. International space station microgravity environment design & verification (United States)

    Del Basso, Steve


    A broad class of scientific experiments has evolved which utilize extreme low acceleration environments. The International Space Station will provide such a ``microgravity'' environment, in conjunction with an unparalleled combination of quiescent period duration, payload volume and power, and manned or telescience interaction. The International Space Station is the world's first manned space vehicle with microgravity requirements. These place limits on the acceleration levels within the pressurized laboratories and affect everything from flight altitude and attitude to the mechanical and acoustic energies emitted by an air circulation fan. To achieve such performance within the program's resource constraints, a microgravity control approach has been adopted which balances both source and receiver disturbance mitigation. The Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) provides acceleration attenuation at the payload rack level, and dominant sources have been reduced either by isolation or design modifications. Analytical assessments indicate that the vehicle is capable of meeting the challenging microgravity requirements, although some current marginal non-compliances do exist. Assessment refinements will continue through the verification phase with greater reliance on test and on-orbit measured data as part of a long term effort to clearly define and understand the constitution of the acceleration environment. This process will assure that the design and operation of the International Space Station will support significant microgravity science research.

  20. Improving Fingerprint Verification Using Minutiae Triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Altamirano-Robles


    Full Text Available Improving fingerprint matching algorithms is an active and important research area in fingerprint recognition. Algorithms based on minutia triplets, an important matcher family, present some drawbacks that impact their accuracy, such as dependency to the order of minutiae in the feature, insensitivity to the reflection of minutiae triplets, and insensitivity to the directions of the minutiae relative to the sides of the triangle. To alleviate these drawbacks, we introduce in this paper a novel fingerprint matching algorithm, named M3gl. This algorithm contains three components: a new feature representation containing clockwise-arranged minutiae without a central minutia, a new similarity measure that shifts the triplets to find the best minutiae correspondence, and a global matching procedure that selects the alignment by maximizing the amount of global matching minutiae. To make M3gl faster, it includes some optimizations to discard non-matching minutia triplets without comparing the whole representation. In comparison with six verification algorithms, M3gl achieves the highest accuracy in the lowest matching time, using FVC2002 and FVC2004 databases.

  1. Curve Length Estimation using Vertix Chain Code Curve Length Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Haron


    Full Text Available Most of the applications in image analysis are based on Freeman chain code. In this paper, for the first time, vertex chain code (VCC proposed by Bribiesca is applied to improve length estimation of the 2D digitized curve. The chain code has some preferences such as stable in shifting, turning, mirroring movement of image and has normalized starting point. Due to the variety of length estimator methods, we focused on the three specific techniques. First, the way Bribiesca proposed which is based on counting links between vertices; second, based on maximum length digital straight segments (DSSs and lastly local metrics. The results of these length estimators with the real perimeter are compared. Results thus obtained exhibits thatlength estimation using VCC is nearest to the actual length.

  2. Integrated Key based Strict Friendliness Verification of Neighbors in MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Vaman, Dhadesugoor R


    A novel Strict Friendliness Verification (SFV) scheme based on the integrated key consisting of symmetric node identity, geographic location and round trip response time between the sender and the receiver radio in MANET is proposed. This key is dynamically updated for encryption and decryption of each packet to resolve Wormhole attack and Sybil attack. Additionally, it meets the minimal key lengths required for symmetric ciphers to provide adequate commercial security. Furthermore, the foe or unfriendly node detection is found significantly increasing with the lower number of symmetric IDs. This paper presents the simulation demonstrating the performance of SFV in terms of dynamic range using directional antenna on radios (or nodes), and the performance in terms of aggregate throughput, average end to end delay and packet delivered ratio.

  3. Line Lengths and Starch Scores. (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra E.


    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  4. Minor modifications to the phosphate groups and the C3' acyl chain length of lipid A in two Bordetella pertussis strains, BP338 and 18-323, independently affect Toll-like receptor 4 protein activation. (United States)

    Shah, Nita R; Albitar-Nehme, Sami; Kim, Emma; Marr, Nico; Novikov, Alexey; Caroff, Martine; Fernandez, Rachel C


    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Bordetella pertussis are important modulators of the immune system. Interaction of the lipid A region of LPS with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex causes dimerization of TLR4 and activation of downstream nuclear factor κB (NFκB), which can lead to inflammation. We have previously shown that two strains of B. pertussis, BP338 (a Tohama I-derivative) and 18-323, display two differences in lipid A structure. 1) BP338 can modify the 1- and 4'-phosphates by the addition of glucosamine (GlcN), whereas 18-323 cannot, and 2) the C3' acyl chain in BP338 is 14 carbons long, but only 10 or 12 carbons long in 18-323. In addition, BP338 lipid A can activate TLR4 to a greater extent than 18-323 lipid A. Here we set out to determine the genetic reasons for the differences in these lipid A structures and the contribution of each structural difference to the ability of lipid A to activate TLR4. We show that three genes of the lipid A GlcN modification (Lgm) locus, lgmA, lgmB, and lgmC (previously locus tags BP0399-BP0397), are required for GlcN modification and a single amino acid difference in LpxA is responsible for the difference in C3' acyl chain length. Furthermore, by introducing lipid A-modifying genes into 18-323 to generate isogenic strains with varying penta-acyl lipid A structures, we determined that both modifications increase TLR4 activation, although the GlcN modification plays a dominant role. These results shed light on how TLR4 may interact with penta-acyl lipid A species.

  5. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B


    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  6. Gestation length in farmed reindeer. (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E


    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  7. Monitoring and verification R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report outlined the Administration's approach to promoting the agenda put forward by President Obama in Prague on April 5, 2009. The NPR calls for a national monitoring and verification R&D program to meet future challenges arising from the Administration's nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament agenda. Verification of a follow-on to New START could have to address warheads and possibly components along with delivery capabilities. Deeper cuts and disarmament would need to address all of these elements along with nuclear weapon testing, nuclear material and weapon production facilities, virtual capabilities from old weapon and existing energy programs and undeclared capabilities. We only know how to address some elements of these challenges today, and the requirements may be more rigorous in the context of deeper cuts as well as disarmament. Moreover, there is a critical need for multiple options to sensitive problems and to address other challenges. There will be other verification challenges in a world of deeper cuts and disarmament, some of which we are already facing. At some point, if the reductions process is progressing, uncertainties about past nuclear materials and weapons production will have to be addressed. IAEA safeguards will need to continue to evolve to meet current and future challenges, and to take advantage of new technologies and approaches. Transparency/verification of nuclear and dual-use exports will also have to be addressed, and there will be a need to make nonproliferation measures more watertight and transparent. In this context, and recognizing we will face all of these challenges even if disarmament is not achieved, this paper will explore possible agreements and arrangements; verification challenges; gaps in monitoring and verification technologies and approaches; and the R&D required to address these gaps and other monitoring and verification challenges.

  8. No difference in the rate of change in telomere length or telomerase activity in HIV-infected patients after three years of darunavir/ritonavir with and without nucleoside analogues in the MONET trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Solomon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether nucleos(tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI contribute to an accelerated loss in telomere length (TL in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART. DESIGN: Substudy of randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL on combination ART (n = 256 were randomised to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r 800/100 mg once daily, either as monotherapy (n = 127 or with 2 NRTIs (n = 129 for up to 144 weeks. TL and telomerase activity was quantified on stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; n = 124 using quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: Patients in the sub-study had a mean age of 44 years and had received NRTI for a mean of 6.4 years (range 1-20 years. As expected, older patients have significantly shorter TL (p = 0.006, while women had significantly longer TL (p = 0.026. There was no significant association between TL and either the duration of prior NRTI treatment (p = 0.894 or the use of a PI versus NNRTI (p = 0.107. There was no significant difference between patients who continued or ceased NRTI in the mean change/year of TL or telomerase (p = 0.580 and 0.280 respectively. CONCLUSION: Continuation versus cessation of NRTI treatment was not associated with an accelerated loss in TL or telomerase activity.

  9. Integration and verification testing of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope camera (United States)

    Lange, Travis; Bond, Tim; Chiang, James; Gilmore, Kirk; Digel, Seth; Dubois, Richard; Glanzman, Tom; Johnson, Tony; Lopez, Margaux; Newbry, Scott P.; Nordby, Martin E.; Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Reil, Kevin A.; Roodman, Aaron J.


    We present an overview of the Integration and Verification Testing activities of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Camera at the SLAC National Accelerator Lab (SLAC). The LSST Camera, the sole instrument for LSST and under construction now, is comprised of a 3.2 Giga-pixel imager and a three element corrector with a 3.5 degree diameter field of view. LSST Camera Integration and Test will be taking place over the next four years, with final delivery to the LSST observatory anticipated in early 2020. We outline the planning for Integration and Test, describe some of the key verification hardware systems being developed, and identify some of the more complicated assembly/integration activities. Specific details of integration and verification hardware systems will be discussed, highlighting some of the technical challenges anticipated.

  10. Tactile length contraction as Bayesian inference. (United States)

    Tong, Jonathan; Ngo, Vy; Goldreich, Daniel


    To perceive, the brain must interpret stimulus-evoked neural activity. This is challenging: The stochastic nature of the neural response renders its interpretation inherently uncertain. Perception would be optimized if the brain used Bayesian inference to interpret inputs in light of expectations derived from experience. Bayesian inference would improve perception on average but cause illusions when stimuli violate expectation. Intriguingly, tactile, auditory, and visual perception are all prone to length contraction illusions, characterized by the dramatic underestimation of the distance between punctate stimuli delivered in rapid succession; the origin of these illusions has been mysterious. We previously proposed that length contraction illusions occur because the brain interprets punctate stimulus sequences using Bayesian inference with a low-velocity expectation. A novel prediction of our Bayesian observer model is that length contraction should intensify if stimuli are made more difficult to localize. Here we report a tactile psychophysical study that tested this prediction. Twenty humans compared two distances on the forearm: a fixed reference distance defined by two taps with 1-s temporal separation and an adjustable comparison distance defined by two taps with temporal separation t ≤ 1 s. We observed significant length contraction: As t was decreased, participants perceived the two distances as equal only when the comparison distance was made progressively greater than the reference distance. Furthermore, the use of weaker taps significantly enhanced participants' length contraction. These findings confirm the model's predictions, supporting the view that the spatiotemporal percept is a best estimate resulting from a Bayesian inference process.

  11. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus


    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lukin


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an interactive method of automatic verification for parallel automata-based programs. The hierarchical state machines can be implemented in different threads and can interact with each other. Verification is done by means of Spin tool and includes automatic Promela model construction, conversion of LTL-formula to Spin format and counterexamples in terms of automata. Interactive verification gives the possibility to decrease verification time and increase the maximum size of verifiable programs. Considered method supports verification of the parallel system for hierarchical automata that interact with each other through messages and shared variables. The feature of automaton model is that each state machine is considered as a new data type and can have an arbitrary bounded number of instances. Each state machine in the system can run a different state machine in a new thread or have nested state machine. This method was implemented in the developed Stater tool. Stater shows correct operation for all test cases.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron


    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  14. Early Development of UVM based Verification Environment of Image Signal Processing Designs using TLM Reference Model of RTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain


    Full Text Available With semiconductor industry trend of “smaller the better”, from an idea to a final product, more innovation on product portfolio and yet remaining competitive and profitable are few criteria which are culminating into pressure and need for more and more innovation for CAD flow, process management and project execution cycle. Project schedules are very tight and to achieve first silicon success is key for projects. This necessitates quicker verification with better coverage matrix. Quicker Verification requires early development of the verification environment with wider test vectors without waiting for RTL to be available. In this paper, we are presenting a novel approach of early development of reusable multi-language verification flow, by addressing four major activities of verification – 1. Early creation of Executable Specification 2. Early creation of Verification Environment 3. Early development of test vectors and 4. Better and increased Re-use of blocks Although this paper focuses on early development of UVM based Verification Environment of Image Signal Processing designs using TLM Reference Model of RTL, same concept can be extended for non-image signal processing designs.

  15. Minimum length-maximum velocity (United States)

    Panes, Boris


    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  16. Verification of Tolerance Chains in Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania

    The aim of this work is to define methodologies for the tolerance verification of injection moulded components with downscaled dimensions. In micro and nano metrology different challenges can be found: lack of calibration artefacts and available ISO standards, problematic uncertainty budget...... and tolerance verifications due to no proper measuring instruments. In connection to the last issue, the characterization of optical components is often difficult to obtain using contact instruments which could damage the surface of the specimen, whereas optical measurements might be inaccurate due to scattered...... on a calibrated standard artefact and to measure both in order to assure an unbroken chain of comparisons. The replica technique reveals to be a fast, cost-effective and reliable method. Regarding the tolerance verification of micro parts and nano-structured surfaces, a systematic approach is discussed based...

  17. Ciphertext verification security of symmetric encryption schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ZhenYu; SUN FuChun; JIANG JianChun


    This paper formally discusses the security problem caused by the ciphertext verification,presenting a new security notion named IND-CVA (indistinguishability under ciphertext verification attacks) to chap acterize the privacy of encryption schemes in this situation.Allowing the adversary to access to both encryption oracle and ciphertext verification oracle,the new notion IND-CVA is slightly stronger than IND-CPA (indistinguishability under chosen-plaintext attacks) but much weaker than IND-CCA (indistinguishability under chosen-ciphertext attacks),and can be satisfied by most of the popular symmetric encryption schemes such as OTP (one-time-pad),CBC (cipher block chaining) and CTR (counter).An MAC (message authentication scheme) is usually combined with an encryption to guarantee secure communication (e.g.SSH,SSL and IPSec).However,with the notion of IND-CVA,this paper shows that a secure MAC can spoil the privacy in some cases.

  18. CPAchecker: A Tool for Configurable Software Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Dirk


    Configurable software verification is a recent concept for expressing different program analysis and model checking approaches in one single formalism. This paper presents CPAchecker, a tool and framework that aims at easy integration of new verification components. Every abstract domain, together with the corresponding operations, is required to implement the interface of configurable program analysis (CPA). The main algorithm is configurable to perform a reachability analysis on arbitrary combinations of existing CPAs. The major design goal during the development was to provide a framework for developers that is flexible and easy to extend. We hope that researchers find it convenient and productive to implement new verification ideas and algorithms using this platform and that it advances the field by making it easier to perform practical experiments. The tool is implemented in Java and runs as command-line tool or as Eclipse plug-in. We evaluate the efficiency of our tool on benchmarks from the software mo...

  19. Probabilistic Model for Dynamic Signature Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Tong Yuen


    Full Text Available This study has proposed the algorithm for signature verification system using dynamic parameters of the signature: pen pressure, velocity and position. The system is proposed to read, analyze and verify the signatures from the SUSig online database. Firstly, the testing and reference samples will have to be normalized, re-sampled and smoothed through pre-processing stage. In verification stage, the difference between reference and testing signatures will be calculated based on the proposed thresholded standard deviation method. A probabilistic acceptance model has been designed to enhance the performance of the verification system. The proposed algorithm has reported False Rejection Rate (FRR of 14.8% and False Acceptance Rate (FAR of 2.64%. Meanwhile, the classification rate of the system is around 97%.

  20. The MODUS approach to formal verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José; Berger, Michael Stübert


    in the process of providing competitive products Objectives: In relation to this, MODUS (Method and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide small and medium-sized businesses ways to improve their position in the embedded market through a pragmatic and viable solution...... Methods/Approach: This paper will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that can assist formal verification and formal model checking. Results: Based on automated analysis of the characteristics of the system and by controlling the choice of the existing opensource model...... verification engines, model verification producing inputs to be fed into these engines. Conclusions: The MODUS approach is aligned with present market needs; the familiarity with tools, the ease of use and compatibility/interoperability remain among the most important criteria when selecting the development...

  1. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, Doru S


    We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...

  2. Length Invisibilization of Tachyonic Neutrinos (United States)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza


    Faster than the speed of light particle such as tachyonic neutrino due to its superluminal nature disapper and is undetectable. L = iΩ-1Lo where, i =√{ - 1 } is imaginary Number, Ω = 1 /√{βs2 - 1 } is Estakhr's Omega factor, L is the Superluminal Length, Lo is the proper length, βs =Vs / c > 1 is superluminal speed parameter, Vs is Superluminal velocity and c is speed of light.

  3. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  4. A Novel Verification Approach of Workflow Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangqi; WANG Juying; WANG Yan; SONG Baoyan; YU Ge


    A workflow schema is an abstract description of the business processed by workflow model, and plays a critical role in analyzing, executing and reorganizing business processes. The verification issue on the correctness of complicated workflow schemas is difficult in the field of workflow. We make an intensive study of it in this paper. We present here local errors and schema logic errors (global errors) in workflow schemas in detail, and offer some constraint rules trying to avoid schema errors during modeling. In addition, we propose a verification approach based on graph reduction and graph spread, and give the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in a workflow prototype system e-ScopeWork.

  5. Time Optimal Reachability Analysis Using Swarm Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengkui; Nielsen, Brian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    and planning problems, response time optimization etc. We propose swarm verification to accelerate time optimal reachability using the real-time model-checker Uppaal. In swarm verification, a large number of model checker instances execute in parallel on a computer cluster using different, typically randomized...... search strategies. We develop four swarm algorithms and evaluate them with four models in terms scalability, and time- and memory consumption. Three of these cooperate by exchanging costs of intermediate solutions to prune the search using a branch-and-bound approach. Our results show that swarm...

  6. 340 and 310 drawing field verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, J.


    The purpose of the drawing field verification work plan is to provide reliable drawings for the 310 Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). The initial scope of this work plan is to provide field verified and updated versions of all the 340 Facility essential drawings. This plan can also be used for field verification of any other drawings that the facility management directs to be so updated. Any drawings revised by this work plan will be issued in an AutoCAD format.

  7. A New Signature Scheme with Shared Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-yun; LUO Shou-shan; YUAN Chao-wei


    With expanding user demands, digital signature techniques are also being expanded greatly, from single signature and single verification techniques to techniques supporting multi-users. This paper presents a new digital signature scheme vith shared verification based on the fiat-shamir signature scheme. This scheme is suitable not only for digital signatures of one public key, but also for situations where multiple public keys are required. In addition, the scheme can resist all kinds of collusion, making it more practicable and safer. Additionally it is more efficient than other schemes.

  8. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  9. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2016: ILAW Verification and Validation of the eSTOMP Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yilin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document describes two sets of simulations carried out to further verify and validate the eSTOMP simulator. In this report, a distinction is made between verification and validation, and the focus is on verifying eSTOMP through a series of published benchmarks on cementitious wastes, and validating eSTOMP based on a lysimeter experiment for the glassified waste. These activities are carried out within the context of a scientific view of validation that asserts that models can only be invalidated, and that model validation (and verification) is a subjective assessment.

  10. Probabilistic Verification of Multi-Robot Missions in Uncertain Environments (United States)


    uncertain environment. Verification of robot software is related to general purpose software verification in its objective of taking a program as...input and automatically determining whether that program achieves a desired objective or not [1]. It differs in that a robot program continually...Probabilistic Verification of Multi -Robot Missions in Uncertain Environments Damian M. Lyons*, Ronald C. Arkin‡, Shu Jiang‡, Dagan Harrington

  11. 24 CFR 5.512 - Verification of eligible immigration status. (United States)


    ... immigration status. 5.512 Section 5.512 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of... Noncitizens § 5.512 Verification of eligible immigration status. (a) General. Except as described in paragraph...) Primary verification—(1) Automated verification system. Primary verification of the immigration status...

  12. Secure Batch Verification Protocol for RSA Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAZongpu; LIQingchao; LIZichen


    Harn, in 1998, proposed an efficient batch verification scheme for multiple RSA digital signatures.However, the scheme has a weakness, that is a signer can generate multiple signatures which can pass the batch verification scheme, but every one of these multiple signatures is not a valid signature. To avoid this disadvantage, we propose an improved batch verification scheme.

  13. Verification of the Danish 1990, 2000 and 2010 emission inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Nielsen, Malene; Winther, Morten;

    is made with data for energy consumption (Eurostat), agricultural statistics (Eurostat), industrial processes (UN) and waste disposal (OECD). Verification in this approach is a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessments and can assist to identify sectors and categories that require more......Danish emission values, implied emission factors and activity data for the national greenhouse gas inventory are assessed according to an updated verification procedure. Focus is on 25 identified key categories, represented by 29 verification categories, and 28 Annex II indicators covering energy......, agriculture, industry and waste. The data are based on the national greenhouse gas inventories for the years 1990 (base year), 2000 and 2010, as reported in 2012, and provided by the UNFCCC and EU. Inter-country comparison and time series consistency check of emissions and implied emission factors is made...

  14. A Methodology for Evaluating Artifacts Produced by a Formal Verification Process (United States)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.; Miner, Paul S.; Person, Suzette


    The goal of this study is to produce a methodology for evaluating the claims and arguments employed in, and the evidence produced by formal verification activities. To illustrate the process, we conduct a full assessment of a representative case study for the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program. We assess the model checking and satisfiabilty solving techniques as applied to a suite of abstract models of fault tolerant algorithms which were selected to be deployed in Orion, namely the TTEthernet startup services specified and verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) by TTTech. To this end, we introduce the Modeling and Verification Evaluation Score (MVES), a metric that is intended to estimate the amount of trust that can be placed on the evidence that is obtained. The results of the evaluation process and the MVES can then be used by non-experts and evaluators in assessing the credibility of the verification results.

  15. A Verification and Analysis of the USAF/DoD Fatigue Model and Fatigue Management Technology (United States)


    We Nap: Evolution, Chronobiology, and Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep . Stampi, C. (ed) Birkhduser, Boston. Defense Acquisition...Windows® soffivare application of the Sleep , Activity, Fatigue, and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) applied model. The application, the Fatigue Avoidance...Scheduling Tool (FASTTM) was re-engineered as a clone from the SAFTE specification. The verification considered nine sleep /wake schedules that were

  16. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer


    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  17. Monitoring/Verification using DMS: TATP Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan Weeks; Kevin Kyle


    Field-rugged and field-programmable differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) networks provide highly selective, universal monitoring of vapors and aerosols at detectable levels from persons or areas involved with illicit chemical/biological/explosives (CBE) production. CBE sensor motes used in conjunction with automated fast gas chromatography with DMS detection (GC/DMS) verification instrumentation integrated into situational operations management systems can be readily deployed and optimized for changing application scenarios. The feasibility of developing selective DMS motes for a 'smart dust' sampling approach with guided, highly selective, fast GC/DMS verification analysis is a compelling approach to minimize or prevent the use of explosives or chemical and biological weapons in terrorist activities. Two peroxide-based liquid explosives, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), are synthesized from common chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, acetone, sulfuric acid, ammonia, and citric acid (Figure 1). Recipes can be readily found on the Internet by anyone seeking to generate sufficient quantities of these highly explosive chemicals to cause considerable collateral damage. Detection of TATP and HMTD by advanced sensing systems can provide the early warning necessary to prevent terror plots from coming to fruition. DMS is currently one of the foremost emerging technologies for the separation and detection of gas-phase chemical species. This is due to trace-level detection limits, high selectivity, and small size. DMS separates and identifies ions at ambient pressures by utilizing the non-linear dependence of an ion's mobility on the radio frequency (rf) electric field strength. GC is widely considered to be one of the leading analytical methods for the separation of chemical species in complex mixtures. Advances in the technique have led to the development of low-thermal-mass fast GC columns. These columns are

  18. Internet-based dimensional verification system for reverse engineering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Ho [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Don [Small Business Corporation, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung Chong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper proposes a design methodology for a Web-based collaborative system applicable to reverse engineering processes in a distributed environment. By using the developed system, design reviewers of new products are able to confirm geometric shapes, inspect dimensional information of products through measured point data, and exchange views with other design reviewers on the Web. In addition, it is applicable to verifying accuracy of production processes by manufacturing engineers. Functional requirements for designing this Web-based dimensional verification system are described in this paper. ActiveX-server architecture and OpenGL plug-in methods using ActiveX controls realize the proposed system. In the developed system, visualization and dimensional inspection of the measured point data are done directly on the Web: conversion of the point data into a CAD file or a VRML form is unnecessary. Dimensional verification results and design modification ideas are uploaded to markups and/or XML files during collaboration processes. Collaborators review the markup results created by others to produce a good design result on the Web. The use of XML files allows information sharing on the Web to be independent of the platform of the developed system. It is possible to diversify the information sharing capability among design collaborators. Validity and effectiveness of the developed system has been confirmed by case studies

  19. Specification, Verification and Optimisation of Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas

    Model and Notation (BPMN). The automated analysis of business processes is done by means of quantitative probabilistic model checking which allows verification of validation and performance properties through use of an algorithm for the translation of business process models into a format amenable...

  20. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...

  1. 16 CFR 315.5 - Prescriber verification. (United States)


    ... time of verification request; (6) The name of a contact person at the seller's company, including... that the same company manufactures and sells under different labels. (f) Recordkeeping requirement... digital image of the prescription), that was presented to the seller by the patient or prescriber. (2)...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L [Idaho National Laboratory; Choi, Yong-Joon [Idaho National Laboratory; Zou, Ling [Idaho National Laboratory


    This INL plan comprehensively describes the software for RELAP-7 and documents the software, interface, and software design requirements for the application. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7.

  3. 9 CFR 417.8 - Agency verification. (United States)


    ... REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.8 Agency verification. FSIS will verify the adequacy of the HACCP plan(s) by determining that each HACCP plan meets the requirements of this part...

  4. The COST IC0701 verification competition 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormer, T.; Brockschmidt, M.; Distefano, D.; Ernst, G.; Filliatre, J.-C.; Grigore, R.; Huisman, M.; Klebanov, V.; Marche, C.; Monahan, R.; Mostowski, W.I.; Poiikarpova, N.; Scheben, C.; Schellhorn, G.; Tofan, B.; Tschannen, J.; Ulbrich, M.; Beckert, B.; Damiani, F.; Gurov, D.


    This paper reports on the experiences with the program verification competition held during the FoVeOOS conference in October 2011. There were 6 teams participating in this competition. We discuss the three different challenges that were posed and the solutions developed by the teams. We conclude wi

  5. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Manzano, D; Yáñez, R; 10.1016/


    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (w...

  6. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  7. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.


    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  8. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.


    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  9. Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Finite Lengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-Li; PAN Bi-Cai


    Carbon nanotubes with finite lengths should be natural components of future "nano devices". Based on orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations, we report on our study of formation energies, optimal geometrical structures and active sites of carbon nanotubes with finite lengths. This should be useful to understand the properties of such natural components.

  10. Formalization and Verification of Business Process Modeling Based on UML and Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhi-jun; GAN Ren-chu


    In order to provide a quantitative analysis and verification method for activity diagrams based business process modeling, a formal definition of activity diagrams is introduced. And the basic requirements for activity diagrams based business process models are proposed. Furthermore, the standardized transformation technique between business process models and basic Petri nets is presented and the analysis method for the soundness and well-structured properties of business processes is introduced.

  11. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur


    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  12. Persistence length of dendronized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailov, I.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    We present numerical results for the thermodynamic rigidity and induced persistence length of dendronized polymers with systematically varied topology of their grafts obtained by the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent field method. The results were compared to predictions of an analytical mean-fiel

  13. Finite length Taylor Couette flow (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.


    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  14. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen


    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  15. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavi-tation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator,which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emer-gence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects,of both model and prototype,on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length be-low aerators was suggested,which considers overall effects of the above men-tioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  16. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianHua; RUAN ShiPing


    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavitation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator, which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emergence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects, of both model and prototype, on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length below aerators was suggested, which considers overall effects of the above mentioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  17. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi


    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  18. Verification survey report of the south waste tank farm training/test tower and hazardous waste storage lockers at the West Valley demonstration project, West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.


    A team from ORAU's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program performed verification survey activities on the South Test Tower and four Hazardous Waste Storage Lockers. Scan data collected by ORAU determined that both the alpha and alpha-plus-beta activity was representative of radiological background conditions. The count rate distribution showed no outliers that would be indicative of alpha or alpha-plus-beta count rates in excess of background. It is the opinion of ORAU that independent verification data collected support the site?s conclusions that the South Tower and Lockers sufficiently meet the site criteria for release to recycle and reuse.

  19. Cognitive Bias in the Verification and Validation of Space Flight Systems (United States)

    Larson, Steve


    Cognitive bias is generally recognized as playing a significant role in virtually all domains of human decision making. Insight into this role is informally built into many of the system engineering practices employed in the aerospace industry. The review process, for example, typically has features that help to counteract the effect of bias. This paper presents a discussion of how commonly recognized biases may affect the verification and validation process. Verifying and validating a system is arguably more challenging than development, both technically and cognitively. Whereas there may be a relatively limited number of options available for the design of a particular aspect of a system, there is a virtually unlimited number of potential verification scenarios that may be explored. The probability of any particular scenario occurring in operations is typically very difficult to estimate, which increases reliance on judgment that may be affected by bias. Implementing a verification activity often presents technical challenges that, if they can be overcome at all, often result in a departure from actual flight conditions (e.g., 1-g testing, simulation, time compression, artificial fault injection) that may raise additional questions about the meaningfulness of the results, and create opportunities for the introduction of additional biases. In addition to mitigating the biases it can introduce directly, the verification and validation process must also overcome the cumulative effect of biases introduced during all previous stages of development. A variety of cognitive biases will be described, with research results for illustration. A handful of case studies will be presented that show how cognitive bias may have affected the verification and validation process on recent JPL flight projects, identify areas of strength and weakness, and identify potential changes or additions to commonly used techniques that could provide a more robust verification and validation of

  20. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent


    scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this case the ''booster pump'' is an Adixen Molecular Drag Pump (MDP 5011) and the backing pump is an Edwards (nXDS15iC) scroll pump. Various configurations of the two pumps and associated lengths of 3/4 inch tubing (0 feet to 300 feet) were used in combination with hydrogen and nitrogen flow rates ranging from 25-400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to determine whether the proposed pump configuration meets the design criteria for SHINE. The results of this study indicate that even under the most severe conditions (300 feet of tubing and 400 sccm flow rate) the Adixen 5011 MDP can serve as a booster pump to transport gases from the accelerator (NDAS) to the TPS. The Target Gas Receiving System pump (Edwards nXDS15iC) located approximately 300 feet from the accelerator can effectively back the Adixen MDP. The molecular drag pump was able to maintain its full rotational speed even when the flow rate was 400 sccm hydrogen or nitrogen and 300 feet of tubing was installed between the drag pump and the Edwards scroll pump. In addition to maintaining adequate rotation, the pressure in the system was maintained below the target pressure of 30 torr for all flow rates, lengths of tubing, and process gases. This configuration is therefore adequate to meet the SHINE design requirements in terms of flow and pressure.

  1. Verification and Validation Issues in Systems of Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Honour


    Full Text Available The cutting edge in systems development today is in the area of "systems of systems" (SoS large networks of inter-related systems that are developed and managed separately, but that also perform collective activities. Such large systems typically involve constituent systems operating with different life cycles, often with uncoordinated evolution. The result is an ever-changing SoS in which adaptation and evolution replace the older engineering paradigm of "development". This short paper presents key thoughts about verification and validation in this environment. Classic verification and validation methods rely on having (a a basis of proof, in requirements and in operational scenarios, and (b a known system configuration to be proven. However, with constant SoS evolution, management of both requirements and system configurations are problematic. Often, it is impossible to maintain a valid set of requirements for the SoS due to the ongoing changes in the constituent systems. Frequently, it is even difficult to maintain a vision of the SoS operational use as users find new ways to adapt the SoS. These features of the SoS result in significant challenges for system proof. In addition to discussing the issues, the paper also indicates some of the solutions that are currently used to prove the SoS.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov


    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  3. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;


    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...... of classical hybrid systems we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  4. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;


    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...... of classical hybrid systems, we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  5. Extensible Technology-Agnostic Runtime Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo


    Full Text Available With numerous specialised technologies available to industry, it has become increasingly frequent for computer systems to be composed of heterogeneous components built over, and using, different technologies and languages. While this enables developers to use the appropriate technologies for specific contexts, it becomes more challenging to ensure the correctness of the overall system. In this paper we propose a framework to enable extensible technology agnostic runtime verification and we present an extension of polyLarva, a runtime-verification tool able to handle the monitoring of heterogeneous-component systems. The approach is then applied to a case study of a component-based artefact using different technologies, namely C and Java.

  6. Spatial Verification Using Wavelet Transforms: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Michael; Friederichs, Petra


    Due to the emergence of new high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and the availability of new or more reliable remote sensing data, the importance of efficient spatial verification techniques is growing. Wavelet transforms offer an effective framework to decompose spatial data into separate (and possibly orthogonal) scales and directions. Most wavelet based spatial verification techniques have been developed or refined in the last decade and concentrate on assessing forecast performance (i.e. forecast skill or forecast error) on distinct physical scales. Particularly during the last five years, a significant growth in meteorological applications could be observed. However, a comparison with other scientific fields such as feature detection, image fusion, texture analysis, or facial and biometric recognition, shows that there is still a considerable, currently unused potential to derive useful diagnostic information. In order to tab the full potential of wavelet analysis, we revise the stat...

  7. Formal Verification, Engineering and Business Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Huuck


    Full Text Available How to apply automated verification technology such as model checking and static program analysis to millions of lines of embedded C/C++ code? How to package this technology in a way that it can be used by software developers and engineers, who might have no background in formal verification? And how to convince business managers to actually pay for such a software? This work addresses a number of those questions. Based on our own experience on developing and distributing the Goanna source code analyzer for detecting software bugs and security vulnerabilities in C/C++ code, we explain the underlying technology of model checking, static analysis and SMT solving, steps involved in creating industrial-proof tools.

  8. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Electronic Vision Research Lab.


    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  9. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja


    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  10. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  11. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: [2]:

  12. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M


    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  13. Verificator: Educational Tool for Learning Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel RADOSEVIC


    Full Text Available The paper introduces Verificator, our learning programming interface aimed for learningprogramming in C++ at the university beginners’ level. In teaching programming some specificproblems concerning the teaching itself as well as the organization of the teaching process need tobe considered. One of the biggest problems is that students tend to adopt certain bad programminghabits in their attempt to more easily deal with their examinations, such as trying to write programswithout any syntax and logical checking. It is very hard to help them correct those errors once theyare deeply rooted. Our students’ web questionnaire and its results show that the majority of problemsin learning programming among our students arise from the gap between the understanding ofprogramming language syntax and problem-solving algorithms. Verificator prevents students frommaking a lot of errors they are likely to make in learning programming and helps them to learnprogramming language syntax and adopt good programming habits.

  14. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori


    Full Text Available Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using bank of Gabor filters. Then Fisher Discriminated Analysis (FDA is used to reduce the dimension of the features vectors. For vein pattern verification, this work uses Nearest Neighbors method. The EER of the proposed method is 0.2335%.

  15. Unconstrained Face Verification using Deep CNN Features


    Chen, Jun-Cheng; Patel, Vishal M.; Chellappa, Rama


    In this paper, we present an algorithm for unconstrained face verification based on deep convolutional features and evaluate it on the newly released IARPA Janus Benchmark A (IJB-A) dataset. The IJB-A dataset includes real-world unconstrained faces from 500 subjects with full pose and illumination variations which are much harder than the traditional Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) and Youtube Face (YTF) datasets. The deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is trained using the CASIA-WebFace ...

  16. Program Verification of Numerical Computation - Part 2


    Pantelis, Garry


    These notes present some extensions of a formal method introduced in an earlier paper. The formal method is designed as a tool for program verification of numerical computation and forms the basis of the software package VPC. Included in the extensions that are presented here are disjunctions and methods for detecting non-computable programs. A more comprehensive list of the construction rules as higher order constructs is also presented.

  17. Program verification using symbolic game semantics


    Dimovski, Aleksandar


    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages, especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment.By using symbolic values instead of...

  18. Formal System Verification for Trustworthy Embedded Systems (United States)


    running on does not expose covert channels between unconnected objects) and liveness properties under fairness assumptions. Both Spiessens’ and Murray’ properties. If the assumptions of the verification hold, we have mathematical proof that, among other properties, the seL4 kernel is free of...KeyKOS [4], EROS [12], and Amoeba [8] do not provide means to explicitly define capability distributions. Capabilities are 1objects -- The object

  19. Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo


    Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.

  20. Verification tests for CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hwan; Chang, S.K.; Hong, S.D. [and others


    For the development of a CANDU advanced fuel, the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles were tested under reactor operating conditions at the CANDU-Hot test loop. This report describes test results and test methods in the performance verification tests for the CANFLEX-NU bundle design. The main items described in the report are as follows. - Fuel bundle cross-flow test - Endurance fretting/vibration test - Freon CHF test - Production of technical document. (author). 25 refs., 45 tabs., 46 figs.

  1. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  2. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification. (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M


    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  3. Functional Verification of Enhanced RISC Processor




    This paper presents design and verification of a 32-bit enhanced RISC processor core having floating point computations integrated within the core, has been designed to reduce the cost and complexity. The designed 3 stage pipelined 32-bit RISC processor is based on the ARM7 processor architecture with single precision floating point multiplier, floating point adder/subtractor for floating point operations and 32 x 32 booths multiplier added to the integer core of ARM7. The binary representati...

  4. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols (United States)


    the destination. The route discovery phase is complete upon receipt of the RREP at the requesting node. The DYMO protocol is a simpler version of AODV ...described in this appendix. The protocols are Secure AODV (SAODV), Secure Efficient Distance Vector (SEAD), and Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP...SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Matthew F. Steele, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/12-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR

  5. Component Verification and Certification in NASA Missions (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Penix, John; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Software development for NASA missions is a particularly challenging task. Missions are extremely ambitious scientifically, have very strict time frames, and must be accomplished with a maximum degree of reliability. Verification technologies must therefore be pushed far beyond their current capabilities. Moreover, reuse and adaptation of software architectures and components must be incorporated in software development within and across missions. This paper discusses NASA applications that we are currently investigating from these perspectives.

  6. Verificator: Educational Tool for Learning Programming




    The paper introduces Verificator, our learning programming interface aimed for learningprogramming in C++ at the university beginners’ level. In teaching programming some specificproblems concerning the teaching itself as well as the organization of the teaching process need tobe considered. One of the biggest problems is that students tend to adopt certain bad programminghabits in their attempt to more easily deal with their examinations, such as trying to write programswithout any syntax an...

  7. Verification in referral-based crowdsourcing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Naroditskiy

    Full Text Available Online social networks offer unprecedented potential for rallying a large number of people to accomplish a given task. Here we focus on information gathering tasks where rare information is sought through "referral-based crowdsourcing": the information request is propagated recursively through invitations among members of a social network. Whereas previous work analyzed incentives for the referral process in a setting with only correct reports, misreporting is known to be both pervasive in crowdsourcing applications, and difficult/costly to filter out. A motivating example for our work is the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge where the level of misreporting was very high. In order to undertake a formal study of verification, we introduce a model where agents can exert costly effort to perform verification and false reports can be penalized. This is the first model of verification and it provides many directions for future research, which we point out. Our main theoretical result is the compensation scheme that minimizes the cost of retrieving the correct answer. Notably, this optimal compensation scheme coincides with the winning strategy of the Red Balloon Challenge.

  8. Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor (United States)

    Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.


    Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.

  9. Spatial verification using wavelet transforms: a review (United States)

    Weniger, Michael; Kapp, Florian; Friederichs, Petra


    Due to the emergence of new high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and the availability of new or more reliable remote sensing data, the importance of efficient spatial verification techniques is growing. Wavelet transforms offer an effective framework to decompose spatial data into separate (and possibly orthogonal) scales and directions. Most wavelet based spatial verification techniques have been developed or refined in the last decade and concentrate on assessing forecast performance (i.e. forecast skill or forecast error) on distinct physical scales. Particularly during the last five years, a significant growth in meteorological applications could be observed. However, a comparison with other scientific fields such as feature detection, image fusion, texture analysis, or facial and biometric recognition, shows that there is still a considerable, currently unused potential to derive useful diagnostic information. In order to tab the full potential of wavelet analysis, we revise the state-of-the art in one- and two-dimensional wavelet analysis and its application with emphasis on spatial verification. We further use a technique developed for texture analysis in the context of high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts, which is able to assess structural characteristics of the precipitation fields and allows efficient clustering of ensemble data.

  10. Neural correlates of semantic ambiguity processing during context verification. (United States)

    Hoenig, Klaus; Scheef, Lukas


    Understanding the relevant meaning of a word with different meanings (homonym) in a given context requires activation of the neural representations of the relevant meaning and inhibition of the irrelevant meaning. The cognitive demand of such disambiguation is highest when the dominant, yet contextually irrelevant meaning of a polar homonym must be suppressed. This central process (semantic inhibition) for lexico-semantic ambiguity resolution was monitored with fMRI during semantic context verifications. Twenty-two healthy volunteers decided whether congruent or incongruent target words fitted into the contexts established by preceding sentences. Half of the sentences ended with a homonym, thereby allowing to cross the factors ambiguity and semantic congruency. BOLD increases related to the inhibitory attentional control over non-selected meanings during ambiguity processing occurred in a brain network including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral angular gyrus (AG), bilateral anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) as well as right ventromedial temporal lobe. In left DLPFC (BA 46/9) and left AG (BA 39) BOLD activity to target words of the incongruent-ambiguous condition correlated with the individual amount of semantic interference experienced by the subjects. BOLD increases of incongruent versus congruent semantic verifications occurred in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest a specific role of left DLPFC and AG in the resolution of semantic interference from contextually inappropriate homonym meanings. These fronto-parietal areas might exert inhibitory control over temporal regions in service of attentional selection between relevant and irrelevant homonym meanings, by creating a sufficient activation difference between their respective representations.

  11. Java bytecode verification via static single assignment form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian W.; Franz, Michael


    Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism that trans......Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism...... that transforms JVM bytecode into Static Single Assignment Form (SSA) and thereby propagates definitions directly to uses. Type checking at control flow merge points can then be performed in a single pass. Our prototype implementation of the new algorithm is faster than the standard JVM bytecode verifier. It has...

  12. Abstraction and Learning for Infinite-State Compositional Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Giannakopoulou


    Full Text Available Despite many advances that enable the application of model checking techniques to the verification of large systems, the state-explosion problem remains the main challenge for scalability. Compositional verification addresses this challenge by decomposing the verification of a large system into the verification of its components. Recent techniques use learning-based approaches to automate compositional verification based on the assume-guarantee style reasoning. However, these techniques are only applicable to finite-state systems. In this work, we propose a new framework that interleaves abstraction and learning to perform automated compositional verification of infinite-state systems. We also discuss the role of learning and abstraction in the related context of interface generation for infinite-state components.

  13. Secure Position Verification for Wireless Sensor Networks in Noisy Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi


    Position verification in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is quite tricky in presence of attackers (malicious sensor nodes), who try to break the verification protocol by reporting their incorrect positions (locations) during the verification stage. In the literature of WSNs, most of the existing methods of position verification have used trusted verifiers, which are in fact vulnerable to attacks by malicious nodes. They also depend on some distance estimation techniques, which are not accurate in noisy channels (mediums). In this article, we propose a secure position verification scheme for WSNs in noisy channels without relying on any trusted entities. Our verification scheme detects and filters out all malicious nodes from the network with very high probability.

  14. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤


    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  15. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length. (United States)

    Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F


    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2) cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a

  16. Crowd Sourced Formal Verification-Augmentation (CSFV-A) (United States)


    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Formal verification (FV) ensures that mission-essential software is free from disruptive errors and security vulnerabilities...UNLIMITED 1 1. SUMMARY Formal Verification (FV) ensures that mission-essential software is free from disruptive errors and security vulnerabilities...UNLIMITED 2 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1 Problem Description Formal Verification (FV) ensures that mission-essential software is free from disruptive errors

  17. Verification-Based Interval-Passing Algorithm for Compressed Sensing


    Wu, Xiaofu; Yang, Zhen


    We propose a verification-based Interval-Passing (IP) algorithm for iteratively reconstruction of nonnegative sparse signals using parity check matrices of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes as measurement matrices. The proposed algorithm can be considered as an improved IP algorithm by further incorporation of the mechanism of verification algorithm. It is proved that the proposed algorithm performs always better than either the IP algorithm or the verification algorithm. Simulation resul...




    This article is accepted to appear in ICEIS 2010 proceedings; International audience; Several works emphasize the difficulties of software verification applied to embedded systems. In past years, formal verification techniques and tools were widely developed and used by the research community. However, the use of formal verification at industrial scale remains difficult, expensive and requires lot of time. This is due to the size and the complexity of manipulated models, but also, to the impo...

  19. Neighbors Based Discriminative Feature Difference Learning for Kinship Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua


    In this paper, we present a discriminative feature difference learning method for facial image based kinship verification. To transform feature difference of an image pair to be discriminative for kinship verification, a linear transformation matrix for feature difference between an image pair is...... databases show that the proposed method combined with a SVM classification method outperforms or is comparable to state-of-the-art kinship verification methods. © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media...

  20. Verification and validation plan for the SFR system analysis module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report documents the Verification and Validation (V&V) Plan for software verification and validation of the SFR System Analysis Module (SAM), developed at Argonne National Laboratory for sodium fast reactor whole-plant transient analysis. SAM is developed under the DOE NEAMS program and is part of the Reactor Product Line toolkit. The SAM code, the phenomena and computational models of interest, the software quality assurance, and the verification and validation requirements and plans are discussed in this report.

  1. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  2. Verification of Advective Bar Elements Implemented in the Aria Thermal Response Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Brantley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A verification effort was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the new advective bar capability in the Aria thermal response code. Several approaches to the verification process were taken : a mesh refinement study to demonstrate solution convergence in the fluid and the solid, visually examining the mapping of the advective bar element nodes to the surrounding surfaces, and a comparison of solutions produced using the advective bars for simple geometries with solutions from commercial CFD software . The mesh refinement study has shown solution convergence for simple pipe flow in both temperature and velocity . Guidelines were provided to achieve appropriate meshes between the advective bar elements and the surrounding volume. Simulations of pipe flow using advective bars elements in Aria have been compared to simulations using the commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent (r) and provided comparable solutions in temperature and velocity supporting proper implementation of the new capability. Verification of Advective Bar Elements iv Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to Dean Dobranich for his guidance and expertise through all stages of this effort . His advice and feedback was instrumental to its completion. Thanks also goes to Sam Subia and Tolu Okusanya for helping to plan many of the verification activities performed in this document. Thank you to Sam, Justin Lamb and Victor Brunini for their assistance in resolving issues encountered with running the advective bar element model. Finally, thanks goes to Dean, Sam, and Adam Hetzler for reviewing the document and providing very valuable comments.

  3. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 Verification Corrective Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK, D.L.


    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to demonstrate the OW planned and/or completed actions to implement ISMS as well as prepare for the RPP ISMS Phase II Verification scheduled for August, 1999. This Plan collates implied or explicit ORP actions identified in several key ISMS documents and aligns those actions and responsibilities perceived necessary to appropriately disposition all ISM Phase II preparation activities specific to the ORP. The objective will be to complete or disposition the corrective actions prior to the commencement of the ISMS Phase II Verification. Improvement products/tasks not slated for completion prior to the RPP Phase II verification will be incorporated as corrective actions into the Strategic System Execution Plan (SSEP) Gap Analysis. Many of the business and management systems that were reviewed in the ISMS Phase I verification are being modified to support the ORP transition and are being assessed through the SSEP. The actions and processes identified in the SSEP will support the development of the ORP and continued ISMS implementation as committed to be complete by end of FY-2000.

  4. Role of TERRA in the regulation of telomere length. (United States)

    Wang, Caiqin; Zhao, Li; Lu, Shiming


    Telomere dysfunction is closely associated with human diseases such as cancer and ageing. Inappropriate changes in telomere length and/or structure result in telomere dysfunction. Telomeres have been considered to be transcriptionally silent, but it was recently demonstrated that mammalian telomeres are transcribed into telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). TERRA, a long non-coding RNA, participates in the regulation of telomere length, telomerase activity and heterochromatinization. The correct regulation of telomere length may be crucial to telomeric homeostasis and functions. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of TERRA in the maintenance of telomere length, with focus on the variety of mechanisms by which TERRA is involved in the regulation of telomere length. This review aims to enable further understanding of how TERRA-targeted drugs can target telomere-related diseases.

  5. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length (United States)

    Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.


    Let n Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

  6. SU-E-T-49: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H; Tachibana, H [The National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Kamima, T; Takahashi, R [The Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR, Koutou-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, D [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa-prefecture (Japan); Sugawara, Y [The National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Otemae Hospital, Chuou-ku, Osaka-city (Japan); Sato, A [Itabashi Central General Hospital, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)


    Purpose: AAPM TG114 does not cover the independent verification for IMRT. We conducted a study of independent dose verification for IMRT in seven institutes to show the feasibility. Methods: 384 IMRT plans in the sites of prostate and head and neck (HN) were collected from the institutes, where the planning was performed using Eclipse and Pinnacle3 with the two techniques of step and shoot (S&S) and sliding window (SW). All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. An ion-chamber measurement in a water-equivalent slab phantom was performed to compare the doses computed using the TPS and an independent dose verification program. Additionally, the agreement in dose computed in patient CT images between using the TPS and using the SMU was assessed. The dose of the composite beams in the plan was evaluated. Results: The agreement between the measurement and the SMU were −2.3±1.9 % and −5.6±3.6 % for prostate and HN sites, respectively. The agreement between the TPSs and the SMU were −2.1±1.9 % and −3.0±3.7 for prostate and HN sites, respectively. There was a negative systematic difference with similar standard deviation and the difference was larger in the HN site. The S&S technique showed a statistically significant difference between the SW. Because the Clarkson-based method in the independent program underestimated (cannot consider) the dose under the MLC. Conclusion: The accuracy would be improved when the Clarkson-based algorithm should be modified for IMRT and the tolerance level would be within 5%.

  7. Tolerance Verification of Micro and Nano Structures on Polycarbonate Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Micro and nano structures are an increasing challenge in terms of tolerance verification and process quality control: smaller dimensions led to a smaller tolerance zone to be evaluated. This paper focuses on the verification of CD, DVD and HD-DVD nanoscale features. CD tolerance features are defi......Micro and nano structures are an increasing challenge in terms of tolerance verification and process quality control: smaller dimensions led to a smaller tolerance zone to be evaluated. This paper focuses on the verification of CD, DVD and HD-DVD nanoscale features. CD tolerance features...

  8. Compositional verification of real-time systems using Ecdar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Møller, M.H.;


    We present a specification theory for timed systems implemented in the Ecdar tool. We illustrate the operations of the specification theory on a running example, showing the models and verification checks. To demonstrate the power of the compositional verification, we perform an in depth case study...... of a leader election protocol; Modeling it in Ecdar as Timed input/output automata Specifications and performing both monolithic and compositional verification of two interesting properties on it. We compare the execution time of the compositional to the classical verification showing a huge difference...

  9. NEMVP: North American energy measurement and verification protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This measurement and verification protocol discusses procedures that,when implemented, allow buyers, sellers, and financiers of energy projects to quantify energy conservation measure performance and savings.

  10. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system]. (United States)

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing


    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  11. Formal development and verification of a distributed railway control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, J.


    The authors introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic specificati......The authors introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... to decide whether it is safe for a train to move or for a point to be switched....

  12. An Efficient Location Verification Scheme for Static Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Sung; Song, JooSeok


    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the accuracy of location information is vital to support many interesting applications. Unfortunately, sensors have difficulty in estimating their location when malicious sensors attack the location estimation process. Even though secure localization schemes have been proposed to protect location estimation process from attacks, they are not enough to eliminate the wrong location estimations in some situations. The location verification can be the solution to the situations or be the second-line defense. The problem of most of the location verifications is the explicit involvement of many sensors in the verification process and requirements, such as special hardware, a dedicated verifier and the trusted third party, which causes more communication and computation overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient location verification scheme for static WSN called mutually-shared region-based location verification (MSRLV), which reduces those overheads by utilizing the implicit involvement of sensors and eliminating several requirements. In order to achieve this, we use the mutually-shared region between location claimant and verifier for the location verification. The analysis shows that MSRLV reduces communication overhead by 77% and computation overhead by 92% on average, when compared with the other location verification schemes, in a single sensor verification. In addition, simulation results for the verification of the whole network show that MSRLV can detect the malicious sensors by over 90% when sensors in the network have five or more neighbors.

  13. Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD + programmes: two proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, Martin [Center for Geoinformation, Department of Environmental Science, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Skutsch, Margaret, E-mail: [Centro de Investigaciones en GeografIa Ambiental, UNAM Campus Morelia (Mexico)


    Different options have been suggested by Parties to the UNFCCC (United Framework Convention on Climate Change) for inclusion in national approaches to REDD and REDD + (reduced deforestation, reduced degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, and conservation of forest carbon stocks). This paper proposes that from the practical and technical points of view of designing action for REDD and REDD + at local and sub-national level, as well as from the point of view of the necessary MRV (monitoring, reporting and verification), these should be grouped into three categories: conservation, which is rewarded on the basis of no changes in forest stock, reduced deforestation, in which lowered rates of forest area loss are rewarded, and positive impacts on carbon stock changes in forests remaining forest, which includes reduced degradation, sustainable management of forest of various kinds, and forest enhancement. Thus we have moved degradation, which conventionally is grouped with deforestation, into the forest management group reported as areas remaining forest land, with which it has, in reality, and particularly as regards MRV, much more in common. Secondly, in the context of the fact that REDD/REDD + is to take the form of a national or near-national approach, we argue that while systematic national monitoring is important, it may not be necessary for REDD/REDD + activities, or for national MRV, to be started at equal levels of intensity all over the country. Rather, areas where interventions seem easiest to start may be targeted, and here data measurements may be more rigorous (Tier 3), for example based on stakeholder self-monitoring with independent verification, while in other, untreated areas, a lower level of monitoring may be pursued, at least in the first instance. Treated areas may be targeted for any of the three groups of activities (conservation, reduced deforestation, and positive impact on carbon stock increases in

  14. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification. (United States)


    ....790 to perform this verification. (d) Reference sample weighing. Verify all mass readings during a.... Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value... improve the accuracy and precision of the reference media (e.g., filter) mass, you must use mean values...

  15. Spatial Evaluation and Verification of Earthquake Simulators (United States)

    Wilson, John Max; Yoder, Mark R.; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Schultz, Kasey W.


    In this paper, we address the problem of verifying earthquake simulators with observed data. Earthquake simulators are a class of computational simulations which attempt to mirror the topological complexity of fault systems on which earthquakes occur. In addition, the physics of friction and elastic interactions between fault elements are included in these simulations. Simulation parameters are adjusted so that natural earthquake sequences are matched in their scaling properties. Physically based earthquake simulators can generate many thousands of years of simulated seismicity, allowing for a robust capture of the statistical properties of large, damaging earthquakes that have long recurrence time scales. Verification of simulations against current observed earthquake seismicity is necessary, and following past simulator and forecast model verification methods, we approach the challenges in spatial forecast verification to simulators; namely, that simulator outputs are confined to the modeled faults, while observed earthquake epicenters often occur off of known faults. We present two methods for addressing this discrepancy: a simplistic approach whereby observed earthquakes are shifted to the nearest fault element and a smoothing method based on the power laws of the epidemic-type aftershock (ETAS) model, which distributes the seismicity of each simulated earthquake over the entire test region at a decaying rate with epicentral distance. To test these methods, a receiver operating characteristic plot was produced by comparing the rate maps to observed m>6.0 earthquakes in California since 1980. We found that the nearest-neighbor mapping produced poor forecasts, while the ETAS power-law method produced rate maps that agreed reasonably well with observations.

  16. Traceability of high focal length cameras with diffractive optical elements (United States)

    Lages Martins, L.; Silva Ribeiro, A.; Sousa, J. Alves e.


    This paper describes the use of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for metrological traceable geometrical testing of high focal length cameras applied in the observation of large- scale structures. DOEs and related mathematical models are briefly explained. Laboratorial activities and results are described for the case of a high focal length camera used for longdistance displacement measurement of a long-span (2278 m) suspension bridge.

  17. Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Lavanya, B N; Venugopal, K R


    Human fingerprints are reliable characteristics for personnel identification as it is unique and persistence. A fingerprint pattern consists of ridges, valleys and minutiae. In this paper we propose Fingerprint Verification based on Gabor Filter Enhancement (FVGFE) algorithm for minutiae feature extraction and post processing based on 9 pixel neighborhood. A global feature extraction and fingerprints enhancement are based on Hong enhancement method which is simultaneously able to extract local ridge orientation and ridge frequency. It is observed that the Sensitivity and Specificity values are better compared to the existing algorithms.

  18. Experimental verification of a large flexible manipulator (United States)

    Lee, Jac Won; Huggins, James D.; Book, Wayne J.


    A large experimental lightweight manipulator would be useful for material handling, for welding, or for ultrasonic inspection of a large structure, such as an airframe. The flexible parallel link mechanism is designed for high rigidity without increasing weight. This constrained system is analyzed by singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. A verification of the modeling using the assumed mode method is presented. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the linearized model are compared to the measured system natural frequencies and their associated mode shapes. The modeling results for large motions are compared to the time response data from the experiments. The hydraulic actuator is verified.

  19. Accelerating functional verification of an integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deindl, Michael; Ruedinger, Jeffrey Joseph; Zoellin, Christian G.


    Illustrative embodiments include a method, system, and computer program product for accelerating functional verification in simulation testing of an integrated circuit (IC). Using a processor and a memory, a serial operation is replaced with a direct register access operation, wherein the serial operation is configured to perform bit shifting operation using a register in a simulation of the IC. The serial operation is blocked from manipulating the register in the simulation of the IC. Using the register in the simulation of the IC, the direct register access operation is performed in place of the serial operation.

  20. Unification & sharing in timed automata verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    We present the design of the model-checking engine and internal data structures for the next generation of UPPAAL. The design is based on a pipeline architecture where each stage represents one independent operation in the verification algorithms. The architecture is based on essentially one shared...... data structure to reduce redundant computations in state exploration, which unifies the so-called passed and waiting lists of the traditional reachability algorithm. In the implementation, instead of using standard memory management functions from general-purpose operating systems, we have developed...

  1. ALMA Polarization Science Verification: 3C 286 (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Amigano, A.; Vlahakis, C.; Remijan, A.; ALMA Polarization Team


    The ALMA polarization science verification results on 3C 286 are presented. The measured polarization percentage and polarization position angle of the continuum emission at 1.3 mm are about 16% and 39 degrees, respectively. They are quite similar to those at longer wavelength, but seem to increase slightly. Similar trends were also found in the previous measurement using the IRAM 30-m telescope (Agudo et al. 2012). The final image rms on the polarization image is better than 0.1% of the total intensity, demonstrating the very high polarization sensitivity of ALMA.

  2. Verification of pneumatic railway brake models (United States)

    Piechowiak, Tadeusz


    The article presents a survey of diverse methods for validation of pneumatic train brake modelling. Various experimental measurements of railway pneumatic brakes were made chiefly on a test stand at Poznań University of Technology; other test stands and some results have been taken from the literature. The measurements, some of them unconventional, were performed on separate pneumatic elements, brake devices, the brake pipe and fragments thereof. Mechanical devices were also included. The experimental measurement results were used for the verification of numerical models and for the determination of parameters. The latter was partially performed using an optimisation method.

  3. Dynamic statechart verification; Dynamische Zustandsautomaten Verifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braitschink, P. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany); Reuss, H.C. [IVK, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)


    In today's vehicles a great number of functions are realized by statecharts: from electrical window lift systems to entry systems and finally driver assistance systems. The methodology presented in this paper can be used for test verification during function tests both in subsystems and in the complete vehicle system. The principle of the methodology can be applied to different models (UML, MATLAB/ Stateflow, ASCET-SD, etc.) for the representation of statecharts. The standardized data exchange format ASAM/ODX is used to store the data. (orig.)

  4. State of the Art: Signature Biometrics Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourddine Guersi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three estimation algorithms: Expectation Maximization (EM, Greedy EM Algorithm (GEM and Figueiredo-Jain Algorithm (FJ - based on the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs for signature biometrics verification. The simulation results have shown significant performance achievements. The test performance of EER=5.49 % for "EM", EER=5.04 % for "GEM" and EER=5.00 % for "FJ", shows that the behavioral information scheme of signature biometrics is robust and has a discriminating power, which can be explored for identity authentication.

  5. Investigation of Navier-Stokes Code Verification and Design Optimization (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar


    With rapid progress made in employing computational techniques for various complex Navier-Stokes fluid flow problems, design optimization problems traditionally based on empirical formulations and experiments are now being addressed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To be able to carry out an effective CFD-based optimization study, it is essential that the uncertainty and appropriate confidence limits of the CFD solutions be quantified over the chosen design space. The present dissertation investigates the issues related to code verification, surrogate model-based optimization and sensitivity evaluation. For Navier-Stokes (NS) CFD code verification a least square extrapolation (LSE) method is assessed. This method projects numerically computed NS solutions from multiple, coarser base grids onto a freer grid and improves solution accuracy by minimizing the residual of the discretized NS equations over the projected grid. In this dissertation, the finite volume (FV) formulation is focused on. The interplay between the xi concepts and the outcome of LSE, and the effects of solution gradients and singularities, nonlinear physics, and coupling of flow variables on the effectiveness of LSE are investigated. A CFD-based design optimization of a single element liquid rocket injector is conducted with surrogate models developed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on CFD solutions. The computational model consists of the NS equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-6 turbulence closure. With the aid of these surrogate models, sensitivity and trade-off analyses are carried out for the injector design whose geometry (hydrogen flow angle, hydrogen and oxygen flow areas and oxygen post tip thickness) is optimized to attain desirable goals in performance (combustion length) and life/survivability (the maximum temperatures on the oxidizer post tip and injector face and a combustion chamber wall temperature). A preliminary multi-objective optimization

  6. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury


    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  7. Diagnoses and visit length in complementary and mainstream medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Groot, J. de; Koster, D.; Dulmen, S. van


    BACKGROUND: The demand for complementary medicine (CM) is growing worldwide and so is the supply. So far, there is not much insight in the activities in Dutch CM practices nor in how these activities differ from mainstream general practice. Comparisons on diagnoses and visit length can offer an impr

  8. Telomerase and telomere length in pulmonary fibrosis. (United States)

    Liu, Tianju; Ullenbruch, Matthew; Young Choi, Yoon; Yu, Hongfeng; Ding, Lin; Xaubet, Antoni; Pereda, Javier; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A; Bitterman, Peter B; Henke, Craig A; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Phan, Sem H


    In addition to its expression in stem cells and many cancers, telomerase activity is transiently induced in murine bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis with increased levels of telomerase transcriptase (TERT) expression, which is essential for fibrosis. To extend these observations to human chronic fibrotic lung disease, we investigated the expression of telomerase activity in lung fibroblasts from patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The results showed that telomerase activity was induced in more than 66% of IPF lung fibroblast samples, in comparison with less than 29% from control samples, some of which were obtained from lung cancer resections. Less than 4% of the human IPF lung fibroblast samples exhibited shortened telomeres, whereas less than 6% of peripheral blood leukocyte samples from patients with IPF or hypersensitivity pneumonitis demonstrated shortened telomeres. Moreover, shortened telomeres in late-generation telomerase RNA component knockout mice did not exert a significant effect on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In contrast, TERT knockout mice exhibited deficient fibrosis that was independent of telomere length. Finally, TERT expression was up-regulated by a histone deacetylase inhibitor, while the induction of TERT in lung fibroblasts was associated with the binding of acetylated histone H3K9 to the TERT promoter region. These findings indicate that significant telomerase induction was evident in fibroblasts from fibrotic murine lungs and a majority of IPF lung samples, whereas telomere shortening was not a common finding in the human blood and lung fibroblast samples. Notably, the animal studies indicated that the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis was independent of telomere length.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.


    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  10. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  11. Mapping {sup 15}O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogg, Kira; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Zhu, Xuping [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Min, Chul Hee [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of); Testa, Mauro; Winey, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Normandin, Marc D. [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A.; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)


    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 ({sup 15}O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of {sup 15}O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using {sup 15}O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the {sup 15}O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, {sup 15}O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy.

  12. Neutron spectrometric methods for core inventory verification in research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinger, A; Hansen, W; Knorr, J; Schneider, R


    In consequence of the Non-Proliferation Treaty safeguards, inspections are periodically made in nuclear facilities by the IAEA and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate. The inspection methods are permanently improved. Therefore, the Core Inventory Verification method is being developed as an indirect method for the verification of the core inventory and to check the declared operation of research reactors.

  13. A Tutorial on Text-Independent Speaker Verification (United States)

    Bimbot, Frédéric; Bonastre, Jean-François; Fredouille, Corinne; Gravier, Guillaume; Magrin-Chagnolleau, Ivan; Meignier, Sylvain; Merlin, Teva; Ortega-García, Javier; Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Reynolds, Douglas A.


    This paper presents an overview of a state-of-the-art text-independent speaker verification system. First, an introduction proposes a modular scheme of the training and test phases of a speaker verification system. Then, the most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, namely, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique used in most systems, is then explained. A few speaker modeling alternatives, namely, neural networks and support vector machines, are mentioned. Normalization of scores is then explained, as this is a very important step to deal with real-world data. The evaluation of a speaker verification system is then detailed, and the detection error trade-off (DET) curve is explained. Several extensions of speaker verification are then enumerated, including speaker tracking and segmentation by speakers. Then, some applications of speaker verification are proposed, including on-site applications, remote applications, applications relative to structuring audio information, and games. Issues concerning the forensic area are then recalled, as we believe it is very important to inform people about the actual performance and limitations of speaker verification systems. This paper concludes by giving a few research trends in speaker verification for the next couple of years.

  14. A methodology for the rigorous verification of plasma simulation codes (United States)

    Riva, Fabio


    The methodology used to assess the reliability of numerical simulation codes constitutes the Verification and Validation (V&V) procedure. V&V is composed by two separate tasks: the verification, which is a mathematical issue targeted to assess that the physical model is correctly solved, and the validation, which determines the consistency of the code results, and therefore of the physical model, with experimental data. In the present talk we focus our attention on the verification, which in turn is composed by the code verification, targeted to assess that a physical model is correctly implemented in a simulation code, and the solution verification, that quantifies the numerical error affecting a simulation. Bridging the gap between plasma physics and other scientific domains, we introduced for the first time in our domain a rigorous methodology for the code verification, based on the method of manufactured solutions, as well as a solution verification based on the Richardson extrapolation. This methodology was applied to GBS, a three-dimensional fluid code based on a finite difference scheme, used to investigate the plasma turbulence in basic plasma physics experiments and in the tokamak scrape-off layer. Overcoming the difficulty of dealing with a numerical method intrinsically affected by statistical noise, we have now generalized the rigorous verification methodology to simulation codes based on the particle-in-cell algorithm, which are employed to solve Vlasov equation in the investigation of a number of plasma physics phenomena.

  15. 7 CFR 983.68 - Verification of reports. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Verification of reports. 983.68 Section 983.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Reports, Books and Records § 983.68 Verification of reports. For the purpose...

  16. 20 CFR 211.15 - Verification of compensation claimed. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of compensation claimed. 211.15... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.15 Verification of compensation claimed. Compensation claimed by an... Board before it may be credited. An employee's claim to compensation not credited shall be processed...

  17. Sciduction: Combining Induction, Deduction, and Structure for Verification and Synthesis


    Seshia, Sanjit A.


    Even with impressive advances in automated formal methods, certain problems in system verification and synthesis remain challenging. Examples include the verification of quantitative properties of software involving constraints on timing and energy consumption, and the automatic synthesis of systems from specifications. The major challenges include environment modeling, incompleteness in specifications, and the complexity of underlying decision problems. This position paper proposes sciductio...

  18. Certification and verification for calmac flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  19. 19 CFR 10.309 - Verification of documentation. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of documentation. 10.309 Section 10.309 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Trade Agreement § 10.309 Verification of documentation. Any evidence of country of origin or of...

  20. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan


    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... to move or for a point to be switched....

  1. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan


    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... to move or for a point to be switched....

  2. 40 CFR 1065.920 - PEMS Calibrations and verifications. (United States)


    ... by laboratory equipment as follows: (1) Mount an engine on a dynamometer for laboratory testing... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065... verification. The verification consists of operating an engine over a duty cycle in the laboratory...

  3. Verification of a CT scanner using a miniature step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.; Carmignato, S.;


    The work deals with performance verification of a CT scanner using a 42mm miniature replica step gauge developed for optical scanner verification. Errors quantification and optimization of CT system set-up in terms of resolution and measurement accuracy are fundamental for use of CT scanning...

  4. A Tutorial on Text-Independent Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bimbot


    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a state-of-the-art text-independent speaker verification system. First, an introduction proposes a modular scheme of the training and test phases of a speaker verification system. Then, the most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, namely, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique used in most systems, is then explained. A few speaker modeling alternatives, namely, neural networks and support vector machines, are mentioned. Normalization of scores is then explained, as this is a very important step to deal with real-world data. The evaluation of a speaker verification system is then detailed, and the detection error trade-off (DET curve is explained. Several extensions of speaker verification are then enumerated, including speaker tracking and segmentation by speakers. Then, some applications of speaker verification are proposed, including on-site applications, remote applications, applications relative to structuring audio information, and games. Issues concerning the forensic area are then recalled, as we believe it is very important to inform people about the actual performance and limitations of speaker verification systems. This paper concludes by giving a few research trends in speaker verification for the next couple of years.

  5. Verification and optimization of a PLC control schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Ed; Mader, Angelika; Fehnker, Ansgar


    We report on the use of model checking techniques for both the verification of a process control program and the derivation of optimal control schedules. Most of this work has been carried out as part of a case study for the EU VHS project (Verification of Hybrid Systems), in which the program for a

  6. 45 CFR 1626.7 - Verification of eligible alien status. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of eligible alien status. 1626.7... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.7 Verification of eligible alien status. (a) An alien seeking representation shall submit appropriate documents to verify eligibility, unless the...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.360 - FID optimization and verification. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FID optimization and verification....360 FID optimization and verification. (a) Scope and frequency. For all FID analyzers, calibrate the FID upon initial installation. Repeat the calibration as needed using good engineering judgment. For...

  8. CMOS VLSI Layout and Verification of a SIMD Computer (United States)

    Zheng, Jianqing


    A CMOS VLSI layout and verification of a 3 x 3 processor parallel computer has been completed. The layout was done using the MAGIC tool and the verification using HSPICE. Suggestions for expanding the computer into a million processor network are presented. Many problems that might be encountered when implementing a massively parallel computer are discussed.

  9. The probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niraula, D., E-mail:; Karpov, V. G., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)


    Significant reliability concerns in multiple industries are related to metal whiskers, which are random high aspect ratio filaments growing on metal surfaces and causing shorts in electronic packages. We derive a closed form expression for the probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths. Our consideration is based on the electrostatic theory of metal whiskers, according to which whisker growth is interrupted when its tip enters a random local “dead region” of a weak electric field. Here, we use the approximation neglecting the possibility of thermally activated escapes from the “dead regions,” which is later justified. We predict a one-parameter distribution with a peak at a length that depends on the metal surface charge density and surface tension. In the intermediate range, it fits well the log-normal distribution used in the experimental studies, although it decays more rapidly in the range of very long whiskers. In addition, our theory quantitatively explains how the typical whisker concentration is much lower than that of surface grains. Finally, it predicts the stop-and-go phenomenon for some of the whiskers growth.

  10. Toward the Verification of a Simple Hypervisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dahlin


    Full Text Available Virtualization promises significant benefits in security, efficiency, dependability, and cost. Achieving these benefits depends upon the reliability of the underlying virtual machine monitors (hypervisors. This paper describes an ongoing project to develop and verify MinVisor, a simple but functional Type-I x86 hypervisor, proving protection properties at the assembly level using ACL2. Originally based on an existing research hypervisor, MinVisor provides protection of its own memory from a malicious guest. Our long-term goal is to fully verify MinVisor, providing a vehicle to investigate the modeling and verification of hypervisors at the implementation level, and also a basis for further systems research. Functional segments of the MinVisor C code base are translated into Y86 assembly, and verified with respect to the Y86 model. The inductive assertions (also known as "compositional cutpoints" methodology is used to prove the correctness of the code. The proof of the code that sets up the nested page tables is described. We compare this project to related efforts in systems code verification and outline some useful steps forward.

  11. Comparison of particulate verification techniques study (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel


    The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout on the coupons and was used to establish a baseline, or basis of comparison, against the five techniques that were studied. The five particulate verification techniques were the Tapelift, the Particulate Solvent Rinse, the GelPak lift, an in-line vacuum filtration probe, and the Infinity Focusing Microscope (IFM). The four types of materials consisted of magnesium flouride (MgF II) coated mirrors, composite coated silver aluminum (CCAg), Z93 and NS43G coated aluminum, and silicon (si) wafers. The vacuum probe was determined to be most effective for Z93, the tapelift or vacuum probe for MgF2, and the GelPak Lift for CCAg and si substrates. A margin of error for each technique, based on experimental data from two experiments, for si wafer substrates, yielded the following: Tapelift - 67%, Solvent Rinse - 58%, GelPak- 26%, Vacuum Probe - 93%, IFM-to be determined.

  12. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  13. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Gram, Inc. Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  14. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)


    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. A Formal Verification Methodology for Checking Data Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Umezawa, Yasushi


    Formal verification techniques have been playing an important role in pre-silicon validation processes. One of the most important points considered in performing formal verification is to define good verification scopes; we should define clearly what to be verified formally upon designs under tests. We considered the following three practical requirements when we defined the scope of formal verification. They are (a) hard to verify (b) small to handle, and (c) easy to understand. Our novel approach is to break down generic properties for system into stereotype properties in block level and to define requirements for Verifiable RTL. Consequently, each designer instead of verification experts can describe properties of the design easily, and formal model checking can be applied systematically and thoroughly to all the leaf modules. During the development of a component chip for server platforms, we focused on RAS (Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability) features and described more than 2000 properties in...

  16. Automatic Verification of Parametric Specifications with Complex Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, Johannes; Jacobs, Swen; Sofronie-Stokkermans, Viorica


    The focus of this paper is on reducing the complexity in verification by exploiting modularity at various levels: in specification, in verification, and structurally. For specifications, we use the modular language CSP-OZ-DC, which allows us to decouple verification tasks concerning data from those concerning durations. At the verification level, we exploit modularity in theorem proving for rich data structures and use this for invariant checking. At the structural level, we analyze possibilities for modular verification of systems consisting of various components which interact.We illustrate these ideas by automatically verifying safety properties of a case study from the European Train Control System standard, which extends previous examples by comprising a complex track topology with lists of track segments and trains with different routes.

  17. Simulation Environment Based on the Universal Verification Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Fiergolski, Adrian


    Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) is a standardized approach of verifying integrated circuit designs, targeting a Coverage-Driven Verification (CDV). It combines automatic test generation, self-checking testbenches, and coverage metrics to indicate progress in the design verification. The flow of the CDV differs from the traditional directed-testing approach. With the CDV, a testbench developer, by setting the verification goals, starts with an structured plan. Those goals are targeted further by a developed testbench, which generates legal stimuli and sends them to a device under test (DUT). The progress is measured by coverage monitors added to the simulation environment. In this way, the non-exercised functionality can be identified. Moreover, the additional scoreboards indicate undesired DUT behaviour. Such verification environments were developed for three recent ASIC and FPGA projects which have successfully implemented the new work-flow: (1) the CLICpix2 65 nm CMOS hybrid pixel readout ASIC desi...

  18. Synthesis and structure elucidation of new μ-oxamido-bridged dicopper(II) complex with in vitro anticancer activity: A combined study from experiment verification and docking calculation on DNA/protein-binding property. (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei


    A new oxamido-bridged dicopper(II) complex with formula of [Cu2(deap)(pic)2], where H2deap and pic represent N,N'-bis[3-(diethylamino)propyl]oxamide and picrate, respectively, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, IR and electronic spectral study, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure analyses revealed that the two copper(II) atoms in the dicopper(II) complex are bridged by the trans-deap(2-) ligand with the distances of 5.2116(17)Å, and the coordination environment around the copper(II) atoms can be described as a square-planar geometry. Hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions link the dicopper(II) complex into a three-dimensional infinite network. The DNA/protein-binding properties of the complex are investigated by molecular docking and experimental assays. The results indicate that the dicopper(II) complex can interact with HS-DNA in the mode of intercalation and effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of protein BSA by 1:1 binding with the most possible binding site in the proximity of Trp134. The in vitro anticancer activities suggest that the complex is active against the selected tumor cell lines, and IC50 values for SMMC-7721 and HepG2 are lower than cisplatin. The effects of the electron density distribution of the terminal ligand and the chelate ring arrangement around copper(II) ions bridged by symmetric N,N'-bis(substituted)oxamides on DNA/BSA-binding ability and in vitro anticancer activity are preliminarily discussed.

  19. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Requirements Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris


    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE requirements definition is to assess the activities that results in the specification, documentation, and review of the requirements that the software product must satisfy, including functionality, performance, design constraints, attributes and external interfaces. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP).

  20. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 Software Requirements Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris


    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE requirements definition is to assess the activities that results in the specification, documentation, and review of the requirements that the software product must satisfy, including functionality, performance, design constraints, attributes and external interfaces. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production. IV&V reviewed the requirements specified in the NRC Form 189s to verify these requirements were included in SAPHIRE’s Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP).

  1. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse;


    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... different population samples were used for comparison. In total 138 adult volunteers (68 men and 70 women aged 20-59 years) recruited within the Copenhagen area and 2504 (1153 men and 1351 women aged 20-59 y) randomly selected adults from the Danish Civil Registration System, whom participated...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results...

  2. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience. (United States)

    Schuijer, J


    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  3. Feedback Mechanism for Microtubule Length Regulation by Stathmin Gradients (United States)

    Zeitz, Maria; Kierfeld, Jan


    We formulate and analyze a theoretical model for the regulation of microtubule (MT) polymerization dynamics by the signaling proteins Rac1 and stathmin. In cells, the MT growth rate is inhibited by cytosolic stathmin, which, in turn, is inactivated by Rac1. Growing MTs activate Rac1 at the cell edge, which closes a positive feedback loop. We investigate both tubulin sequestering and catastrophe promotion as mechanisms for MT growth inhibition by stathmin. For a homogeneous stathmin concentration in the absence of Rac1, we find a switch-like regulation of the MT mean length by stathmin. For constitutively active Rac1 at the cell edge, stathmin is deactivated locally, which establishes a spatial gradient of active stathmin. In this gradient, we find a stationary bimodal MT length distributions for both mechanisms of MT growth inhibition by stathmin. One subpopulation of the bimodal length distribution can be identified with fast growing and long pioneering MTs in the region near the cell edge, which have been observed experimentally. The feedback loop is closed through Rac1 activation by MTs. For tubulin sequestering by stathmin, this establishes a bistable switch with two stable states: one stable state corresponds to upregulated MT mean length and bimodal MT length distributions, i.e., pioneering MTs; the other stable state corresponds to an interrupted feedback with short MTs. Stochastic effects as well as external perturbations can trigger switching events. For catastrophe promoting stathmin we do not find bistability.

  4. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian


    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more accou...... the uncertainty is large and parties are not very polarized. Partisan voters always prefer a long term length. When politicians learn while in office a long term length becomes more attractive for swing voters....

  5. Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines, Quartelry Report: 2nd Quarter, Issue No.1, October 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, P.; Forsyth, T.


    The Field Verification Program for Small Wind Turbines quarterly report provides industry members with a description of the program, its mission, and purpose. It also provides a vehicle for participants to report performance data, activities, and issues during quarterly test periods.

  6. Independent Verification and Validation Of SAPHIRE 8 System Test Plan Project Number: N6423 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Norris


    The purpose of the Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) role in the evaluation of the SAPHIRE System Test Plan is to assess the approach to be taken for intended testing activities associated with the SAPHIRE software product. The IV&V team began this endeavor after the software engineering and software development of SAPHIRE had already been in production.

  7. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length. (United States)


    ... to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable health and sanitation requirements. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b)...

  8. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel


    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  9. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska


    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  10. Spent fuel verification options for final repository safeguards in Finland. A study on verification methods, their feasibility and safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautamaeki, J.; Tiitta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The verification possibilities of the spent fuel assemblies from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPPs and the fuel rods from the research reactor of VTT are contemplated in this report. The spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before the final disposal into the geologic repository. The rods from the research reactor may be verified at the gross defect level. Developing a measurement system for partial defect verification is a complicated and time-consuming task. The Passive High Energy Gamma Emission Tomography and the Fork Detector combined with Gamma Spectrometry are the most potential measurement principles to be developed for this purpose. The whole verification process has to be planned to be as slick as possible. An early start in the planning of the verification and developing the measurement devices is important in order to enable a smooth integration of the verification measurements into the conditioning and disposal process. The IAEA and Euratom have not yet concluded the safeguards criteria for the final disposal. E.g. criteria connected to the selection of the best place to perform the verification. Measurements have not yet been concluded. Options for the verification places have been considered in this report. One option for a verification measurement place is the intermediate storage. The other option is the encapsulation plant. Crucial viewpoints are such as which one offers the best practical possibilities to perform the measurements effectively and which would be the better place in the safeguards point of view. Verification measurements may be needed both in the intermediate storages and in the encapsulation plant. In this report also the integrity of the fuel assemblies after wet intermediate storage period is assessed, because the assemblies have to stand the handling operations of the verification measurements. (orig.)

  11. Image Hashes as Templates for Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Tadeusz; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Seifert, Allen; McDonald, Benjamin S.; White, Timothy A.


    Imaging systems can provide measurements that confidently assess characteristics of nuclear weapons and dismantled weapon components, and such assessment will be needed in future verification for arms control. Yet imaging is often viewed as too intrusive, raising concern about the ability to protect sensitive information. In particular, the prospect of using image-based templates for verifying the presence or absence of a warhead, or of the declared configuration of fissile material in storage, may be rejected out-of-hand as being too vulnerable to violation of information barrier (IB) principles. Development of a rigorous approach for generating and comparing reduced-information templates from images, and assessing the security, sensitivity, and robustness of verification using such templates, are needed to address these concerns. We discuss our efforts to develop such a rigorous approach based on a combination of image-feature extraction and encryption-utilizing hash functions to confirm proffered declarations, providing strong classified data security while maintaining high confidence for verification. The proposed work is focused on developing secure, robust, tamper-sensitive and automatic techniques that may enable the comparison of non-sensitive hashed image data outside an IB. It is rooted in research on so-called perceptual hash functions for image comparison, at the interface of signal/image processing, pattern recognition, cryptography, and information theory. Such perceptual or robust image hashing—which, strictly speaking, is not truly cryptographic hashing—has extensive application in content authentication and information retrieval, database search, and security assurance. Applying and extending the principles of perceptual hashing to imaging for arms control, we propose techniques that are sensitive to altering, forging and tampering of the imaged object yet robust and tolerant to content-preserving image distortions and noise. Ensuring that the

  12. Analysis and verification of multi-channel FULMS algorithm for adaptive feedforward active vibration control%多通道FULMS自适应前馈振动控制算法分析与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓锦; 黄全振; 高志远; 高守玮; 姜恩宇


    One of the key issues for active vibration control of flexible structures is control strategy and method, a multi-channel FULMS algorithm for adaptive feedforward control systems was proposed to solve the problem how to obtain the reference signal of FXLMS algorithm.Based on the controller architecture constructed and illustrated here, the multichannel FULMS algorithm procedure was deduced and described in general.To verify the feasibility and priority of the proposed control algorithm, performance comparisons of single-channel and multi-channel with FXLMS and FULMS were made using MATLAB.The analysis results indicated that the multi-channel control performance is better than the singlechannel one, while FULMS algorithm has better performance than FXLMS algorithm.Finally, taking a piezoelectric flexible epoxide resin plate to simulate solar panels, an active vibration suppression experimental platform was established with its relative measurement and control system.The experimental results showed that the proposed FULMS algorithm is feasible and efficient with excellent convergence and control performance.%柔性结构振动主动控制的核心问题之一是控制策略与方法,针对FXLMS自适应滤波前馈振动控制方法参考信号不易选取问题,给出一种多通道FULMS自适应滤波前馈振动控制方法;首先进行控制器结构的分析与构建,概括描述和推导了多通道FULMS控制算法过程;为验证所分析算法的可行性和优越性,基于MATLAB软件包进行仿真分析,并与FXLMS算法分别进行单通道和多通道控制效果对比,分析结果表明多通道控制优于单通道控制,FULMS算法优于FXIMS算法.在此基础上,以航天器柔性帆板结构为理想模拟对象,构建压电机敏柔性板结构和测控系统进行实际算法控制实验;实验过程与验证结果表明,采用的FULMS控制器设计方法与控制算法是有效可行的,并具有较快的收敛速度和较好的控制效果.

  13. Benchmark verification of deterministic and ensemble forecasts for the river Rhine (United States)

    van Osnabrugge, Bart; Weerts, Albrecht; Verkade, Jan; den Toom, Matthijs; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Sprokkereef, Eric


    As part of the IMPREX project (IMproving PRedictions and management of EXtremes) we perform a benchmark verification study (tier 1) of an operational active hydrological forecasting system of the river Rhine. We assess the current forecast skill and contributions of current DA methods (e.g. error correction) to forecast skill. Our results will be compared with previous verification studies (Renner et al., 2009, Verkade et al., 2013) for the Rhine. Based on the results we will identify weaknesses and opportunities for future improvements. After model improvements and introduction of more advanced (ensemble) DA methods the benchmark will be conducted again later in the project (tier 2). From these experiments, we hope to show the relative importance of data assimilation, the availability of real-time hydrologic measured data in comparison with (improved) meteorological forecast skill and their effect on hydrologic predictability for the river Rhine.

  14. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Hall, Matthew


    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  15. Reducing the Number of Annotations in a Verification-oriented Imperative Language

    CERN Document Server

    de Caso, Guido; Gorín, Daniel


    Automated software verification is a very active field of research which has made enormous progress both in theoretical and practical aspects. Recently, an important amount of research effort has been put into applying these techniques on top of mainstream programming languages. These languages typically provide powerful features such as reflection, aliasing and polymorphism which are handy for practitioners but, in contrast, make verification a real challenge. In this work we present Pest, a simple experimental, while-style, multiprocedural, imperative programming language which was conceived with verifiability as one of its main goals. This language forces developers to concurrently think about both the statements needed to implement an algorithm and the assertions required to prove its correctness. In order to aid programmers, we propose several techniques to reduce the number and complexity of annotations required to successfully verify their programs. In particular, we show that high-level iteration cons...

  16. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian F.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.; Hall, Matthew


    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  17. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors (United States)

    Têtu, Bernard; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Poirier, Brigitte; Montoni, Alicia; Rochette, Patrick J.; Diorio, Caroline


    Introduction Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis. Objective To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors. Results Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069), occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054) and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005). Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054) and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056) and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004). No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors. Conclusions Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low

  18. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification. (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin


    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  19. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaojun Pang

    Full Text Available Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  20. Palmprint Based Verification System Using SURF Features (United States)

    Srinivas, Badrinath G.; Gupta, Phalguni

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype of robust biometric system for verification. The system uses features extracted using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) operator of human hand. The hand image for features is acquired using a low cost scanner. The palmprint region extracted is robust to hand translation and rotation on the scanner. The system is tested on IITK database of 200 images and PolyU database of 7751 images. The system is found to be robust with respect to translation and rotation. It has FAR 0.02%, FRR 0.01% and accuracy of 99.98% and can be a suitable system for civilian applications and high-security environments.

  1. Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hawblitzel, Chris


    Garbage collectors are notoriously hard to verify, due to their low-level interaction with the underlying system and the general difficulty in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either the proofs were hand-written or the collectors were too simplistic to use on practical applications. In this work, we present two mechanically verified garbage collectors, both practical enough to use for real-world C# benchmarks. The collectors and their associated allocators consist of x86 assembly language instructions and macro instructions, annotated with preconditions, postconditions, invariants, and assertions. We used the Boogie verification generator and the Z3 automated theorem prover to verify this assembly language code mechanically. We provide measurements comparing the performance of the verified collector with that of the standard Bartok collectors on off-the-shelf C# benchmarks, demonstrating their competitiveness.

  2. Biometric Subject Verification Based on Electrocardiographic Signals (United States)

    Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor)


    A method of authenticating or declining to authenticate an asserted identity of a candidate-person. In an enrollment phase, a reference PQRST heart action graph is provided or constructed from information obtained from a plurality of graphs that resemble each other for a known reference person, using a first graph comparison metric. In a verification phase, a candidate-person asserts his/her identity and presents a plurality of his/her heart cycle graphs. If a sufficient number of the candidate-person's measured graphs resemble each other, a representative composite graph is constructed from the candidate-person's graphs and is compared with a composite reference graph, for the person whose identity is asserted, using a second graph comparison metric. When the second metric value lies in a selected range, the candidate-person's assertion of identity is accepted.

  3. Accuracy verification methods theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, Olli; Repin, Sergey


    The importance of accuracy verification methods was understood at the very beginning of the development of numerical analysis. Recent decades have seen a rapid growth of results related to adaptive numerical methods and a posteriori estimates. However, in this important area there often exists a noticeable gap between mathematicians creating the theory and researchers developing applied algorithms that could be used in engineering and scientific computations for guaranteed and efficient error control.   The goals of the book are to (1) give a transparent explanation of the underlying mathematical theory in a style accessible not only to advanced numerical analysts but also to engineers and students; (2) present detailed step-by-step algorithms that follow from a theory; (3) discuss their advantages and drawbacks, areas of applicability, give recommendations and examples.

  4. Verification of L-band SAR calibration (United States)

    Larson, R. W.; Jackson, P. L.; Kasischke, E.


    Absolute calibration of a digital L-band SAR system to an accuracy of better than 3 dB has been verified. This was accomplished with a calibration signal generator that produces the phase history of a point target. This signal relates calibration values to various SAR data sets. Values of radar cross-section (RCS) of reference reflectors were obtained using a derived calibration relationship for the L-band channel on the ERIM/CCRS X-C-L SAR system. Calibrated RCS values were compared to known RCS values of each reference reflector for verification and to obtain an error estimate. The calibration was based on the radar response to 21 calibrated reference reflectors.

  5. Challenges in Decomposing Encodings of Verification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schrammel


    Full Text Available Modern program verifiers use logic-based encodings of the verification problem that are discharged by a back end reasoning engine. However, instances of such encodings for large programs can quickly overwhelm these back end solvers. Hence, we need techniques to make the solving process scale to large systems, such as partitioning (divide-and-conquer and abstraction. In recent work, we showed how decomposing the formula encoding of a termination analysis can significantly increase efficiency. The analysis generates a sequence of logical formulas with existentially quantified predicates that are solved by a synthesis-based program analysis engine. However, decomposition introduces abstractions in addition to those required for finding the unknown predicates in the formula, and can hence deteriorate precision. We discuss the challenges associated with such decompositions and their interdependencies with the solving process.

  6. Game-based verification and synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    and the environment behaves. Synthesis of strategies in games can thus be used for automatic generation of correct-by-construction programs from specifications. We consider verification and synthesis problems for several well-known game-based models. This includes both model-checking problems and satisfiability...... problems for logics capable of expressing strategic abilities of players in games with both qualitative and quantitative objectives. A number of computational complexity results for model-checking and satisfiability problems in this domain are obtained. We also show how the technique of symmetry reduction...... can be extended to solve finitely-branching turn-based games more efficiently. Further, the novel concept of winning cores in parity games is introduced. We use this to develop a new polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games. Experimental results show that this algorithm...

  7. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps...... is presented. We focus on photocopied stamps as non-genuine stamps. Our previously presented stamp detection method is improved and extended to verify that the stamp is genuine and not a copy. Using a variety of features, a classifier is trained that allows successful separation between genuine stamps...... and copied stamps. Sensitivity and specificity of up to 95% could be obtained on a data set that is publicly available....

  8. The Role of science in treaty verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavron, A. I. (Avigdor I.)


    Technologically advanced nations are currently applying more science to treaty verification than ever before. Satellites gather a multitude of information relating to proliferation concerns using thermal imaging analysis, nuclear radiation measurements, and optical and radio frequency signals detection. Ground stations gather complementary signals such as seismic events and radioactive emissions. Export controls in many countries attempt to intercept materials and technical means that could be used for nuclear proliferation. Never the less, we have witnessed a plethora of nuclear proliferation episodes, that were undetected (or were belatedly detected) by these technologies - the Indian nuclear tests in 1998, the Libyan nuclear buildup, the Iranian enrichment program and the North Korea nuclear weapons program are some prime examples. In this talk we will discuss some of the technologies used for proliferation detection. In particular, we will note some of the issues relating to nuclear materials control agreements that epitomize political difficulties as they impact the implementation of science and technology.

  9. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk, Reliability, and Regulatory Support; Choi, Yong-Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk, Reliability, and Regulatory Support; Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk, Reliability, and Regulatory Support


    This INL plan comprehensively describes the software for RELAP-7 and documents the software, interface, and software design requirements for the application. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7. The RELAP-7 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) code is a nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL’s modern scientific software development framework – MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5’s capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios.

  10. Formal Modeling and Verification for MVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Xia


    Full Text Available Multifunction Vehicle Bus (MVB is a critical component in the Train Communication Network (TCN, which is widely used in most of the modern train techniques of the transportation system. How to ensure security of MVB has become an important issue. Traditional testing could not ensure the system correctness. The MVB system modeling and verification are concerned in this paper. Petri Net and model checking methods are used to verify the MVB system. A Hierarchy Colored Petri Net (HCPN approach is presented to model and simulate the Master Transfer protocol of MVB. Synchronous and asynchronous methods are proposed to describe the entities and communication environment. Automata model of the Master Transfer protocol is designed. Based on our model checking platform M3C, the Master Transfer protocol of the MVB is verified and some system logic critical errors are found. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods.

  11. Automated Verification of Quantum Protocols using MCMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belardinelli


    Full Text Available We present a methodology for the automated verification of quantum protocols using MCMAS, a symbolic model checker for multi-agent systems The method is based on the logical framework developed by D'Hondt and Panangaden for investigating epistemic and temporal properties, built on the model for Distributed Measurement-based Quantum Computation (DMC, an extension of the Measurement Calculus to distributed quantum systems. We describe the translation map from DMC to interpreted systems, the typical formalism for reasoning about time and knowledge in multi-agent systems. Then, we introduce dmc2ispl, a compiler into the input language of the MCMAS model checker. We demonstrate the technique by verifying the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, and discuss the performance of the tool.

  12. Verification of Nuclear Effect of Acoustic Cavitation Using Fast Neutron Activation Method%快中子活化法对声空化核效应的验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣年; 冯涛; 方晓明; 钱梦騄; 程茜


    采用纯铜作为阈探测器检测声致核聚变产生的14 MeV中子。根据14 MeV中子与Cu的核反应,选择合适的放射性核素及其特征γ峰作为测量依据。中子辐照时间为50 min ,经30 min和198 min冷却,NaI探测器分别测量了超声和非超声下活化铜片的511 keV特征γ峰计数,测量结果显示,采用短冷却时间可测得62 Cu的511 keV γ特征峰,γ峰净面积计数增量ΔC均为正值,具有统计意义,在声空化条件下核反应液体中D-T反应产生的14 M eV中子发生率大于在非声空化条件下的;采用长冷却时间可测得64 Cu的511 keV γ特征峰,ΔC均为正值,具有统计意义,在声空化条件下核反应液体中D-D反应产生的2.45 MeV中子发生率大于在非声空化条件下的。由此验证了声空化核效应(NEAC),并初步分析了中子成核声空化核效应的机制。%14 MeV neutrons originated in acoustic cavitation fusion were determined using copper threshold detector .According to the nuclear reaction of 14 MeV neutrons with copper ,the characteristic γ peaks of some radioactive nuclides were measured and the activation parameters of Cu were optimized . With neutron irradiation time of 50 min ,511 keV characteristic γpeak counts of activated copper pieces with or without ultrasonic field after 30 min and 198 min were respectively determined by NaI detector . Measurement results show that the characteristic γ peak counts of 62 Cu and 64 Cu can be respectively determined after 30 min and 198 min .511 keV characteristic γ peak net count increments are positive values and statistical significance , w hich indicates that 14 MeV and 2.45 MeV neutron generation rates originated in fusion with ultrasound are greater than that without ultrasound in nuclear reaction liquid .These results verify the nuclear effect of acoustic cavitation (NEAC) .The mechanism of NEAC nucleated by neutrons was proposed initially .

  13. Radiation Sound Field Performance in Finite Length Cylindrical Shell by Active Point Excitation%有源点激励有限长圆柱壳体辐射声场特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    理论研究单点激励和多点激励时有限长圆柱壳体辐射声场特性.采用Donnell壳体理论和模态分析法,建立单点激励和多点激励有限长圆柱壳体声辐射数学模型.根据声辐射计算数学模型,计算并分析单点激励和多点激励时圆柱壳体低频段声辐射近场和远场特性.研究结果表明:随着激励力频率的提高,圆柱壳体声辐射功率和辐射效率提高,辐射声压增大,且激励力作用方向为声能量主要辐射方向;在声辐射近场,频率越低声压衰减越快,且具有一定起伏变化特性;在声辐射远场,不同辐射方向声压变化规律不同,但其声压衰减规律都近似为球面波衰减.%Radiation sound field performance of single-point and multi-point excitation on finite length cylindrical shell is studied theoretically. Donnell shell theory and modal analysis method are used to establish mathematical models of single-point and multi-point excitation on finite length cylindrical shell of sound radiation. Calculation and analysis of low frequency sound radiation characteristics of near-field and far-field on the single-point and multi-point excitation cylindrical shell are based on sound radiation mathematical model. Results show that with the increasing of the excitation force frequency, sound radiation power and efficiency of cylindrical shell increase, radiation sound pressure enhances, and the direction of sound energy radiation is same as excitation force acting direction; at the near-field, the sound pressure attenuates quickly as the frequency falls and has certain fluctuation characteristics; at the far-field, the rules of sound pressure changing are different on different radiation directions, and the attenuation of sound pressure are approximate to spherical wave attenuation.

  14. Secure verification by multifactor optical validation (United States)

    Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Javidi, Bahram


    We propose a novel multifactor encryption-authentication technique that reinforces optical security by allowing the simultaneous AND-verification of more than one primary image. We describe a method to obtain four-factor authentication. The authenticators are: two different primary images containing signatures or biometric information and two different white random sequences that act as key codes. So far, optical security techniques deal with a single primary image (an object, a signature, or a biometric signal), not combined primary images. Our method involves double random-phase encoding, fully phase-based encryption and a combined nonlinear JTC and a classical 4f-correlator for simultaneous recognition and authentication of multiple images. There is no a priori constraint about the type of primary images to encode. Two reference images, double-phase encoded and encrypted in an ID tag (or card) are compared with the actual input images obtained in situ from the person whose authentication is wanted. The two key phase codes are known by the authentication processor. The complex-amplitude encoded image of the ID tag has a dim appearance that does not reveal the content of any primary reference image nor the key codes. The encoded image function fullfils the general requirements of invisible content, extreme difficulty in counterfeiting and real-time automatic verification. The possibility of introducing nonlinearities in the Fourier plane of the optical processor will be exploited to improve the system performance. This optical technique is attractive for high-security purposes that require multifactor reliable authentication.

  15. A method for verification of treatment times for high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asghar Gadhi


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was aimed to increase the quality of high dose rate (HDR intraluminal brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, an easy, fast and accurate patient-specific quality assurance (QA tool has been developed. This tool has been implemented at Bahawalpur Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (BINO, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.Methods: ABACUS 3.1 Treatment planning system (TPS has been used for treatment planning and calculation of total dwell time and then results were compared with the time calculated using the proposed method. This method has been used to verify the total dwell time for different rectum applicators for relevant treatment lengths (2-7 cm and depths (1.5-2.5 cm, different oesophagus applicators of relevant treatment lengths (6-10 cm and depths (0.9 & 1.0 cm, and a bronchus applicator for relevant treatment lengths (4-7.5 cm and depth (0.5 cm.Results: The average percentage differences between treatment time TM with manual calculation and as calculated by the TPS is 0.32% (standard deviation 1.32% for rectum, 0.24% (standard deviation 2.36% for oesophagus and 1.96% (standard deviation 0.55% for bronchus, respectively. These results advocate that the proposed method is valuable for independent verification of patient-specific treatment planning QA.Conclusion: The technique illustrated in the current study is an easy, simple, quick and useful for independent verification of the total dwell time for HDR intraluminal brachytherapy. Our method is able to identify human error-related planning mistakes and to evaluate the quality of treatment planning. It enhances the quality of brachytherapy treatment and reliability of the system.

  16. Verification of Java Programs using Symbolic Execution and Invariant Generation (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem


    Software verification is recognized as an important and difficult problem. We present a norel framework, based on symbolic execution, for the automated verification of software. The framework uses annotations in the form of method specifications an3 loop invariants. We present a novel iterative technique that uses invariant strengthening and approximation for discovering these loop invariants automatically. The technique handles different types of data (e.g. boolean and numeric constraints, dynamically allocated structures and arrays) and it allows for checking universally quantified formulas. Our framework is built on top of the Java PathFinder model checking toolset and it was used for the verification of several non-trivial Java programs.

  17. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FONG, S.K.


    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF.

  18. Burnout among physiotherapists and length of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the development of burnout among physiotherapists with different length of service in physiotherapy. Material and Methods: The following research tools were used to study burnout: the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ, based on FLZ (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit by Frahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher, and Brähler; the Burnout Scale Inventory (BSI by Steuden and Okła; and an ad hoc questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. The survey was anonymous and voluntary and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in Poland. Results: A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in overall life satisfaction between length-of-service groups (p = 0.03. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service reported greater satisfaction than those with less than 5 years and between 5 and 15 years of service. The results suggest that burnout in those with 5-15 years of service is higher in physiotherapists working in health care centers and increases with age and greater financial satisfaction, while it decreases with greater satisfaction with friend and family relations and greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. In those with more than 15 years of service, burnout increases in the case of working in a setting other than a health care or educational center and decreases with greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and a satisfying family life prevent burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service in the profession. Financial satisfaction, age and being employed in health care may cause burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service experience more burnout if they work in a setting other than a health care or educational center and less burnout if they are satisfied with their profession.

  19. Hydrodynamic length-scale selection in microswimmer suspensions (United States)

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Dunkel, Jörn; Klapp, Sabine H. L.; Bär, Markus


    A universal characteristic of mesoscale turbulence in active suspensions is the emergence of a typical vortex length scale, distinctly different from the scale invariance of turbulent high-Reynolds number flows. Collective length-scale selection has been observed in bacterial fluids, endothelial tissue, and active colloids, yet the physical origins of this phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we systematically derive an effective fourth-order field theory from a generic microscopic model that allows us to predict the typical vortex size in microswimmer suspensions. Building on a self-consistent closure condition, the derivation shows that the vortex length scale is determined by the competition between local alignment forces, rotational diffusion, and intermediate-range hydrodynamic interactions. Vortex structures found in simulations of the theory agree with recent measurements in Bacillus subtilis suspensions. Moreover, our approach yields an effective viscosity enhancement (reduction), as reported experimentally for puller (pusher) microorganisms.

  20. Analog Video Authentication and Seal Verification Equipment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Lancaster


    Under contract to the US Department of Energy in support of arms control treaty verification activities, the Savannah River National Laboratory in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Idaho National Laboratory and Milagro Consulting, LLC developed equipment for use within a chain of custody regime. This paper discussed two specific devices, the Authentication Through the Lens (ATL) analog video authentication system and a photographic multi-seal reader. Both of these devices have been demonstrated in a field trial, and the experience gained throughout will also be discussed. Typically, cryptographic methods are used to prove the authenticity of digital images and video used in arms control chain of custody applications. However, in some applications analog cameras are used. Since cryptographic authentication methods will not work on analog video streams, a simple method of authenticating analog video was developed and tested. A photographic multi-seal reader was developed to image different types of visual unique identifiers for use in chain of custody and authentication activities. This seal reader is unique in its ability to image various types of seals including the Cobra Seal, Reflective Particle Tags, and adhesive seals. Flicker comparison is used to compare before and after images collected with the seal reader in order to detect tampering and verify the integrity of the seal.

  1. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  2. Lessons Learned From Microkernel Verification — Specification is the New Bottleneck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Bormer


    Full Text Available Software verification tools have become a lot more powerful in recent years. Even verification of large, complex systems is feasible, as demonstrated in the L4.verified and Verisoft XT projects. Still, functional verification of large software systems is rare – for reasons beyond the large scale of verification effort needed due to the size alone. In this paper we report on lessons learned for verification of large software systems based on the experience gained in microkernel verification in the Verisoft XT project. We discuss a number of issues that impede widespread introduction of formal verification in the software life-cycle process.

  3. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R


    the prospects for maintaining U.S. security and minimizing the chances of nuclear war, while deliberately reducing stockpiles to a few hundred weapons, is possible but not without risk. While the question of the appropriate level of cuts to U.S. nuclear forces is being actively debated, a key issue continues to be whether verification procedures are strong enough to ensure that both the U.S. and Russia are fulfilling their obligations under the current New Start treaty and any future arms reduction treaties. A recent opinion piece by Henry Kissinger and Brent Scowcroft (2012) raised a number of issues with respect to governing a policy to enhance strategic stability, including: in deciding on force levels and lower numbers, verification is crucial. Particularly important is a determination of what level of uncertainty threatens the calculation of stability. At present, that level is well within the capabilities of the existing verification systems. We must be certain that projected levels maintain - and when possible, reinforce - that confidence. The strengths and weaknesses of the New START verification regime should inform and give rise to stronger regimes for future arms control agreements. These future arms control agreements will likely need to include other nuclear weapons states and so any verification regime will need to be acceptable to all parties. Currently, China is considered the most challenging party to include in any future arms control agreement and China's willingness to enter into verification regimes such as those implemented in New START may only be possible when it feels it has reached nuclear parity with the U.S. and Russia. Similarly, in keeping with its goals of reaching peer status with the U.S. and Russia, Frieman (2004) suggests that China would be more willing to accept internationally accepted and applied verification regimes rather than bilateral ones. The current verification protocols specified in the New START treaty are

  4. Fibonacci Lengths of Certain Nilpotent 2-Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, we study two classes of 2-generated 2-groups of nilpotency class 2 classified by Kluempen in 2002 and also a class of finite 2-groups of high nilpotency class for their Fibonacci lengths.Their involvement in certain interesting sequences of Tribonacci numbers gives us some explicit formulas for the Fibonacci lengths and this adds to the small class of finite groups for which the Fibonacci length are known.

  5. Large Slip Length over a Nanopatterned Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ding; DI Qin-Feng; LI Jing-Yuan; QIAN Yue-Hong; FANG Hai-Ping


    A thermodynamic method is employed to analyse the slip length of hydrophobic nanopatterned surface.The maximal slip lengths with respect to the hydrophobicity of the nanopatterned surface are computed.It is found that the slip length reaches more than 50μm if the nanopatterned surfaces have a contact angle larger than 160°.Such results are expected to find extensive applications in micro-channels and helpful to understand recent experimental observations of the slippage of nanopatterned surfaces.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length


    Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.


    Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...

  7. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty


    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  8. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)


    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  9. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I project, Impact Technologies, in collaboration with Prof. R.K. Yedavalli, propose a novel verification environment for eventual rapid certification...

  10. Systematic study of source mask optimization and verification flows (United States)

    Ben, Yu; Latypov, Azat; Chua, Gek Soon; Zou, Yi


    Source mask optimization (SMO) emerged as powerful resolution enhancement technique (RET) for advanced technology nodes. However, there is a plethora of flow and verification metrics in the field, confounding the end user of the technique. Systemic study of different flows and the possible unification thereof is missing. This contribution is intended to reveal the pros and cons of different SMO approaches and verification metrics, understand the commonality and difference, and provide a generic guideline for RET selection via SMO. The paper discusses 3 different type of variations commonly arise in SMO, namely pattern preparation & selection, availability of relevant OPC recipe for freeform source and finally the metrics used in source verification. Several pattern selection algorithms are compared and advantages of systematic pattern selection algorithms are discussed. In the absence of a full resist model for SMO, alternative SMO flow without full resist model is reviewed. Preferred verification flow with quality metrics of DOF and MEEF is examined.

  11. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification (M&V) Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Touzani, Samir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Custodio, Claudine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jump, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This report documents the application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-building energy savings.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  13. Formal verification of Simulink/Stateflow diagrams a deductive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Naijun; Zhao, Hengjun


    This book presents a state-of-the-art technique for formal verification of continuous-time Simulink/Stateflow diagrams, featuring an expressive hybrid system modelling language, a powerful specification logic and deduction-based verification approach, and some impressive, realistic case studies. Readers will learn the HCSP/HHL-based deductive method and the use of corresponding tools for formal verification of Simulink/Stateflow diagrams. They will also gain some basic ideas about fundamental elements of formal methods such as formal syntax and semantics, and especially the common techniques applied in formal modelling and verification of hybrid systems. By investigating the successful case studies, readers will realize how to apply the pure theory and techniques to real applications, and hopefully will be inspired to start to use the proposed approach, or even develop their own formal methods in their future work.

  14. Modular Verification of Interactive Systems with an Application to Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Milazzo


    Full Text Available We propose sync-programs, an automata-based formalism for the description of biological systems, and a modular verification technique for such a formalism that allows properties expressed in the universal fragment of CTL to be verified on suitably chosen fragments of models, rather than on whole models. As an application we show the modelling of the lac operon regulation process and the modular verification of some properties. Verification of properties is performed by using the NuSMV model checker and we show that by applying our modular verification technique we can verify properties in shorter times than those necessary to verify the same properties in the whole model.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  16. International Space Station Requirement Verification for Commercial Visiting Vehicles (United States)

    Garguilo, Dan


    The COTS program demonstrated NASA could rely on commercial providers for safe, reliable, and cost-effective cargo delivery to ISS. The ISS Program has developed a streamlined process to safely integrate commercial visiting vehicles and ensure requirements are met Levy a minimum requirement set (down from 1000s to 100s) focusing on the ISS interface and safety, reducing the level of NASA oversight/insight and burden on the commercial Partner. Partners provide a detailed verification and validation plan documenting how they will show they've met NASA requirements. NASA conducts process sampling to ensure that the established verification processes is being followed. NASA participates in joint verification events and analysis for requirements that require both parties verify. Verification compliance is approved by NASA and launch readiness certified at mission readiness reviews.

  17. Hardware/software co-verification platform for EOS design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ethernet over SDH/SONET (EOS) is a hotspot in today's data transmission technology for it combines the merits of both Ethernet and SDH/SONET. However, implementing an EOS system on a chip is complex and needs full verifications. This paper introduces our design of Hardware/Software co-verification platform for EOS design. The hardware platform contains a microprocessor board and an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)-based verification board, and the corresponding software includes test benches running in FPGAs, controlling programs for the microprocessor and a console program with GUI (Graphical User Interface) interface for configuration, management and supervision. The design is cost-effective and has been successfully employed to verify several IP (Intellectual Property) blocks of our EOS chip. Moreover, it is flexible and can be applied as a general-purpose verification platform.

  18. Finite Countermodel Based Verification for Program Transformation (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei P. Lisitsa


    Full Text Available Both automatic program verification and program transformation are based on program analysis. In the past decade a number of approaches using various automatic general-purpose program transformation techniques (partial deduction, specialization, supercompilation for verification of unreachability properties of computing systems were introduced and demonstrated. On the other hand, the semantics based unfold-fold program transformation methods pose themselves diverse kinds of reachability tasks and try to solve them, aiming at improving the semantics tree of the program being transformed. That means some general-purpose verification methods may be used for strengthening program transformation techniques. This paper considers the question how finite countermodels for safety verification method might be used in Turchin's supercompilation method. We extract a number of supercompilation sub-algorithms trying to solve reachability problems and demonstrate use of an external countermodel finder for solving some of the problems.

  19. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-8 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron


    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. This waste site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum.


    The Environmental Technology Verification Program has partnered with Concurrent Technologies Corp. to verify innovative coatings and coating equipment technologies for reducing air emissions. This report describes the performance of EXEL Industrial's Kremlin Airmix high transfer ...