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Sample records for active left-sided inflammatory

  1. A phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli associated with active left-sided inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas M; Nielsen, Eva M; Litrup, Eva;

    2009-01-01

    group (triplex PCR), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) genes and multilocus sequence type (MLST) between E. coli strains isolated from IBD patients with past or present involvement of the left side of the colon and from controls. RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from 18 patients and from...

  2. Left-sided omental torsion: CT appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoun, N.; Haddad-Zebouni, S.; Slaba, S.; Ghossain, M. [Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon). Dept. of Radiology; Noun, R. [Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon). Dept. of General Surgery

    2001-01-01

    A 34-year-old male presented with exquisite left flank pain. Computed tomography showed a hyperdense vascular structure surrounded by whirling linear streaks situated in the greater omentum under the splenic flexure of the colon. Omental stranding extended caudally into the pelvis where part of the inflamed omentum entered a left inguinal hernia sac. Surgery revealed left-sided torsion of the greater omentum. Left-sided omental torsion is infrequent and pre-operative diagnosis is rarely established. The CT findings of an omental fatty mass with a whirling pattern is characteristic of omental torsion. Preoperative diagnosis is important because conservative management has been suggested. (orig.)

  3. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  4. A Case Report of Left-Sided Headache with Rhinocleisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case Report A patient, with a complaint of a left-sided headache plus a rhinocleisis for a month, was admitted to our hospital. The clinical diagnosis showed that it was a primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the nasopharynx.

  5. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    OpenAIRE

    O. B. Zhukov; A. V. Verzin; P. L. Penkov

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler k...

  6. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  7. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  8. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  9. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  10. Left-sided omental torsion with inguinal hernia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasumitsu Hirano; Kaeko Oyama; Hiroshi Nozawa; Takuo Hara; Koichi Nakada; Masahiro Hada; Takeshi Takagi; Makoto Hirano

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of surgically proved left-sided torsion of the greater omentum that caused secondary by untreated inguinal hernia. Case A 36-year-old man presented to our hospital with abdominal pain. He had been diagnosed with a left inguinal hernia, but he had not received any treatments. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a large fat density mass below the Sigmoid colon and left inguinal hernia with incarcerated fat. Exploratory laparotomy revealed torsion of the greater omentum with small bloody ascites. The greater omentum was twisted into one and a half circles and entered into a left inguinal hernia. An omentectomy with a repair of left inguinal hernia was performed. A resected omentum was submitted for pathological examination, which showed hemorrhagic infarction. Omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain but should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute abdomen, especially in patients with untreated inguinal hernia.

  11. Critical Questions About Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, J Alberto; Vilacosta, Isidre; López, Javier; Sarriá, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Research in different topics in cardiovascular medicine is evolving rapidly. However, this is not the case for endocarditis, despite its being the cardiovascular disease with the highest mortality and, at the same time, the entity with relatively less scientific evidence supporting its treatment. Many problems are delaying research: it is an uncommon disease, few multicenter registries are ongoing, financing for research in this topic is lacking, randomization is costly, difficult, and considered unethical by some, and conclusions coming from propensity score analysis are taken as if they came from randomized trials. In this review, we put forward the main issues in need of evidence and propose a different approach to advance the understanding of left-sided infective endocarditis. We summarize the limited evidence available, the questions that are pending, and how we should proceed to answer them.

  12. CT of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis and differential diagnoses

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    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R.; Cordes, M. [St. Theresien-Krankenhaus, Nuernberg (Germany). Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum

    2005-07-01

    This review shows the diagnostic potential of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis. Using a single detector spiral CT, standard examination of the entire abdomen is performed after oral and rectal administration of diluted iodinated contrast medium with collimation of 8 mm, pitch of 1.5, and reconstruction increment of 8 mm before and after intravenous contrast injection. Intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents, various patient positions, and the thin-section technique with 3-5 mm slices are beneficial in difficult cases. The differential diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis includes tumorous, inflammatory, and ischemic diseases of the colon as well as infarctions of epiploic appendages and the omentum majus. The knowledge of the various CT criteria of acute colonic diverticulitis and their differential diagnoses helps to establish a correct diagnosis in a wide majority of cases. At present, CT is the diagnostic procedure of choice for assessing acute diverticulitis. Distinct knowledge of the CT features helps to differentiate the various entities accurately.

  13. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  14. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome.

  15. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  16. A left-sided periappendiceal abscess in an adult with intestinal malrotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ro Lee; Jong Hun Kim; Yong Hwang; Young Kon Kim

    2006-01-01

    Left-sided periappendiceal abscesses occur in association with two types of congenital anomaly: intestinal malrotation and situs inversus. It is difficult to obtain an accurate preoperative diagnosis of these abscesses due to the abnormal position of the appendix. We present an unusual case of a left-sided periappendiceal abscess in an adult with intestinal malrotation, the diagnosis of which was a challenge.

  17. Left-sided portal hypertension: Successful management by laparoscopic splenectomy following splenic artery embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Patrono

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Splenic artery embolization may be a valuable adjunct in case of left-sided portal hypertension requiring splenectomy, allowing a safe dissection of the splenic vessels even by laparoscopy.

  18. Rare copy number variants contribute to congenital left-sided heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Phillip Hitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided congenital heart disease (CHD encompasses a spectrum of malformations that range from bicuspid aortic valve to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It contributes significantly to infant mortality and has serious implications in adult cardiology. Although left-sided CHD is known to be highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unidentified. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of structural genomic variation on left-sided CHD and compared multiplex families (464 individuals with 174 affecteds (37.5% in 59 multiplex families and 8 trios to 1,582 well-phenotyped controls. 73 unique inherited or de novo CNVs in 54 individuals were identified in the left-sided CHD cohort. After stringent filtering, our gene inventory reveals 25 new candidates for LS-CHD pathogenesis, such as SMC1A, MFAP4, and CTHRC1, and overlaps with several known syndromic loci. Conservative estimation examining the overlap of the prioritized gene content with CNVs present only in affected individuals in our cohort implies a strong effect for unique CNVs in at least 10% of left-sided CHD cases. Enrichment testing of gene content in all identified CNVs showed a significant association with angiogenesis. In this first family-based CNV study of left-sided CHD, we found that both co-segregating and de novo events associate with disease in a complex fashion at structural genomic level. Often viewed as an anatomically circumscript disease, a subset of left-sided CHD may in fact reflect more general genetic perturbations of angiogenesis and/or vascular biology.

  19. Left-sided approach of AV junction ablation for drug refractory atrial fibrillation

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    Yoga Yuniadi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available AV junction ablation has been proven effective to treat symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory to antiarrhythmias or fail of pulmonary vein isolation. However, about 15% of conventional right-sided approach AV junction ablation failed to produce complete heart block. This study aimed to characterize His bundle potential at ablation site during conventional or left-sided approach of AV junction ablation. Twenty symptomatic AF patient (age of 60.5 ± 9.28 and 11 are females underwent conventional AV junction ablation. If 10 applications of radiofrequency energy are failed, then the ablation was performed by left-sided approach. Seventeen patients are successfully ablated by conventional approach. In 3 patients, conventional was failed but successfully ablated by left-sided approach. The His bundle amplitude at ablation site was significantly larger in left-sided than correspondence right-sided (16.0 ± 4.99 mm vs. 6.9 ± 4.02 mm respectively, p = 0.001, 95% CI -14.0 to -4.3. ROC analysis of His bundle potential amplitude recorded from right-sided revealed that cut off point of > 4.87 mm given the sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 53.8% for successful right-sided approach of AV junction ablation. In case of failed conventional approach, the left-sided approach is effective for AV junction ablation. An early switch to the left-sided approach may avoid multiple RF applications in patients with a low amplitude His-bundle potential (< 4.87 mm. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:109-14Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, AV junction ablation, left-sided approach

  20. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  1. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  2. Left-sided approach for mitral valve replacement in a case of dextrocardia with situs solitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikon, Mhonchan; Kazmi, Aamir; Gupta, Anubhav; Grover, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    Mitral valve surgery in dextrocardia is technically challenging due to its anatomical malposition. Minor modifications are required in the surgical technique to counteract the problems during cannulation and exposure of the mitral valve. We report a case of a patient with dextrocardia, situs solitus, rheumatic heart disease, severe mitral regurgitation, moderate pulmonary artery hypertension, and severe left ventricular dysfunction who underwent mitral valve replacement using a two-stage right atrial cannulation with left-sided left atrial atriotomy, with the surgeon standing on the left side of the patient. Our approach for mitral valve surgery in this clinical setting is simple.

  3. Left-sided gallbladder discovered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Sagar; Jahangir, Tarshid A; Roy, Manas K

    2012-04-01

    Left-sided gallbladder, a rare congenital anomaly, is often associated with transposition of single or multiple viscera of thorax and/or abdomen. Clinical features and routine presurgical ultrasonography could miss the anomalous position thereby producing unnecessary anxiety during surgery. Here we are reporting a patient with left-sided gallbladder, known to have dextrocardia with multiple intracardiac anomalies, and detected incidentally in a series of 1258 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed successfully in this patient with port site modification and careful dissection. Some degree of abdominal visceral situs inversus is to be anticipated in patients with dextrocardia.

  4. Perceptual expertise: can sensorimotor experience change holistic processing and left-side bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ricky Van-yip; Au, Terry Kit-fong; Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen

    2014-09-01

    Holistic processing and left-side bias are both behavioral markers of expert face recognition. By contrast, expert recognition of characters in Chinese orthography involves left-side bias but reduced holistic processing, although faces and Chinese characters share many visual properties. Here, we examined whether this reduction in holistic processing of Chinese characters can be better explained by writing experience than by reading experience. Compared with Chinese nonreaders, Chinese readers who had limited writing experience showed increased holistic processing, whereas Chinese readers who could write characters fluently showed reduced holistic processing. This result suggests that writing and sensorimotor experience can modulate holistic-processing effects and that the reduced holistic processing observed in expert Chinese readers may depend mostly on writing experience. However, both expert writers and writers with limited experience showed similarly stronger left-side bias than novices did in processing mirror-symmetric Chinese characters; left-side bias may therefore be a robust expertise marker for object recognition that is uninfluenced by sensorimotor experience.

  5. Tricuspid regurgitation following left-sided valve surgery: echocardiographic evaluation and optimal timing of surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Chisato

    2015-03-01

    Severe tricuspid regurgitation may often appear and progress late after left-sided valve surgery without left-sided valve dysfunction, significant left heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension. The clinical features, echocardiographic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of this disease entity have been discussed, but data is limited compared with left-sided valve diseases. Tricuspid annular dilatation associated with atrial fibrillation and right ventricular dysfunction strongly relate to development of isolated tricuspid regurgitation late after left-sided valve surgery. Three-dimensional evaluation may be useful in evaluating tricuspid valve anatomy in more detail. Better prognosis in patients undergoing surgical treatment for severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation than those who were treated medically has been reported; however, the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery is often too late. Right ventricular function is a key word for determining the timing of isolated tricuspid valve surgery; however, it is difficult to evaluate by conventional echocardiography. One of the serious issues in the future will be how to accurately evaluate right ventricular function.

  6. [A case of left-sided Morgagni hernia complicating incarcerated small bowel hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Won; Jung, Sang Hun; Kang, Su Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is an uncommon presentation representing about 3% in incidence and usually located in the right-sided anterior diaphragm. We experienced a case of Morgagni hernia in a seventy four-year-old male who was admitted complaining of intermittent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made initially by chest and abdominal radiography, and an incarcerated Morgagni hernia was finally diagnosed with abdominal CT scans. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Morgagni foramen was located on the left-sided anterior diaphragm and Morgagni hernia which contained greater omentum and strangulated small intestine was gently reducted. Morgagni foramen measuring 4 x 5 cm was repaired with a Gortex mesh. We reported the experience of left-sided Morgagni hernia complicating incarcerated small bowel hernia in an old male patient.

  7. Large hiatal hernia in infancy with right intrathoracic stomach along with left sided morgagni hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Uzma; Mazhar, Naveed; Zameer, Shahla

    2014-11-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a very common intrathoracic fetal anomaly with Morgagni hernia typically seen on right side anteriorly and Bochdalek hernia on left side posteriorly, because of the protective effects of liver and heart on either side respectively. Hiatal hernias range from herniation of a small portion of stomach into thoracic cavity to herniation of entire stomach into the left thoracic cavity. Very rarely the herniated stomach has been reported in the right thoracic cavity. Early diagnosis and treatment of all diaphragmatic hernias is essential to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. We present a very rare and interesting case of an 18 months old baby girl with reverse scenarios. She had a large hiatal hernia with right intrathoracic stomach along with a left sided Morgagni hernia in combination.

  8. Hybrid approach for left-sided colonic carcinoma obstruction; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinswangwatanakul Vitoon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, there are several approaches to manage left-sided colonic carcinoma obstruction, such as tumor resection with primary anastomosis, tumor resection with end-colostomy and loop-colostomy. Recently, colonic stent insertion was introduced as a bridge prior to definite surgery. We demonstrated a hybrid approach for obstructed sigmoid carcinoma using colonic stent, followed by single incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC. A 58 year-old man presented with complete left-sided colonic obstruction. He underwent emergency colonoscopy with metallic stent placement. One week later, he was performed SILC. He recovered well after the operation without any postoperative complications. The pathological result showed adequacy of oncologic resection. This hybrid approach of colonic stent insertion and SILC can be safely performed.

  9. Left-Sided Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Right-Sided Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 31-year-old female with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF and right-sided aortic arch (RAA with left-sided patent ductus arteriosus (PDA originating from the left brachiocephalic artery. This is a rare finding but most common site for a PDA in TOF and a RAA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this rare finding on MRI in the literature.

  10. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    OpenAIRE

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular ...

  11. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  12. Cenani-Lenz syndrome-like limb anomaly with more severe involvement of left side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saleem; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousef

    2012-07-13

    The authors describe a case of Cenani-Lenz syndrome, in a 3-month-old girl of non-consanguineous parents of Afghani origin. Digital anomalies consist of sandactyly of the fingers of both hands, disorganised phalanges more severe involvement of the left side without radioulnar synostosis. Although our patient lacks facial dysmorphic features reported previously. The cases of patients with CLS need to be carefully evaluated and described to determine if there is distinctive accompanying facial phenotype.

  13. Total colectomy in older patients with acute malignant obstruction of the left-sided colons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milivoje Vukovi; Neboja Moljevi; Sinia Crnogorac

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The older population is one of the fastest growing segments of Serbian society. The aging population is also present in developed countries. Demographics the oldest region in the world is Europe. Serbia by the number colorectal cancer suffering among the countries with high risk of disease. In 2006. the number of new cases was around 4 000. Methods: In study retrospective review of 81 patients with malignant obstruction of the left-sided colon, where it underwent a total colectomy. Symptoms and signs of acute obstruction of the left-sided colon are complemented with radiological examination in all patients. The compulsory part of the preoperative examination digitorectal exam how to assess the function of the sphincter apparatus in terms of continence, and to view the rectum and the exclusion of the tumor. In poorly functioning sphincter apparatus was performed Hartmann's procedure, in order to avoid postoperative incontinence. Results: The primary anastomosis rate of 81% in the elderly and 83% of younger patients. In younger group 31 patients underwent a total colectomy with anastomosis and 6 total colectomy with end ileostomy. In older group there were 36 total colectomy with anastomosis and 8 with total colectomy with end ileostomy. Anastomotic leak occurred in 4 patients of elderly group and 2 patients in the younger group. Mortality (30 d) in the older group was 3 patients who had ASA IV, and younger group 2 patients (1 patient ASA III, 1 patients ASA IV). Of the 3 patients died from the older group, 2 patients were end ileostomy.Conclusions:Emergency resection and primary anastomosis for left-sided colon carcinoma can be performed with favorable outcome in the elderly. Years of age are not a decisive prognostic factor in colorectal surgery. The surgeon has a duty of careful selection of patients for resection with anastomosis for malignant obstruction of the left-sided colon, with adequate preoperative preparation and postoperative monitoring.

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Rebecca L

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a description of a physiological finding rather than a diagnosis. Pulmonary arterial pressure is the result of interactions among pulmonary blood flow (right ventricular cardiac output), pulmonary vascular impedance and post-capillary pressure (typically reflecting left atrial pressure). When elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic/diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure > approximately 30/19 mmHg at rest) are accompanied by increased left atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial hypertension may be considered secondary to left-heart failure. Introduction of Doppler methods to diagnose pulmonary arterial hypertension has increased the awareness of the prevalence and importance of pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs with left-heart failure. Increasing understanding of the mechanism of development of pulmonary venous hypertension and reactive pulmonary arterial hypertension in dogs with left-heart disease has led to the development of successful additive therapies for progressive clinical signs in the setting of chronic therapy for congestive heart failure due to left-sided valvular and myocardial dysfunction. Because effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction are now available, screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension should be a regular part of the Doppler echocardiographic examination in a clinical setting of chronic therapy for left-sided congestive heart failure due to valvular or myocardial disease.

  15. [Aorto pulmonary fistula: left-sided infective endocarditis in HIV and intravenous drugs abuser patient. Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón Azuara, B; Zalba Etayo, B; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Villanueva Anadón, B

    2007-11-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most severe complication in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). HIV infection increases the risk of IE in IVDAs too. IE in both population are special tendency to infect the right-sided heart, but unusual infective aortic valve. We report a case of HIV and IVDA patient admitted in hospital due to fever syndrome, with X-ray test normal and the first blood cultures negatives. CD4 count cell 90 mm3. It was impossible doing a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transtoracic echocardiogramma (TTE) only showed a moderate aortic insufficiency with conserved systolic function. Despite using antibiotics, antifungals and highly active antiretroviral therapy, he developed ARDS, and mechanical ventilation should be performed. At that moment, TEE showed an aorto pulmonary fistula due to left-sided IE. Further cultures was undergone and only one blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cardiac surgery was not indicated. The patient died 3 weeks later.

  16. Early experience of the compression anastomosis ring (CARTM 27) in left-sided colon resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Yeon Lee; Jin-Hee Woo; Hong-Jo Choi; Ki-Jae Park; Young-Hoon Roh; Ki-Han Kim; Hak-Yoon Lee

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate clinical validity of the compression anastomosis ring (CAR(tm) 27) anastomosis in left-sided colonic resection. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective data col-lection was performed for patients undergoing an elective left-sided colon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR(tm) 27 between November 2009 and January 2011. Eligibility criteria of the use of the CAR(tm) 27 were anastomoses between the colon and at or above the intraperitoneal rectum. The pri-mary short-term clinical endpoint, rate of anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes, including intra- and postoperative complications, length of operation time and hospital stay, and the ring elimination time were evaluated.RESULTS: A total of 79 patients (male, 43; median age, 64 years) underwent an elective left-sided co-lon resection, followed by an anastomosis using the CAR(tm) 27. Colectomy was performed laparoscopically in 70 patients, in whom two patients converted to open procedure (2.9%). There was no surgical mortality. As an intraoperative complication, total disruption of the anastomosis occurred by premature enforced tension on the proximal segment of the anastomosis in one pa-tient. The ring was removed and another new CAR(tm) 27 anastomosis was constructed. One patient with sigmoid colon cancer showed postoperative anastomotic leak-age after 6 d postoperatively and temporary diverting il-eostomy was performed. Exact date of expulsion of the ring could not be recorded because most patients were not aware that the ring had been expelled. No patients manifested clinical symptoms of anastomotic stricture.CONCLUSION: Short-term evaluation of the CAR(tm) 27 anastomosis in elective left colectomy suggested it to be a safe and efficacious alternative to the standard hand-sewn or stapling technique.

  17. Seizures accelerate forgetting in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Daamen, M; Zang, H; Janszky, J; Ebner, A

    2001-07-10

    Ten patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy performed a word-position association learning task every 24 hours during video EEG monitoring. On 55 occasions recall performance was tested 30 minutes and 24 hours after the initial learning phase. Patients with left- but not right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited impaired retention of word position if a seizure had occurred during the preceding 24-hour interval. Seizures may impair the consolidation of memory in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy beyond the chronic memory deficits caused by the underlying pathology.

  18. Missed diagnosis of atresia of the right pulmonary artery in woman with left-sided pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagnegård, Hanna; Ryom, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary atresia is an uncommon condition, which can go undiagnosed for a long time in asymptomatic patients. Sometimes, diagnosis can be made at pregnancy due to respiratory symptoms. There is no known increased risk of pneumothorax. We here present a case where a second-time pregnant ...... woman with an unknown atresia of the right pulmonary artery received a left-sided pneumothorax. The diagnosis was initially missed in spite of adequate imaging and the condition progressed to respiratory stop. We describe the course of diagnostics and the chosen strategy of treatment....

  19. Left-sided appendicitis:Review of 95 published cases and a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami; Akbulut; Abdullah; Ulku; Ayhan; Senol; Mahmut; Tas; Yusuf; Yagmur

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To give an overview of the literature on left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM).METHODS:We present a new case of LSAA with SIT and a literature review of studies published in the English language on LSAA,accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases.RESULTS:Ninety-five published cases of LSAA were evaluated and a 25-year-old female,who presented to our clinic with left lower abdominal pain caused by LSAA,is reported.In the reviewe...

  20. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, U; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, C;

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective...... factors for CVC, while warfarin on admission (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94), history of congestive heart failure (adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1-0.52) and previous endocarditis (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.79) correlated with lower CVC frequency....

  1. Quantitative assessment of left-sided valvular regurgitation by multi-gated equilibrium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takagi, Yaeko (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    In order to evaluate quantitatively left-sided valvular regurgitation by multi-gated equilibrium scintigraphy, regurgitant fraction (RF) was defined as following, RF = (LVCO - RVCO)/RVCO = SVR - 1. LVCO; left ventricular count output. RVCO; right ventricular count output. SVR; stroke volume ratio. RF values in 70 subjects were calculated after multigated equilibrium scintigraphies were performed. In 85% of 54 subjects without regurgitation, RF was less than 0.5 (MEAN +- S.D. 0.29 +- 0.28). In all of 16 patients with mitral and/or aortic regurgitation, RF was more than 0.5 (MEAN +- S.D. 1.68 +- 0.99) (P<0.001). Furthermore, the value of RF indicated the severity of regurgitation based on Sellers' criteria determined by contrast angiography. After successful valve replacement, post-operative RF reduced and were within normal values. We conclude that RF by multi-gated equilibrium scintigraphy permits noninvasive, quantitative assessment of left-sided valvular regurgitation, and RF is highly reproducible and useful for post-operative assessment in patients with valvular regurgitation.

  2. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consec...

  3. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  4. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  5. Is right-sided colon cancer different to left-sided colorectal cancer? - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G H; Malietzis, G; Askari, A; Bernardo, D; Al-Hassi, H O; Clark, S K

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and scientific studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the proximal (right-sided) colon and the distal (left-sided) colorectum. The different ways in which environmental risk factors influence the pathogenesis of CRC depending on its location and the variations in surgical and oncological outcomes are also discussed in this review. In the current era of personalized medicine, we aim to reiterate the importance of tumor location in management of CRC and the implication on future clinical and scientific research.

  6. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiahao, E-mail: mashenglin@medmail.com.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Shenglin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V{sub 5}). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing.

  7. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, Marlies; Lutterbach, Johannes; Bjoernsgard, Mari; Reichmann, Ursula; Bartelt, Susanne [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (D{sub mean}, D{sub 98%}, D{sub 2%} for target volumes, D{sub 2%}, D{sub mean} and V{sub x%} for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D{sub 2%} = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D{sub 2%} = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  8. Optimum level of inferior mesenteric artery ligation for the left-sided colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compares the effectiveness and impact of high inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) versus low IMA ligation on 5-year survival, lymph node yield rates, and peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Methods: The databases of Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), the Web of Science, EBSCO and MEDLINE were searched using MeSH terms ‘colorectal cancer’, ‘inferior mesenteric artery’, ‘high ligation’, ‘low ligation’, ‘mesenteric lymph nodes’, ‘prognosis’, and ‘survival’. Only clinical studies were selected and review articles and meta-analysis were excluded. In cases of duplicate cohorts, only the latest article was included. Irrelevant articles and the articles on both right and left sided CRC were excluded. The finally selected studies were analysed for the defined end-point outcomes. Results: The published data has shown that high IMA ligation improves the yield of harvested lymph node that allows accurate tumor staging and a more reliable estimation of prognosis. High ligation was not found to be positively correlated with increased anastomotic leakage or impaired genito-urinary function. However, high ligation demands advanced surgical expertise and longer operating time. There was no significant difference in 5-year survival rates for both techniques. Some studies have reported fatal complications of high ligation such as proximal bowel necrosis. Conclusion: Although there is no consensus, this research signals the routine use of high ligation for left-sided CRC. However, the published fatal complications following high ligation and no significant difference in 5-year survival rates demand more studies to establishing a unified protocol. PMID:27381531

  9. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

  10. Left-sided appendicitis in a patient with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welte Frank J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease requiring surgical intervention seen in the emergency room setting, intestinal malrotation is relatively uncommon. When patients with asymptomatic undiagnosed gastrointestinal malrotation clinically present with abdominal pain, accurate diagnosis and definitive therapy may be delayed, possibly increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a case where CT was crucial diagnostically and helpful for pre-surgical planning in a patient presenting with an acute abdomen superimposed on complete congenital gastrointestinal malrotation. Case presentation A 46-year-old previously healthy male with four days of primarily left-sided abdominal pain, low-grade fevers, nausea and anorexia presented to the Emergency Department. His medical history was significant for poorly controlled diabetes and dyslipidemia. His white blood count at that time was elevated. Initial abdominal plain films suggested small bowel obstruction. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed with oral and IV contrast to exclude diverticulitis, revealing acute appendicitis superimposed on congenital intestinal malrotation. Following consultation with the surgical team for surgical planning, the patient went on to laparoscopic appendectomy and did well postoperatively. Conclusion Atypical presentations of acute abdominal conditions superimposed on asymptomatic gastrointestinal malrotation can result in delays in delivery of definitive therapy and potentially increase morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in a timely manner. Appropriate imaging can be helpful in hastening diagnosis and guiding intervention.

  11. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  12. Predicting the optimal depth of left-sided central venous catheters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Jeong, C-H; Byon, H-J; Shin, H K; Yun, T J; Lee, J-H; Park, Y-H; Kim, J-T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the optimal depth for insertion of a left-sided central venous catheter in children. Using 3D chest computed tomography angiography, we measured the distance from a point where the internal jugular vein is at the superior border of the clavicle, and from a point where the subclavian vein is inferior to the anterior border of the clavicle, to the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium in 257 children. Linear regression analysis revealed that the distances correlated with age, weight and height. Simple formulae for the depth of a central venous catheter via the left internal jugular vein (0.07 × height (cm)) and the left subclavian vein (0.08 × height (cm)) were developed to predict placement of the central venous catheter tip at the junction of the superior vena cava with the right atrium. Using these fomulae, the proportion of catheter tips predicted to be correctly located was 98.5% (95% CI 96.8-100%) and 94.0% (95% CI 90.8-97.3%), respectively.

  13. An unusual case of metastasis to the left side of the heart: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyars Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac metastases are found in six to 20% of autopsies of patients with malignant neoplasm. The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the heart are malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia, but the relative numbers are greater with breast and lung cancers, reflecting the most common incidence of these cancers. Case presentation A 60-year-old Hispanic man presented to our hospital after being transferred from an outside hospital for workup and evaluation of an adrenal mass of the abdomen and pelvis, found on computed tomography. His chief complaint upon admission was altered mental status. Physical examination was unremarkable. He was alert and oriented and had a dry and non-erythematous oropharynx, and bilateral diffuse wheezing on lung examination. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple hypodense lesions in the left ventricular myocardium, suggestive of metastases. There were also tiny sub-centimeter nodular densities in the right upper and lower lobes. Adrenal glands contained hypodense lesions, which showed characteristic adenocarcinomatous malignant cells. Conclusion Cancers which have metastasized to the heart are found in six to 20% of patients with malignant neoplasms. The right side of the heart is more commonly involved in metastasis. This study is unusual in that a tumor of an unknown primary origin had metastasized to the left side of the heart.

  14. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  15. Diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis by three radiological modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, H.B.; Jacobsen, T.; Kolmannskog, F.; Bay, D.; Nygaard, K. [Oslo Univ., Dept. of Radiology (Norway)]|[Oslo Univ., Dept. of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Norway)]|[Oslo Univ., Central Inst. of Radiology (Norway)

    1998-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the findings at US, CT and contrast enema (CE) with the clinical, biochemical and surgical findings in patients with suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Material and Methods: The study comprised 32 consecutive patients hospitalized with clinically diagnosed ALCD. During the first 3 days of hospitalization, they were examined by US and CT of the pelvis and abdomen, and CE. Results: Of the 32 patients, 21 had ALCD according to the combined radiological, clinical, biochemical and surgical findings. Findings compatible with ALCD were verified by radiological examination alone in 12 patients (4 patients at US, 10 at CT, and 6 at CE). In 9 patients, only diverticula or tethering was found at either CE or CT, and the diagnoses were then supported by clinical and biochemical findings and clinical follow-up. The most common clinical symptoms and signs associated with ALCD were left lower quadrant pain, leftsided tenderness, and fever. Most patients showed elevations of the white bloodcell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein, but there was no statistical difference in the stages of severity of ALCD, or between ALCD and other abdominal disorders. Conclusion: Radiological examination is valuable in confirming the diagnosis of ALCD. CT was the radiological modality that best demonstrated ALCD and revealed complications (e.g. pericolic abscesses) during the course of the illness. (orig.).

  16. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadevan, N.; Venkatesh, Sama; Suresh, B

    1998-01-01

    Dodonaea viscose, Linn is a widely grown plant of Nilgiris district of Tamil and is commonly used by the tribals of Nilgiris as a traditional medicine for done fracture and joint sprains. Since it is generally believed tat fractures are accompanied by either some degree of injury or inflammations, it was felt desirable to carry our anti inflammatory activity of Dodonaea viscose. Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant was carried out by carrageenin induced paw edema method in Wister albino rats.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of dodonaea viscose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, N; Venkatesh, S; Suresh, B

    1998-10-01

    Dodonaea viscose, Linn is a widely grown plant of Nilgiris district of Tamil and is commonly used by the tribals of Nilgiris as a traditional medicine for done fracture and joint sprains. Since it is generally believed tat fractures are accompanied by either some degree of injury or inflammations, it was felt desirable to carry our anti inflammatory activity of Dodonaea viscose. Anti-inflammatory activity of the plant was carried out by carrageenin induced paw edema method in Wister albino rats.

  18. A Left-Sided Prevalence of Lentigo Maligna: A UK Based Observational Study and Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer has been shown to present asymmetrically, prevalent on the left side of the body, more so in subtypes of cutaneous melanoma such as lentigo maligna. Biases have been linked to cumulative UV light exposure and automobile driving patterns. Though left-right ratios have previously correlated with the side men or women tend to position themselves or countries drive on, more recent trends indicate a consistent left-sided bias. To clarify reasons for changing trends, a review of the evidence base and LM’s laterality in a UK cohort (99 cases 2000–2011 was conducted for the first time. The strong correlation of left-sided excess, found in both genders (ratios 1.381–1.5, P<0.05  X2 0.841, is congruent with more recent findings. Though evidence indicates that driving position is no longer a risk factor for LM, due most likely to improved car window UV protection, it remains the most commonly attributed cause. Understanding phenomena such as UV lights “scatter effect” or that cumulative exposure may not be a significant risk factor helps rationalize older conclusions that would otherwise appear contradictory. The reasons for left-sided excess remain unclear but may be due to factors requiring further research such as the body’s anatomical/embryological asymmetry.

  19. Successful resection of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastasis extending into left side of heart under cardiopulmonary bypass: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴(王莹); 沈钢

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cancerous thrombi of metastatic tumors rarely extend into the cardiac cavity, but such cases usually contraindicate surgery. Here, we report a patient in whom osteosarcoma pulmonary metastasis extended into the left side of the heart, which had metastasized to the left lung after surgery of the chondroblastoma of the left knee, was successfully excised in bloc under CPB.

  20. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Essers, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 13 patients, four treatment co

  1. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  2. Distinctive left-sided distribution of adrenergic-derived cells in the adult mouse heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Osuala

    Full Text Available Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced within the heart from neuronal and non-neuronal sources. These adrenergic hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular development and function, yet relatively little information is available about the specific tissue distribution of adrenergic cells within the adult heart. The purpose of the present study was to define the anatomical localization of cells derived from an adrenergic lineage within the adult heart. To accomplish this, we performed genetic fate-mapping experiments where mice with the cre-recombinase (Cre gene inserted into the phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase (Pnmt locus were cross-mated with homozygous Rosa26 reporter (R26R mice. Because Pnmt serves as a marker gene for adrenergic cells, offspring from these matings express the β-galactosidase (βGAL reporter gene in cells of an adrenergic lineage. βGAL expression was found throughout the adult mouse heart, but was predominantly (89% located in the left atrium (LA and ventricle (LV (p<0.001 compared to RA and RV, where many of these cells appeared to have cardiomyocyte-like morphological and structural characteristics. The staining pattern in the LA was diffuse, but the LV free wall displayed intermittent non-random staining that extended from the apex to the base of the heart, including heavy staining of the anterior papillary muscle along its perimeter. Three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction of XGAL+ staining revealed distribution throughout the LA and LV, with specific finger-like projections apparent near the mid and apical regions of the LV free wall. These data indicate that adrenergic-derived cells display distinctive left-sided distribution patterns in the adult mouse heart.

  3. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xqi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Tian X. [Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Liu, Arthur K.; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Hu, Y. Angie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed

  4. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients: Geometrical Uncertainty of the Heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topolnjak, Rajko; Borst, Gerben R.; Nijkamp, Jasper [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Huis, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Huis, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the geometrical uncertainties for the heart during radiotherapy treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients and to determine and validate planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margins. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients treated in supine position in 28 fractions with regularly acquired cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans for offline setup correction were included. Retrospectively, the CBCT scans were reconstructed into 10-phase respiration correlated four-dimensional scans. The heart was registered in each breathing phase to the planning CT scan to establish the respiratory heart motion during the CBCT scan ({sigma}{sub resp}). The average of the respiratory motion was calculated as the heart displacement error for a fraction. Subsequently, the systematic ({Sigma}), random ({sigma}), and total random ({sigma}{sub tot}={radical}({sigma}{sup 2}+{sigma}{sub resp}{sup 2})) errors of the heart position were calculated. Based on the errors a PRV margin for the heart was calculated to ensure that the maximum heart dose (D{sub max}) is not underestimated in at least 90% of the cases (M{sub heart} = 1.3{Sigma}-0.5{sigma}{sub tot}). All analysis were performed in left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions with respect to both online and offline bony anatomy setup corrections. The PRV margin was validated by accumulating the dose to the heart based on the heart registrations and comparing the planned PRV D{sub max} to the accumulated heart D{sub max}. Results: For online setup correction, the cardiac geometrical uncertainties and PRV margins were N-Ary-Summation = 2.2/3.2/2.1 mm, {sigma} = 2.1/2.9/1.4 mm, and M{sub heart} = 1.6/2.3/1.3 mm for LR/CC/AP, respectively. For offline setup correction these were N-Ary-Summation = 2.4/3.7/2.2 mm, {sigma} = 2.9/4.1/2.7 mm, and M{sub heart} = 1.6/2.1/1.4 mm. Cardiac motion induced by breathing was {sigma}{sub resp} = 1.4/2.9/1.4 mm for LR/CC/AP. The PRV D{sub max

  5. Left-sided appendicitis in children with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a diagnostic pitfall in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Issa, Ghada; Hourani, Roula; Akel, Samir

    2013-06-10

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring emergency surgery. However, acute appendicitis presenting with left lower quadrant abdominal pain is extremely rare. Imaging, particularly CT , plays an important role in establishing an accurate and prompt diagnosis, as delay in diagnosis may occur due to lack of uniformity in the clinical signs and symptoms. We report a rare case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with persistent left lower quadrant pain of several days duration, in which the CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was essential in establishing the correct diagnosis. The malpositioned inflamed appendix was clearly identified in the left side of the abdomen, with the characteristic CT findings of uncomplicated intestinal malrotation. Left-sided acute appendicitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young patients presenting with left lower quadrant pain, in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and guide the surgical intervention.

  6. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values 40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean <30 breaths/min at home. Clinicians can use these data to help determine how best to control CHF in dogs and cats.

  7. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Sitnikova

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddiffic...

  8. Radiographic and echocardiographic assessment of left atrial size in 100 cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Karsten E; Wetli, Ellen; Drost, Wm Tod

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate left atrial size in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that left atrial size as determined by thoracic radiography can be normal in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. One hundred cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure in which thoracic radiography and echocardiography were performed within 12 h were identified. Left atrial size was evaluated using right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs. Measurements were compared to two-dimensional echocardiographic variables of left atrial size and left ventricular size. On echocardiography, left atrial enlargement was observed in 96% cats (subjective assessment) whereas maximum left atrial dimension was increased (>15.7 mm) in 93% cats. On radiographs left atrial enlargement (subjective assessment) was found in 48% (lateral view), 53% (ventrodorsal view), and 64% (any view) of cats whereas left atrial enlargement was absent in 36% of cats in both views. Agreement between both methods of left atrial size estimation was poor (Cohen's kappa 0.17). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a maximum echocardiographic left atrial dimension of approximately 20 mm as the best compromise (Youden index) between sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of radiographic left atrial enlargement. Left atrial enlargement as assessed by thoracic radiography may be absent in a clinically relevant number of cats with congestive heart failure. Therefore, normal left atrial size on thoracic radiographs does not rule out presence of left-sided congestive heart failure in cats with clinical signs of respiratory distress.

  9. Surgical treatment for left-sided heart valve disease in a national reference hospital in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Julio C.; Portneuf Medical Center. Idaho, EE. UU. Médico, cirujano de tórax y cardiovascular.; Barrantes, Ciro A.; Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara. Lima, Perú. médico, cardiólogo.; Peralta, Julio E.; Programa de Cirugía de Tórax y Cardiovascular “Efraín Montesinos Mosqueira”, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Médico, cirujano de tórax y cardiovascular.; Rojas, Luis E.; Programa de Cirugía de Tórax y Cardiovascular “Efraín Montesinos Mosqueira”, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Médico, cirujano de tórax y cardiovascular.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics of patients with left-sided heart valve disease treated in the thoracic and cardiovascular surgery service of a national reference hospital; as well as to describe the occurrence of thromboembolic and bleeding events in these patients. Materials and methods. A retrospective longitudinal study was carried out, which included 185 patients who underwert surgery between 1999 and 2006 at the Hospital Nac...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullatif Azab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights of the published literature regarding the anti-inflammatory activities of natural products. Many review articles were published in this regard, however, most of them have presented this important issue from a regional, limited perspective. This paper summarizes the vast range of review and research articles that have reported on the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts and/or pure compounds derived from natural products. Moreover, this review pinpoints some interesting traditionally used medicinal plants that were not investigated yet.

  11. Contralateral breast doses depending on treatment set-up positions for left-sided breast tangential irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Chan Seong; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Chung, Yoon Sun; Park, Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate Contralateral Breast Doses with Supine and Prone Positions for tangential Irradiation techniques for left-sided breast Cancer We performed measurements for contralateral doses using Human Phantom at each other three plans (conventional technique, Field-in-Field, IMRT, with prescription of 50 Gy/25fx). For the measurement of contralateral doses we used Glass dosimeters on the 4 points of Human Phantom surface (0 mm, 10 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm). For the position check at every measurements, we had taken portal images using EPID and denoted the incident points on the human phantom for checking the constancy of incident points. The contralateral doses in supine position showed a little higher doses than those in prone position. In the planning study, contralateral doses in the prone position increased mean doses of 1.2% to 1.8% at each positions while those in the supine positions showed mean dose decreases of 0.8% to 0.9%. The measurements using glass dosimeters resulted in dose increases (mean: 2.7%, maximum: 4% of the prescribed dose) in the prone position. In addition, the delivery techniques of Field-in-field and IMRT showed mean doses of 3% higher than conventional technique. We evaluated contralateral breast doses depending on different positions of supine and prone for tangential irradiations. For the phantom simulation of set-up variation effects on contralateral dose evaluation, although we used humanoid phantom for planning and measurements comparisons, it would be more or less worse set-up constancy in a real patient. Therefore, more careful selection of determination of patient set-up for the breast tangential irradiation, especially in the left-sided breast, should be considered for unwanted dose increases to left lung and heart. In conclusion, intensive patient monitoring and improved patient set-up verification efforts should be necessary for the application of prone position for tangential irradiation of left-sided breast cancer.

  12. Overestimated Oncologic Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in G1 Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Tumor in the Left Side of the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Yang, Seok Jeong; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kang, Chang Moo; Kim, Hogeun; Lee, Woo Jung

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have expounded on the oncologic significance of lymph node metastasis in nonfunctioning (NF) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas and suggest regional lymph node dissection for treating pancreatic NET. We tested this recommendation in NF pancreatic NET-G1, as these tumors are generally small and suitable for function-preserving minimally invasive pancreatectomy.From January 2005 to December 2014, medical records of patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pathologically confirmed NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Oncologic outcomes were compared between limited pancreatectomy and distal pancreatosplenectomy.Thirty-five patients (14 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 55.9 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in this study. Six patients (17.1%) underwent distal pancreatosplenectomy. Limited pancreatectomies comprised 15 spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomies (42.8%), 10 enucleations (28.6%), and 4 central pancreatectomies (11.4%). Lymph node metastasis was not found in 6 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy with a splenectomy; meanwhile, the others were regarded as pNx since no lymph node retrieval was attempted during the limited pancreatectomy. Overall disease-free survival was 36.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.9-47.1) and no tumor-related mortality was noted. Minimally invasive pancreatectomy (P = 0.557) and limited pancreatectomy (P = 0.758) showed no adverse impact in treating NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas.The oncologic significance of lymph node metastasis is overestimated in NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas. Routine conventional distal pancreatosplenectomy to retrieve regional lymph nodes may be too excessive in treating NF NET-G1 of the distal pancreas.

  13. Node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Does VMAT improve treatment plan quality with respect to IMRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, M.; Bartelt, S.; Lutterbach, J. [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, D. [Medical University Vienna/AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to explore plan quality and dosimetric accuracy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Methods: VMAT and IMRT plans were generated with the Pinnacle{sup 3} V9.0 treatment planning system for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients. VMAT plans were created using a single arc and IMRT was performed with 4 beams using 6, 10, and 15 MV photon energy, respectively. Plans were evaluated both manually and automatically using ArtiView trademark. Dosimetric plan verification was performed with a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. Results: Photon energy had no significant influence on plan quality for both VMAT and IMRT. Large variability in low doses to the heart was found due to patient anatomy (range V{sub 5} {sub Gy} 26.5-95 %). Slightly more normal tissue dose was found for VMAT (e.g., V{sub Tissue30%} = 22 %) than in IMRT (V{sub Tissue30%} = 18 %). The manual and ArtiView trademark plan evaluation coincided very accurately for most dose metrics (difference < 1 %). In VMAT, 96.7 % of detector points passed the 3 %/3 mm gamma criterion; marginally better accuracy was found in IMRT (98.3 %). Conclusion: VMAT for node-positive left-sided breast cancer retains target homogeneity and coverage when compared to IMRT and allows maximum doses to organs at risk to be reduced. ArtiView trademark enables fast and accurate plan evaluation. (orig.)

  14. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: an unusual case of left-sided location with extension into the pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foscolo, Sylvain; Mandry, Damien; Galloy, Marie-Agnes; Claudon, Michel [University of Nancy, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Champigneulles, Jacqueline [University of Nancy, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Miscault, Godefroy de [University of Nancy, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Children' s Hospital, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2007-06-15

    Segmental omental infarction (OI) is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children. It generally occurs in the right lower and upper quadrants of the abdomen and only a few cases of other locations have been described in adults. We report a unique paediatric case of OI with an unusual left-sided location extending into the pelvis in a 6-year-old non-obese girl. The diagnosis was suspected on US and CT based on imaging patterns previously described in adults and children. Laparoscopic resection should be balanced with nonsurgical management. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of clinical features of left-sided infective endocarditis involving previously normal versus previously abnormal valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Del Trigo, María; Ferrera, Carlos; Vivas, David; Maroto, Luis; Hernández, Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; San Román, José Alberto

    2014-07-15

    Native valve infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with normal valves has increased in the last decades. Whether patients with normal valves present a similar prognosis to those with pathologic valves is unresolved. Our aim is to describe epidemiologic and clinical differences between patients with left-sided IE and normal valves and those with native pathologic valves. We analyzed 945 consecutive episodes of IE, 435 of which involved left-sided nonprosthetic IE. They were classified into 2 groups: episodes in normal valves (normal group, n=173) and episodes in pathologic valves (abnormal group, n=262). Patients in the normal group were younger, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis were more frequently isolated, and vegetations were more frequently found. Heart failure, septic shock, and the need for surgery or death were more common. Multivariate analysis identified the following as factors independently associated with normal valve IE: agevalve IE, patients with IE on normal valves were younger, had a more virulent microbiological profile, developed heart failure and septic shock more frequently, needed more surgical procedures, and had worse prognosis.

  16. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sitnikova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  17. Differential auditory-oculomotor interactions in patients with right versus left sided subjective tinnitus: A saccade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eLang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective tinnitus (ST is a frequent but poorly understood medical condition. Recent studies demonstrated abnormalities in several types of eye movements (smooth pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus, fixation and vergence in ST patients. The present study investigates horizontal and vertical saccades in patients with tinnitus lateralized predominantly to the left or to the right side. Compared to left sided ST, tinnitus perceived on the right side impaired almost all the parameters of saccades (latency, amplitude, velocity, etc. and noticeably the upward saccades. Relative to controls, saccades from both groups were more dysmetric and were characterized by increased saccade disconjugacy (i.e. poor binocular coordination. Although the precise mechanisms linking ST and saccadic control remain unexplained, these data suggest that ST can lead to detrimental auditory, visuomotor and perhaps vestibular interactions.

  18. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook; Lim, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Myeong; Park, Eun-Hee

    2008-01-04

    Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and an anti-angiogenic activity in the chicken chorioallantoic (CAM) assay. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, TEE inhibited production of exudate, and significantly diminished nitric oxide (NO) and leukocyte levels in the exudate. It also possessed an inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and caused a dose-dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice. Suppressive effects of TEE on the production of NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages were also assessed. Among the fractions, the n-butanol fraction (BuOH) was identified to be most effective in the CAM assay. Collectively, Taraxacum officinale contains anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities through its inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression and/or its antioxidative activity.

  20. SU-E-T-292: Dosimetric Advantage of Prone Breast Radiotherapy for Korean Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y; Shin, J; Yu, J; Park, W; Choi, D; Huh, S; Han, Y; Kim, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric benefit of prone breast radiotherapy for Korean left-sided early-stage breast cancer patients who have relatively small breast Methods: From April to June, 2014, 10 left-sided breast cancer patients received the whole breast irradiation in prone position after partial mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. All patients were pTmi-2N0-1mi. Each patient underwent two computed tomoradiography (CT) simulations in supine and prone positions. The whole breast, ipsilateral lung, heart, and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were contoured on each simulation CT images, and then tangential-fields treatment plan in each position was designed for the whole breast irradiation with the total dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. Dose-volume histograms of two setups were compared for target coverage and radiation dose to normal organs with Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: The median age of patients was 47 years (range, 37 to 53). The median chest size was 82.5 cm (range, 75 to 90) and bra cup size was A in 4, B in 4, and C in 2 patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was similar when comparing mean dose (Dmean) and dose covering 95% of the breast volume, but maximum dose (Dmax) of breast was higher in supine (median 52.3 vs. 52.7 Gy, p=0.013). Prone position reduced significantly the radiation dose in ipsilateral lung, heart, and LAD by median 5.7, 1.1, and 6.9 Gy of Dmean (p=0.005, 0.007, and 0.005) and 28.2, 18.8, and 35.0 Gy of Dmax (p=0.005, 0.005, and 0.007), respectively. Conclusion: Prone breast radiotherapy could be beneficial for Korean breast cancer patients since it substantially spared normal organs while achieving adequate coverage of the breast tissue. Further prospective study is required to validate the potential benefit of prone breast radiotherapy.

  1. Combined side-to-end anastomosis with temporary end colostomy for the management of selected left-sided colonic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safioleas, Michael; Stamatakos, Michael; Safioleas, Panayoitis; Safioleas, Konstantinos; Sakorafas, George H

    2011-04-01

    Management of surgical emergencies of the left colon commonly requires excision of the colonic segment bearing the lesion, creation of an end colostomy, and closure of the rectosigmoid stump. Closure of the end stoma may be technically challenging. During this study, we used a new surgical technique involving the creation of an end-to-side anastomosis of the rectosigmoid stump to the base of the proximal colonic segment in association with an end colostomy. During a 15-year period, 23 patients were offered this type of surgery. Mortality was zero. Complications were observed in seven patients (morbidity, 7/23). Mean hospitalization time was 12.3 days. Closure of the colostomy was performed approximately 1 month after initial surgery and was easily performed using a mechanical stapler, either intraperitoneally or even extraperitoneally. No complications were observed after closure of the colostomy. The described technique is a useful alternative for the management of selected patients with left-sided colonic surgical emergencies. Its main advantage is that it greatly facilitates colostomy closure, which is performed earlier compared with the colostomy closure after a typical Hartmann's procedure.

  2. Clinical application of self-expanding metallic stent in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ben Fan; Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ni-Wei Chen; Hui-Min Xu; Zhe Yang; Yue Wang; Yu-Yao Huang; Qi Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our experience with the application of self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing placement of SEMS between April 2000 and January 2004 was performed.RESULTS: Insertion of SEMS was attempted in 26patients under fluoroscopic guidance with occasional endoscopic assistance. The sites of lesions were located in splenic flexure of two patients, left colon of seven patients, sigmoid colon of eight patients and rectum of nine patients. The intended uses of SEMS were for palliation in 7 patients and as a bridge to elective surgery in 19 patients. In the latter group, placement of SEMS allowed for preoperative systemic and bowel preparation and the following one-stage anastomosis. Successful stent placement was achieved in 22 (85%) of the 26patients. The clinical bowel obstruction resolved 24 hours after successful stent placement in 21 (95%) patients.Three SEMS-related minor complications occurred, two stents migrated and one caused anal pain.CONCLUSION: SEMS represents an effective and safe tool in the management of acute malignant colorectal obstruction. As a bridge to surgery, SEMS can provide time for systematic support and bowel preparation and obviate the need for fecal diversion or on-table lavage.As a palliative measure, SEMS can eliminate the need for emergent colostomy.

  3. A Review on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Monoterpenes

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    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the need to find new anti-inflammatory agents, great effort has been expended on the development of drugs for the treatment of inflammation. This disorder reduces the quality of life and overall average productivity, causing huge financial losses. In this review the anti-inflammatory activity of 32 bioactive monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. The data demonstrate the pharmacological potential of this group of natural chemicals to act as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. Acute resection versus bridge to surgery with diverting colostomy for patients with acute malignant left sided colonic obstruction: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F.J.; Mulder, C.L.; Verheijen, P.M.; Draaisma, W.A.; Siersema, P.D.; Consten, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, no consensus exists on the best treatment strategy for acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes following the two surgical treatment options; primary resection versus colostomy creation as bridge to s

  5. Case Series: Fetal Pulmonary Vein A-Wave Reversal: An Early Marker of Left-Sided Cardiac Anomalies?

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    Aldo L. Schenone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Improvements in congenital heart disease (CHD screening are needed based on the lack of sensitivity of current screening methods and the understanding that the early detection of certain CHDs may improve outcomes. Fetal venous circulation has caught medical attention, and two studies demonstrated that it is feasible to register pulmonary vein flow velocity waveforms (FVWs during early gestation. Meanwhile, the latter study proposed pulmonary vein A-wave reversal as a marker of cardiac anomaly. Methods - We report a series of six consecutive fetuses with confirmed cardiac anomalies that underwent first-trimester screening, including pulmonary vein FVWs, at our center during 2013. CHD was confirmed by late pregnancy echocardiography, and in three cases fetal autopsies were performed. Result/Discussion - The ductus venosus (DV and nuchal translucency (NT predicted 50% of CHD cases, whereas the combination of markers identified 66.6% of CHD cases. When adding pulmonary vein assessment, the rate of detection rose to 83.3%. Total five of six cases of CHD had reversal of pulmonary vein A-wave during early pregnancy. The sixth case with CHD and nonreversal of A-wave was described as right ventricle hypoplasia with type 1 tricuspid atresia and persistent ductus arteriosus. Conclusion This is the first series reporting pulmonary vein end-diastolic reversal as a CHD screening add-on during early pregnancy. The addition of pulmonary vein FVW assessment to the current CHD screening bundle could increase the rate detection of cardiac anomalies. This pilot study suggests that pulmonary vein end-diastolic flow reversal favors detection of left-sided CHD over the right-sided ones.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl

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    Shilpa K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl is a bulbous herb which has a wide geographical distribution in India. It is commonly called Bon-naharu (meaning wild garlic in Assam. Traditionally the bulb has been reported to have nauseant, emetic, emollient, diaphoretic properties and it is also used in various inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bulbs of the plants has been investigated in the present study in order to establish its traditional claims. The ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol extracts of bulbs of Crinum defixum were screened for anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. The study revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of the plant had significant anti-inflammatory activity than the chloroform and ethanol extracts. The study supports the ethanomedicinal use of this plant for inflammatory conditions.

  7. Abnormal left-sided orbitomedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity during happy and fear face processing: a potential neural mechanism of female MDD

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    Jorge eAlmeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathophysiologic processes supporting abnormal emotion regulation in major depressive disorder (MDD are poorly understood. We previously found abnormal inverse left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical- amygdala effective connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD. We aimed to replicate and expand this previous finding in an independent participant sample, using a more inclusive neural model, and a novel emotion-processing paradigm.Methods: Nineteen individuals with MDD in depressed episode (12 females, and nineteen healthy individuals, age and gender matched, performed an implicit emotion processing and automatic attentional control paradigm to examine abnormalities in prefrontal cortical-amygdala neural circuitry during happy, angry, fearful and sad face processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a 3Tesla scanner. Effective connectivity was estimated with Dynamic Causal Modelling in a trinodal neural model including two anatomically defined prefrontal cortical regions, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual cingulate cortex(sgACC, and the amygdala. Results: We replicated our previous finding of abnormal inverse left-sided inverse top-down ventromedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p=.04, and also showed a similar pattern of abnormal inverse left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to these stimuli (p=0.03. These findings were paralleled by abnormally reduced positive left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical-sgACC connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p=0.008, and abnormally increased positive left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to fearful faces in females, and all individuals, with MDD (p=0.008;p=0.003.Conclusions: Different patterns of abnormal prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy and fearful stimuli might represent neural mechanisms for the excessive self-reproach and comorbid anxiety that characterize female MDD.

  8. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P

  9. Anti inflammatory activity of moringa oliefera. Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Gopalakrishnan, V; Loganathan, V; Nathan, S S

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant.

  10. Modified partially wide tangents technique in post-mastectomy radiotherapy for patients with left-sided breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Jia-yi; HU Wei-gang; GUO Xiao-mao

    2010-01-01

    from the IMRT (P=0.868 and P=0.212).Conclusions No single technique provides both the best CW and IMN coverage with minimum lung and heart dose.The modified PWT technique can be used as a clinical tool for the treatment of the left-sided post-mastectomy breast cancer patients to provide homogeneous target coverage while maintaining Iow doses to normal tissue.

  11. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ferrándiz, M L; Ubeda, A; Domínguez, J N; Charris, J E; Lobo, G M; Alcaraz, M J

    1998-05-19

    Chalcones and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro, chalcones 2, 4, 8, 10 and 13 inhibited degranulation and 5-lipoxygenase in human neutrophils, whereas 11 behaved as scavenger of superoxide. Only four compounds (4-7) inhibited cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity. The majority of these samples showed anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse air pouch model.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Anwanga E Udoh; Samuel G Frank; Louis U Amazu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods: The crude leaf extract (39-111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results: The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 - 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions: The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  13. Coincidence of congenital left-sided diaphragmatic hernia and ductus venosus agenesis: Relation between altered hemodynamic flow and lung-to-head-ratio?

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    T. Klein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided diaphragmatic hernia (CDH as well as ductus venosus agenesis (ADV are rare complex congenital malformations. We present a case of coincidence of these malformations and an abnormally high lung-head-ratio (LHR. The left-sided liver-up CDH and the ADV were diagnosed in prenatal ultrasound examination. In CDH cases lung volume is decreased due to the herniation of abdominal organs into the thorax. With 1.4 the LHR of our patient exceeded the normal ratio in liver-up CDH cases considerably. One explanation for this unusually high LHR might be an altered blood flow due to the coinciding ADV. In ADV cases less blood bypasses the lung through the foramen ovale. Consecutively pulmonary circulation is improved which may constitute as an advantage in CDH cases. Diagnosis, prognostic factors, physiology, and therapy strategy are discussed.

  14. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Reardon, Michael A. [Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Geesey, Constance [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wijesooriya, Krishni, E-mail: kw5wx@hscmail.mcc.virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ipomoea reniformis Methanolic Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja S. D.; Sheth N.R.; Joshi D. M.; Golwala D.K.; Patel Dhaval; Raval M. K.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanolic extract of Ipomoea reniformis herb (MEIR) in acute, subacute and chronic models of inflammation was assessed in rats. Administration of MEIR (200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In acute inflammation as produced by Carrageenan 59.55 % and 64.04 % protection was observed. While in subacute anti-inflammatory models using formaldehyde-induced hind paw edema (after 1.5 h) 38.36 % and 47.95 % and in chronic anti-inflammatory mode...

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lychnophora passerina, Asteraceae (Brazilian Arnica).

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Patricia Capelari de; Paula, Carmem Aparecida de; Rezende, Simone Aparecida; Campos, Fernanda Torres; Guimarães, Andrea Grabe; Lombardi, Júlio Antônio; Guimarães, Dênia Antunes Saúde

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lychnophora passerina (Asteraceae), popularly known as arnica, is used to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, contusions, bruises and insect bites in Brazilian traditional medicine. Materials and methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extract of aerial parts of L. passerina and its ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had their abilities to modulate the production of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 inflammatory mediators in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated J774...

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

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    Alexandre Medeiros do Carmo

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine.The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

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    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  19. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF Roldana platanifolia

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    Amira Arciniegas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study of Roldana platanifolia led to the isolation of β-caryophyllene, five eremophilanolides, chlorogenic acid, and a mixture of β-sitosterol-stigmasterol, β-sitosteryl glucopyranoside, and sucrose. The anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts and isolated products were tested using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA model of induced acute inflammation. The acetone and methanol extracts showed dose dependent activities (ID50 0.21 and 0.32 mg/ear, respectively, while none of the isolated compounds exhibited relevant edema inhibition. The active extracts were also evaluated with the myeloperoxidase assay technique (MPO to determine their ability to prevent neutrophil infiltration. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity was related to the compound’s ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators such as neutrophils.

  20. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  1. Investigation Of Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Bergamot Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Essential oil of Bergamot (BO) was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Methods: For the anti-inflammatory activity measurement six different groups were established and BO was administered in three different doses: 0.025, 0.05 and 0.10 mL/kg. Indomethacin was used as a reference agent. Results: It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 95.70% with indomethacin, 27.56% with 0.025 mL/kg BO, 30.77% with 0.05 mL/kg BO and 63.39...

  2. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of three nitro chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rivera, Abraham; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemí; Romero-Ceronio, Nancy; Roa-de la Fuente, Luis F; Lobato-García, Carlos E

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to synthesize three nitro substituted chalcones and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in the model of carrageenan induced edema in rats. The nitro chalcone were prepared by aldol condensation using of mechanical agitation and environmentally friendly solvents with 72-73% yields in approximately 2h. The three structures were evaluated on biological activity at dose of 200mg/kg and they showed anti-inflammatory protective effect by both oral and intraperitoneal administration, this effect was time dependent.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bromelia hieronymi: comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-03-01

    Some plant proteases (e. g., papain, bromelain, ficin) have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, and especially bromelain is still being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. Bromelain is an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus. In this study the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract of Bromelia hieronymi fruits, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases, is presented. Different doses of a partially purified extract of B. hieronymi were assayed on carrageenan-induced and serotonine-induced rat paw edema, as well as in cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of the partially purified extract and bromelain showed significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses. Treatment of the partially purified extract and bromelain with E-64 provoked loss of anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, a fact which is consistent with the hypothesis that the proteolytic activity would be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

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    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of Urera aurantiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, R; Marrassini, C; Anesini, C; Gorzalczany, S

    2015-01-01

    Urera aurantiaca Wedd. (Urticaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine to relieve pain in inflammatory processes. In the present study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of U. aurantiaca methanolic extract and its possible mechanisms of action were investigated. The extract showed anti-inflammatory activity in the ear edema in mice test (34.3% inhibition), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was markedly reduced in animals administered with the extract: within 49.6% and 68.5%. In the histological analysis, intense dermal edema and intense cellular infiltration of inflammatory cells were markedly reduced in the ear tissue of the animals treated with the extract. In the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats assay the extract provoked a significant inhibition of the inflammation (45.5%, 5 h after the treatment) and the MPO activity was markedly reduced (maximum inhibition 71.7%), The extract also exhibited significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the increased vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. The extract presented antioxidant activity in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid tests and its total phenol content was 35.4 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g of extract. Also, the extract produced significant inhibition on nociception induced by acetic acid (ED50 : 8.7 mg/kg, i.p.) administered intraperitoneally and orally. Naloxone significantly prevented this activity.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical profile of Galphimia glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cortazar, Manasés; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Marquina, Silvia; Alvarez, Laura; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Galphimia glauca, commonly known as "flor de estrella", is a plant species used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases that have an acute or chronic inflammatory process in common. Aerial parts of this plant contain nor-seco-triterpenoids with anxiolytic properties, which have been denominated galphimines. Other compounds identified in the plant are tetragalloyl-quinic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin, which are able to inhibit the bronchial obstruction induced by platelet-activating factor. The objective of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of crude extracts from G. glauca and, by means of bioguided chemical separation, to identify the compounds responsible for this pharmacological activity. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts showed an important anti-inflammatory effect. Chemical separation of the active methanol extract allowed us to identify the nor-seco-triterpenes galphimine-A (1) and galphimine-E (3) as the anti-inflammatory principles. Analysis of structure-activity relationships evidenced that the presence of an oxygenated function in C6 is absolutely necessary to show activity. In this work, the isolation and structural elucidation of two new nor-seco-triterpenes denominated as galphimine-K (4) and galphimine-L (5), together with different alkanes, fatty acids, as well as three flavonoids (17-19), are described, to our knowledge for the first time, from Galphimia glauca.

  7. Hypoglycemic agents and potential anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vishal Kothari,1 John A Galdo,2 Suresh T Mathews3 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Boshell Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research Program, Auburn University, Auburn, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Current literature shows an association of diabetes and secondary complications with chronic inflammation. Evidence of these immunological changes include altered levels of cytokines and chemokines, changes in the numbers and activation states of various leukocyte populations, apoptosis, and fibrosis during diabetes. Therefore, treatment of diabetes and its complications may include pharmacological strategies to reduce inflammation. Apart from anti-inflammatory drugs, various hypoglycemic agents have also been found to reduce inflammation that could contribute to improved outcomes. Extensive studies have been carried out with thiazolidinediones (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- agonist, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and metformin (AMP-activated protein kinase activator with each of these classes of compounds showing moderate-to-strong anti-inflammatory action. Sulfonylureas and alpha glucosidase inhibitors appeared to exert modest effects, while the injectable agents, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, may improve secondary complications due to their anti-inflammatory potential. Currently, there is a lack of clinical data on anti-inflammatory effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors. Nevertheless, for all these glucose-lowering agents, it is essential to distinguish between anti-inflammatory effects resulting from better glucose control and effects related to intrinsic anti-inflammatory actions of the pharmacological class of compounds. Keywords: diabetes, inflammation, insulin, metformin, thiazolidinedione, gliptin

  8. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba-Palomares, M. F. María C.; Villareal, Dra. María L.; Acevedo Quiroz, M. C. Macdiel E.; Marquina Bahena, M. C. Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra. Laura P.; Rodríguez-López, Dra. Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera. PMID:26664022

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of arctigenin from Forsythiae Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Sook; Lee, Ji Yun; Kim, Chang Jong

    2008-03-05

    Oleaceae Forsythiae Fructus has been used for anti-inflammatory, diuretics, antidote, and antibacterials in traditional herbal medicine. Our previous screening of medicinal plants showed that methanol (MeOH) extract of Forsythiae Fructus had significant anti-inflammatory activity, but the active ingredients remain unclear. For isolation of active ingredient of MeOH extract of Forsythiae Fructus, it was partitioned with n-hexane and ethylacetate (EtOAc), and arctigenin was isolated from EtOAc fraction by column chromatography with anti-inflammatory activity-guided separation. Its activity was evaluated in the animal models of inflammation including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activities in the edematous tissues homogenate, and silica-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the RAW 264.7 cell line. It was shown that arctigenin (100 mg/kg) had significantly decreased not only carrageenan-induced paw edema 3 and 4h after injection of carrageenan, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear edema at a painting dose of 0.1-1.0mg/ear, and acetic acid-induced writhing response and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability accentuation at an oral dose of 25-100, and 100 mg/kg, respectively, but also MPO and EPO activities at a painting dose of 0.1-1.0mg/ear in the AA-induced edematous tissues homogenate as indicators of neutrophils and eosinophils recruitment into the inflamed tissue. Further, arctigenin (0.1-10 microM) also significantly inhibited the intracellular ROS production by silica. These results indicate that arctigenin is a bioactive agent of Forsythiae Fructus having significant anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of the exudation, and leukocytes recruitment into the inflamed tissues. The pharmacologic mechanism of action of arctigenin may be due to the inhibition of release/production of inflammatory mediators such as AA metabolites and free radicals.

  10. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments.

  11. Inverted Nutcracker Syndrome: A Case of Persistent Hematuria and Pain in the Presence of a Left-Sided Inferior Vena Cava

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    Obi Ekwenna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome is described as the symptomatic compression of left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, resulting in outflow congestion of the left kidney. We present the case of a 51-year-old male with a left-sided inferior vena cava, resulting in compression of the right renal vein by the superior mesenteric artery. Secondary to this anatomic anomaly, the patient experienced a many-year history of flank pain and intermittent gross hematuria. We have termed this unusual anatomic finding and its associated symptoms as the “inverted nutcracker syndrome”, and describe its successful management with nephrectomy and autotransplantation.

  12. N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels as a Potential Biomarker for Cardiac Damage After Radiotherapy in Patients With Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, Maria P., E-mail: patderrico@libero.it [Department of Laboratory Medicine, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Grimaldi, Luca [Department of Medical Physics, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Petruzzelli, Maria F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Gianicolo, Emilio A.L. [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Tramacere, Francesco [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Monetti, Antonio; Placella, Roberto [Department of Laboratory Medicine, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Pili, Giorgio [Department of Medical Physics, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Sicari, Rosa; Picano, Eugenio [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac biomarkers may aid in identifying patients with radiation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. We evaluated the correlation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin (TnI) and the dose of radiation to the heart in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: NT-proBNP and TnI plasma concentrations were measured in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 55.0 years) 5 to 22 months after RT (Group I) and in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 57.0 years) before RT as control group (Group II). Dosimetric and geometric parameters of heart and left ventricle were determined in all patients of Group I. Seventeen patients underwent complete two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in Group I (median, 90.0 pg/ml; range, 16.7-333.1 pg/ml) than in Group II (median, 63.2 pg/ml; range, 11.0-172.5 pg/ml). TnI levels remained below the cutoff threshold of 0.07 ng/ml in both groups. In patients with NT-proBNP values above the upper limit of 125 pg/ml, there were significant correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 3Gy}(%) (p = 0.001), the ratios D{sub 15cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.01), the ratios D{sub 15cm}{sup 3}/D{sub 50%} (Gy) (p = 0.008) for the heart and correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 2Gy} (%) (p = 0.002), the ratios D{sub 1cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.03), and the ratios D{sub 0.5cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub 50%}(Gy) (p = 0.05) for the ventricle. Conclusions: Patients with left-sided breast cancer show higher values of NT-pro BNP after RT when compared with non-RT-treated matched patients, increasing in correlation with high doses in small volumes of heart and ventricle. The findings of this study show that the most important parameters are not the mean doses but instead the small

  13. Colonic stenting as bridge to surgery versus emergency surgery for management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicenter randomized trial (Stent-in 2 study

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    Scholten Pieter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute left-sided colonic obstruction is most often caused by malignancy and the surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Moreover, these operated patients end up with a temporary or permanent stoma. Initial insertion of an enteral stent to decompress the obstructed colon, allowing for surgery to be performed electively, is gaining popularity. In uncontrolled studies stent placement before elective surgery has been suggested to decrease mortality, morbidity and number of colostomies. However stent perforation can lead to peritoneal tumor spill, changing a potentially curable disease in an incurable one. Therefore it is of paramount importance to compare the outcomes of colonic stenting followed by elective surgery with emergency surgery for the management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction in a randomized multicenter fashion. Methods/design Patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction eligible for this study will be randomized to either emergency surgery (current standard treatment or colonic stenting as bridge to elective surgery. Outcome measurements are effectiveness and costs of both strategies. Effectiveness will be evaluated in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Quality of life will be measured with standardized questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-CR38, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. Morbidity is defined as every event leading to hospital admission or prolonging hospital stay. Mortality will be analyzed as total mortality as well as procedure-related mortality. The total costs of treatment will be evaluated by counting volumes and calculating unit prices. Including 120 patients on a 1:1 basis will have 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 global health scale, using a two group t-test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level. Differences in quality of life and morbidity will be analyzed using mixed-models repeated measures

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

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    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL GEL FOR ANTI - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

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    Gouri Dixit*, Ganesh Misal, Vijay Gulkari and Kanchan Upadhye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study, three medicinal plants Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cassia tora Linn. and Cassia alata Linn having significant anti-inflammatory potential were selected to be formulated as polyherbal gels. The gels were prepared using the dried methanolic extract of Cassia tora Linn, Cassia alata Linn and Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. Polyherbal gel formulations were evaluated for its pH, appearance and homogeneity, viscosity, spreadability and skin irritation studies. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory activity was done by carrageenan induced rat paw edema and formalin- induced rat paw edema. Individual and polyherbal gel of Cassia alata Linn,Cassia tora Linn. and Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers were found to possess anti-inflammatory effect in acute and chronic models. Polyherbal gel also showed synergistic effect as compared to individual gels which can be useful for the treatment of local inflammation.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

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    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves

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    Sulbha Lalsare

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey revealed that a very merge amount of pharmacological work has been carried out on Flacourtia ramontchi. Also it was observed from the Ayurvedic literature and Ethnobotanical studies that the plant is very useful in treating inflammation and infectious diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. Very merge work has been done regarding phytochemical and pharmacological effectiveness on this plant. Successive extraction of the leaves with solvents of increasing polarity; preliminary phytochemical studies of different extracts; screening of chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic extracts for anti-inflammatory (by Carrageenan induced rat paw model and antimicrobial activity (by Cup and plate method and thin layer chromatographic studies of active extracts using mobile phase i.e. chloroform and methanol. The results clearly indicate that all three extracts i.e. chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic, of the leaves having anti-inflammatory activity. But the chloroform and methano extract showed promising results and even chloroform extract at the dose 150mg/kg exhibits equipotent anti-inflammatory activity as that of the standard Indomethacin. Methanol extract possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration 10000 mg/ml whereas hydromethanolic and chloroform extracts having more or less antimicrobial activity.

  19. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne [Dresden University of Technology, OncoRay - Molecular and Biological Imaging, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Goetzelt, Knut; Vogelberg, Christian [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatrics - Pediatric Pulmonology, Dresden (Germany); Hahn, Gabriele [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Institute and Policlinic for Radiology - Pediatric Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Fitze, Guido [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatric Surgery, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment. (orig.)

  20. SU-E-P-56: Dosimetric Comparison of Three Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Radiotherapy Techniques for Locally Advanced Left-Sided Breast Cancer and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Zhang, W; Lu, J; Wu, L; Wu, F; Huang, B; Li, D [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry of post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRMRT) for left-sided breast cancer using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: We created ten sets of PMRMRT plans for ten consecutive patients and utilized two tangential and one or two supraclavicular beams in 3DCRT, a total of 5 beams in IMRT and two optimized partial arcs in VMAT. The difference in results between any two of the three new plans, between new and previous 3DCRT plans were compared and analyzed by ANOVA (α =0.05) and paired-sample t-test respectively. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Both IMRT and VMAT plans had similar PTV coverage, hotspot area and conformity (all p>0.05), and significantly higher PTV coverage compared with new 3DCRT (both p<0.001). IMRT plans had significantly less heart and left lung radiation exposure compared with VMAT (all p<0.05). The 3DCRT plans with larger estimated CTV displacement had better target coverage but worse OARs sparing compared to those with smaller one. Conclusion: IMRT has dosimetrical advantages over the other two techniques in PMRMRT for left-sided breast cancer. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve dosage distribution. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  1. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ipomoea reniformis Methanolic Extract

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    Sanja S. D.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, methanolic extract of Ipomoea reniformis herb (MEIR in acute, subacute and chronic models of inflammation was assessed in rats. Administration of MEIR (200, 400 mg/kg, p.o. exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In acute inflammation as produced by Carrageenan 59.55 % and 64.04 % protection was observed. While in subacute anti-inflammatory models using formaldehyde-induced hind paw edema (after 1.5 h 38.36 % and 47.95 % and in chronic anti-inflammatory model using cotton pellet granuloma 15.02 % and 19.19 % protection from inflammation was observed. MEIR did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality up to a dose level of 1000 mg/kg, p.o. in rats. The results obtained suggest that the methanolic extract of Ipomoea reniformis herb (MEIR is endowed with effective anti-inflammatory activity mediated via either by inhibition of cyclooxygenase cascade and by blocking the release of vasoactive substances (histamine, serotonin and kinins. These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional Indian medicine in the treatment of inflammation, including arthritic conditions.

  3. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA FLOWER EXTRACTS

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    Aravinda Reddy Purma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lepidigathis cristata Wlld belong to the family of Acanthecae. In the present study the Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extracts were performed. The methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared by soxhlet extraction method and were used for Anti-inflammatory activity in two dose level that is 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, one is carrageenans induced paw edema method (n = 5, another is Formalin induced paw edema method (n = 5. The flower chloroform extracts showed maximum activity in both models with 50 and 43.4 % of protection at 120 and 180 minutes intervals at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight respectively.

  4. Boswellia carterii liquisolid systems with promoted anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Ammar, Nagwa Mohammed; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Hussein, Rehab Ali; Awad, Gamal; El-Awdan, Sally Abdul-Wanees

    2015-01-01

    Boswellia carterii (BC) Birdwood oleogum resin is an ancient remedy of inflammation processes known since Ancient Egyptian time. Of boswellic acids, 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the most potent anti-inflammatory active principle. Liquisolid systems of the biologically active fraction of BC oleogum resin were prepared for improving dissolution properties using low dose oral delivery to achieve enhanced anti-inflammatory activity, in comparison with the standard oral anti-inflammatory; Indomethacin. AKBA was assayed, employing an accurate and sensitive HPLC method. Detection was carried out at 210 nm using UV/Vis detector. A solubility study for the bioactive fraction was conducted. Microcrystalline cellulose and Aeroperl®300 Pharma were used as carrier and coating materials. Angle of slide, liquid load factor and Carr's flow index were estimated. Six systems were prepared using polyethylene glycol 400, solvent and two drug loading concentrations; 20 and 40 %. For each concentration, three carrier: coat ratios were dispensed; 20:1, 10:1, and 5:1. Dissolution study was performed and two systems were selected for characterization and in vivo evaluation by investigating upper GIT ulcerogenic effect and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Results indicate absence of ulcers and significantly higher and prolonged anti-inflammatory efficacy for formulations F1 and F2, with carrier: coat ratio, 5:1 and drug loads of 20 and 40 %, respectively, compared with standard oral indomethacin. We conclude higher efficacy of BC bioactive fraction liquisolids compared with Indomethacin with greater safety on GIT, longer duration of action and hence better patient compliance.

  5. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  6. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L.

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    Turel Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I, 10 mg/kg (PM-II, 20 mg/kg (PM-III and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV. Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. Hepatoprotective Activity: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Results: Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50 value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg and CCl4 groups. Conclusion: The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.

  7. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jia-Fu [Department of Radiation Physics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Dah-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Hui-Ling, E-mail: hlyeh@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chen-Fa [Department of Radiation Physics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jin-Ching [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  8. Danish cohort of monozygotic inflammatory bowel disease twins: Clinical characteristics and inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Frederik Trier; Knudsen, Lina; Harbord, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Gordon, Hannah; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the establishment of a Danish inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) twin cohort with focus on concordance of treatment and inflammatory markers. METHODS: We identified MZ twins, likely to be discordant or concordant for IBD, by merging information from the Danish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. The twins were asked to provide biological samples, questionnaires, and data access to patient files and public registries. Biological samples were collected via a mobile laboratory, which allowed for immediate centrifugation, fractionation, and storage of samples. The mean time from collection of samples to storage in the -80 °C mobile freezer was less than one hour. The diagnoses where validated using the Copenhagen diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: We identified 159 MZ IBD twin pairs, in a total of 62 (39%) pairs both twins agreed to participate. Of the supposed 62 IBD pairs, the IBD diagnosis could be confirmed in 54 pairs. The cohort included 10 concordant pairs, whereof some were discordant for either treatment or surgery. The 10 concordant pairs, where both pairs suffered from IBD, included eight CD/CD pairs, one UC/UC pair and one UC/IBDU pair. The discordant pairs comprised 31 UC, 5 IBDU (IBD unclassified), and 8 CD discordant pairs. In the co-twins not affected by IBD, calprotectin was above 100 μg/g in 2 participants, and above 50 μg/g in a further 5 participants. CONCLUSION: The presented IBD twin cohorts are an excellent resource for bioinformatics studies with proper adjustment for disease-associated exposures including medication and inflammatory activity in the co-twins. PMID:27275097

  9. Reduction of cardiac and coronary artery doses in irradiation of left-sided breast cancer during inspiration breath hold. A planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenecker, S.; Heinz, C.; Soehn, M.; Haimerl, W.; Corradini, S.; Pazos, M.; Belka, C.; Scheithauer, H. [University Hospital of Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The radiation dose received by the heart during adjuvant left-sided breast irradiation plays a crucial role in development of late toxicity. Although the absolute risk of cardiotoxicity can be reduced with modern irradiation techniques, cardiotoxic chemotherapy increases the risk of late damage. Thus, the radiation dose to the heart should be minimized. This study evaluated the influence of different amplitudes of inspiration breath hold (IBH) during simulated left-sided breast irradiation on cardiac doses compared to free breathing (FB). CT data of 11 lung cancer patients were retrospectively used as left-sided pseudo-breast cancer cases. Two CT scans were used, one during IBH and one during FB, and two treatment plans were generated. Relevant heart, lung, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) parameters were derived from dose-volume histograms. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for the heart were calculated based on the relative seriality model. Inspiration depth was quantified using chest volume and diameter, and correlated thereafter to a possible sparing of heart tissue. Mean reduction of heart dose for IBH compared to FB was 40 % (1.65 vs. 0.99 Gy; p = 0.007). Maximum dose to the heart and LAD could be decreased by 33 % (p = 0.011) and 43 % (p = 0.024), respectively. The mean anteroposterior shift was 5 mm (range 0.9-9.5 mm). Significant negative correlations between the relative change in LAD mean dose and the mean thoracic diameter and volume change, as well as with the absolute change in thoracic diameter were seen. The NTCP for cardiac mortality could be decreased by about 78 % (p = 0.017). For left-sided breast cancer patients, cardiac doses can be significantly decreased with tangential irradiation and IBH. (orig.) [German] Die Herzdosisbelastung spielt eine entscheidende Rolle in der Entwicklung einer kardialen Spaettoxizitaet nach der adjuvanten Strahlentherapie von linksseitigem Brustkrebs. Obwohl moderne strahlentherapeutische

  10. Placement of the Left Side AED Pad is Poor: Training on the Left Compared to the Right Side of a Manikin Does Not Improve Pad Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Bødtker, Henrik; Rahbek, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    participating in a first aid course were randomized to learn automated external defibrillation sitting on the left or right side of a manikin during AED training. After course completion participants operated a training AED (Lifepak® CR-T AED Trainer, PhysioControl) and placed AED pads according to instructions...... to reach the left mid-axillary line. In addition, the left arm of the victim may hamper access to the left lateral side of the thorax.Hypothesis: Training automated external defibrillation sitting on the left side of a manikin improves AED pad placement compared to sitting to the right.Methods: Laypeople...... from the AED. Pads were placed on an anatomically realistic male resuscitation torso with arms (AMBU® Man, AMBU). Participants were instructed to sit on the same side of the manikin as trained. The distance from the center of AED pads to the recommended pad position was measured.Results: In total, 30...

  11. Acute pancreatitis associated left-sided portal hypertension with severe gastrointestinal bleeding treated by transcatheter splenic artery embolization: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yu LI; Bin LI; Yu-lian WU; Qiu-ping XIE

    2013-01-01

    Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH) followed by acute pancreatitis is a rare condition with most patients being asymptomatic.In cases where gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is present,however,the condition is more complicated and the mortality is very high because of the difficulty in diagnosing and selecting optimal treatment.A successfully treated case with severe GI bleeding by transcatheter splenic artery embolization is reported in this article.The patient exhibited severe uncontrollable GI bleeding and was confirmed as gastric varices secondary to LSPH by enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography.After embolization,the bleeding stopped and stabilized for the entire follow-up period without any severe complications.In conclusion,embolization of the splenic artery is a simple,safe,and effective method of controlling gastric variceal bleeding caused by LSPH in acute pancreatitis.

  12. Acute pancreatitis associated left-sided portal hypertension with severe gastrointestinal bleeding treated by transcatheter splenic artery embolization: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yu; Li, Bin; Wu, Yu-lian; Xie, Qiu-ping

    2013-06-01

    Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH) followed by acute pancreatitis is a rare condition with most patients being asymptomatic. In cases where gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is present, however, the condition is more complicated and the mortality is very high because of the difficulty in diagnosing and selecting optimal treatment. A successfully treated case with severe GI bleeding by transcatheter splenic artery embolization is reported in this article. The patient exhibited severe uncontrollable GI bleeding and was confirmed as gastric varices secondary to LSPH by enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography. After embolization, the bleeding stopped and stabilized for the entire follow-up period without any severe complications. In conclusion, embolization of the splenic artery is a simple, safe, and effective method of controlling gastric variceal bleeding caused by LSPH in acute pancreatitis.

  13. Terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Abies chensiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya; Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Abies chensiensis led to the isolation and identification of nine new compounds including eight triterpenoids (1-8) and a new abietane-type diterpene (9), along with three known compounds (10-12). The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 15.97, 18.73, 20.18 and 10.97μM, respectively.

  14. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...... in patients with IBD during active disease and following therapy. DESIGN: A total of 20 healthy subjects (HC) and 26 patients with IBD hospitalized because of an acute episode of their disease (Crohn's disease (CD) n = 13, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 13) underwent a standardized (13) C-octanoic acid GE breath...

  15. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  16. Neurohormones as markers of right- and left-sided cardiac dimensions and function in patients with untreated chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Per; Appel, Jon;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is now well accepted that neuroendocrine activation is of pathophysiological and prognostic importance in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We hypothesized that the different neuroendocrine factors reflect different aspects of the cardiac dysfunction in CHF patients...... and that neuroendocrine profiling could be of value. In order to study this, we investigated the relationship between hormones and cardiac dimensions and function of both the right and left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with newly diagnosed, untreated CHF were included. Right (RVEF) and left ventricular...

  17. Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of some dietary cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dhara; Rawat, Indu; Goel, H C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated few dietary cucurbits for anticancer activity by monitoring cytotoxic (MTT and LDH assays), apoptotic (caspase-3 and annexin-V assays), and also their anti-inflammatory effects by IL-8 cytokine assay. Aqua-alcoholic (50:50) whole extracts of cucurbits [Lagenaria siceraria (Ls), Luffa cylindrica (Lc) and Cucurbita pepo (Cp)] were evaluated in colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT-15) and were compared with isolated biomolecule, cucurbitacin-B (Cbit-B). MTT and LDH assays revealed that the cucurbit extracts and Cbit-B, in a concentration dependent manner, decreased the viability of HT-29 and HCT-15 cells substantially. The viability of lymphocytes was, however, only marginally decreased, yielding a potential advantage over the tumor cells. Caspase-3 assay revealed maximum apoptosis with Ls while annexin V assay demonstrated maximum efficacy of Lc in this context. These cucurbits have also shown decreased secretion of IL-8, thereby revealing their anti-inflammatory capability. The results have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of dietary cucurbits in inhibiting cancer and inflammatory cytokine.

  18. Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinella, G R; Tournier, H A; Prieto, J M; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Ríos, J L

    2002-01-18

    The antioxidant properties of twenty medical herbs used in the traditional Mediterranean and Chinese medicine were studied. Extracts from Forsythia suspensa, Helichrysum italicum, Scrophularia auriculata, Inula viscosa, Coptis chinensis, Poria cocos and Scutellaria baicalensis had previously shown anti-inflammatory activity in different experimental models. Using free radical-generating systems H. italicum. I. viscosa and F. suspensa protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in model membranes and also showed scavenging property on the superoxide radical. All extracts were assayed at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Most of the extracts were weak scavengers of the hydroxyl radical and C. chinensis and P. cocos exhibited the highest scavenging activity. Although S. baicalensis inhibited the lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and red blood cells, the extract showed inhibitory actions on aminopyrine N-demethylase and xanthine oxidase activities as well as an pro-oxidant effect observed in the Fe3+-EDTA-H2O2 system. The results of the present work suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of the same extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant properties.

  19. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  20. Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Liu; Zhigang Mei; Jingping Qian; Yongbao Zeng; Mingzhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Puerarin, a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb radix puerariae (Gegen), has been reported to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play an anti-inflammatory role in focal cerebral ischemia model rats. Recent findings regarding stroke pathophysiology have recognized that an-ti-inflammation is an important target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The cholinergic an-ti-inflammatory pathway is a highly robust neural-immune mechanism for inflammation control. This study was to investigate whether activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be in-volved in the mechanism of inhibiting the inflammatory response during puerarin-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Results showed that puerarin pretreatment (intravenous injection) re-duced the ischemic infarct volume, improved neurological deficit after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and decreased the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-αin brain tissue. Pretreatment with puerarin (intravenous injection) attenuated the inflammatory response in rats, which was accompanied by janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibition. These observa-tions were inhibited by the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) antagonistα-bungarotoxin (α-BGT). In addition, puerarin pretreatment increased the expression of α7nAchR mRNA in ischemic cerebral tissue. These data demonstrate that puerarin pretreatment strongly protects the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammatory re-sponse. Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of puerarin may partly be me-diated through the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

  1. Interactions between inflammatory mediators in expression of antitumor cytostatic activity of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Bonta; S. Ben-Efraim

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Antitumor properties and participation in inflammatory events are important characteristics of activated macrophages. We show here that both antitumor cytostatic function of macrophages and participation of these cells at inflammatory sites are controlled by two main group

  2. Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). IBD patients frequently complain of fatigue, and a substantial proportion of the patients have gastro

  3. New Isorhamnetin Derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. Leaves with Distinct Anti-inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Samir M.; El Kashak, Walaa A.; Michael Wink; El Raey, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol ...

  4. TU-F-17A-06: Motion Stability and Dosimetric Impact of Spirometer-Based DIBH-RT of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, E; Yang, W; Burnison, M; Mirhadi, A; Hakimian, B; Stephen, S; Robert, R; Yue, Y; Sandler, H; Fraass, B [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer have increased risk of coronary artery disease. Deep Inhalation Breath Hold assisted RT (DIBH-RT) is shown to increase the geometric separation of the target area and heart, reducing cardiac radiation dose. The purposes of this study are to use Cine MV portal images to determine the stability of spirometer-guided DIBH-RT and examine the dosimetric cardiopulmonary impact of this technique. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer were recruited to the IRB-approved study. Free-breathing (FB) and DIBH-CT's were acquired at simulation. Rigid registration of the FB-CT and DIBH-CT was performed using primarily breast tissue. Treatment plans were created for each FB-CT and DIBH-CT using identical paired tangent fields with field-in-field or electronic compensation techniques. Dosimetric evaluation included mean and maximum (Dmax) doses for the left anterior descending artery (LAD), mean heart dose, and left lung V20. Cine MV portal images were acquired for medial and lateral fields during treatment. Analysis of Cine images involved chest wall segmentation using an algorithm developed in-house. Intra- and inter-fractional chest wall motion were determined through affine registration to the first frame of each Cine. Results: Dose to each cardiac structure evaluated was significantly (p<0.001) reduced with the DIBH plans. Mean heart dose decreased from 2.9(0.9–6.6) to 1.6(0.6–5.3) Gy; mean LAD dose from 16.6(3–43.6) to 7.4(1.7–32.7) Gy; and LAD Dmax from 35.4 (6.1–53) to 18.4(2.5–51.2) Gy. No statistically significant reduction was found for the left lung V20. Average AP and SI median chest wall motion (intrafractional) was 0.1 (SD=0.9) and 0.5 (SD=1.1) mm, respectively. Average AP inter-fractional chest wall motion was 2.0 (SD=1.4) mm. Conclusion: Spirometer-based DIBH treatments of the left breast are reproducible both inter- and intra-fractionally, and

  5. TU-EF-304-12: Proton Radiation Therapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: LET and RBE Considerations for Cardiac Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, D; Jee, K; MacDonald, S; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rose, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Increased risk of coronary artery disease has been documented for patients treated with radiation for left-sided breast cancer. Proton therapy (PRT) has been shown to significantly decrease cardiac irradiation, however variations in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) have been ignored so far. In this study we evaluate the impact of accounting for RBE variations on sensitive structures located within high linear energy transfer (LET) areas (distal end) of the proton treatment fields, for this treatment site. Methods: Three patients treated in our institution with PRT for left-sided breast cancer were selected. All patients underwent reconstructive surgery after mastectomy and treated to a total dose of 50.4Gy with beam(s) vertical to the chest wall. Dose and LET distributions were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC-TOPAS - TOol for PArticle Simulation). The LET-based, variable-RBE-weighted dose was compared to the analytical calculation algorithm (ACA) and MC dose distributions for a constant RBE of 1.1, based on volume histograms and mean values for the target, heart and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Results: Assuming a constant RBE and compared to the ACA dose, MC predicted lower mean target and heart doses by 0.5% to 2.7% of the prescription dose. For variable RBE, plan evaluation showed increased mean target dose by up to 5%. Mean variable-RBE-weighted doses for the LAD ranged from 2.7 to 5.9Gy(RBE) among patients increased by 41%–64.2% compared to constant RBE ACA calculation (absolute dose: 1.7–3.9Gy(RBE)). Smaller increase in mean heart doses was noticed. Conclusion: ACA overestimates the target mean dose by up to 2.7%. However, disregarding variations in RBE may lead to significant underestimation of the dose to sensitive structures at the distal end of the proton treatment field and could thus impact outcome modeling for cardiac toxicities after proton therapy. These results are subject to RBE model and parameter

  6. Multi-slice spiral CT in routine diagnosis of suspected acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: a prospective study of 120 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Diehl, S.J.; Dueber, C. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim (Germany); Farag-Soliman, M. [Chirurgische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    This prospective study evaluated the use of multi-slice CT (MSCT) for detection of clinically suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis with regard to diagnosis, complications and alternative diagnoses. One hundred twenty patients with clinically suspected acute left-colonic diverticulitis underwent MSCT of the lower abdomen with IV contrast after rectal application of iodic contrast. The MSCT results were compared with histopathological and intraoperative findings or other radiological or endoscopic methods and clinical outcome. Acute diverticulitis was proven in 67 of the 120 (55.8%) patients, which was detected by MSCT with an accuracy of 98% (sensitivity 97%, specificity 98%). Contained perforation or abscess formation were detected with an accuracy of 96% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91%) and 98% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 97%), respectively. In 31 of 120 (25.8%) patients diagnoses other than diverticulitis caused abdominal pain, which was correctly diagnosed by MSCT in 71%. The MSCT as well as other concurrently performed diagnostic methods showed normal findings and no causes for the patients symptoms in 22 of the 120 (18.4%) patients. Multi-slice CT is reliable in detecting diverticulitis, including extracolic complications, and often reveals other diagnoses; therefore, MSCT is recommended as standard diagnostic procedure in suspected acute diverticulitis. (orig.)

  7. Insights into Intrinsic Brain Networks based on Graph Theory and PET in right- compared to left-sided Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Hilger, Eva; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Asenbaum-Nan, Susanne

    2016-06-28

    The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [(18)F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [(18)F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis. Comparing LTLE and RTLE and patient groups separately to HC, we observed higher lobar connectivity weights in RTLE compared to LTLE for connections of the temporal and the parietal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere (CH). Moreover, especially in RTLE compared to LTLE higher local efficiency were found in the temporal cortices and other brain regions of the CH. The results of this investigation implicate altered metabolic networks in patients with TLE specific to the lateralization of seizure focus, and describe compensatory mechanisms especially in the CH of patients with RTLE. We propose that graph theoretical analysis of metabolic connectivity using [(18)F]FDG-PET offers an important additional modality to explore brain networks.

  8. Berberine inhibits inflammatory activation of rat brain microglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong Nyon Nam; Jae-Hong Kim; Hoon-Ji Jung; Jung-Mi Park; Sang-Kwan Moon; Young-Suk Kim; Sun Yeou Kim; Eunjoo H.Lee

    2010-01-01

    Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors.Berberine,the effective ingredient of Coptidis Rhizoma and Cortex Phellodendri,has a wide range of pharmacological functions,including anti-inflammatory,anti-atherosclerotic and anti-cancer effects.The neuroprotective potential of berberine has previously been demonstrated.The present study aimed to examine whether berberine could repress microglial activation and can be considered a potential therapeutic candidate to target neurodegenerative diseases.Primary microglial cells and BV2 microglial cells were cultured and stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide(LPS).Berberine chloride was treated prior to LPS or simultaneously with LPS stimulation.Results revealed that berberine was effective at inhibiting nitric oxide release from primary microglial cells when cells were exposed to the compound prior to LPS or simultaneously with LPS.It also reduced the LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-1β,prostaglandin E2,and intracellular reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-kappa activation.Additionally,berberine reduced nitric oxide release from microglia stimulated with interferon-γ and amyloid β.These results suggest that berberine provides neuroprotection by reducing the production of various neurotoxic molecules from activated microglia.

  9. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  10. /sup 67/Ga citrate scintiscanning in active inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheingold, O.J.; Tedesco, F.J.; Block, F.E.; Maldonado, A.; Miale, A. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-five hospitalized patients were studied prospectively with /sup 67/Ga citrate (GA) abdominal scintillation scanning in an attempt to define its role in the evaluation of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were nine patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), seven with Crohn's disease (CD), and nine controls. In four patients, two with UC and two with CD, a tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio was obtained and compared to normals. All the UC patients had positive GA scans and only one of seven of the CD patients had a positive scan. There were no false positive scans. Scans performed after a 3- or 5-day delay were more accurate than 6-hr scans alone. Well-delineated colinic radioactivity 6 hr after injection which persists for 3 to 5 days indicates the presence of UC in patients with IBD, while a negative scan is more consistent with active CD. Colonic uptake at 6 hr which clears by 48 or 72 hr is not indicative of UC. This procedure aided in following the course of UC, delineating the extent of disease, and in differentiating active CD from an intraabdominal abscess. Tissues from UC patients had increased tissue/plasma ratioactivity ratios while tissues from CD patients had normal or decreased ratios which were consistent with the imaging data.

  11. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of pinda thailam, a herbal gel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyanayagam, K; Venkatarathnakumar, T; Nagaveni, A; Subitha, V G; Sundari, P; Vaijorohini, M; Umamaheswari, V

    2004-07-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of "Pinda thailam", a herbal gel formulation containing aqueous extract of roots of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Asclepiadaceae) which are known for their anti-inflammatory activity using the technique of carrageenin induced paw oedema in albino rats. The herbal gel formulation showed significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to the reference standard Diclofenac sodium gel.

  12. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthefano Atique Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone.Methods:The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured.Results:Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045 and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014 at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003. There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042 and MMP-9 (P=0.019 between symptomatic patients in the control group.Conclusion:Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation.

  13. Transcriptional Activation of Inflammatory Genes: Mechanistic Insight into Selectivity and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afsar U; Williams, Bryan R G; Hannigan, Gregory E

    2015-11-11

    Acute inflammation, an integral part of host defence and immunity, is a highly conserved cellular response to pathogens and other harmful stimuli. An inflammatory stimulation triggers transcriptional activation of selective pro-inflammatory genes that carry out specific functions such as anti-microbial activity or tissue healing. Based on the nature of inflammatory stimuli, an extensive exploitation of selective transcriptional activations of pro-inflammatory genes is performed by the host to ensure a defined inflammatory response. Inflammatory signal transductions are initiated by the recognition of inflammatory stimuli by transmembrane receptors, followed by the transmission of the signals to the nucleus for differential gene activations. The differential transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory genes is precisely controlled by the selective binding of transcription factors to the promoters of these genes. Among a number of transcription factors identified to date, NF-κB still remains the most prominent and studied factor for its diverse range of selective transcriptional activities. Differential transcriptional activities of NF-κB are dictated by post-translational modifications, specificities in dimer formation, and variability in activation kinetics. Apart from the differential functions of transcription factors, the transcriptional activation of selective pro-inflammatory genes is also governed by chromatin structures, epigenetic markers, and other regulators as the field is continuously expanding.

  14. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  15. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Register, Steven; Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Reis, Isildinha; Zhao, Wei [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Amestoy, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Wright, Jean, E-mail: jwrigh71@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-04-01

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0 cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3 cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8 Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V{sub 20} (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this “minimal benefit.” Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation.

  16. SU-E-J-32: Calypso(R) and Laser-Based Localization Systems Comparison for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients Using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, S [Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA (United States); Kaurin, D; Sweeney, L [Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); Kim, J; Fang, L; Tran, A [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Holloway, K [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Our institution uses a manual laser-based system for primary localization and verification during radiation treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). This primary system was compared with sternum-placed Calypso(R) beacons (Varian Medical Systems, CA). Only intact breast patients are considered for this analysis. Methods: During computed tomography (CT) simulation, patients have BB and Calypso(R) surface beacons positioned sternally and marked for free-breathing and DIBH CTs. During dosimetry planning, BB longitudinal displacement between free breathing and DIBH CT determines laser mark (BH mark) location. Calypso(R) beacon locations from the DIBH CT are entered at the Tracking Station. During Linac simulation and treatment, patients inhale until the cross-hair and/or lasers coincide with the BH Mark, which can be seen using our high quality cameras (Pelco, CA). Daily Calypso(R) displacement values (difference from the DIBH-CT-based plan) are recorded.The displacement mean and standard deviation was calculated for each patient (77 patients, 1845 sessions). An aggregate mean and standard deviation was calculated weighted by the number of patient fractions.Some patients were shifted based on MV ports. A second data set was calculated with Calypso(R) values corrected by these shifts. Results: Mean displacement values indicate agreement within 1±3mm, with improvement for shifted data (Table). Conclusion: Both unshifted and shifted data sets show the Calypso(R) system coincides with the laser system within 1±3mm, demonstrating either localization/verification system will Resultin similar clinical outcomes. Displacement value uncertainty unilaterally reduces when shifts are taken into account.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  18. The relationship between tricuspid regurgitation and atrial fibrillation after left-sided valve surgery%左心瓣膜术后心房颤动与三尖瓣反流的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丹; 孟旭; 李岩; 刘静

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate if atrial fibrillation ( AF) is an independent risk factor for tricus-pid regurgitation(TR) after left-sided heart valve surgery. Methods;374 cases were followed-up from March 2002 to November 2008 with aortic valve replacement or mitral valve replacement without tricuspid repaire or tricuspid valve replacement 151 male,223 female,23-79years old,mean age of (52 ± 11) years. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative color Doppler echocardiography and electrocardiogram ( ECG). Uni-variate analysis between groups using the χ2 test. Using logistic regression model for risk factors analysis. Results ; Postoperative AF is an independent risk factor for TR. Logistic multivariate analysis results reveal that: Postoperative AF, female gender, left atrial enlargement were independent risk factors for TR; age, size of left ventricular and right ventricular, ejection fraction of left ventricular after surgery were not risk factors for TR. Conclusion; AF after Left-sided heart valve surgery is an independent risk factor for TR. So it is important to notice that, postoperative AF should be treated actively.%目的:研究左心瓣膜术后三尖瓣反流与术后心房颤动(房颤)的关系.方法:随访2002年3月至2008年11月接受主动脉瓣置换术或二尖瓣置换术,且未行三尖瓣成形术或三尖瓣置换术的患者374例,其中男性151例,女性223例,年龄23~79岁,平均(52±11)岁.所有患者均经过术前和术后彩色多普勒超声心动检查及心电图检查.单因素分析组间使用x2检验.危险因素采用Logistic回归模型分析.结果:左心瓣膜术后房颤是术后发生三尖瓣反流的独立危险因素.Logistic多因素分析结果为:术后房颤、女性及术后左心房扩大,是术后三尖瓣反流的独立危险因素;术时年龄、术后左心室大小、术后右心室大小及术后射血分数这4项不是三尖瓣反流的危险因素.结论:左心瓣膜术后房颤是术后

  19. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  20. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  1. Gallium-67 scanning at 6 hr in active inflammatory bowel disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, L.R.; Griep, R.J.; Schuffler, M.D.; Silliman, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Gallium citrate scanning at 6 hr was used to evaluate a patient with active ulcerative colitis. The localization of /sup 67/Ga in the colon correlated with the extent of the inflammatory process. When either colonoscopy or radiographic contrast studies are contraindicated, /sup 67/Ga scanning at 6 hr may prove useful in the evaluation of active inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertl, Petra M., E-mail: petra.haertl@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg (Germany); Pohl, Fabian; Weidner, Karin; Groeger, Christian; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara [Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D{sub 15%} of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D{sub 15%} was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D{sub 10%} of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes.

  3. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertl, Petra M; Pohl, Fabian; Weidner, Karin; Groeger, Christian; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D(15%) of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D(15%) was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D(10%) of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes.

  4. Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw norm anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia C Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw. Norm. (TFN unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%. Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01% and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04% extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract, parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second, falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses.

  5. Modulating the inflammatory properties of activated microglia with Docosahexaenoic acid and Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Lauren K; Varsanyi, Christopher; Tadros, James; Vassiliou, Evros

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia are considered the “resident macrophages” of the brain. When in their resting state, microglia perform routine maintenance and immune surveillance. Once activated, either by injury or an immune stimulus, microglia secrete a variety of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as Nitric Oxide, superoxide, and inflammatory cytokines. Up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules is transient, and does not cause neurodegeneration. However, if up-regulation lasts for an extended period ...

  6. An unusual presentation of inflammatory pseudotumor in mastoid area of temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip K Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a rare case of inflammatory pseudotumor in the mastoid area. A young female presented with left-sided dull otalgia with hearing loss. Otoscopy revealed normal tympanic membrane with left-sided sensori-neural hearing loss. Imaging showed a mildly enhancing lytic region in the left mastoid. Canal-wall-down mastoidectomy done and the granular tissue from the mastoid was sent for the histopathological examination (HPE. The HPE report was suggestive of inflammatory pseudotumor. No recurrence of the disease was noticed in the 3 years follow-up period.

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  8. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS RETUSA (MORACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jaya Raju; N. Sreekanth

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of leaves of Ficus retusa (Moraceae) in Sanskrit, it is known as ‘Kantalaka’, ‘Kshudra’ and in Telugu it is well known as ‘Yerrajuvvi’. It is also called as “Indian Laurel Fig" of ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts in carrageenan induced albino wistar rats of either sex (175-250g). The anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Ficus retusa 200, 400 mg/kg p.o were found to be significant (P

  9. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepp, Rodrigo; Ammerpohl, Mark; Morgenstern, Christina; Erichsen, Patricia [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Nielinger, Lisa [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt, Lippstadt (Germany); Abdallah, Abdallah [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Senologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Galalae, Razvan [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Medizinische Fakultaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3}), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V{sub 5}), 10 Gy (V{sub 10}), 15 Gy (V{sub 15}) and 20 Gy (V{sub 20}). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL. (orig.) [German] Die adjuvante Strahlentherapie nach brusterhaltener Operation (BCS) bei Brustkrebs (BC) ist eine seit langem anerkannte Behandlungsform. Das postradiogene Risiko einer kardialen Ischaemie steigt linear ohne erkennbaren Schwellenwert mit der mittleren Herzdosis. Die Bestrahlung der linken Brust in tiefer Inspiration unter Anhalten der

  10. Integrin activation as an alternative treatment approach for inflammatory diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Kam Wai WONG; Liang LIU

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of immune responses is a complex process that involves many signaling molecules in their specific interactions and interplays.For instance,the leukocytic integrin CD11b/CD18 plays a crucial role in leukocyte infiltration,which is commonly found in most inflammatory diseases.

  11. Mitogen activated protein kinases: a role in inflammatory bowel disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broom, O J; Widjaya, B; Troelsen, J

    2009-01-01

    , are characterized by the perpetual production of inflammatory mediators. Research into the transduction pathway behind this over-production has highlighted the potential mediating role for the MAPKs and their related signalling components. This review highlights some of the research into the role for the MAPKs...

  12. Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Chinampudur V.; Kannan Sundarajan; Edwin, Jothie R.; Giligar M Gururaja; Deepak Mundkinajeddu; Amit Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids) of Curcuma longa (C. longa) has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02) and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin TM , Natural Remedies Pvt. Lt...

  13. The evaluation of topical anti-inflammatory activity on rat ears subjected to thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronaugh, R L; Roller, R G; Cargill, R

    1978-10-01

    Topical anti-inflammatory activity of steroidal and non-steroidal agents was assessed on inflammation produced by heat. A burn was produced on the ears of rats and the inflammation was quantitated gravimetrically. Steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were ranked in order of decreasing activity: triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, prednisolone and hydrocortisone acetate. The nonsteroidal agents phenylbutazone and indomethacin were also effective in inhibiting the inflammation. Cholesterol, a steroid devoid of anti-inflammatory activity, was inactive in this test. Hydrocortisone acetate, in particular, appears to be less effective in inhibiting this type of inflammation than inflammation produced by croton oil.

  14. Exploring the anti-inflammatory activity of a novel 2-phenylquinazoline analog with protection against inflammatory injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Das, Sujata [Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India); Chattopadhyay, Debprasad [ICMR Virus Unit, ID and BG Hospital, GB 4, 57 Dr Suresh C Banerjee Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata-700010 (India); Saha, Krishna Das, E-mail: krishnaiicb@yahoo.com [Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India)

    2012-10-15

    Inflammation is a protective immune response against harmful stimuli whose long time continuation results in host disease. Quinazolinones are nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities. The anticancer effect of a 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative was reported earlier. The anti-inflammatory effect of these quinazolinone derivatives has now been examined in endotoxin stimulated macrophages and in different in vivo models of inflammation by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), mediators NO and NF-κB (by ELISA and western blot), and translocation of the nuclear factor kB (by immunocytochemical analysis). To elucidate the in vivo effect, mice endotoxin model was and the various levels of edema, inflammatory pain and vascular permeability were studied. One of the quinazolinone derivatives showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2, p-IκB and NF-κBp65. Significant (P < 0.01) improvement was observed in the mortality of endotoxemic mice. The carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema thicknesses were found to be reduced significantly (P < 0.01) along with the reduction of pain, vascular permeability and edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative as a potential anti-inflammatory agent. -- Highlights: ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog suppresses the cytokines in stimulated macrophages. ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog down regulated NF-kB P65 translocation. ► Role of 2-phenylquinazoline analog in endotoximia and peripheral inflammations.

  15. Exploration of possible mechanisms for anti-inflammatory activity of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mital N. Manvar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently used steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have severe side effects. These side effects are very difficult to manage than the disease itself. Hence, there is to search new safe resources to cure such diseases that the use of plant based drugs. This study deals with anti-inflammatory evaluation of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ipomoea aquatica leaves as well as their possible mechanism of action. A carrageenan‐induced rat paw oedema model was used for anti-inflammatory study. The mechanism/s by which Ipomoea aquatica is mediated the ant-inflammatory activity was determined by its effects in antihistamine activity, prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity, membrane stabilizing activity and protein denaturation inhibition activity. Dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity was found with HAEIA in rat paw oedema model using carrageenan. HAEIA effective to suppressed the wheal area formed by histamine. HAEIA revealed dose dependent prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity. HAEIA was effectively inhibited the heat induced hemolysis of HRBCs as well as heat induced albumin denaturation. Therefore, it was concluded that the HAEIA has anti-inflammatory activity possibly mediated through inhibition of release of mediator histamine and prostaglandin and has also HRBCs membrane stabilization and protein denaturation inhibition properties.

  16. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

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    Carla Cruz Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae. Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  17. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Bolívar Balbás, Paulina; Juárez, Zaida Nelly; Sánchez Arreola, Eugenio; Hernández, Luis Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae). Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23843731

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

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    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the anti-inflammatory potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. Family: Theaceae using both acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and chronic (formaldehyde-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma test rat inflammatory models. Three dose of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ml, equivalent to 1.5 cups; 168 mg/ml, equivalent to 3 cups; and 501 mg/ml, equivalent to 9 cups] were made using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 black tea samples and was orally administed to rats (n = 6-9/ dose/ test. The results showed that Sri Lankan BTB possesses marked and significant (P < 0.05 oral anti-inflammatory activity against both acute and chronic inflammation. This anti-inflammatory activity was dose-dependent in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test and cotton pellet granuloma test. Further, in the carrageenan paw oedema model, the anti-inflammatory activity of BTB was almost identical to green tea brew of both Chinese and Japanese types. Further, the BTB had significant antihistamine activity (in terms of wheal test phagocytic cell migration inhibitory activity (in terms carrageenan-induced leucocyte peritoneal infiltration test, nitric oxide production inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity (DPPH method and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity (in terms of rat enteropooling test. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea has marked anti-inflammatory potential against both acute and chronic inflammation which is mediated via multiple mechanisms.

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Suppress Inflammatory Activation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Synovial Macrophages and Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Grabiec; S. Krausz; W. de Jager; T. Burakowski; D. de Groot; M.E. Sanders; B.J. Prakken; W. Maslinski; E. Eldering; P.P. Tak; K.A. Reedquist

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages contribute significantly to the pathology of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Macrophage activation and survival are tightly regulated by reversible acetylation and deacetylation of histones, trans

  20. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

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    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of fixed dose combination: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lahoti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.

  2. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Physalis Alkekengi var. franchetii and Its Main Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunpeng Shu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether the 50% EtOH fraction from AB-8 macroporous resin fractionation of a 70% EtOH extract of P. Alkekengi (50-EFP has antibacterial and/or anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro and to investigate the mechanism of 50-EFP anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, this study sought to define the chemical composition of 50-EFP. Results indicated that 50-EFP showed significant antibacterial activity in vitro and efficacy in vivo. Moreover, 50-EFP significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 1 (IL-1, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells. Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (examined at the protein level in THP-1 cells were suppressed by 50-EFP, which inhibited nuclear translocation of p65. Consistent with this anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, 50-EFP reduced inflammation in both animal models. Finally, seventeen compounds (8 physalins and 9 flavones were isolated as major components of 50-EFP. Our data demonstrate that 50-EFP has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect appears to occur, at least in part, through the inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65. Moreover, physalins and flavones are probably the active components in 50-EFP that exert antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.

  3. Design, Synthesis, Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Novel Piroxicam Analogues

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    Eliezer J. Barreiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a series of benzothiazine N-acylhydrazones 14a–h, planned by structural modification of piroxicam (1, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Among the synthesized analogues, compounds 14f (LASSBio-1637 and 14g (LASSBio-1639 were identified as novel antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory prototypes, active by oral administration, acting by a mechanism of action that seems to be different from that of piroxicam, since they were inactive as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2 at concentrations of 10 mM.

  4. Design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of novel piroxicam analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Amanda Silva; Bispo Júnior, Walfrido; da Silva, Yolanda Karla Cupertino; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Castro, Rosane de Paula; Sabino, José Ricardo; Lião, Luciano Morais; Lima, Lídia Moreira; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2012-11-28

    In this paper we report the design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a series of benzothiazine N-acylhydrazones 14a–h, planned by structural modification of piroxicam (1), a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Among the synthesized analogues, compounds 14f (LASSBio-1637) and 14g (LASSBio-1639) were identified as novel antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory prototypes, active by oral administration, acting by a mechanism of action that seems to be different from that of piroxicam, since they were inactive as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) at concentrations of 10 mM.

  5. The association between the gut microbiota and the inflammatory bowel disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosberg, Michelle; Bendtsen, Flemming; Vind, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based on a pub......BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based...

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Tortoriello; Maribel Herrera-Ruiz; Manases Gonzalez-Cortazar; Alejandro Zamilpa; Antonio R. Jiménez-Aparicio; Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer; Martha L. Arenas Ocampo; Nayeli Monterrosas-Brisson

    2013-01-01

    Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear ede...

  7. Surgical repair of left-sided cervical aortic arch aneurysm%左颈位主动脉弓动脉瘤的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铁; 朱俊明; 孙立忠; 钟永亮; 齐瑞东; 程力剑; 葛翼鹏; 陈雷; 刘巍; 里程楠; 邢晓燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:总结颈位主动脉弓(cervical aortic arch,CAA)动脉瘤的外科治疗方法及术后早中期效果。方法2010年1月至2014年12月,收治22例CAA动脉瘤患者,均为左位CAA。其中男6例,女16例,年龄(34.09±13.14)岁。术前合并主动脉假性狭窄9例,高血压3例,主动脉瓣反流、Stanford B型主动脉夹层、大脑中动脉瘤各1例。所有患者均采用人工血管替换术行主动脉弓重建。4例(4/22,18.18%)经胸骨正中切口,中度低温停循环、选择性顺行脑灌注下手术,其中同期行主动脉瓣置换术1例;18例(18/22,81.82%)经左后外侧第4肋间切口手术,其中10例体外循环辅助下实施手术,8例直接阻断下手术。结果全组平均呼吸机辅助(13.05±4.73) h,ICU停留(19.14±8.08) h。术后二次开胸止血1例,切口延迟愈合1例,一过性肝功能不全1例。无院内死亡。术后19例随访平均34.73个月,失访3例。随访期间无死亡。结论 CAA动脉瘤患者应积极手术治疗。根据CAA动脉瘤的位置、类型以及合并的其他近端心血管疾病,选择个体化的手术切口、辅助技术及手术方法,一期行主动脉弓重建手术治疗CAA动脉瘤可获得满意的临床效果。%Objective To summarize our experience of surgical repair for cervical aortic arch(CAA) aneurysm and eval-uate early and midterm results of these patients.Methods From January 2010 to December 2014, 22 patients with left-sided CAA aneurysm admitted in our center.There were 6 male and 16 female patients with a mean age of(34.09 ±13.14) years. Comorbidities included pseudocoarctation in 9 patients, hypertension in 4 patients, and aortic valve insufficiency, Stanford type B aortic dissection and middle cerebral artery aneurysm each had 1 patient.All of the patients underwent surgical aortic arch re-construction using artificial graft replacement.Among them, 4(4/22, 18.18%) were

  8. A novel anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme: modulation of serum complement activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Ogundele

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysozyme is an ubiquitous enzyme found in most biological secretions and leukocytes. This study was aimed at investigating its interaction with other inflammatory mediators on mucosa surfaces, particularly the complement system. Lysozyme has been shown in our present study, to inhibit the haemolytic activity of serum complement in a dose-dependent fashion, when tested within the levels present in normal and inflamed breast-milk samples, and other mucosal secretions. This represents a new antiinflammatory action of lysozym e in relation to the serum complement, and the exact mode of the interaction need further studies.

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities ofPassiflora foetida L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasikala V; Saravanan S; Parimelazhagan T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida (P. foetida) leaves.Methods:Ethanol extract ofP. foetida leaf was evaluated for analgesic action by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method in albino mice. The anti-inflammatory property of ethanolic leaf extract was tested by carrageenan induced acute paw edema and histamine induced acute paw edema in rats.Results:The dose200 mg/kg ofP. foetida leaf extract exhibited highest significant analgesic activity [(13.50±0.43) min] at a reaction time of20 min in hot plate method in mice. The ethanol extract of leaf dose 100 mg/kg produced a highly significant anti inflammatory effect [(1.302±0.079)mL] in rats.Conclusions: It is very clear thatP. foetidaalso has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities for the pharmaceuticals.

  10. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Vitthal Sarpate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth belongs to family Acanthaceae. The plants have been the subject of scientific research which confirms its use in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory drugs showing potent anti-rheumatic effects. Previous research claims the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Lupeol and 19α-H Lupeol isolated from Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala roots. Based on the literature cited, the unexplored parts stems and leaves of the two species were selected for the present study. Aim: The present study is designed to isolate steroidal and alkaloidal components from the two species Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala using the unexplored parts viz. stems and leaves and to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect. Settings and Design: The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated employing subacute anti-inflammatory models namely cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using isolated test components RVS-A (Lupeol, RVS-C (Doctriacantone and standard drug Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg. Results: The present study has dealt up with isolation of two phytoconstituents Lupeol and Dotriacontane which gave marked anti-inflammatory activity at the dose 20 mg/kg in both the models Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Cotton pellet granuloma. Conclusion: The results confirm that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of RVS-A (Lupeol and RVS-C (Doctriacantone involves reduction of prostaglandins through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and suppression of proliferative phase of sub acute inflammation. Thus the steroidal and alkaloidal components Lupeol and Doctriacantone isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth shows marked anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  12. Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Luis A; Ocampo, Yanet C; Gómez, Harold A; De la Puerta, Rocío; Espartero, José L; Ospina, Luis F

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana is a native plant from the South American Andes and is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine of as an anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, specifically the leaves, calyces, and small stems in poultice form. Previous studies performed by our group on P. peruviana calyces showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in an enriched fraction obtained from an ether total extract. The objective of the present study was to obtain and elucidate the active compounds from this fraction and evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. The enriched fraction of P. peruviana was purified by several chromatographic methods to obtain an inseparable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A (1) and peruviose B (2). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peruvioses mixture was evaluated using λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that the peruvioses did not produce side effects on the liver and kidneys and significantly attenuated the inflammation induced by λ-carrageenan in a dosage-dependent manner, probably due to an inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which was demonstrated in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of sucrose esters in P. peruviana that showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest the potential of sucrose esters from the Physalis genus as a novel natural alternative to treat inflammatory diseases.

  13. PGH1, the precursor for the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins of the 1-series, is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory receptor CRTH2/DP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Ralf; Xue, Luzheng; Konya, Viktoria;

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin H(1) (PGH(1)) is the cyclo-oxygenase metabolite of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and the precursor for the 1-series of prostaglandins which are often viewed as "anti-inflammatory". Herein we present evidence that PGH(1) is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory PGD(2) receptor ...

  14. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of extract of Vernonia Amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract ofVernonia amygdalina (V.A).Methods: Inflammatory response was induced by topical application of croton oil dissolved in suitable vehicle on the rat ear. After 6 hrs, cutting out the ear quantitated the response. The cut ear was weighed and the increase in weight relative to control group was evaluated.Results: When co-applied with croton oil to the rat ear extract of V.A. produced a reduction in the inflammatory response when croton oil alone was applied to the rat ear. The extract produced (69.1±2.0)% reduction of the inflammatory response produced by croton oil alone, lower than the reduction of the inflammatory response produced by acetyl salicylic acid [(71.1±2.0)%].Conclusions: This finding suggests that extract of V.A. exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and may explain the usefulness of the leaves of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory disease conditions by traditional healers.

  15. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  16. Brazilian Red Propolis Attenuates Inflammatory Signaling Cascade in LPS-Activated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S.; Alencar, Severino M.; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggested an anti-inflammatory property of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of BRP and its activity on macrophages were still not elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether BRP attenuates the inflammatory effect of LPS on macrophages and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. BRP was added to RAW 264.7 murine macrophages after activation with LPS. NO production, cell viability, cytokines profile were evaluated. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and macrophage polarization were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. BRP at 50 μg/ml inhibited NO production by 78% without affecting cell viability. Cd80 and Cd86 were upregulated whereas mrc1 was down regulated by BRP indicating macrophage polarization at M1. BRP attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Ɣ, IL-1β in cell supernatants although levels of TNF- α and IL-6 were slightly increased after BRP treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were also reduced by BRP. BRP significantly reduced the up-regulation promoted by LPS of transcription of genes in inflammatory signaling (Pdk1, Pak1, Nfkb1, Mtcp1, Gsk3b, Fos and Elk1) and of Il1β and Il1f9 (fold-change rate > 5), which were further confirmed by the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the upstream adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal), also known as TIRAP, involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, was down- regulated in BRP treated LPS-activated macrophages. Given that BRP inhibited multiple signaling pathways in macrophages involved in the inflammatory process activated by LPS, our data indicated that BRP is a noteworthy food-source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and a potential candidate to attenuate exhacerbated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26660901

  17. Brazilian Red Propolis Attenuates Inflammatory Signaling Cascade in LPS-Activated Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bueno-Silva

    Full Text Available Although previous studies suggested an anti-inflammatory property of Brazilian red propolis (BRP, the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of BRP and its activity on macrophages were still not elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether BRP attenuates the inflammatory effect of LPS on macrophages and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. BRP was added to RAW 264.7 murine macrophages after activation with LPS. NO production, cell viability, cytokines profile were evaluated. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and macrophage polarization were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. BRP at 50 μg/ml inhibited NO production by 78% without affecting cell viability. Cd80 and Cd86 were upregulated whereas mrc1 was down regulated by BRP indicating macrophage polarization at M1. BRP attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Ɣ, IL-1β in cell supernatants although levels of TNF- α and IL-6 were slightly increased after BRP treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were also reduced by BRP. BRP significantly reduced the up-regulation promoted by LPS of transcription of genes in inflammatory signaling (Pdk1, Pak1, Nfkb1, Mtcp1, Gsk3b, Fos and Elk1 and of Il1β and Il1f9 (fold-change rate > 5, which were further confirmed by the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the upstream adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal, also known as TIRAP, involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, was down- regulated in BRP treated LPS-activated macrophages. Given that BRP inhibited multiple signaling pathways in macrophages involved in the inflammatory process activated by LPS, our data indicated that BRP is a noteworthy food-source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and a potential candidate to attenuate exhacerbated inflammatory diseases.

  18. Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Hybrid Molecules of Terpenes and Synthetic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoduloz, Cristina; Delporte, Carla; Valenzuela-Barra, Gabriela; Silva, Ximena; Cádiz, Solange; Bustamante, Fernanda; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1), imbricatolic acid (2) and oleanolic acid (3)) with ibuprofen (4) or naproxen (5). The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9%) and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%). In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%). All the terpenyl-synthetic anti-inflammatory hybrids showed better effects in the TPA assay, with best activity for 6, 12 and 15. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 8 and 10 with a free COOH, was higher than that of 2. The derivatives from 3 were less toxic than the triterpene. Several of the new compounds presented better anti-inflammatory effect and lower cytotoxicity than the parent terpenes.

  19. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BETA VULGARIS LINN. ROOTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chakole, Rita; Zade, Shubhangi; Charde, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Beta Vulgaris roots. The ethanolic extract was subjected to screen forantioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging method. The anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by using carageenan induced rat paw edema method. The tested extract ofdifferent dilutions in range 200 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml shows activity in range of 4.34% to 18.55%. The extract shows prominent anti-inflamma...

  20. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarvankumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and pain are the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. A number of natural products are used in the traditional medical systems in many countries. An alternative medicine for the treatment of various diseases is getting more popular. Many medicinal plants provide relief of symptoms comparable to that of obtained from allopathic medicines. Therefore agents of natural origin with very little side effects are required as substitute chemicals therapeutics. The methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus (100& 200mg/kg Linn (Menispermaceae was investigated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in laboratory animals. The analgesic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus was investigated by eddy’s hot plate model and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cocculus hirsutus was studied by both in-vitro and in vivo models. Human red blood cells membrane stabilization method was adopted for the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and for in-vivo, Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats was employed. In eddy’s hot plate analgesic study, both the doses of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively analgesic activity. In acetic acid induced writhing model, the onset of writhing was delayed and duration of writhing was shortened by the methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus.In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti inflammatory activity in a concentration dependent manner. Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on both carrgeenan as well as cotton pellet induced granuloma models in rats. From the results, it was concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

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    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  2. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  3. The antioxidant properties of salicylate derivatives: A possible new mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rosivaldo S; Castle, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis and antioxidant evaluation by DPPH scavenging of a series of salicylic acid derivatives is described. Gentisic acid and its ester, amide, and amino analogs possess more radical scavenging capacity than salicylic acid and other salicylate derivatives. This property can possibly provide an additional pathway for anti-inflammatory activity through either single electron or hydrogen atom transfer, leading to a new strategy for the design of anti-inflammatory agents.

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  5. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L.) BLUME

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Reddy K; Rajeev Reddy E; Ganapaty S

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract sho...

  6. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of omeprazole-like agents with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nezhawy, Ahmed O H; Biuomy, Ayman R; Hassan, Fatma S; Ismaiel, Ayman K; Omar, Hany A

    2013-04-01

    A new series of novel benzimidazole derivatives containing substituted pyrid-2-yl moiety and polyhydroxy sugar conjugated to the N-benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized and evaluated as orally bioavailable anti-inflammatory agents with anti-ulcerogenic activity. The anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of these compounds were compared to diclofenac and omeprazole, respectively. In carrageenan-induced paw oedema assay, 2-methyl-N-((3,4-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-1H-benzimidazol-5-amine (12d) and 1-(1,2,3,5-tetrahydroxy-α-D-mannofuranose)-5-(((3,4-dimethoxypyridin-2yl)methyl)amino)-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole (15d) displayed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing the inflammation by 62% and 72%, respectively which is comparable to that of diclofenac (73%). In contrast to diclofenac, the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was not only free from any side effects on the gastric mucosa but also showed significant anti-ulcerogenic activity in rat pyloric ligation and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models similar to that of omeprazole. Together, these findings suggest that 12d and 15d are potent anti-inflammatory agents with concurrent anti-ulcerogenic activity and support its clinical promise as a component of therapeutic strategies for inflammation, for which the gastric side effects are always a major limitation.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Urera baccifera (Urticaceae) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, B; Mora, G; Lapa, A J; Emim, J A

    1999-09-01

    On a preliminary test, anti-inflammatory and analgesic dose-related activities on rats were observed for the aqueous fraction of Urera baccifera; this extract was bioassay-guided fractionated and the final aqueous fraction was used according the ethnobotanical use. Carrageenan-induced edema (n = 6), was used as an assay in the fractionating process. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the final aqueous fraction were studied using in vivo models. For the anti-inflammatory activity rat paw edema (n = 6), pleurisy induced by carrageenan (n = 6) and ear edema induced by topical croton oil (n = 6) models were used, and tail-flick test (n = 6), abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid (n = 6), and formalin test (n = 6), were used for the antinociceptive activity. The tests performed showed an inhibition effect on leukocyte migration, and a reduction on pleural exudate, as well as dose-dependant peripheral analgesic activity, at a range of 25-100 mg/kg i.p. The final aqueous fraction contains most of the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant U. baccifera. A possible mechanism of action is discussed and based on the results we conclude that this plant has a potential for both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity at the clinical level.

  8. Assessment of the anti-inflammatory activity and free radical scavenger activity of tiliroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Araceli; Recio, M Carmen; Schinella, Guillermo R; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Rosí, José Luis

    2003-02-01

    Three flavonoids, gnaphaliin, pinocembrin and tiliroside, isolated from Helichrysum italicum, were studied in vitro for their antioxidant and/or scavenger properties and in vivo in different models of inflammation. In vitro tests included lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, superoxide radical generation in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and the reduction of the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Acute inflammation was induced by application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to the mouse ear or by subcutaneous injection of phospholipase A(2) or serotonin in the mouse paw. Eczema provoked on the mouse ear by repeated administration of TPA was selected as a model of chronic inflammation. The flavonoids were assayed against sheep red blood cell-induced mouse paw oedema as a model of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The most active compound, both in vitro and in vivo, was tiliroside. It significantly inhibited enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (IC(50)=12.6 and 28 microM, respectively). It had scavenger properties (IC(50)=21.3 microM) and very potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH test (IC(50)=6 microM). In vivo, tiliroside significantly inhibited the mouse paw oedema induced by phospholipase A(2)(ED(50)=35.6 mg/kg) and the mouse ear inflammation induced by TPA (ED(50)=357 microg/ear). Pinocembrin was the only flavonoid that exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in the sheep red blood cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. However, only tiliroside significantly reduced the oedema and leukocyte infiltration induced by TPA. As in the case of other flavonoids, the anti-inflammatory activity of tiliroside could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other mechanisms are probably involved.

  9. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  10. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.

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    Maria Ruweka Fernando

    Full Text Available Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells - immunoregulatory features not observed in the 'parent' IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its' anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6.

  11. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Maria Ruweka; Reyes, Jose Luis; Iannuzzi, Jordan; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek Mark

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated) subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM)) subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells - immunoregulatory features not observed in the 'parent' IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its' anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6.

  12. Wide tangential fields including the internal mammary lymph nodes in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Influence of respiratory-controlled radiotherapy (4D-CT) on cardiac exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzl, Heidi; Zurl, Brigitte; Langsenlehner, Tanja; Kapp, Karin S. [University Medical School, Graz (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of wide-tangent fields including the internal mammary chain during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in patients with left-sided breast cancer on cardiac exposure. Patients and Methods: Eleven patients with left-sided breast cancer were irradiated postoperatively and underwent CT scans during free breathing and DIBH. For scientific interest only, treatment plans were calculated consisting of wide tangents including the ipsilateral mammary lymph nodes using both, the free breathing and respiratory-controlled CT scan. The resulting dose-volume histograms were compared for irradiated volumes and doses to organs at risk. Results: The mean patient age was 51 years (range: 37-65 years). Radiotherapy using wide tangents with DIBH as compared to free breathing led to a significantly lower cardiac exposure. Mean irradiated heart volumes ({>=} 20 Gy) were 14 cm{sup 3} (range: 0-51.3 cm{sup 3}) versus 35 cm{sup 3} (range: 2.1-78.7 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.01). For eight patients, DIBH reduced irradiated relative lung volume, while in three patients, the lung volume slightly increased. Conclusion: Radiation exposure of organs at risk can significantly be reduced for breast cancer patients using the DIBH technique. If radiotherapy of the internal mammary lymph nodes is considered necessary, DIBH may be the preferable technique. (orig.)

  13. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of novel microtubule-modulating brominated noscapine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughaier, Susu; Karna, Prasanthi; Stephens, David; Aneja, Ritu

    2010-02-11

    Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic brominated analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Brominated noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. Brominated noscapine analogs demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both TLR- and non-TLR induced in vitro innate immune pathway inflammation models, mimicking septic and sterile infection respectively. In addition, electron microscopy and immunoblotting data indicated that these analogs induced robust autophagy in human macrophages. This study is the first report to identify brominated noscapines as innate immune pathway anti-inflammatory molecules.

  14. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of novel microtubule-modulating brominated noscapine analogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Zughaier

    Full Text Available Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic brominated analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Brominated noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. Brominated noscapine analogs demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both TLR- and non-TLR induced in vitro innate immune pathway inflammation models, mimicking septic and sterile infection respectively. In addition, electron microscopy and immunoblotting data indicated that these analogs induced robust autophagy in human macrophages. This study is the first report to identify brominated noscapines as innate immune pathway anti-inflammatory molecules.

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract rich in ellagitannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Pellicer, Francisco; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used for centuries for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information focused on the properties of a certain pomegranate (poly)phenolic profile to cure pain and gastric injury induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigated the systemic effects of different doses of a HPLC-characterized pomegranate extract on the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice. The effect of the extract against gastric injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ethanol was also assessed. Pomegranate reduced nociception in both phases of the formalin test, suggesting central and peripheral activities to inhibit nociception. Indomethacin-induced gastric injury was not produced in the presence of pomegranate, which also protected against ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The present results reinforce the benefits of pomegranate (poly)phenolics in the treatment of pain as well as their anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  17. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of imidazo [1,2-a] pyrimidine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Pei Zhou; Yi Wei Ding; Hui Bin Zhang; Lian Xu; Yue Dai

    2008-01-01

    A series of imidazo [1,2-a] pyrimidine derivatives substituted adjacently with two aryls at positions 2 and 3 were designed and synthesized in order to improve their anti-inflammatory activities. Biological tests suggested that these compounds have antiinflammatory activities with COX-2 selectivity to some extent.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves and stems from Tabebuia hypoleuca (C. Wright Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada I. Regalado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are reports in the literature of species belonging to the genus Tabebuia with pharmacological potential as anti-inflammatory: Tabebuia avellanedae, Tabebuia chrysanta, Tabebuia rosea, Tabebuia ochracea, among others; however, about of the species Tabebuia hypoleuca no studies demonstrating this activity so far. Aims: To determine the anti-inflammatory activity in the acute phase of the methanolic extracts of T. hypoleuca. Methods: Leaves and stems of T. hypoleuca were collected. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the carrageenin-induced paw edema models and the croton oil induced auricular edema in mice. The qualitative identification of secondary metabolites present in the methanolic extracts was performed by a preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity assessments showed that methanol extract of the leaves do not have anti-inflammatory activity at doses tested, while the methanol extract of the stems at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the model of croton oil induced auricular edema the methanol extract of the stems administered orally and intraperitoneally showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity at all doses tested. The anti-inflammatory activity found could be due to the presence of metabolites such as tannins, phenols and alkaloids. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of the stems of Tabebuia hypoleuca, and constitute the first report about this species as anti-inflammatory.

  19. GBA2-encoded β-glucosidase activity is involved in the inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Loberto

    Full Text Available Current anti-inflammatory strategies for the treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF are limited; thus, there is continued interest in identifying additional molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Given the emerging role of sphingolipids (SLs in various respiratory disorders, including CF, drugs that selectively target the enzymes associated with SL metabolism are under development. Miglustat, a well-characterized iminosugar-based inhibitor of β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2, has shown promise in CF treatment because it reduces the inflammatory response to infection by P. aeruginosa and restores F508del-CFTR chloride channel activity. This study aimed to probe the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory activity of miglustat by examining specifically the role of GBA2 following the infection of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa. We also report the anti-inflammatory activity of another potent inhibitor of GBA2 activity, namely N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxypentyl-deoxynojirimycin (Genz-529648. In CF bronchial cells, inhibition of GBA2 by miglustat or Genz-529648 significantly reduced the induction of IL-8 mRNA levels and protein release following infection by P. aeruginosa. Hence, the present data demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of miglustat and Genz-529648 are likely exerted through inhibition of GBA2.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

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    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  1. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N

    2011-10-01

    The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation.

  3. Evaluation of inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Garcia Vilela; Henrique Osvaldo da Gama Torres; Fabiana Paiva Martins; Maria de Lourdes de Abreu Ferrari; Marcella Menezes Andrade; Aloísio Sales da Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis evolve with a relapsing and remitting course.Determination of infiammatory state is crucial for the assessment of disease activity and for tailoring therapy.However,no simple diagnostic test for monitoring intestinal inflammation is available.Noninvasive markers give only indirect assessments of disease activity.Histopathological or endoscopical examinations accurately assess inflammatoryactivity,but they are invasive,time consuming and expensive and therefore are unsuitable for routine use.Imaging procedures are not applicable for ulcerative colitis.The usefulness of ultrasound and Doppler imaging in assessing disease activity is still a matter of discussion for Crohn's disease,and an increased interest in computed tomography enterograph (CTE) has been seen,mainly because it can delineate the extent and severity of bowel wall inflammation,besides detecting extraluminal findings.Until now,the available data concerning the accuracy of magnetic resonance enterography in detecting disease activity is less than CTE.Due to this,clinical activity indices are still commonly used for both diseases.

  4. Macrophage activation and polarization modify P2X7 receptor secretome influencing the inflammatory process

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos de Torre-Minguela; Maria Barberà-Cremades; Gómez, Ana I.; Fátima Martín-Sánchez; Pablo Pelegrín

    2016-01-01

    The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on M1 polarized macrophages induces the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the establishment of the inflammatory response. However, P2X7R signaling to the NLRP3 inflammasome is uncoupled on M2 macrophages without changes on receptor activation. In this study, we analyzed P2X7R secretome in wild-type and P2X7R-deficient macrophages polarized either to M1 or M2 and proved that proteins released afte...

  5. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Azomethines of Aryl Oxazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niraimathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability to inhibit erythrocyte hemolysis is often used as a characteristic of the membrane stabilising action of chemical compounds. Azomethines of aryl oxazoles were evaluated for anti-inflammatory by in vitro hemolytic membrane stabilising study. The effect of inflammation condition was studied on erythrocyte exposed to hypotonic solution. In this in vitro method the membrane stabilising action leads to anti-inflammatory activity and was compared with that produced by diclofenac sodium as the reference standard. Results of the evaluation indicate that the synthesised compounds found to exhibit membrane stabilising activity.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  7. Structure–activity relationship of terpenes with anti-inflammatory profile – a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marilia Trindade de Santana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araujo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Duarte, Marcelo Cavalcante; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; dos Santos, Marcio Roberto Viana; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is a complex biological response that in spite of having available treatments, their side effects limit their usefulness. Because of this, natural products have been the subject of incessant studies, among which the class of terpenes stands out. They have been the source of study for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs, once their chemical diversity is well suited to provide skeleton for future anti-inflammatory drugs. This systematic review reports the studies present in the literature that evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of terpenes suffering any change in their structures, assessing whether these changes also brought changes in their effects. The search terms anti-inflammatory agents, terpenes, and structure–activity relationship were used to retrieve English language articles in SCOPUS, PUBMED and EMBASE published between January 2002 and August 2013. Twenty-seven papers were found concerning the structural modification of terpenes with the evaluation of antiinflammatory activity. The data reviewed here suggest that modified terpenes are an interesting tool for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.

  9. Antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Mimusops elengi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biswakanth Kar; RB Suresh Kumar; Indrajit Karmakar; Narayan Dolai; Asis Bala; Upal K Mazumder; Pallab K Haldar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi L (M. elengi) leaves. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for peroxynitrite, superoxide and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity. Total phenolic content also determined. Inhibition of protein denaturation and HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) membrane stabilization method was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The leave extract of M. elengi exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging property in peroxynitrite, superoxide and hypochlorous acid models and the IC50 value were found to be (205.53 ± 2.30), (60.5±2.3), (202.4±5.3) μg/mL respectively. Total phenolic content was found to be 97.3 μg/mg of extract. The maximum membrane stabilization of M. elengi L was found to be (73.85±0.80)% at a dose of 1 000 μg/0.5 mL and that of protein denaturation was found to be 86.23% at a dose of 250 μg/mL with regards to standards in the anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: From the result it can conclude that M. elengi extract show good antioxidant and in vitro anti -inflammatory activities.

  10. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.

  11. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Most A.; Raju, Ritesh; Beattie, Karren D.; Bodkin, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the production of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α or nitric oxide. However, their prolonged use can cause gastrointestinal toxicity and promote adverse events such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and thrombosis. Hence, there is a critical need to develop novel and safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing alternate mechanism of action. In this study, plants used by the Dharawal Aboriginal people in Australia for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, for example, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, oedema, eye inflammation, and inflammation of bladder and related inflammatory diseases, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanolic extracts from 17 Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) were assessed for their capacity to inhibit nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eucalyptus benthamii showed the most potent nitric oxide inhibitory effect (IC50  5.57 ± 1.4 µg/mL), whilst E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. smithii, E. umbra, and E. viminalis exhibited nitric oxide inhibition values between 7.58 and 19.77 µg/mL. PMID:28115968

  12. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Most A; Raju, Ritesh; Beattie, Karren D; Bodkin, Frances; Münch, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the production of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α or nitric oxide. However, their prolonged use can cause gastrointestinal toxicity and promote adverse events such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and thrombosis. Hence, there is a critical need to develop novel and safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing alternate mechanism of action. In this study, plants used by the Dharawal Aboriginal people in Australia for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, for example, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, oedema, eye inflammation, and inflammation of bladder and related inflammatory diseases, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanolic extracts from 17 Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) were assessed for their capacity to inhibit nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eucalyptus benthamii showed the most potent nitric oxide inhibitory effect (IC50  5.57 ± 1.4 µg/mL), whilst E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. smithii, E. umbra, and E. viminalis exhibited nitric oxide inhibition values between 7.58 and 19.77 µg/mL.

  13. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most A. Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the production of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α or nitric oxide. However, their prolonged use can cause gastrointestinal toxicity and promote adverse events such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and thrombosis. Hence, there is a critical need to develop novel and safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing alternate mechanism of action. In this study, plants used by the Dharawal Aboriginal people in Australia for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, for example, asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, oedema, eye inflammation, and inflammation of bladder and related inflammatory diseases, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Ethanolic extracts from 17 Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae were assessed for their capacity to inhibit nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eucalyptus benthamii showed the most potent nitric oxide inhibitory effect (IC50  5.57±1.4 µg/mL, whilst E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. saligna, E. smithii, E. umbra, and E. viminalis exhibited nitric oxide inhibition values between 7.58 and 19.77 µg/mL.

  14. Modified eremophilanes and anti-inflammatory activity of Psacalium cirsiifolium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Vivar Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Four new modified eremophilanes, together with ten known cacalol derivatives, two caryophyllenes, one aromadendrene and one flavonoid were isolated from Psacalium cirsiifolium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antiinflammatory activity of extracts and of seven of the isolated compounds was evaluated on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) model of induced acute inflammation. The new compound 2{alpha}-hydroxyadenostin B (4) showed a dose dependent activity (IC{sub 50} 0.41 {mu}mol per ear) and a neutrophil inhibition effect as measured by the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay similar to that of indomethacin at 0.31 and 1.0 {mu}mol per ear. (author)

  15. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  16. Can the anti-inflammatory activities of β2-agonists be harnessed in the clinical setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theron AJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Annette J Theron,1,2 Helen C Steel,1 Gregory R Tintinger,1 Charles Feldman,3 Ronald Anderson1 1Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, 2Tshwane Academic Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Pretoria, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (β2-agonists are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled β2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of β2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of β2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of β2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells. Keywords: adenylyl cyclase, corticosteroids, cyclic AMP, muscarinic

  17. Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I; Küpeli, E; Aslan, M; Kartal, M; Yesilada, E

    2006-04-21

    The ethanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) as well as its oleoresin were evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Among the extracts screened, only the oleoresin was shown to possess a marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses whereas the rest of the extracts were totally inactive. While the oleoresin was found to display significant antinociceptive activity at 500 mg/kg dose, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts belonging to fruit, leaf, branch and peduncle of Pistacia vera did not exhibit any noticeable antinociception in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. Fractionation of the oleoresin indicated the n-hexane fraction to be active, which further led to recognition of some monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (77.5%) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as the oleoresin itself. alpha-Pinene was also assessed for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in the same manner and exerted a moderate anti-inflammatory effect at 500 mg/kg dose.

  18. Pinoresinol from the fruits of Forsythia koreana inhibits inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Won; Mahesh, Ramalingam; Lee, Jong Gu; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Shik; Park, Yong-Ki

    2010-08-23

    The activation of microglia plays an important role in a variety of brain disorders by the excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated here whether pinoresinol isolated from the fruits of Forsythia koreana Nakai inhibits the inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia. Pinoresinol inhibited the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in LPS-activated primary microglia. Also, pinoresinol attenuated mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activation. However, most of these inhibitory effects of pinoresinol have been mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the NF-kappaB dependent. The results suggest that pinoresinol attenuates inflammatory responses of microglia and could be potentially useful in modulation of inflammatory status in brain disorders.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  20. 风湿性左心瓣膜病变术中行三尖瓣矫治的临床价值%Clinical significance of tricuspid surgery in patients with rheumatic disease undergoing left-side valve surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小虎; 吴延虎; 张石江; 邵永丰; 秦建伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of tricuspid dilatation as a criterion for rheumatic tricuspid regurgitatioa Methods A total o{ 104 patients with rheumatic disease underwent left-side valve surgery. Taking the tricuspid annular dimension ≥70 mm measured intraoperatively as the criterion. 30 patients with the tricuspid annular dimension <70 mm( group A) received left-side valve surgery only and 74 patients with the tricuspid annular dimension ≥70 mm( group B) received left side valve surgery plus tricuspid annuloplasty or tricuspid replacement. Results Cardiac function after surgery was inproved in both groups, which was more in group B than that in group A. Tricuspid regurgitation grade was significantly decreased postoperatively in group B, but which was worse in group A. Conclusion The tricuspid annular dimension 5≥ 70 mm may be taken as a criterion for tricuspid annuloplasty or tricuspid replacement.%目的 探讨以三尖瓣环扩大作为风湿性左心瓣膜病变术中三尖瓣关闭不全矫治指征的临床价值.方法 风湿性左心瓣膜疾病行手术治疗的患者104例分为单纯左心瓣膜置换30例(A组)和左心瓣膜置换加三尖瓣手术74例(B组)两组.B组术中测量三尖瓣环直径≥70 mm者行三尖瓣成形或置换手术.结果 两组术后心功能均较术前好转.B组术后心功能明显好于A组.B组术后三尖瓣返流程度明显改善,而A组三尖瓣返流程度较术前加重.结论 三尖瓣环直径≥70 mm可以作为风湿性左心瓣膜病变术中三尖瓣成形或置换手术的一个指征.

  1. SU-E-T-79: A Study of the Effect of Clinical Tumor Volume Displacement On the Dosage of Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W; Ma, C; Li, D; Wu, F [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the effect of clinical tumor volume (CTV) displacement on the dosage of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy. Methods: We created 2 sets of IMRT plans based on PTV0.5 and PTV0.7 (with CTV displacement of 0.5cm and 0.7cm respectively) for each of the ten consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients after modified radical mastectomy, and compared the difference in PTV coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing between the two groups. And then, we compared the difference in PTV coverage in IMRT plans based on PTV0.5 between the group with properly estimated CTV displacement (presuming the actual CTV displacement was 0.5cm) and the one with underestimated CTV displacement (presuming the actual CTV displacement was 0.7cm). The difference in results between the corresponding two groups was compared using paired-sample t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: IMRT plans derived from PTV0.5 had more homogenous PTV coverage, and less heart, left lung, right breast, right lung, left humeral head and B-P radiation exposure, as well as less total Mu as compared with the ones stemmed from PTV0.7 (all p<0.05). IMRT plans with appropriate estimation of CTV displacement had better PTV coverage compared with the ones with underestimated CTV displacement (all p<0.01). Conclusion: The IMRT plans with smaller CTV displacement in post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer has dosimetrical advantages over the ones with larger CTV displacement. Underestimation of CTV displacement can lead to significant reduction of PTV coverage. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve PTV coverage and OAR (including heart and left lung) sparing. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  2. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fezai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In folk medicine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is used as a remedy for a variety of diseases. This study investigates the in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of EVOO on mice and rats. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice, the analgesic effect of EVOO was evaluated. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphine were used as standard drugs, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by means of the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats using acetylsalicylic acid and dexamethasone as standard drugs. Last, the xenograft model in athymic mice was used to evaluate the anticancer effect in vivo. Results. EVOO significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes and reduces acute and inflammatory pain in the two phases of the formalin test. It has also a better effect than Dexamethasone in the anti-inflammatory test. Finally, the intraperitoneal administration of EVOO affects the growth of HCT 116 tumours xenografted in athymic mice. Conclusion. EVOO has a significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, further detailed studies are required to determine the active component responsible for these effects and mechanism pathway.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  4. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  5. Repressor and activator protein accelerates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting neutrophil inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang Xian; Lo, Chung Mau; Lian, Qizhou; Ng, Kevin Tak-Pan; Liu, Xiao Bing; Ma, Yuen Yuen; Qi, Xiang; Yeung, Oscar Wai Ho; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Yang, Xin Xiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jiang; Shao, Yan; Man, Kwan

    2016-05-10

    Repressor and activator protein (Rap1) directly regulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) dependent signaling, which contributes to hepatic IRI. We here intended to investigate the effect of Rap1 in hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The association of Rap1 expression with hepatic inflammatory response were investigated in both human and rat liver transplantation. The effect of Rap1 in hepatic IRI was studied in Rap1 knockout mice IRI model in vivo and primary cells in vitro. Our results showed that over expression of Rap1 was associated with severe liver graft inflammatory response, especially in living donor liver transplantation. The results were also validated in rat liver transplantation model. In mice hepatic IRI model, the knockout of Rap1 reduced hepatic damage and hepatic inflammatory response. In primary cells, the knockout of Rap1 suppressed neutrophils migration activity and adhesion in response to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells through down-regulating neutrophils F-Actin expression and CXCL2/CXCR2 pathway. In addition, the knockout of Rap1 also decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in primary neutrophils and neutrophils-induced hepatocyte damage. In conclusion, Rap1 may induce hepatic IRI through promoting neutrophils inflammatory response. Rap1 may be the potential therapeutic target of attenuating hepatic IRI.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Formula IBS-20 In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFNΓ-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFNΓ-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFNΓ and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Natural Compound, Shizukahenriol, through Nrf2 Activation

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    Jong-Hyun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Imbalance in the antioxidant defense system leads to detrimental consequences, such as neurological disorders. The Nrf2 signaling is known as a main pathway involved in cellular defense system. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates oxidative stress response by inducing expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. In this study, we screened several pure natural compounds for Nrf2 activator. Among them, shizukahenriol (SZH, isolated from Chloranthus henryi, activated Nrf2, and induced expression of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes HO-1, GCLC, and GCLM in BV-2 microglial cells. This natural compound was also effective in suppressing production of inflammatory molecules NO, TNF-α, and inhibition of NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. We also examined whether SZH rescued the microglial cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Pretreatment with SZH dose-dependently attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in BV-2 microglial cells. These results suggested SZH as a potential neuroprotective agent for neurological disorders.

  8. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Thymus linearis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Parveen, Amna; Abbas, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extract of Thymus linearis. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 μl of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51°C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced mice paw edema. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% yeast. The results showed that both the extracts had significant analgesic activity (pThymus linearis may be used against pain, pyrexia and inflammation.

  9. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of folklore: Mallotus peltatus leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Arunachalam, G; Mandal, Asit B; Sur, Tapas K; Mandal, Subash C; Bhattacharya, S K

    2002-10-01

    Since ages Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus (Euphorbiaceae) leaf and stem bark is used in folk medicine to cure intestinal ailments and skin infections. In several intestinal ailments, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we have evaluated the antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory activity of M. peltatus leaf extract. The crude methanol extract of M. peltatus leaves was found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis and the dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges from 128 to 2000 microg ml(-1) for bacteria and 128 mg ml(-1) for fungi, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 2-4-fold higher than MIC. The methanol-water fraction of the extract showed similar activity against Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Proteus isolates. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract against carrageenan (acute model) and dextran-induced (subacute model) rat paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma (chronic model) in rats were studied using indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)), a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug, as standard. The methanol extract at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1), and the n-butanol fractions A and B at 25 mg kg(-1), exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in Albino rats, compared with indomethacin. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and reducing sugars in the crude extract while the n-butanol fractions showed the presence of ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as major compounds. Further study with fractions showed that the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity is due to either fraction A (ursolic acid) alone or the combination of fractions A and B (beta-sitosterol and fatty acids) of the extract.

  10. Considering depression as a consequence of activation of the inflammatory response system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, J; Klein, HC; Versijpt, J; den Boer, J; ter Horst, GJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the possible interrelation between peripheral and/or cerebral inflammation and depression. Often, depression is regarded as a consequence of life events, including disabling diseases. The question addressed here is whether activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) ca

  11. Validation of the Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index (AIDAI) for hereditary recurrent fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piram, M.; Kone-Paut, I.; Lachmann, H.J.; Frenkel, J.; Ozen, S.; Kuemmerle-Deschner, J.; Stojanov, S.; Simon, A.; Finetti, M.; Sormani, M.P.; Martini, A.; Gattorno, M.; Ruperto, N.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate the Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index (AIDAI) in the four major hereditary recurrent fever syndromes (HRFs): familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and cryopyrin-asso

  12. Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Dinis, Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Decoctions prepared from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) are widely used in the traditional Peruvian medicine for the treatment of several diseases, in particular as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine if the well-known anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw decoction was related with its reactivity with the oxidant species generated in the inflammatory process and to establish a relationship between such antioxidant ability and its phenolic composition. We observed that the decoction prepared according to the traditional Peruvian medicine presented a potent radical scavenger activity, as suggested by its high capacity to reduce the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and by its reaction with superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals as well as with the oxidant species, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid. It also protected membrane lipids against peroxidation induced by the iron/ascorbate system, as evaluated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs). The decoction phenolic profile was established by chromatographic analysis (HPLC/DAD and TLC) revealing essentially the presence of proanthocyanidins (oligomeric procyanidins) and phenolic acids, mainly caffeic acid. Thus, our results provide evidence for an antioxidant mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw and support some of the biological effects of proanthocyanidins, more exactly its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia R. C. Porto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L., Euphorbiaceae, spray-dried standardized extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of spray-dried standardized extract was observed in carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycolate-induced leukocyte migration, while antinociceptive effects were observed using Randall & Selitto, tail flick, and hot plate tests. This study showed that intraperitoneal spray-dried standardized extract at 100, 200, 800, or 1600 mg/kg reduced the vascular response in the inflammatory process of paw edema induced by 1% carrageenan. Oral spray-dried standardized extract at 100 or 200 mg/kg inhibited leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation induced by 3% thioglycolate. In rats, at 100 and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally, the extract exhibited a marked peripheral analgesic effect in a Randall & Selitto assay and showed significant central analgesic activity in a hot plate and tail flick assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract has potent inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and that these activities are not modified by standard drying process, making it feasible to use the dry extract standardized to obtain a phytotherapic preparation and thus validating its use for the treatment of pain and inflammation disorders.

  14. Inflammatory memories: is epigenetics the missing link to persistent stromal cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ospelt; K.A. Reedquist; S. Gay; P.P. Tak

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction. Synovial fibroblasts are recognized as key cells in the pathogenesis of RA since they attract and activate immune cells and produce matrix degrading enzymes. Most notably synovial fibroblasts from patients with

  15. Pharmacognostic study and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar S; Kumar V; Prakash OM

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study detail pharmacognosy and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemonlanceolatus (C. lanceolatus) leaf. Methods: Leaf sample was studied by organoleptic, macroscopical, microscopical, phytochemical and other WHO recommended methods for standardizations. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant was also screened for anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally. The detail pharmacognostic study of the C. lanceolatus leaf was carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. Results: C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract showed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. This significant anti-inflammatory of C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg was comparable with diclofenac sodium. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic profile of the C. lanceolatus leaf is helpful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. The methanolic extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg shows a significant activity in comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg).

  16. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  17. Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, J; Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Lopes, M C; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L; Cruz, M T

    2013-12-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the cytotoxicity of Oenanthe crocata essential oil and one of its main compounds. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC/MS. The oil was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (85.8%), being the main compounds trans-β-ocimene (31.3%), sabinene (29.0%) and cis-β-ocimene (12.3%). For the antifungal activity, the minimal inhibitory and minimal lethal concentrations (MICs and MLCs) were determined. The oil was particularly active against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.16 μL/mL. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, both the oil and sabinene demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory activity through nitric oxide (NO) production inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-triggered macrophages. Furthermore, the essential oil showed a potent NO scavenging effect and inhibited inducible NO synthase expression. Interestingly, and although we detected a cytotoxic effect in macrophages and keratinocytes for the highest concentrations tested of the oil and sabinene, we also disclosed bioactive and safe concentrations to be further explored for therapeutic proposes. Taking together, these results support the use of the oil and sabinene for the management of dermatophytosis and/or inflammatory-related diseases.

  18. Asian dust particles induce macrophage inflammatory responses via mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashisaka, Kazuma; Fujimura, Maho; Taira, Mayu; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Baba, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ≤10  μ m in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10  μ m. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF- α production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor- κ B and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages.

  19. Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Higashisaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ≤10 μm in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10 μm. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-α production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activities of isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside against HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses in both HUVECs and CLP-induced septic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2013-02-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a crucial nuclear cytokine that elicits severe vascular inflammatory diseases. Oenanthe javanica (water dropwort) extract has anti-arrhythmic, neuroprotective and anti-diabetic activity. However, isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (I3G), an active compound from O. javanica, is not researched well for its biological activity. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of I3G by monitoring the effects of I3G on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1 and HMGB1 or CLP-mediated modulation of inflammatory responses. I3G potently inhibited the release of HMGB1 and down-regulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. I3G also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. Further studies revealed that I3G suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and activation of nuclear factor-κB by HMGB1. In addition, I3G reduced CLP-induced HMGB1 release and sepsis-related mortality. Given these results, I3G should be viewed as a candidate therapeutic agent for the treatment of severe vascular inflammatory diseases such as sepsis or septic shock via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  1. The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aspidosperma tomentosum (Apocynaceae

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    Anansa Bezerra de Aquino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE, its fractions, and the flavonoid isorhamnetin from Aspidosperma tomentosum using models of nociception and inflammation in mice. In the writhing test, the CEE and its fractions (except for soluble phase, CHCl3 100% and EtAcO 100% at 100 mg/kg p.o. induced antinociceptive activity. Isorhamnetin (100 μmol/kg, p.o. was also active. In the hot plate test, only the treatment with the fractions Hex : CHCl3 50%, CHCl3 100%, and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% (100 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency time, reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Fractions that were active in the hot plate test did not show catalepsy condition. It was observed that CEE, all fractions, and isorhamnetin reduced the formalin effects in the neurogenic phase. In the inflammatory phase, only CEE, isorhamnetin, and CHCl3 100% and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% fractions were active. CEE and all fractions, except for CHCl3 : MeOH 10% fraction, isorhamnetin, and soluble fraction were able to produce an antioedematogenic activity in the ear capsaicin-induced edema test. In the thioglycolate-induced peritonitis, only EtAcO 100% fraction was not active. The results demonstrate that A. tomentosum has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.

  2. Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiparasitic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Laennecia confusa

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    María G. Martínez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae. Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.

  3. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan CG; Deepak M; Viswanatha GL; Savinay G; Hanumantharaju V; Rajendra CE; Praveen D Halemani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. Results: In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC50 values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC50 of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (Pindica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

  5. Parallel synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of cyclic peptides cyclosquamosin D and Met-cherimolacyclopeptide B and their analogs

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We report the parallel synthesis of two natural cyclopeptides, isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa, cyclosquamosin D (A1) and Met-cherimolacyclopeptide B (B) and their analogs. All of the compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity by evaluating their inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines using the lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophage J774A.1 cell line. Compounds having significant anti-inflammatory activity in suppressing the secretion of IL...

  6. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  7. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  8. SU-E-P-51: Dosimetric Comparison to Organs at Risk Sparing Using Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Radiotherapy of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, L; Deng, G [Department of Oncology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xie, J; Cheng, J; Liang, N; Zhang, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandon, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, J; Luo, H [Division of Oncology, Department of Graduate, Weifang Medical College, 2610, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for left-sided breast cancer patients with modified radical mastectomy. Methods: Twenty-four left-sided breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy were selected in this study. The planning target volume (PTV) was generated by using 7-mm uniform expansion of the clinical target volume (CTV) in all direction except the skin surface. The organs at risk (OARs) included heart, left lung, right lung, and right breast. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were utilized to evaluate the dose distribution in PTV and OARs. Results: Both VMAT and IMRT plans met the requirement of PTV coverage. VMAT was superior to IMRT in terms of conformity, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.024). Mean doses, V5 and V10 of heart and both lungs in VMAT plans were significantly decreased compared to IMRT plans (P<0.05), but in terms of heart volume irradiated by high doses (V30 and V45), no significant differences were observed (P>0.05). For right breast, VMAT showed the reduction of V5 in comparison with IMRT (P<0.05). Additionally, the mean number of monitor units (MU) and treatment time in VMAT (357.21, 3.62 min) were significantly less than those in IMRT (1132.85, 8.74 min). Conclusion: VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and significant advantage in OARs sparing compared with IMRT, especially in terms of decreased volumes irradiated by low doses, while significantly reducing the treatment time and MU number.

  9. Muscle cells challenged with saturated fatty acids mount an autonomous inflammatory response that activates macrophages

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    Pillon Nicolas J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Within adipose tissue of mice fed a high fat diet, resident and infiltrating macrophages assume a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by the production of cytokines which in turn impact on the surrounding tissue. However, inflammation is not restricted to adipose tissue and high fat-feeding is responsible for a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in muscle. Although skeletal muscle is the major disposer of dietary glucose and a major determinant of glycemia, the origin and consequence of muscle inflammation in the development of insulin resistance are poorly understood. We used a cell culture approach to investigate the vectorial crosstalk between muscle cells and macrophages upon exposure to physiological, low levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Inflammatory pathway activation and cytokine expression were analyzed in L6 muscle cells expressing myc-tagged GLUT4 (L6GLUT4myc exposed to 0.2 mM palmitate or palmitoleate. Conditioned media thereof, free of fatty acids, were then tested for their ability to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. Palmitate -but not palmitoleate- induced IL-6, TNFα and CCL2 expression in muscle cells, through activation of the NF-κB pathway. Palmitate (0.2 mM alone did not induce insulin resistance in muscle cells, yet conditioned media from palmitate-challenged muscle cells selectively activated macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of palmitate activate autonomous inflammation in muscle cells to release factors that turn macrophages pro-inflammatory. We hypothesize that saturated fat-induced, low-grade muscle cell inflammation may trigger resident skeletal muscle macrophage polarization, possibly contributing to insulin resistance in vivo.

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Kydia calycina Roxb.

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    Baburao Bhukya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of leaves of Kydia calycina Roxb. was screened for the analgesic (using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test activity at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. A significant (p < 0.0005 analgesic effect was observed with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in both tests. The maximum anti-inflammatory response was produced at 3 hour with extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. These results suggest that the methanol extract of K. calycina has exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which were comparable with standard drugs.

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Essential Oil and Extracts of Piper miniatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Kammil, Mohd Fariz; Ahmad, Farediah; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2015-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from Piper miniatum were determined. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 64 components, accounting for 89.2% of the total. The major components were caryophyllene oxide (20.3%) and α-cubebene (10.4%). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. In the β-carotene assay, the n-hexane extract showed the highest inhibition activity with 42.7%, while the oil gave 91.3%. The essential oil and extracts were tested for anti-inflammatory activity by using the TPA-induced mouse ear edema model and lipoxygenase assays. The essential oil exhibited significant activity in both models as an anti-inflammatory agent. The n-hexane extract showed strong activity with inhibition of 85.9% in the TPA-induced mouse ear edema model, while the chloroform extract showed the highest activity with 94.2% in the lipoxygenase assay.

  12. Study of anti-inflammatory activities of α-D-glucosylated eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Erli; Xiao, Min; Chen, Chang; Xu, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against a variety of noxious stimuli, such as infection, chemicals, and physical injury. Eugenol, a natural phenolic extract, has drawn much attention for its various desirable pharmacological functions and is, therefore, broadly used in our daily life and medical practice. However, further usage of eugenol is greatly limited due to its unwanted properties, such as physicochemical instability, poor solubility, and high-dose cytotoxicity. In hopes of extending its applicability through glycosylation, we previously reported a novel, efficient, and high throughput way to biosynthesize α-D-glucosylated eugenol (α-EG). In this study, we further explored the potential superior properties of α-EG to its parent eugenol in terms of anti-inflammatory activities. We demonstrated that α-EG was an effective anti-inflammatory mediator in both non-cellular and cellular environments. In addition, the non-cellular inhibitory effect of α-EG could be amplified by α-glucosidase, which ubiquitously exists in cytoplasm. Furthermore, α-EG exhibited a superior anti-inflammatory effect to its parent eugenol in a cellular environment. In words, our findings collectively suggest that α-EG is a stronger anti-inflammatory mediator and may thereby serve as a desirable substitute for eugenol and a potential therapeutic prodrug in treating inflammatory diseases in the future.

  13. A Novel Brucine Gel Transdermal Delivery System Designed for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

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    Ping Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L., as a traditional Chinese medicine, have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, it usually leads to gastrointestinal irritation and systemic toxicity via oral administration. In the study, it was discovered that a novel gel transdermal delivery system contained brucine, the main effective component extracted from Strychnos nux-vomica. Results showed that the brucine gel system inhibited arthritis symptoms and the proliferation of the synoviocytes in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, which indicated its curative effect for rheumatoid arthritis. Meanwhile, it significantly relieved the xylene-induced ear edema in the mouse ear swelling test, which manifested its anti-inflammatory property. Moreover, the brucine gel eased the pain of paw formalin injection in the formalin test, which demonstrated its analgesic effects. In addition, the brucine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production without affecting the viability of cell in vitro anti-inflammatory test, which proved that its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions were related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It is suggested that the brucine gel is a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery on the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

    2011-10-01

    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control.

  15. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

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    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of the glandular extracts ofThunnus alalunga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K. Azeem; C Dilip; S S Prasanth; V Junise Hanan Shahima; Kumsr Sajeev; C. Naseera

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflamattory activity ofThunnus alalunga by bothin vitro and in vivomethods.Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform water extract ofThunnus alalunga was done by both in vitro andin vivo methods.In vitro method was done by human red blood cells membrane stabilization method(HRBC).In vivoevaluation was estimated on Wister albino rats. Acute toxicity studies were done on the extract and no toxicity was reported.Results:The percentage protection exhibited by 300 mg/mL concentration was more when compared to the other ones. The400 mg/mL concentration showed potent activity on comparison with the standard during in vivo evaluation.Conclusions: In both means of estimation the extract ofThunnus alalunga was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of human IgG4 antibodies by dynamic Fab arm exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Schuurman, Janine; Losen, Mario; Bleeker, Wim K; Martínez-Martínez, Pilar; Vermeulen, Ellen; den Bleker, Tamara H; Wiegman, Luus; Vink, Tom; Aarden, Lucien A; De Baets, Marc H; van de Winkel, Jan G J; Aalberse, Rob C; Parren, Paul W H I

    2007-09-14

    Antibodies play a central role in immunity by forming an interface with the innate immune system and, typically, mediate proinflammatory activity. We describe a novel posttranslational modification that leads to anti-inflammatory activity of antibodies of immunoglobulin G, isotype 4 (IgG4). IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that exchange Fab arms by swapping a heavy chain and attached light chain (half-molecule) with a heavy-light chain pair from another molecule, which results in bispecific antibodies. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the third constant domain is critical for this activity. The impact of IgG4 Fab arm exchange was confirmed in vivo in a rhesus monkey model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. IgG4 Fab arm exchange is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 antibodies.

  18. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts from Acorus calamus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-bing; Wang, Bing; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Tong-chao; Wang, Chang-li; Sun, Xue-hui; Zong, Wen-tao; Yan, Ming; Zhao, Qing-chun; Chen, Yu-feng; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In folklore medicine, Acorus calamus has been used as a wound-healing agent for thousands of years; however, there have been few scientific reports on this activity so far. Now, we explored deeply the wound-healing effect of aqueous extracts from the fresh roots and rhizomes of A. calamus in vivo, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, so as to provide scientific evidence for the traditional application. The wound-healing effect was determined by the image analysis techniques and the histological analysis in the excisional wounding test, and the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the real-time RT-PCR techniques in the lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells test. Aqueous extracts, administered topically at the dose range from twice to thrice in a day, could enhance significantly the rate of skin wound-healing. Moreover, the extracts could effectively inhibit the mRNA expressions of inflammatory mediators induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells. These results showed significantly the wound-healing activity of aqueous extracts in the animal model of excise wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro.

  19. Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Carbohydrate Polymer with Oxide of Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adan; Nieto-Velázquez, Nayeli Goreti; Espinosa-Monroy, Lorena; Torres-Ramos, Yessica; Montoya-Estrada, Araceli; Cueto, Jorge; Hicks, Juan Jose; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Pebisut is a biological adhesive composed of naturally occurring carbohydrates combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) initially used as a coadjutant for healing of anastomoses. Likewise some works demonstrated that carbohydrate complexes exerts anti-inflammatory activity and it is widely known that ZnO modulate inflammation. However, the direct effects of Pebisut on isolated cells and acute inflammatory responses remained to be investigated. The present study evaluated anti-inflammatory effect of Pebisut using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human mononuclear cells, chemotaxis, and cell infiltration in vivo in a murine model of peritonitis. Our data show that human cells treated with different dilutions of Pebisut release less IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 after LPS stimuli compared with the control treated cells. In addition, Pebisut lacked chemotactic activity in human mononuclear cells but was able to reduce chemotaxis towards CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL12 that are representative mononuclear cells chemoattractants. Finally, in a murine model of peritonitis, we found less number of macrophages (F4/80+) and T lymphocytes (CD3+) in peritoneal lavages from animals treated with Pebisut. Our results suggest that Pebisut has anti-inflammatory activity, which might have a beneficial effect during anastomoses healing or wounds associated with excessive inflammation. PMID:24757670

  20. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extracts of Lychnophora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, L S; Saúde-Guimarães, D A; Silva, A C A; Lombardi, J A; Guimarães, H N; Grabe-Guimarães, A

    2008-02-28

    Extracts from Lychnophora species are traditionally used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory, and to treat bruise, pain and rheumatism. The ethanolic extract of aerial parts of five species of Lychnophoras and one specie of Lychnophoriopsis were examined for the antinociceptive (hot-plate and writhing tests) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw oedema test) activity in mice, by oral and topical routes, respectively. In the hot-plate test, the Lychnophora pinaster (0.75 g/kg) and Lychnophora ericoides (1.50 g/kg) extracts significantly increased the time for licking of the paws. The species Lychnophora passerina, Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum and Lychnophora pinaster, using the dose of 0.75 g/kg, and Lychnophora ericoides and Lychnophora trichocarpha in both doses evaluated (0.75 and 1.50 g/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes induced by acetic acid. The administration of Lychnophora pinaster and Lychnophora trichocarpha ointments, in both concentrations evaluated (5 and 10%, w/w), and Lychnophora passerina and Lychnophoriopsis candelabrum, in the concentration of 10%, significantly reduced the paw oedema measured 3 h after carrageenan administration, suggesting, for the first time, an anti-inflammatory activity upon topical administration of these species. The present work comparatively demonstrated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of some Brazilian Lychnophoras.

  1. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory activities of Bunchosia armeniaca (Cav. DC. (Malpighiaceae

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    Gustavo S. Queiroz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bunchosia armeniaca (B. armeniaca is a native plant to America, and popularly called “cafezinho”, “ciruela” or “falso-guaraná”. In traditional medicine is used to treat different pathologies including infectious and inflammatory diseases. From ethanolic extract of B. armeniaca leaves (Malpighiaceae afforded a flavonoid mixture consisting of rutin 1 (83.5%, isoquercitrin 2 (5.6% and afzelin 5 (10.9%, which were identified and individually quantified as helpful for capillary electrophoresis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The ethanolic extract showed an excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus and moderate activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. The flavonoid mixture showed antibacterial activity, mainly against the gram negative bacteria. Moreover, this plant demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory action, inhibiting the leukocyte influx and exudate formation in pleural cavity caused by carrageenan. The inflammation mediators involved in this model study, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly inhibited by ethanolic extract and flavonoid mixture of B. armeniaca. The results show that B. armeniaca has a significant antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and that these effects is due, at least in part, to the presence of rutin, isoquercetrin and afzelin in large amounts. Hence, these compounds have potential as novel lead compounds for the future development of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of patients with infectious and inflammatory disorders.

  2. HYPOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PEPEROMEA PELLUCIDA (L. HBK (PIPERACEAE

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    H. Sheikh*, S. Sikder, S. Kumar Paul , A.M. Rashedul Hasan , Md. M. Rahaman and S. Paul Kundu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspire of the present research was to explore the hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate extract of Peporemia pellucida in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and hypercholesterolemia and against pain. In the present study hypoglycemic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Peperomea pellucida was significant from (25.35 to 8.1 mM ±SEM i.e., 68.44% in 300mg/kg ethyl acetate extract as a 7 days hypoglycemic treatment. On 120 minutes OGTT test, reduction of blood glucose level was also significant. In 300mg/kg extract blood glucose level reduced from (20.53mM to 7.69 ±SEM 62.64% was observed. Analgesic treatment was observed carefully and mentionable activities were evaluated. Percentage of inhibition was 58.16 with the number of writhing 11.8±SEM in 300mg/kg inhibition was observed with 6.8 ±SEM writhing. P. pellucida has significant anti-inflammatory effect after 4 hr with 3.47± SEM. The present study indicates significant hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of P. pellucida. The present investigation established the pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim and that of the plant has antidiabetic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Anthraquinone Derivatives in Rodents

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    Ajay D. Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe emodin is isolated compound of aloe vera which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that glucuronosyl or sulfated forms of aloe emodin may provide some limitations in its absorption capacity. Aloe emodin was reported to have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (iNO and prostaglandin E2, via its action on murine macrophages. However, present work evidenced that molecular docking of aloe emodin modulates the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 in rodent. The AEC (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2 carboxylic acid was synthesized using aloe emodin as starting material. The study was planned for evaluation of possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The AE (aloe emodin and AEC significantly P<0.001 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema at 50 and 75 mg/kg. Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model showed significant P<0.001 decrease in injected and noninjected paw volume, arthritic score. AE and AEC showed significant effect on various biochemical, antioxidant, and hematological parameters. Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg showed significant P<0.001 inhibition in inflammation and arthritis.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Heidari, A H

    2012-04-01

    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects.

  5. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  6. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Abdalrahman, Akram; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Joseph S. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Ward, Keith W.; Meyer, Colin J. [Department of Pharmacology, Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irving, TX 75063 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: Dongqi.Tang@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promises in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an activation

  7. Bisphosphonate effects in cancer and inflammatory diseases: in vitro and in vivo modulation of cytokine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Fratto, Maria E; Vincenzi, Bruno; La Cesa, Annalisa; Dianzani, Caterina; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are endogenous pyrophosphate analogs in which a carbon atom replaces the central atom of oxygen. They are indicated in non-neoplastic diseases including osteoporosis, corticosteroid-induced bone loss, Paget disease, and in cancer-related diseases such as neoplastic hypercalcemia, multiple myeloma and bone metastases secondary to breast and prostate cancer. There is now extensive in vitro evidence suggesting a direct antitumor effect of bisphosphonates at different levels of action. Some new in vitro and in vivo studies support the cytostatic effects of bisphosphonates on tumor cells, and the effects on the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell adhesion, and invasion, with particular attention to biological properties. Well designed clinical trials are necessary to investigate whether the antitumor potential of bisphosphonates may be clinically relevant. On the basis of their effects on macrophages, we may divide bisphosphonates into two distinct categories: aminobisphosphonates, which sensitize macrophages to an inflammatory stimulus inducing an acute-phase response, and non-aminobisphosphonates that can be metabolized into macrophages and that may inhibit the inflammatory response of macrophages. There is evidence of aminobisphosphonate-induced pro-inflammatory response, in particular, related to modifications of the cytokine network. Several in vivo studies have demonstrated an acute-phase reaction after the first administration of aminobisphosphonates, with a significant increase in the main pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, a peculiar aspect concerning the action of non-aminobisphosphonates seems to be an anti-inflammatory activity caused by the inhibition of the release of inflammatory mediators from activated macrophages, such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1. The inhibition of inflammatory responses is demonstrated in both in vivo and in vitro models. This activity suggests the use of non

  8. Anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii extract through the inhibition of MMP-9 and AP-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Shin, In-Sik; Song, Hyuck-Hwan; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Physalis alkekengi has been traditionally used for the treatment of coughs, middle ear infections, and sore throats in Korea, Europe, and China. It exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects. The anti-inflammatory effects of the P. alkekengi methanol extract (PA) and its molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, the chromatogram of PA was established by UPLC analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of PA were also investigated using murine microphage cell lines, RAW 264.7 cells, and a murine model of OVA induced asthma. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, PA reduced the MMP-9 expression with decreases in the production of nitric oxide, inteleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, PA suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs, which resulted in the inhibition of AP-1 activation. These effects of PA were consistent with the results of the in vivo experiment. PA-treated mice significantly inhibited inflammatory cell counts and cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and airway-hyperresponsiveness in OVA-induced asthmatic mice. PA treated mice also showed a marked inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and MMP-9 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that PA may be a valuable therapeutic material in treating various inflammatory diseases, including allergic asthma.

  9. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of new 1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocka, Renata; Wiese, Malgorzata; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Helmin-Basa, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej; Modzelewska-Banachiewicz, Bozena; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    The series of new 1,2,4-triazole derivatives with methacrylic acid moiety were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography. The influence of newly synthesized compounds on the inflammation on the level of cytokine production and the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were experimentally evaluated. Obtained triazoles showed antiproliferative activity and diverse effects on cytokine production. Two compounds demonstrated potentially anti-inflammatory activity and comparable effects with ibuprofen.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of Chantaleela recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Khonsung, Parirat; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Nanna, Urarat; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Chantaleela recipe is indicated for relieving fever in Thai traditional folk medicine. In the present study, Chantaleela recipe was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In preliminary investigation Chantaleela recipe was found to exert an inhibitory activity on the acute phase of inflammation as seen in ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema as well as in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Chantaleela recipe may be due to an inhibition via cyclooxygenase pathway. In the analgesic test, Chantaleela recipe showed a significant analgesic activity in both the early and late phases of formalin test, but exerted the most pronounced effect in the late phase. The analgesic activity of Chantaleela recipe may act via mechanism at peripheral and partly central nervous system. In antipyretic test, Chantaleela recipe significantly decreased rectal temperature of brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia rats, probably by inhibiting synthesis and/or release of prostaglandin E₂ in the hypothalamus. Therefore, the key mechanism of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity of the Chantaleela recipe likely involves the inhibition of the synthesis and/or release of inflammatory or pain mediators, especially prostaglandins. The oral administration of the Chantaleela recipe reduced ulcer formation in acute gastric ulcer models (EtOH/HCl-, indomethacin-, and stress-induced gastric lesions). In contrast, this recipe did not reduce the secretory rate, total acidity, and increase pH in rat stomach. These results indicated that Chantaleela seem to possess anti-ulcerogenic effect. This activity may be due to the increase of gastric mucosal resistance or potentiation of defensive factors and/or the decrease of aggressive factors but did not associate the anti-secretory activity. Moreover, the high oral doses treated did not cause acute toxicity in rats and the

  11. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-ulcerogenic Activities of Chantaleela Recipe

    OpenAIRE

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Khonsung, Parirat; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Nanna, Urarat; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Chantaleela recipe is indicated for relieving fever in Thai traditional folk medicine. In the present study, Chantaleela recipe was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In preliminary investigation Chantaleela recipe was found to exert an inhibitory activity on the acute phase of inflammation as seen in ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema as well as in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the anti-infl...

  12. Highly oxygenated triterpenoids from the roots of Schisandra chinensis and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun; Nan, Zhi-Biao

    2016-01-01

    A new highly oxygenated triterpenoid, schinchinenlactone D (1), and three known compounds (2-4) were isolated from the roots of Schisandra chinensis. Their structures were determined by combining the spectroscopic analysis with the theoretical computations. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1-4 were evaluated, and compound 3 exhibits the most significant activity in the inhibition of NO production with an IC50 value of 10.6 μM.

  13. Therapeutic Role of Rifaximin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Implication of Human Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jie; Yatrik M. Shah; Ma, Xiaochao; Pang, Xiaoyan; Tanaka, Toshiya; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rifaximin, a human PXR activator, is in clinical trials for treatment of IBD and has demonstrated efficacy in Crohn's disease and active ulcerative colitis. In the current study, the protective and therapeutic role of rifaximin in IBD and its respective mechanism were investigated. PXR-humanized (hPXR), wild-type, and Pxr-null mice were treated with rifaximin in the dextran sulfate sod...

  14. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Tiveron, Ana Paula; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; Lacerda, Risia Cristina Coelho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Benso, Bruna; Denny, Carina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1–OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory c...

  15. Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Recipe (DJW in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kunanusorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Since in our previous study, Duhuo Jisheng Wan (DJW, which means pill of pubescent angelica root and mulberry mistletoe combination, demonstrates clinically comparable efficacy to diclofenac in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA of the knee after 4 weeks of treatment.  Therefore, in order to verify its mechanisms of action, this study was performed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of DJW in various animal models.  The antinociceptive activity of DJW was investigated by using the formalin test in mice model.  The acute inflammatory model using the carrageenin-induced hind paw edema in rats and the chronic inflammatory model using the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats were utilized.  Results showed that DJW possessed a marked antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test in mice.  However, in the carrageenin-induced hind paw edema model, which is known to be sensitive to cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors, DJW showed an insignificant anti-inflammatory effect, and in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma model, it had no antigranuloma formation and showed no effect on the transudate weight.  In addition, DJW showed no suppressive effects on weight gain and the thymus weight of the rats.  In conclusion, the overall results demonstrate that DJW possess both central and peripheral antinociceptive activities.  However, its anti-inflammatory activity, if any, could not be demonstrated in these two inflammatory models in the present study and remains to be elucidate.   Industrial relevance: Since drug therapy in OA patients, such as paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and topical analgesics may prove ineffective in some patients, and long-term therapy with NSAIDs often have been associated with serious adverse effects.  Such patients are turning increasingly to herbal medicines and DJW may be an alternative since it demonstrates clinically

  16. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

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    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  17. Oxidized Phospholipid OxPAPC Activates TRPA1 and Contributes to Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Tai, Yan; Caceres, Ana I.; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Junfan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation products of the naturally occurring phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), which are known as OxPAPC, accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and at other sites of inflammation in conditions such as septic inflammation and acute lung injury to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects. It is currently unknown whether OxPAPC also contributes to inflammatory pain and peripheral neuronal excitability in these conditions. Here, we observed that OxPAPC dose-dependently and selectively activated human TRPA1 nociceptive ion channels expressed in HEK293 cells in vitro, without any effect on other TRP channels, including TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPM8. OxPAPC agonist activity was dependent on essential cysteine and lysine residues within the N-terminus of the TRPA1 channel protein. OxPAPC activated calcium influx into a subset of mouse sensory neurons which were also sensitive to the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Neuronal OxPAPC responses were largely abolished in neurons isolated from TRPA1-deficient mice. Intraplantar injection of OxPAPC into the mouse hind paw induced acute pain and persistent mechanical hyperalgesia and this effect was attenuated by the TRPA1 inhibitor, HC-030031. More importantly, we found levels of OxPAPC to be significantly increased in inflamed tissue in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain, identified by the binding of an OxPAPC-specific antibody. These findings suggest that TRPA1 is a molecular target for OxPAPC and OxPAPC may contribute to chronic inflammatory pain through TRPA1 activation. Targeting against OxPAPC and TRPA1 signaling pathway may be promising in inflammatory pain treatment. PMID:27812120

  18. MALT1 Protease Activity Controls the Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Keratinocytes upon Zymosan Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anja; Grondona, Paula; Maier, Tabea; Brändle, Marc; Schönfeld, Caroline; Jäger, Günter; Kosnopfel, Corinna; Eberle, Franziska C; Schittek, Birgit; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Yazdi, Amir S; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) plays an important role in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation by controlling the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and is thus essential for the expression of inflammatory target genes. MALT1 is not only present in cells of the hematopoietic lineage, but is ubiquitously expressed. Here we report that stimulation with zymosan or Staphylococcus aureus induced MALT1 protease activity in human primary keratinocytes. Inhibition of the Src family of kinases or novel protein kinase C isoforms as well as silencing of CARMA2 or BCL10 interfered with activation of MALT1 protease. Silencing or inhibition of MALT1 protease strongly decreased the expression of important inflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-17C, CXCL8 and HBD-2. MALT1-inhibited cells were unable to mount an antimicrobial response upon zymosan stimulation or phorbolester/ionomycin treatment, demonstrating a central role of MALT1 protease activity in keratinocyte immunity and suggesting MALT1 as a potential target in inflammatory skin diseases.

  19. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  20. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  1. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy′s hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.

  2. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E O Agbaje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (SPH DC (Apocynaceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Doses of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous SPH were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema in mice, and formalin-induced mice hind paw oedema (sub-acute 6 days, using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg respectively as standard drugs. The study further explored the effect of the herbal drug on some inflammatory mediators-histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin, using only the highest dose of SPH. Results obtained showed that the extract exerted a dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, which compared favourably with the positive control.  Significant inhibitions of mediators were also recorded; however, the least inhibition (42.8 % was produced in the serotonin model. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and anthraquinones.  It is also noteworthy that zinc, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium were the elemental constituents in the aqueous extract of SPH, some of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. While 2 g/kg of SPH administered orally did not produce any mortality, the median lethal dose by i.p route was 39.81 mg/kg, and it is thought that the lead contribute to the toxicity recorded. The pH of the herbal drug was 6.7. Our findings substantiate the local use of SPH in the treatment of acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions, while it also suggests some possible pathways for its anti-inflammatory activity.  Lastly, since the herbal drug is liable to producing toxic effects, it must be used with caution. Industrial relevance: Herbal remedies continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of nanocrystalline silver-derived solutions in porcine contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianFei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanocrystalline silver dressings have anti-inflammatory activity, unlike solutions containing Ag+ only, which may be due to dissolution of multiple silver species. These dressings can only be used to treat surfaces. Thus, silver-containing solutions with nanocrystalline silver properties could be valuable for treating hard-to-dress surfaces and inflammatory conditions of the lungs and bowels. This study tested nanocrystalline silver-derived solutions for anti-inflammatory activity. Methods Inflammation was induced on porcine backs using dinitrochlorobenzene. Negative and positive controls were treated with distilled water. Experimental groups were treated with solutions generated by dissolving nanocrystalline silver in distilled water adjusted to starting pHs of 4 (using CO2, 5.6 (as is, 7, and 9 (using Ca(OH2. Solution samples were analyzed for total silver. Daily imaging, biopsying, erythema and oedema scoring, and treatments were performed for three days. Biopsies were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry (for IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, EGF, KGF, KGF-2, and apoptotic cells, and zymography (MMP-2 and -9. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey-Kramer post tests were used for statistical analyses. Results Animals treated with pH 7 and 9 solutions showed clear visual improvements. pH 9 solutions resulted in the most significant reductions in erythema and oedema scores. pH 4 and 7 solutions also reduced oedema scores. Histologically, all treatment groups demonstrated enhanced re-epithelialisation, with decreased inflammation. At 24 h, pMMP-2 expression was significantly lowered with pH 5.6 and 9 treatments, as was aMMP-2 expression with pH 9 treatments. In general, treatment with silver-containing solutions resulted in decreased TNF-α and IL-8 expression, with increased IL-4, EGF, KGF, and KGF-2 expression. At 24 h, apoptotic cells were detected mostly in the dermis with pH 4 and 9 treatments, nowhere with pH 5.6, and in both the

  4. The HMGB1 signaling pathway activates the inflammatory response in Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Li-Li; Liu, Fan; Wang, Ying-Jie; Song, Hong-Hua; Xu, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Zi-Wen; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Schwann cells are not only myelinating cells, but also function as immune cells and express numerous innate pattern recognition receptors, including the Toll-like receptors. Injury to peripheral nerves activates an inflammatory response in Schwann cells. However, it is unclear whether specific endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecules are involved in the inflammatory response following nerve injury. In the present study, we demonstrate that a key damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is upregulated following rat sciatic nerve axotomy, and we show colocalization of the protein with Schw-ann cells. HMGB1 alone could not enhance expression of Toll-like receptors or the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but was able to facilitate migration of Schwann cells. When Schwann cells were treated with HMGB1 together with lipopolysaccharide, the expression levels of Toll-like receptors and RAGE, as well as inflammatory cytokines were upregulated. Our novel findings demonstrate that the HMGB1 pathway activates the inflammatory response in Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Dung biomass smoke activates inflammatory signaling pathways in human small airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Gelein, Robert; Thatcher, Thomas H; Elder, Alison; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4,000,000 deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries. Yet, few studies have examined the mechanisms of dung biomass smoke-induced inflammatory responses in human lung cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dung biomass smoke causes inflammatory responses in human lung cells through signaling pathways involved in acute and chronic lung inflammation. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were exposed to dung smoke at the air-liquid interface using a newly developed, automated, and reproducible dung biomass smoke generation system. The examination of inflammatory signaling showed that dung biomass smoke increased the production of several proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in SAECs through activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. We propose that the inflammatory responses of lung cells exposed to dung biomass smoke contribute to the development of respiratory diseases.

  6. Anti-Tumor Effect and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Boschniakia rossica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effect and anti-inflammatory activity of Boschniakia rossica (BR). Methods: The expression of tumor marker, GST-P, p53 and p21ras proteins in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical technique ABC method. Anti-tumor effect of BR was investigated by inhibitory test on Sarcoma180. Anti-inflammatory activity of BR was tested by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling method. Results: BR-H2O extract (the H2O extract fractionated from BR-Methanol extract with CH2Cl2 and H2O) 500 mg/kg has inhibitory effect on the formation of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in rat liver with the expression of mutant p53 and p21ras proteins lower than those of non-treated hepatic preneoplastic lesions. BR extract showed inhibitory effect on Sarcoma180 and anti-inflammatory effect in mice by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling tests. Conclusion: BR- H2O extract exerted inhibitory effect on DEN-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and might suppress the growth of solid Sarcoma180 in mice. Both CH2Cl2 and H2O extract from BR exerted anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of the extract 100mg and 200mg per kg body weight showed significant pharmacological action. Furthermore the anti-ulcer activity was carried out with the help of Indomethacin induced ulceration model using Mesoprostol as standard drug and it showed no ulcerogenic effect in wistar albino rats.Overall, the extract was found to be significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity with no ulcerogenic adverse effect.

  8. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke during active stages of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Inflammation is considered to play a role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Hence inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be associated with AF. We therefore examined the incidence of AF and stroke in patients with IBD. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide registries 1996......-2011, we identified 24 499 patients with new-onset IBD and 236 275 age- and sex-matched controls. Poisson regression analyses with continuously updated covariates were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of AF and stroke. Disease activity stages of flare (new disease activity), persistent...... activity, and remission were defined by corticosteroid prescriptions, IBD hospital admissions, and biological treatment. Inflammatory bowel disease patients had a mean age of 43.9 years, 53.9% were women, and mean follow-up was 6.8 years. Among IBD patients, 685 had AF and 549 had a stroke, corresponding...

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shang-Chih; Peng, Wen-Huang; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC (MDT) by using animal models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MDT was investigated by lambda-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. In order to study the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MDT, we detected the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver, the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic test, MDT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time on the late phase in the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MDT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the paw edema at the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th hour after lambda-carrageenan administration. On the other hand, MDT increased the activities of SOD and GRd in liver tissues and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the 3rd hour after lambda-carrageenan-induced inflammation. MDT also affected the levels of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, NO and MDA which were induced by lambda-carrageenan. The results suggested that MDT possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MDT might be related to the decreases in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD and GRd in the liver, and the NO level via regulating the IL-1beta production and the level of TNF-alpha in the inflamed tissues.

  11. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwetsloot KA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training

  12. Gastric anti-ulcerative and anti-inflammatory activity of metyrosine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Polat, Beyzagul; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Halici, Zekai; Gulapoglu, Mine; Albayrak, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects of metyrosine, a selective tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor, were investigated in rats. For ulcer experiments, indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer tests and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer tests were used. For these experiments, rats were fasted for 24 h. Different doses of metyrosine and 25 mg/kg doses of ranitidine were administered to rats, followed by indomethacin at 25 mg/kg for the indomethacin-induced ulcer test, or 50% ethanol for the ethanol-induced test. Results have shown that at all of the doses used (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), metyrosine had significant anti-ulcerative effects in both indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcer tests. Metyrosine doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (especially the 200 mg/kg dose) also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw inflammation even more effectively than indomethacin. In addition, to characterize the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metyrosine we investigated its effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in inflammatory tissue (rat paw). The results showed that all doses of metyrosine significantly inhibited high COX-2 activity. The degree of COX-2 inhibition correlated with the increase in anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, we found that metyrosine has more anti-inflammatory effects than indomethacin and that these effects can be attributed to the selective inhibition of COX-2 enzymes by metyrosine. We also found that adrenalin levels are reduced upon metyrosine treatment, which may be the cause of the observed gastro-protective effects of this compound.

  13. Stellera chamaejasme and its constituents induce cutaneous wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lee, Hee Ju; Randy, Ahmad; Yun, Ji Ho; Oh, Sang-Rok; Nho, Chu Won

    2017-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is a perennial herb that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat tumours, tuberculosis and psoriasis. S. chamaejasme extract (SCE) possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and wound healing activities; however, the effect of S. chamaejasme and its active compounds on cutaneous wound healing has not been investigated. We assessed full-thickness wounds of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and topically applied SCE for 2 weeks. In vitro studies were performed using HaCaT keratinocytes, Hs68 dermal fibroblasts and RAW 264.7 macrophages to determine cell viability (MTT assay), cell migration, collagen expression, nitric oxide (NO) production, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, inflammatory cytokine expression and β-catenin activation. In vivo, wound size was reduced and epithelisation was improved in SCE-treated SD rats. In vitro, SCE and its active compounds induced keratinocyte migration by regulating the β-catenin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt signalling pathways. Furthermore, SCE and its active compounds increased mRNA expression of type I and III collagen in Hs68 fibroblasts. SCE and chamechromone inhibited NO and PGE2 release and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCE enhances the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes and improves cutaneous wound healing in SD rats. PMID:28220834

  14. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

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    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of iridoids and verbascoside isolated from Castilleja tenuiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Ocampo, Danae; Bazaldúa-Gómez, Sugeyla; Bonilla-Barbosa, Jaime R; Aburto-Amar, Rola; Rodríguez-López, Verónica

    2013-09-30

    Castilleja tenuiflora (Orobanchaceae) has been used in Mexican traditional medicine as a treatment for cough, dysentery, anxiety, nausea and vomiting as well as hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. The ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Castilleja tenuiflora was separated by silica gel column chromatography. The fractions were evaluated using the induced edema acetate 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA) anti-inflammatory activity model. The most active fraction was subjected to medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) with UV detection at 206 and 240 nm. The following iridoids were isolated: geniposidic acid, aucubin, bartioside, 8-epi-loganin, mussaenoside, and the phenylpropanoid verbascoside. The most active iridoid was geniposidic acid, which was more active than the control (indomethacin), and the least active iridoid was mussaenoside. 8-epi-Loganin, and mussaenoside have not been previously reported to be anti-inflammatory compounds. The results of these investigations confirm the potential of Mexican plants for the production of bioactive compounds and validate the ethnomedical use of Castilleja tenuiflora-like anti-inflammatory plants.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia heyneana Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganga Rao Battu; Sambasiva Rao Ethadi; Veda Priya G; Swathi Priya K; Chandrika K; Venkateswara Rao A; Satya Obbala Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia heyneana (E. heyneana) in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Three doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hours. Results:The alcoholic extract of E. heyneana produced dose dependent inhibition of superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. In carrageenan induced inflammation model, all three doses produced significant percentage inhibition of rat paw oedema and 800 mg/kg dose produced maximum percent inhibition of rat paw oedema (47.06%) among the three doses compared to control group. Conclusions:It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of E. heyneana shows good in vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

  17. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

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    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Iridoids and Verbascoside Isolated from Castilleja tenuiflora

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    Verónica Rodríguez-López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja tenuiflora (Orobanchaceae has been used in Mexican traditional medicine as a treatment for cough, dysentery, anxiety, nausea and vomiting as well as hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. The ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Castilleja tenuiflora was separated by silica gel column chromatography. The fractions were evaluated using the induced edema acetate 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA anti-inflammatory activity model. The most active fraction was subjected to medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC with UV detection at 206 and 240 nm. The following iridoids were isolated: geniposidic acid, aucubin, bartioside, 8-epi-loganin, mussaenoside, and the phenylpropanoid verbascoside. The most active iridoid was geniposidic acid, which was more active than the control (indomethacin, and the least active iridoid was mussaenoside. 8-epi-Loganin, and mussaenoside have not been previously reported to be anti-inflammatory compounds. The results of these investigations confirm the potential of Mexican plants for the production of bioactive compounds and validate the ethnomedical use of Castilleja tenuiflora-like anti-inflammatory plants.

  19. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of red wine extract: unveiling the mechanisms in colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Carla; Ferreira, Elisabete; Freitas, Víctor; Almeida, Leonor; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2013-02-26

    The development of new therapeutic approaches, combining efficacy and safety against intestinal inflammation, notably inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), has emerged as an important goal due to the significant side effects and the lack of effectiveness of standard current therapies. Recently, several studies described the health-promoting effects of red wine, including anti-inflammatory properties, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial role remain largely unknown. Red wine is rich in phenolic compounds and it has been suggested that the positive effect of red wine intake might be attributed not only to the antioxidant properties of these compounds but also to the modulation of signalling cascades in connection with physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as inflammatory processes. This study assesses the potential anti-inflammatory action of a red wine extract (RWE) enriched in polyphenols in a cellular model of intestinal inflammation using cytokines-stimulated HT-29 colon epithelial cells. RWE suppressed cytokines-induced IκB degradation and interleukin-8 production in a dose-dependent manner. Coherently, key inflammatory mediators downstream NF-κB activation; notably cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were maintained at low levels by RWE in the presence of the cytokines. Additionally, RWE inhibited both the increase of nitric oxide derived from iNOS and of protein tyrosine nitration, a biomarker of nitrosative stress that typically requires the reaction of nitric oxide with the superoxide radical. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory action of RWE, mechanistically supported by the modulation of cascades orchestrated by NF-κB and involving nitric oxide, suggests that RWE (a readily straightforward preparation when compared with the purification of specific compounds) may represent a simple and inexpensive therapeutic strategy in the context of intestinal inflammation.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

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    Rohit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  2. Lactobacillus acidophilus alleviates platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory responses in human intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Alip Borthakur

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-κB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 µM×24 h of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05, compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA or its culture supernatant (CS, followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

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    Juliana Infante

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes. GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl. The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods.

  4. LXW7 ameliorates focal cerebral ischemia injury and attenuates inflammatory responses in activated microglia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, T.; Zhou, D.; Lu, L.; Tong, X.; Wu, J.; Yi, L. [Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University, Shenzhen (China)

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in ischemic stroke, when activated microglia release excessive pro-inflammatory mediators. The inhibition of integrin αvβ3 improves outcomes in rat focal cerebral ischemia models. However, the mechanisms by which microglia are neuroprotective remain unclear. This study evaluated whether post-ischemic treatment with another integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-cGRGDdvc (LXW7), alleviates cerebral ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of LXW7 in activated microglia within rat focal cerebral ischemia models was examined. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2 h, the rats were given an intravenous injection of LXW7 (100 μg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Neurological scores, infarct volumes, brain water content (BWC) and histology alterations were determined. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)], and Iba1-positive activated microglia, within peri-ischemic brain tissue, were assessed with ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volumes and BWC were significantly lower in LXW7-treated rats compared to those in the MCAO + PBS (control) group. The LXW7 treatment lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There was a reduction of Iba1-positive activated microglia, and the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were attenuated. However, there was no difference in the Zea Longa scores between the ischemia and LXW7 groups. The results suggest that LXW7 protected against focal cerebral ischemia and attenuated inflammation in activated microglia. LXW7 may be neuroprotective during acute MCAO-induced brain damage and microglia-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Chemical Constituents Identified from Fruit Body of Cordyceps bassiana and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Wonse; Nam, Gyeongsug; Yang, Woo Seok; Sung, Gi-Ho; Shim, Sang Hee; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-03-01

    Cordyceps bassiana is one of Cordyceps species with anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities. This mushroom has recently demonstrated to have an ability to reduce 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. In this study, we further examined phytochemical properties of this mushroom by column chromatography and HPLC analysis. By chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis, 8 compounds, such as 1,9-dimethylguanine (1), adenosine (2), uridine (3), nicotinamide (4), 3-methyluracil (5), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (6), nudifloric acid (7), and mannitol (8) were identified from 6 different fractions and 4 more subfractions. Through evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activities using reporter gene assay and mRNA analysis, compound 1 was found to block luciferase activity induced by NF-κB and AP-1, suppress the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Therefore, our data strongly suggests that compound 1 acts as one of major principles in Cordyceps bassiana with anti-inflammatory and anti-atopic dermatitis activities.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of different agave plants and the compound cantalasaponin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosas-Brisson, Nayeli; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2013-07-10

    Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants' leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1) through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Tortoriello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1 through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  8. Localization and activity of inflammatory bowel disease using /sup 111/In leukocyte imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Biele, B.; Wolf, F.; Knapp, F.F.

    1988-06-01

    A prospective study was initiated to compare the clinically proven results concerning localization/extent and activity of inflammatory bowel diseases with those of /sup 111/In-oxine leukocyte imaging. All patients studied were completely examined with barium enema x-ray, clinical and laboratory investigations, and endoscopy with histopathology. A total of 31 leukocyte scans were performed in 15 patients (12 with Crohn's desease, 3 with ulcerative colitis). The scans were graded by comparing the cell uptake of a lesion (when present) and a bone marrow area providing a count ratio (CR). The inflammatory lesions were correctly localized on 26 leukocyte scans, and in 21 scans the scintigraphically estimated extent of disease was identical to endoscopy. In 5 cases the disease extent was underestimated, 4 scans in patients with relapse of Crohn's disease were falsely negative, and in one patient with remission truly negative. The scintigraphically assessed disease activity was also in a good agreement with clinical disease activity based on histopathology in all cases. We conclude that leukocyte imaging provides valuable information about localization and activity of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  10. Zinc distribution in blood components, inflammatory status, and clinical indexes of disease activity during zinc supplementation in inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, A; Nève, J; Jeghers, O; Pelen, F

    1993-05-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation on zinc status and on clinical and biological indicators of inflammation were investigated in 18 patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and in 9 healthy control subjects. Patients with mild and recent onset disease were assigned to a 60-d trial to receive either 45 mg Zn (as gluconate)/d or a placebo, while control subjects received the zinc supplement. Baseline mean plasma zinc of the patients was low whereas mononuclear cell zinc content was elevated, suggesting a redistribution of the element related to the inflammatory process rather than to a zinc-deficient state. Zinc supplementation increased plasma zinc to a similar extent in patients and in control subjects, which suggested no impairment of zinc intestinal absorption as a result of the inflammatory process. On the contrary, erythrocyte and leukocyte zinc concentrations were not modified in the two groups examined. No beneficial effect of zinc treatment could be demonstrated on either clinical or inflammation indexes.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of D-002: an active product isolated from beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Valdés, S; Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Magraner, J

    1998-10-01

    D-002 is a natural mixture of high molecular weight alcohols isolated and purified from beeswax, which contains triacontanol among its main components. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of D-002 administered by the oral route in two animal models commonly used in the pharmacological screening of anti-inflammatory drugs. D-002 administered orally to rats (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced a mild but significant reduction of exudate volume in carrageenan-induced pleuritic inflammation that was accompanied by a marked and significant decrease of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels in the exudate. D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) also significantly diminished the granuloma weight in the cotton pellet granuloma in rats. In both cases, D-002 was less effective than indomethacin, which was used as an established anti-inflammatory reference drug. On the other hand, D-002 administered from 25-1000 mg/kg did not induce erosions or gastromucosal lesions in rats, which differs from results usually obtained with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These results indicate that D-002 is a mild anti-inflammatory agent without any ulcerogenic effect associated. The results suggest that these effects are probably not mediated through an inhibition of cyclooxygenase, but a reduction in LTB4 levels induced by D-002 could explain these results.

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idir Moualek; Ghenima Iratni Aiche; Nadjet Mestar Guechaoui; Souad Lahcene; Karim Houali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo (A. unedo) leaves. Methods: In this context, the in vitro antioxidant activity was demonstrated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical and H2O2 radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, ferric reducing power, total antioxidant capacity and by the protection against peroxidation of b-carotene-linoleic acid in emulsion. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated first by studying the membrane of human red blood cells against different hypotonic concentrations of NaCl and against heat, inhibiting the denaturation of albumin. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found respectively [(207.84 ± 15.03) mg gallic acid equivalent/g, and (13.070 ± 0.096) mg quercetin equivalent/g]. The extract displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [IC50 at (7.956 ± 0.278) mg/mL], ?OH [IC50 = (1 015.74 ± 46.35 mg/mL)], H2O2 [IC50 = (114.77 ± 16.86) mg/mL] and showed a good antioxidant activity through ferrous ion chelating activity [IC50=(1 014.30 ± 36.21) mg/mL], ferric reducing power [IC50 = (156.55 ± 17.40) mg/mL], total antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (461.67 ± 4.16) mg/mL] and b-carotene-linoleic acid protection against peroxidation [I%=(87.04 ± 1.21)%at 1 000 mg/mL]. Conclusions: A. unedo showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation and red blood cells membrane stabilization. Our results show that aqueous leaf extract of A. unedo has good antioxidant activity and interesting anti-inflammatory properties. A. unedo aqueous extract can be used to prevent oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds from Desmodium caudatum leaves and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Sohyun; Chae, Doobyeong; Hyun, Jin Won; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-01

    Four flavanonols (1-4), one xanthone (5), and three flavonoid glycosides (6-8), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Desmodium caudatum. Their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data with reported values. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced IL-6, IL-12 p40, and TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 6.0 to 29.4 μM. Compound 5 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. These results warrant further studies of the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits of compounds from D. caudatum.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Alberto, Maria Rosa; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria del Pilar Caramantin; Theoduloz, Cristina; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Isla, Maria Ines; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-01

    Copao (Eulychnia acida Phil., Cactaceae) is an endemic species occurring in northern Chile. The edible fruits of this plant are valued for its acidic and refreshing taste. Phenolic-enriched extracts from copao fruit pulp and epicarp, collected in the Elqui and Limari river valleys, were assessed by its in vitro ability to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzymes lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). At 100 μg/mL, pulp extracts showed better effect towards LOX than epicarp extract, while COX-2 inhibition was observed for both epicarp and pulp samples. In general, the extracts were inactive towards COX-1. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-inflammatory activity and the main phenolic compounds found in this fruit. Copao fruits from the Limari valley, a main place of collection and commercialization, showed major activity, adding evidence on the possible health-beneficial effects of this native Chilean fruit.

  15. Melatonin Reduces Inflammatory Injury Through Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Rats With Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Li

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory mediators are important in the pathogenesis of IBD, which are regulated by activation of NF-κB. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin reduces inflammatory injury and inhibits proinflammatory molecule and NF-κB in rats with colitis. Rat colitis model was established by TNBS enema. NF-κB p65, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and IκBα in colon tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry, EMSA, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Expression of proinflammatory molecule and activation of NF-κB were upregulated and IκB level decreased in rats with colitis. Melatonin reduces colonic inflammatory injury through downregulating proinflammatory molecule mediated by NF-κB inhibition and blockade of IκBα degradation.

  16. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

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    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  17. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuneerub, Pravaree; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae) has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE) dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  18. Left Sided Oesophageal Lung: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Sur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (BPFMs include a wide variety of malformations such as intralobar or extralobar pulmonary sequestration, foregut duplication cysts, and diverticula of the gastrointestinal or pulmonary tree (Srikanth et al., 1992. Those anomalies in which a tract between the respiratory and alimentary systems exists are termed communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (CBPFMs. Most infants with CBPFMs suffer from respiratory distress, and an accurate diagnosis may be difficult to make at the patient’s initial presentation. Herein we report such a case which posed a diagnostic challenge to us. This baby however survived and is doing well on a 2-year followup.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of the n-BuOH subfraction of mushroom Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Seon; Kim, Seung-Kook; Kim, Byung-Chul; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and related activities of mushroom Phellinus linteus. The results show that the EtOH extract of Phellinus linteus (PLE) dose-dependently inhibited the mouse ear edema induced by croton oil. Among PLE subfractions, the n-BuOH subfraction showed highest anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema test. The n-BuOH subfraction also showed highest inhibitory activity on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. PLE could significantly reduce the number of writhing induced by acetic acid in mice, indicating that PLE possesses potent antinociceptive effect mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Mycelial extract of six different Phellinus strains were found to contain anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. These results suggest that Phellinus linteus has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, in addition to its anti-angiogenic activity.

  20. Contribution of methylated exudate flavonoids to the anti-inflammatory activity of Grindelia robusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Liselotte; Wollenweber, Eckhard; Steyrleuthner, Katja; Görick, Cornelia; Melzig, Matthias F

    2009-07-01

    The flavonoid pattern of an acetonic extract of Grindelia robusta Nutt. was investigated in detail. The flavonoids were enriched by CC. In addition to twelve known methylated exudate flavonols four compounds were identified for the first time in G. robusta. Several substances of the flavonoid complex, among them the main compounds quercetin-3-methylether and 6-OH-kaempferol-3,6-dimethylether, were tested for their activity to inhibit neutrophil elastase. Quercetin-3-methylether was shown to be most active with an IC(50) of 19 microM, thus obviously contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug.

  1. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Almeida Cabrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13 mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear. All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%. Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  2. IL-8 as antibody therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases: Reduction of clinical activity in palmoplantar pustulosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Beurskens, F.J.; Reitamo, S.;

    2008-01-01

    IL-8 is a chemokine that has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil activation. HuMab 10F8 is a novel fully human mAb against IL-8, which binds a discontinuous epitope on IL-8 overlapping the receptor binding site, and which effectively neutralizes IL-8-dependen...... pathological conditions associated with IL-8 overproduction Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7/1...

  3. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  4. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  5. A Descriptive Survey of Inflammatory Bowel Disease within the Active Army Population (1971-1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    34 Gastroenterology 1975, Vol 69, pp. 324-351. Driscoll, R. H. Jr.; Meredith, S . C.; Sitrin, M.; and Rosenberg, I. H., " Vitamin D Deficiency and Bone Disease ... DISEASE WITHIN THE ACTIVE ARMY POPULATATION (1971-1.982) 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS S MAJOR GEORGE M. GRASKI 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...by Crohn and Ginsburg in 3 1932. The disease itself consists of an inflammatory condition of the bowel which extends through the gut to adjoining

  6. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, M., E-mail: majomagbe@ono.com [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Coret, F., E-mail: coret_fra@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Casanova, B., E-mail: Casanova_bon@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta{sup Registered-Sign} and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm{sup 3}, to 960 mm{sup 3} (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} to 1.42 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was -2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0-6 months PBVC -1.7%; 6-12 months PBVC -0.74%; 12-18 months PBVC -0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient -0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (-2.3% to -1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  7. Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor in SZ95 sebocytes results in inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin E2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2006-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a group of phosphocholines with various biological effects mediated by the PAF receptor (PAF-R). Activation of the epidermal PAF-R induces the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The upregulation of COX-2 expression has been shown to be involved in sebocyte proliferation, sebaceous gland inflammation and carcinogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate whether PAF-R activation could induce the expression of COX-2 and production of PGE(2), as well as secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), in the immortalized sebaceous gland cell line SZ95. Using calcium mobilization studies, we first confirmed that PAF can signal through PAF-R in SZ95 sebocytes. We then found that the production of IL-8 was induced following treatment with PAF-R agonist, however blocked by a specific PAF-R antagonist. Induction of COX-2 expression and increased PGE(2) production were observed in SZ95 sebocytes after PAF-R activation. Finally, it was demonstrated that the production of PGE(2), induced by PAF-R activation and mediated by COX-2 expression, was blocked following PAF-R antagonism in SZ95 sebocytes. These studies suggest that SZ95 sebocytes express functional PAF-Rs and PAF-Rs are involved in regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, PGE(2) and IL-8.

  8. Characterization of inflammatory markers and transcriptome profiles of differentially activated embryonic stem cell-derived microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Eva; Ulas, Thomas; Ternes, Svenja; Neumann, Harald; Schultze, Joachim L; Zimmer, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the CNS, are highly adaptive cells that can acquire different pro- and anti-inflammatory activation states with distinct functions in CNS homeostasis and pathologies. To study microglial function in vitro, primary microglia or immortalized cell lines are commonly used. An alternative to these cells are embryonic stem cell-derived microglia (ESdM). ESdM have previously been shown to be very similar to primary microglia in terms of expression profiles and surface molecules. In this study, ESdM and primary microglia were treated with different inflammatory stimulants to analyze their ability to adopt different activation states. Using quantitative real-time PCR, comparative transcriptomics, ELISA, and flow cytometry, we found that different activation states can be induced in ESdM, which are similar to those found in primary microglia. These states are characterized by specific sets of inflammatory marker molecules and differential transcriptome signatures. Our results show that ESdM are a valuable alternative cell model to study microglial functions and neuroinflammatory mechanisms.

  9. Effects of Catechol O-Methyl Transferase Inhibition on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Luteolin Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sang Keun; Lee, Jin-Ah; Cho, Eun Jung; Choi, Inwook

    2017-02-01

    Although luteolin is known to have potent anti-inflammatory activities, much less information has been provided on such activities of its hepatic metabolites. Luteolin was subjected to hepatic metabolism in HepG2 cells either without or with catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor. To identify hepatic metabolites of luteolin without (luteolin metabolites, LMs) or with COMT inhibitor (LMs+CI), metabolites were treated by β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, and found that they were composed of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of diosmetin in LMs or these conjugates of luteolin in LMs+CI. LMs and LMs+CI were examined for their anti-inflammatory activities on LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Expression of iNOS and production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were suppressed more effectively by the treatment with LMs+CI than LMs. Our data provide a new insight on possible improvement in functional properties of luteolin on target cells by modifying their metabolic pathway in hepatocytes.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of fisetin in human gingival fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Sánchez, Anabel; Ventura-Arroyo, Jairo Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Fisetin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid; however, its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not yet understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of fisetin and its association with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-beta pathways in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cell signaling, cell viability, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression of HGFs treated with various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 μM) of fisetin were measured by cell viability assay (MTT), Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis on COX-2. We found that fisetin significantly reduced the synthesis and expression of prostaglandin E2 in HGFs treated with LPS. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK was suppressed consistently by fisetin in HGFs treated with LPS. The data indicate that fisetin inhibits MAPK activation and COX-2 expression without affecting cell viability. These findings may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of the effect of fisetin on periodontal disease.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  12. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Cassia uniflora Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She S Chaudhari; Sanjay R Chaudhari; Machindra J Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cassia uniflora (C. uniflora) Mill. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of C. uniflora (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) was screened for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing), anti-inflammatory (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and anti-arthritic (Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis). In Complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight, and biochemical parameters and supported by radiological analysis. Results: Treatment with extracts of C. uniflora showed significant (P<0.05) and dose dependant increase in paw licking time in Eddy's hot plate method. In writhing test, extracts were significantly reduced the number of writhes. A dose dependant and significant inhibition of edema was observed in carrageenan induced paw edema. Petroleum ether extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed most potent and significant activity which is supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters and radiological analysis in complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model. Conclusion:The extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves ofJatropha gossypifolia L. by hrbc membrane stabilization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yerramsetty Nagaharika; Valluri kalyani; Shaik Rasheed; Ramadosskarthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    Object:To evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of leaves extracts ofJatropha gossypifolia(J. gossypifolia)L.Methods:The plantJ. gossypifoliaL.(Eurphorbiaceae) is known as belly ache bush.The plant originated fromBrazil and it is now cultivated in tropical countries throughout the world.The roots, stems, leaves, seeds and fruits of the plant have been widely used in traditional folk medicine in many parts ofWestAfrica.The young stem of the plant is used as tooth brush as well as to clean tongue in the treatment thrush.The tuber of the plant grinded into a paste is also locally used in the treatment of hemorrhoids.The present study aimed to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract ofJ. gossypifolia leaves byin vitroHRBC membrane stabilization method.Results:Thein vitro method showed significant anti inflammatory property of different extracts tested.Conclusion:The aqueous extract at a concentration of200 μg/mL showed significant activity when compared with the standard drug Diclofenac sodium.

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  15. In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Lipoic Acid Derivatives in Mice 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Kwiecień

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In mammals lipoic acid (LA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA function as cofactors for multienzymatic complexes catalyzing the decarboxylation of α-ketoacids. Moreover, LA is used as a drug in a variety of diseases including inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to examine anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.Material/methods:The present paper reports the chemical synthesis of 2,4-bismethylthio-butanoic acid (BMTBA and tetranor-dihydrolipoic acid (tetranor-DHLA. BMTBA is one of the biotransformation products of LA, while tetranor-DHLA is an analogue of DHLA. Structural identity of these compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR. These compounds were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity in mice. For this purpose, the zymosan-induced peritonitis and the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema animal models were applied.Results/conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the early vascular permeability measured at 30 min of zymosan-induced peritonitis was significantly inhibited in groups receiving BMTBA (10, 30, 50 mg/kg. The early infiltration of neutrophils measured at 4 hours of zymosan-induced peritonitis was inhibited in the group receiving BMTBA (50 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (50 mg/kg. The results indicated that the increase in paw edema was significantly inhibited in the groups receiving BMTBA (50, 100 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (30, 50 mg/kg. In summary, the present studies clearly demonstrated that both BMTBA and tetranor-DHLA were able to act as anti-inflammatory agents. This is the first study examining in vivo the anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.

  16. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parastoo Karimian; Gholamreza Kavoosi; Zahra Amirghofran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods:In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-αmRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 μg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-αmRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 μg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions:T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions.

  17. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex in rats

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    Santos L.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex (5.5 or 11 mg/kg in male Wistar rats (180-300 g, N = 6 and compared it to free diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and to the combination of diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and zinc acetate (1.68 or 3.5 mg/kg. The carrageenin-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granulomatous tissue formation models were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity, and the Hargreaves model of thermal hyperalgesia was used to assess the antinociceptive activity. To investigate the effect of orally or intraperitoneally (ip administered drugs on cold-induced gastric lesions, single doses were administered before exposing the animals to a freezer (-18ºC for 45 min in individual cages. We also evaluated the gastric lesions induced by multiple doses of the drugs. Diclofenac plus zinc complex had the same anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as diclofenac alone. Gastric lesions induced by a single dose administered per os and ip were reduced in the group treated with zinc-diclofenac when compared to the groups treated with free diclofenac or diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In the multiple dose treatment, the complex induced a lower number of the most severe lesions when compared to free diclofenac and diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the zinc-diclofenac complex may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of rheumatic and inflammatory conditions, as its use may be associated with a reduced incidence of gastric lesions.

  18. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

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    Ariane Leite Rozza

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg or menthol (50 mg/kg and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70 and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  19. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Meira de Faria, Felipe; Souza Brito, Alba Regina; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg) or menthol (50 mg/kg) and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  20. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions and type 1 modic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallaudière, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.dallaudiere@gmail.com [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Inserm U698, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Dautry, Raphaël, E-mail: raphael_dautry@yahoo.fr [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Preux, Pierre-Marie, E-mail: pierre-marie.preux@unilim.fr [Faculté de Médecine de Limoges, Unité fonctionelle de recherche clinique et de biostatistique, hôpital Le Cluzeau, 23, avenue Dominique Larrey, 87042 Limges Cedex (France); Perozziello, Anne, E-mail: aperozziello@gmail.com [Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Unité de recherche clinique, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Lincot, Julien, E-mail: julienlincot@gmail.com [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.schouman-claeys@bch.aphp.fr [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); and others

    2014-02-15

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the values of ADC in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions are different from ADC values in type 1 Modic changes. Subjects and methods: 95 patients with recent lumbar pain, including 46 patients with diagnosed or suspected spondylarthritis and 49 patients with purely degenerative history, underwent spine MRI. T1w, STIR, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were obtained. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. Axial active inflammatory lesions from the SpA group and type 1 Modic changes from the degenerative group were identified on T1w and STIR sequences. ADC values from these lesions and from healthy subchondral bone were compared. Results: All axial active inflammatory lesions (n = 27) and type 1 Modic changes (n = 22) identified in T1w and STIR images were visible on DWI. ADC values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for axial active inflammatory lesions (median = 0.788 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.7 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.9 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]) than for type 1 Modic changes (median = 0.585 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.55 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.60 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]) and normal subchondral bone (median = 0.443 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.40 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.50 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]). Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra- and inter-reader ADC values comparison were excellent (0.89 and 0.98 respectively). Conclusion: DWI is a sensitive and fast sequence that offer the possibility of quantifying diffusion coefficients of the lesions, which could help to discriminate between spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory and type 1 Modic changes.

  1. Parallel synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of cyclic peptides cyclosquamosin D and Met-cherimolacyclopeptide B and their analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellai, Afef; Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin; Arutyunyan, Sergey; Bouraoui, Abderrahman

    2010-01-01

    We report the parallel synthesis of two natural cyclopeptides, isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa, cyclosquamosin D (A1) and Met-cherimolacyclopeptide B (B) and their analogs. All of the compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity by evaluating their inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines using the lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophage J774A.1 cell line. Compounds having significant anti-inflammatory activity in suppressing the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α have been identified, some of which exhibit activity superior to that observed with the natural products. PMID:20801649

  2. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies.

  3. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Pergularia daemia and Carissa carandas

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    V.H Bhaskar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The plant Pergularia daemia (Asclepiadaceae and Carissa carandas (Apocynaceae are traditionally used as a medicinal agent and they are widely distributed to tropical and subtropical region of India. In the present study the folklore uses of P. daemia and C. carandas was investigated. "nMethods: The analgesic activity was studied in mice using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing methods, while carrageenan induced paw edema was used to access anti-inflammatory activity. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. "n Results: The ethanol and aqueous extracts from roots of P. daemia and C. carandas exhibited significant (p < 0.01 analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. In analgesic activity, the highest reaction time was observed (9.8 sec. from ethanol extracts of P.daemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, while highest percentage of inhibition of abdominal constriction (72.67% was observed for ethanol extracts of C.carandas at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. daemia and C. carandas were found to reduce significantly the formation of edema induced by carrageenan after 2 hrs. Both plants showed significantly competent on yeast induced hyperpyrexia in rats after 2 hrs. "nConclusion: The results of this study indicated that the ethanol and aqueous extracts from roots of P. daemia and C. carandas possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities in rodent models.

  4. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antipyretic Activity of Mangrove Plants: A Mini Review

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    J. A. Shilpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are specialised plants that grow in the tidal coasts of tropic and subtropic regions of the world. Their unique ecology and traditional medicinal uses of mangrove plants have attracted the attention of researchers over the years, and as a result, reports on biological activity of mangrove plants have increased significantly in recent years. This review has been set out to compile and appraise the results on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants. While the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and PubMed were the starting points to gather information, other pieces of relevant published literature were also adequately explored for this purpose. A total of 29 reports on 17 plant species have been found to report such activities. While 19 reports were on the biological activity of the crude extracts, 10 reports identified the active compound(s of various chemical classes of natural products including terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids. This review finds that antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity appears to be widespread in mangrove plants.

  5. Nuclear Control of the Inflammatory Response in Mammals by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

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    Stéphane Mandard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of a very large number of biological processes including inflammation. Using specific examples, this paper focuses on the interplay between PPARs and innate immunity/inflammation and, when possible, compares it among species. We focus on recent discoveries establishing how inflammation and PPARs interact in the context of obesity-induced inflammation and type 2 diabetes, mostly in mouse and humans. We illustrate that PPARγ ability to alleviate obesity-associated inflammation raises an interesting pharmacologic potential. In the light of recent findings, the protective role of PPARα and PPARβ/δ against the hepatic inflammatory response is also addressed. While PPARs agonists are well-established agents that can treat numerous inflammatory issues in rodents and humans, surprisingly very little has been described in other species. We therefore also review the implication of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease; acute-phase response; and central, cardiac, and endothelial inflammation and compare it along different species (mainly mouse, rat, human, and pig. In the light of the data available in the literature, there is no doubt that more studies concerning the impact of PPAR ligands in livestock should be undertaken because it may finally raise unconsidered health and sanitary benefits.

  6. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

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    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  8. Ortho-eugenol exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; Aragão Neto, Humberto de C; Golzio, Adriana M F O; Caldas Filho, Marcelo R D; Melo, Cynthia G F; Leite, Fagner C; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Barbosa Filho, José M; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-09-01

    Ortho-eugenol is a much used phenylpropanoid whose ability to reduce pain and inflammation has never been studied. Researching ortho-eugenol's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanisms of action is therefore of interest. The administration of vehicle, ortho-eugenol (50, 75 and 100mg/kg i.p.), morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) or dexamethasone (2mg/kg, s.c.) occurred 30min before the completion of pharmacological tests. Pretreatment with ortho-eugenol did not change motor coordination test results, but reduced the number of writhes and licking times in the writhing test and glutamate test, respectively. The reaction time from thermal stimulus was significantly increased in the hot plate test after administration of ortho-eugenol. Treatment with yohimbine reversed the antinociceptive effect of ortho-eugenol, suggesting involvement of the adrenergic system. In anti-inflammatory tests, ortho-eugenol inhibited acetic acid induced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β by virtue of its suppression of NF-κB and p38 phosphorylated forms in the peritonitis test. From these results, ortho-eugenol antinociceptive effects mediated by the adrenergic system and anti-inflammatory activity through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-kB and p38 become evident for the first time.

  9. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract

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    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts and steroidal sapogenins of Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peana, A T; Moretti, M D; Manconi, V; Desole, G; Pippia, P

    1997-06-01

    Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from Agave americana L (Agavaceae) collected in the north of Sardinia were characterized with regard to their steroidal sapogenin content. Extracts of A. americana and genins isolated from them were evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties by testing their effects on carrageenin-induced edema. The effect of orally administered genins on gastric mucous membranes was also assessed. Lyophilized extracts administered by the intraperitoneal route at doses equivalent to 200 and 300 mg/kg of fresh plant starting material, showed good anti-inflammatory activity. Doses of genins (total steroidal sapogenins, hecogenin and tigogenin) equivalent to the amount in the lyophilized extracts produced an antiedentatous effect which was much stronger and more efficacious than that obtained with an i.p. administration of 5 mg/kg of indomethacin or dexamethasone 21-phosphate at a dose equivalent to the molar content of hecogenin administered. At the doses used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, the genins did not have any harmful effect on the gastric mucous membranes. Lesions occurred when significantly higher doses of hecogenin were given, but gastric damage was still less than that caused by the drugs used for comparative purposes.

  12. Fasciola hepatica Kunitz type molecule decreases dendritic cell activation and their ability to induce inflammatory responses.

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    Cristian R Falcón

    Full Text Available The complete repertoire of proteins with immunomodulatory activity in Fasciola hepatica (Fh has not yet been fully described. Here, we demonstrated that Fh total extract (TE reduced LPS-induced DC maturation, and the DC ability to induce allogeneic responses. After TE fractionating, a fraction lower than 10 kDa (F<10 kDa was able to maintain the TE properties to modulate the DC pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS. In addition, TE or F<10 kDa treatment decreased the ability of immature DC to stimulate the allogeneic responses and induced a novo allogeneic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. In contrast, treatment of DC with T/L or F<10 kDa plus LPS (F<10/L induced a regulatory IL-27 dependent mechanism that diminished the proliferative and Th1 and Th17 allogeneic responses. Finally, we showed that a Kunitz type molecule (Fh-KTM, present in F<10 kDa, was responsible for suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-activated DC, by printing tolerogenic features on DC that impaired their ability to induce inflammatory responses. These results suggest a modulatory role for this protein, which may be involved in the immune evasion mechanisms of the parasite.

  13. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract in human chondrocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengqian Q; Otero, Miguel; Unger, Frank M; Goldring, Mary B; Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Chiari, Catharina; Kolb, Alexander; Viernstein, Helmut; Toegel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Caesalpinia sappan is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to provide a scientific basis for the applicability of Caesalpinia sappan in arthritic diseases, the present study aimed to assess the effects of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract (CSE) on human chondrocytes and macrophages. Materials and Methods Primary human chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage specimens of OA patients. Primary cells, SW1353 chondrocytes and THP-1 macrophages were serum-starved and pretreated with different concentrations of CSE prior to stimulation with 10 ng/ml of interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following viability tests, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated by Griess assay and ELISA, respectively. Using validated real-time PCR assays, mRNA levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were quantified. SW1353 cells were cotransfected with a COX-2 luciferase reporter plasmid and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) p50 and p65 expression vectors in the presence or absence of CSE. Results CSE dose-dependently inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α in IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes and LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CSE further suppressed the synthesis of NO in primary OA chondrocytes by blocking iNOS mRNA expression. The inhibition of COX-2 transcription was found to be related with the CSE inhibition of the p65/p50-driven transactivation of the COX-2 promoter. Conclusions The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of CSE in an in vitro cell model of joint inflammation. CSE can effectively abrogate the IL-1ß-induced over-expression of

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Senthil Kumar; Balasubramanian Rajkapoor; Perumal Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofIndigofera cassioides(I. cassioides)(MEIC) using various animal models.Methods:Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities ofMEIC was assessed by using different animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma method.Anti-nociceptive activity of the extract was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions by usingEddy’s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing respectively.The study was carried out using dose of200 &400 mg/kg orally.Aceclofenac, aspirin and pentazocine was used as standard drugs to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, respectively.Results:Treatment withMEIC significantly (P<0.001) decrease the paw volume and weight of cotton pellet in the tested models.It also exhibit potent analgesic activity on chemical and thermal induced pain in mice.MEIC exhibit potent and dose dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in all the tested animal models. Conclusions:All the results obtained revealed that the extractMEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used.The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  16. SPONTANEOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN-SYNTHESIZING ACTIVITY OF B LYMPHOCYTES IN INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATIC DISEASES

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    A.T. T. Mamasaidov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of present work was to evaluate clinical significance of B-lymphocytes spontaneous antibody-synthesizing activity by B-lymphocytes (LASA in patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases (RD, i.e., reactive arthritis (ReA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Significantly higher LASA levels were revealed in the patients with ReA, AS, RA, and SLE, as compared with healthy persons and patients with osteoarthrosis. Clinical significance of LASA indexes and their changes may reflect manifestation and degree of immunological activities in ReA, AS, RA, and SLE.

  17. Resveratrol as a Bioenhancer to Improve Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Apigenin

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Ah Lee; Sang Keun Ha; EunJung Cho; Inwook Choi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs) in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05) the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was...

  18. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Le Son; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; To, Dao Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A novel pyrrolizidine alkaloids, madhumidine A (1), and two known alkaloids, lindelofidine benzoic acid ester (2) and minalobine B (3) were isolated from the leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard) H. J. LAM. The chemical structures of these alkaloids were established mainly by NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophage RAW264.7 cell. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was tested against a panel of cancer cell lines.

  19. Inhibition of Metalloproteinase Activity by Chinese Formulations Used to Treat Inflammatory Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in a number of pathological processes including cancer, atherosclerosis, arthritis and neurodegenerative disease among others. The drive to develop MMP inhibitors as therapeutics has been put forward for years by pharmaceutical companies as well as academicians. In an attempt to screen for MMP inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), a number of Chinese formulations used to treat inflammatory diseases such as nephritis and hepatitis have been studied. Strong inhibitory effects of three Chinese formulations toward the activity of MMP-16 have been discovered. These results suggest that these anti-inflammatory medicines contain some unknown MMP inhibitory compound(s) and provide reasonable molecular mechanisms for their therapeutic effects.

  20. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

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    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arpona Hira; Shubhra Kanti Dey; Md Sariful Islam Howlader; Arif Ahmed; Hemayet Hossain; Ismet Ara Jahan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial part of Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr (EAV). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity of EAV was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, reducing power and Fe2+ion chelating ability were used for determining antioxidant activities. Results: The EAV, at the dose of 400 mg/kg, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P Conclusions: Therefore, the obtained results suggest the acute anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the EAV and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for inflammations.

  2. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Jon; Westman, Marie; Kadetoff, Diana; Agréus, Anna Nordenstedt; Le Maître, Erwan; Gillis-Haegerstrand, Caroline; Andersson, Magnus; Khademi, Mohsen; Corr, Maripat; Christianson, Christina A; Delaney, Ada; Yaksh, Tony L; Kosek, Eva; Svensson, Camilla I

    2012-07-31

    During peripheral immune activation caused by an infection or an inflammatory condition, the innate immune response signals to the brain and causes an up-regulation of central nervous system (CNS) cytokine production. Central actions of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-1β, are pivotal for the induction of fever and fatigue. In the present study, the influence of peripheral chronic joint inflammatory disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on CNS inflammation was investigated. Intrathecal interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations were markedly elevated in RA patients compared with controls or with patients with multiple sclerosis. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-4 were decreased in RA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 levels in the CSF did not differ between patients and controls. Concerning IL-1β, CSF concentrations in RA patients were higher than in serum, indicating local production in the CNS, and there was a positive correlation between CSF IL-1β and fatigue assessments. Next, spinal inflammation in experimental arthritis was investigated. A marked increase of IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor, but not IL-6 mRNA production, in the spinal cord was observed, coinciding with increased arthritis scores in the KBxN serum transfer model. These data provide evidence that peripheral inflammation such as arthritis is associated with an immunological activation in the CNS in both humans and mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for centrally affecting conditions as fatigue in chronic inflammatory diseases, for which to date there are no specific treatments.

  3. AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Nanostructured, Self-Assembling S5 Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Son, Young-Jin; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Soochan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    Peptide-based therapeutics have received increasing attention in medical research. However, the local delivery of such therapeutics poses unique challenges. Self-assembling peptides that use decorated nanofibers are one approach by which these therapeutics may be delivered. We previously found that the self-assembling K5 peptide affects the anti-inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate another self-assembling peptide, S5. Unlike the K5 peptide which has a positive charge, the S5 peptide has a free hydroxyl (-OH) group. We first examined whether the S5 peptide regulates the inflammatory response in primary cells and found that the S5 peptide reduced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated bone marrow-derived macrophages. Moreover, the S5 peptide significantly downregulated cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, TNF-α, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β expression by blocking the nuclear translocation of c-Jun. Consistent with this finding, the S5 peptide diminished the activation of inflammatory signaling enzymes related to p38. The S5 peptide also inhibited the formation of the p38/c-Jun signaling complex in RAW264.7 cells. Similarly, p38 and MKK3/6 were inhibited by the S5 peptide in LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the S5 peptide could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the c-Jun/p38 signaling pathway.

  4. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and suppression of inflammatory response by cell stretching in rabbit synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunanusornchai, Wanlop; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2016-12-01

    Joint mobilization is known to be beneficial in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and its role in modulating inflammation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretching of isolated rabbit synovial fibroblasts for ten min was performed. Stretching-induced AMPK activation, its underlying mechanism, and its anti-inflammatory effect were investigated using Western blot. Static stretching at 20 % of initial length resulted in AMPK activation characterized by expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-Co A carboxylase. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation peaked 1 h after stretching and declined toward resting activity. Using cell viability assays, static stretching did not appear to cause cellular damage. Activation of AMPK involves Ca(2+) influx via a mechanosensitive L-type Ca(2+) channel, which subsequently raises intracellular Ca(2+) and activates AMPK via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). Interestingly, stretching suppressed TNFα-induced expression of COX-2, iNOS, and phosphorylated NF-κB. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. These results suggest that mechanical stretching suppressed inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts via a L-type Ca(2+)-channel-CaMKKβ-AMPK-dependent pathway which may underlie joint mobilization's ability to alleviate OA symptoms.

  5. RTA 408, A Novel Synthetic Triterpenoid with Broad Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

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    Brandon L Probst

    Full Text Available Semi-synthetic triterpenoids are antioxidant inflammation modulator (AIM compounds that inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Compounds in the AIM class bind to Keap1 and attenuate Nrf2 degradation. In the nucleus, Nrf2 increases antioxidant gene expression and reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression. By increasing Nrf2 activity, AIMs reduce reactive oxygen species and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, which reverses tumor-mediated immune evasion and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. AIMs also directly inhibit tumor cell growth by modulating oncogenic signaling pathways, such as IKKβ/NF-κB. Here, we characterized the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of RTA 408, a novel AIM that is currently being evaluated in patients with advanced malignancies. At low concentrations (≤ 25 nM, RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and suppressed nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in interferon-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, RTA 408 inhibited tumor cell growth (GI50 = 260 ± 74 nM and increased caspase activity in tumor cell lines, but not in normal primary human cells. Consistent with the direct effect of AIMs on IKKβ, RTA 408 inhibited NF-κB signaling and decreased cyclin D1 levels at the same concentrations that inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. RTA 408 also increased CDKN1A (p21 levels and JNK phosphorylation. The in vitro activity profile of RTA 408 is similar to that of bardoxolone methyl, which was well-tolerated by patients at doses that demonstrated target engagement. Taken together, these data support clinical evaluation of RTA 408 for cancer treatment.

  6. RTA 408, A Novel Synthetic Triterpenoid with Broad Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Brandon L; Trevino, Isaac; McCauley, Lyndsey; Bumeister, Ron; Dulubova, Irina; Wigley, W Christian; Ferguson, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Semi-synthetic triterpenoids are antioxidant inflammation modulator (AIM) compounds that inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Compounds in the AIM class bind to Keap1 and attenuate Nrf2 degradation. In the nucleus, Nrf2 increases antioxidant gene expression and reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression. By increasing Nrf2 activity, AIMs reduce reactive oxygen species and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, which reverses tumor-mediated immune evasion and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. AIMs also directly inhibit tumor cell growth by modulating oncogenic signaling pathways, such as IKKβ/NF-κB. Here, we characterized the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of RTA 408, a novel AIM that is currently being evaluated in patients with advanced malignancies. At low concentrations (≤ 25 nM), RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and suppressed nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in interferon-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, RTA 408 inhibited tumor cell growth (GI50 = 260 ± 74 nM) and increased caspase activity in tumor cell lines, but not in normal primary human cells. Consistent with the direct effect of AIMs on IKKβ, RTA 408 inhibited NF-κB signaling and decreased cyclin D1 levels at the same concentrations that inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. RTA 408 also increased CDKN1A (p21) levels and JNK phosphorylation. The in vitro activity profile of RTA 408 is similar to that of bardoxolone methyl, which was well-tolerated by patients at doses that demonstrated target engagement. Taken together, these data support clinical evaluation of RTA 408 for cancer treatment.

  7. Inflammatory cytokines in general and central obesity and modulating effects of physical activity.

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    Frank M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date.To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects.A cross-sectional study comprising 117 obese patients (body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and 83 non-obese community-based volunteers.Serum levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Physical activity and energy expenditure (MET were assessed with actigraphy. Adipometrics comprised BMI, weight, abdominal-, waist- and hip-circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR.General obesity was associated with significantly elevated levels of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α, central obesity with significantly elevated IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ-levels. In participants with general obesity, levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly elevated in participants with low physical activity, even when controlled for BMI which was negatively associated with physical acitivity. Cytokines significantly correlated with adipometrics, particularly in obese participants.Results confirm up-regulation of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obesity. In obese subjects, physical activity may lower levels and thus reduce pro-inflammatory effects of cytokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  8. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  9. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferation activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekir, Jalila; Mars, Mohamed; Vicendo, Patricia; Fterrich, Amira; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-06-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS assays), anti-inflammatory (5-LOX), and cytotoxic (MCF-7) activities from flowers of seven pomegranate varieties (Punica granatum) were investigated. The highest phenolics (330.9±11.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (dw)), flavonoids (29.5±0.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dw), tannins (30.6±0.6 mg catechin equivalent/g dw), and anthocyanins (0.70±0.03 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/g dw) content were determined in the Chetoui (CH) variety. It was found that Garsi (GR) (IC₅₀=4.9±0.2 mg/L by ABTS assay) and Zaghwani (ZG) (IC₅₀=3.9±0.2 mg/L by ABTS assay) varieties exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For the anti-inflammatory activity, all varieties were active; the ZH variety was the strongest (2.5±0.1 mg/L). The CH, ES, and RA pomegranate varieties were not active against human breast cancer cells MCF-7, whereas inhibition was more evident with extracts from ZH and GR varieties (IC₅₀=33.00±2.64 and 35.00±4.58 mg/L, respectively). Statistical analysis showed that the variety factor influenced significantly (Ppomegranate flowers.

  11. NG2, a member of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family mediates the inflammatory response of activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Lu, J; Huo, Y; Baby, N; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2010-01-20

    Activation of microglial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS causes neurotoxicity through the release of a wide array of inflammatory mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have investigated the expression of NG2 (also known as CSPG4), one of the members of transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family, in microglial cells and its role on inflammatory reaction of microglia by analyzing the expression of the proinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)), chemokines (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NG2 expression was not detectable in microglial cells expressing OX-42 in the brains of 1-day old postnatal rat pups and adult rats; it was, however, induced in activated microglial cells in pups and adult rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro analysis further confirmed that LPS induced the expression of NG2 in primary microglial cells and this was inhibited by dexamethasone. It has been well demonstrated that LPS induces the expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia. However in this study, LPS did not induce the mRNA expression of iNOS and cytokines including IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in microglial cells transfected with CSPG4 siRNA. On the contrary, mRNA expression of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) was significantly increased in LPS-activated microglial cells after CSPG4 siRNA transfection in comparison with the control. The above results indicate that NG2 mediates the induction of iNOS and inflammatory cytokine expression, but not the chemokine expression in activated microglia.

  12. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadira; Binte; Samad; Trishna; Debnath; Michael; Ye; Md.Abul; Hasnat; Beong; Ou; Lim

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry(Vaccinium corymbosum L.).Methods:Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant.Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate,1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid),free radical induced DNA damage,superoxide dismutaselike and catalase assay etc.Furthermore,1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts.Results:Total phenolic contents were found(115.0±3.0) and(4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for both extracts,respectively and flavonoid contents were(1 942.8±7.0) and(1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100 g fresh mass for water and ethonal extracts,respectively.Both the extracts displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate(IC50 at 1.8 mg/mL and 2.05 mg/mL,respectively),l,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)(IC50 at1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL,respectively) and nitrite(IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL,respectively)etc.The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in cell.Conclusions:The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.

  13. MECHANISMS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF MILLETTIA ABOENSIS

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    Ajaghaku Daniel Lotanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effect of the crude extracts and fractions of Millettia aboensis leaves, a popular Nigerian traditional anti-inflammation remedy and possible mechanism of effect was investigated. Phytochemical analysis of the crude and fraction revealed the presence of anti-inflammatory phyto-compounds – terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides. No death was recorded from acute toxicity study. The crude and methanol fraction at 300 and 200 mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of egg albumin induced paw edema. Effect of the extract and fraction on topical oedema induced by xylene on mouse ear revealed that methanol fraction at 5 mg/ear had the highest activity with percentage inhibition of 61.90 % compared to the 54.76 % inhibition produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 300 mg/kg produced a significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of formaldehyde induced arthritis with percentage inhibition of 40.93 %. Result of the ulcergenic effect in rat demonstrated that both the crude and methanol fraction possess ulcergenic effect though lower than that produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 400 mg/kg also produced significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of leucocytes migration compared with the control. Both extract and methanol fraction produced stabilization effect on the heat-induced and hypotonicity induced red blood cell haemolysis. These results suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of M. aboensis possess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity that is most active in the methanol fraction. The activity may be as a result of combined inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, leukocyte migration and membrane stabilization effect.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Vernonia patula (Dryand. Merr.

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    Arpona Hira

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, the obtained results suggest the acute anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the EAV and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for inflammations.

  15. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

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    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  16. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Ivan Rui Lopes; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Dreyfuss, Juliana Luporini; Filgueira, Luciana Guimarães Alves; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2013-08-02

    Fucan is a term that defines a family of homo- and hetero-polysaccharides containing sulfated l-fucose in its structure. In this work, a heterofucan (F2.0v) from the seaweed, Dictyota menstrualis, was evaluated as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg) inhibits 100% of leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity after chemical stimulation. However, F2.0v does not alter the expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg) has peripheral antinociceptive activity with potency similar to dipyrone. On the other hand, it had no effect on pain response on the hot plate test. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry showed that F2.0v binds to the surface of leucocytes, which leads us to suggest that the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive F2.0v is related to its ability to inhibit the migration of leukocytes to the site of tissue injury. In summary, the data show that F2.0v compound has great potential as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory, and future studies will be performed to further characterize the mechanism of action of F2.0v.

  17. MODULATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NSAIDS IN NORMAL RATS TREATED WITH ANTIHISTAMINICS.

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    Nilam Nigam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available NSAIDs are frequently used for relief of inflammati on and Antihistaminics are indicated for simultaneous administration for aller gic manifestations. Opioids analgesics have been reported to interact with Antihistaminics. To e xplore the interacting potentiality, in the present study the effects of combined treatment with NSAIDs and antihistaminics were examined in rats. Anti-inflammatory effect was eval uated by Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema in rats. NSAIDs like aspirin, ibuprofen and pir oxicam were selected for study on per se and on concurrent administration with Antihistamini cs such as Promethazine, Cetrizine and Astemizole. All NSAIDs protected animals show anti-i nflammatory activity. Aspirin shows highly significant potentiation of anti-inflammatory effect at all dose level, however ibuprofen and piroxicam show highly significant anti-inflammatory effect at higher doses only and on concurrent administration of antihistaminics, aspiri n, piroxicam and ibuprofen with all antihistaminics produced highly significant potentiat ion except ibuprofen with Cetrizine produced significant potentiation of anti-inflammator y response at higher doses only.

  18. Cissus sicyoides: Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiarrheal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Cássia Santos, Raquel; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Rodrigues, Vinicius Peixoto; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Pupo, André Sampaio; da Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smooth muscle and/or intestinal transit. PMID:26805827

  19. Cissus sicyoides: Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiarrheal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pereira Beserra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smooth muscle and/or intestinal transit.

  20. Dextromethorphan Efficiently Increases Bactericidal Activity, Attenuates Inflammatory Responses, and Prevents Group A Streptococcal Sepsis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Han; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lu, Shiou-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2011-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from mild throat and skin infections to severe invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Dextromethorphan (DM), a dextrorotatory morphinan and a widely used antitussive drug, has recently been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of DM in GAS infection using an air pouch infection mouse model. Our results showed that DM treatment increased the survival rate of GAS-infected mice. Bacterial numbers in the air pouch were lower in mice treated with DM than in those infected with GAS alone. The bacterial elimination efficacy was associated with increased cell viability and bactericidal activity of air-pouch-infiltrating cells. Moreover, DM treatment prevented bacterial dissemination in the blood and reduced serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β and the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and RANTES. In addition, GAS-induced mouse liver injury was reduced by DM treatment. Taken together, DM can increase bacterial killing and reduce inflammatory responses to prevent sepsis in GAS infection. The consideration of DM as an adjunct treatment in combination with antibiotics against bacterial infection warrants further study. PMID:21199930

  1. Evaluation of Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis

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    Helena Bonciani Nader

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term that defines a family of homo- and hetero-polysaccharides containing sulfated l-fucose in its structure. In this work, a heterofucan (F2.0v from the seaweed, Dictyota menstrualis, was evaluated as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg inhibits 100% of leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity after chemical stimulation. However, F2.0v does not alter the expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg has peripheral antinociceptive activity with potency similar to dipyrone. On the other hand, it had no effect on pain response on the hot plate test. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry showed that F2.0v binds to the surface of leucocytes, which leads us to suggest that the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive F2.0v is related to its ability to inhibit the migration of leukocytes to the site of tissue injury. In summary, the data show that F2.0v compound has great potential as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory, and future studies will be performed to further characterize the mechanism of action of F2.0v.

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ichnocarpus frutescens root

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    A Pandurangan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of the study: Ichnocarpus frutescens has been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases.  In the present study anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property of roots of this plant was investigated. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (MEIF was evaluated by carrageenan, and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests to determine its effects on acute and chronic phase of inflammation models in rats. Results and major conclusion: Preliminary Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extracts showed presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, and sterols. Maximum inhibition (54.63 % was obtained at the dose of 100 mg/kg after 3 hrs of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw oedema, whereas indomethacin produced 57.65 % of inhibition. In the chronic model, 300 mg/kg of MEIF like indomethacin and dexamethasone standard drug decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 22.64, 29.63 % and 34.84 % respectively.  The successive methanol re-extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens root (MEIF exhibited strong scavenging effects on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH free radical, nitric oxide, super oxide anion, hydroxyl radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These results clearly indicate strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Ichnocarpus frutescens root.

  3. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  4. Oleanonic acid, a 3-oxotriterpene from Pistacia, inhibits leukotriene synthesis and has anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Larza, E M; Máñez, S; Recio, M C; Giner, R M; Prieto, J M; Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Ríos, J L

    2001-09-28

    One of the best known bioactive triterpenoids is oleanolic acid, a widespread 3-hydroxy-17-carboxy oleanane-type compound. In order to determine whether further oxidation of carbon 3 affects anti-inflammatory activity in mice, different tests were carried out on oleanolic acid and its 3-oxo-analogue oleanonic acid, which was obtained from Pistacia terebinthus galls. The last one showed activity on the ear oedema induced by 12-deoxyphorbol-13-phenylacetate (DPP), the dermatitis induced by multiple applications of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA) and the paw oedemas induced by bradykinin and phospholipase A2. The production of leukotriene B4 from rat peritoneal leukocytes was reduced by oleanonic acid with an IC50 of 17 microM. Negligible differences were observed in the response of both triterpenes to DPP, bradykinin, and phospholipase A2, while oleanonic acid was more active on the dermatitis by TPA and on the in vitro leukotriene formation. In conclusion, the presence of a ketone at C-3 implies an increase in the inhibitory effects on models related to 5-lipoxygenase activity and on associated in vivo inflammatory processes.

  5. Intestinal CCL25 expression is increased in colitis and correlates with inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Palak J.; Bruns, Tony; Ward, Stephen; Mai, Martina; Schmidt, Carsten; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Weston, Chris J.; Adams, David H.

    2016-01-01

    CCL25-mediated activation of CCR9 is critical for mucosal lymphocyte recruitment to the intestine. In immune-mediated liver injury complicating inflammatory bowel disease, intrahepatic activation of this pathway allows mucosal lymphocytes to be recruited to the liver, driving hepatobiliary destruction in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, in mice and healthy humans CCL25 expression is restricted to the small bowel, whereas few data exist on activation of this pathway in the inflamed colon despite the vast majority of PSC patients having ulcerative colitis. Herein, we show that colonic CCL25 expression is not only upregulated in patients with active colitis, but strongly correlates with endoscopic Mayo score and mucosal TNFα expression. Moreover, approximately 90% (CD4+) and 30% (CD8+) of tissue-infiltrating T-cells in colitis were identified as CCR9+ effector lymphocytes, compared to <10% of T-cells being CCR9+ in normal colon. Sorted CCR9+ lymphocytes also demonstrated enhanced cellular adhesion to stimulated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium compared with their CCR9– counterparts when under flow. Collectively, these results suggest that CCR9/CCL25 interactions are not only involved in colitis pathogenesis but also correlate with colonic inflammatory burden; further supporting the existence of overlapping mucosal lymphocyte recruitment pathways between the inflamed colon and liver. PMID:26873648

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of a Novel Biflavonoid from Shells of Camellia oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shells are by-products of oil production from Camellia oleifera which have not been harnessed effectively. The purpose of this research is to isolate flavonoid from shells of Camellia oleifera and evaluate its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The flavonoid was identified as bimolecular kaempferol structure by UV, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, which is a new biflavonoid and first found in Camellia oleifera. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice, and analgesic activity by hot plate test and acetic acid induced writhing. The mechanism of anti-inflammation of biflavonoid is related to both bradykinin and prostaglandins synthesis inhibition. The biflavonoid showed both central and peripheral analgesic effects different from aspirin, inhibition of the synthesis or action of prostaglandins may contribute to analgesic effect of biflavonoid. The biflavonoid significantly decreased malonaldehyde (MDA and increased superoxidase dismutase (SOD and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in serum (p < 0.01, revealed strong free radical scavenging activity in vivo. It indicates the biflavonoid can control inflammation and pain by eliminating free radical so as to inhibit the mediators and decrease the prostaglandins. The biflavonoid can be used as a prospective medicine for inflammation and pain.

  7. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiveron, Ana Paula; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; Lacerda, Risia Cristina Coelho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Benso, Bruna; Denny, Carina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1–OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12.5–100 μg/mL). OP1, OP2, OP3, and OP4 were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), with MIC values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL. OP6 showed anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing NF-kB activation and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter stable gene. Therefore, south Brazilian OP can be considered an excellent source of bioactive compounds with great potential of application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:27802316

  8. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  9. Intestinal CCL25 expression is increased in colitis and correlates with inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Palak J; Bruns, Tony; Ward, Stephen; Mai, Martina; Schmidt, Carsten; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Weston, Chris J; Adams, David H

    2016-04-01

    CCL25-mediated activation of CCR9 is critical for mucosal lymphocyte recruitment to the intestine. In immune-mediated liver injury complicating inflammatory bowel disease, intrahepatic activation of this pathway allows mucosal lymphocytes to be recruited to the liver, driving hepatobiliary destruction in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, in mice and healthy humans CCL25 expression is restricted to the small bowel, whereas few data exist on activation of this pathway in the inflamed colon despite the vast majority of PSC patients having ulcerative colitis. Herein, we show that colonic CCL25 expression is not only upregulated in patients with active colitis, but strongly correlates with endoscopic Mayo score and mucosal TNFα expression. Moreover, approximately 90% (CD4(+)) and 30% (CD8(+)) of tissue-infiltrating T-cells in colitis were identified as CCR9(+) effector lymphocytes, compared to colitis pathogenesis but also correlate with colonic inflammatory burden; further supporting the existence of overlapping mucosal lymphocyte recruitment pathways between the inflamed colon and liver.

  10. Variation in antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of different growth forms of Malva parviflora and evidence for synergism of the anti-inflammatory compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, T L; Stirk, W A; van Staden, J

    2005-01-01

    Malva parviflora leaves and roots were collected from five sites within the Qacha's Nek District in Lesotho. These plants had two distinct growth forms--upright and prostrate. Hexane, methanol and water extracts were made from the plant material and tested for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity using the disc diffusion and cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) bioassays, respectively. Hexane, methanol and water extracts made from Malva parviflora with a prostrate growth form inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while extracts made from plants with an upright growth form inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only. Cox-1 anti-inflammatory activity of hexane, methanol and water extracts did not show any variation between the two growth forms. The hexane extracts of both the leaves and roots were the most inhibitory. The water extracts had the least inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the root dichloromethane extract showed that Cox-1 anti-inflammatory activity was caused by at least two compounds that acted synergistically to produce the biological effect.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and opioid-like activities in methanol extract of Mikania lindleyana, sucuriju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico A. Vanderlinde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana DC., Asteraceae (sucuriju, grows in the Amazon region, where is frequently used to treat pain, inflammatory diseases and scarring. This study was carried out to investigate phytochemical profile accompanied by in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening of n-hexane (HE, dichloromethane (DME and methanol (ME extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. The oral administration of ME (0.1, 0.3, 1 g/kg caused a dose-related reduction (16.2, 42.1 e 70.2% of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing while HE and DME (1 g/kg, p.o. were ineffective. In the hot plate test, ME (300 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency of heat stimulus between 30 and 120 min and inhibited the first (45% and second (60% phases of nociception in the formalin test. The antinociception induced by ME or positive control fentanyl (150 µg/kg, s.c. in hot plate and formalin tests was prevented by naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, ME (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 46.8, 59.4 and 64.8% respectively, while positive control dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 71.1%. These results indicate that the antinociception obtained after oral administration of methanol extract of M. lindleyana involves anti-inflammatory mechanisms accompanied with opioid-like activity which could explain the use of the specie for pain and inflammatory diseases.

  12. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis; Park, Kyungho; Roelandt, Truus; Oda, Yuko; Hupe, Melanie; Crumrine, Debra; Lee, Hae-Jin; Gschwandtner, Maria; Thyssen, Jacob P; Trullas, Carles; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2013-02-01

    Systemic antagonists of the histamine type 1 and 2 receptors (H1/2r) are widely used as anti-pruritics and central sedatives, but demonstrate only modest anti-inflammatory activity. Because many inflammatory dermatoses result from defects in cutaneous barrier function, and because keratinocytes express both Hr1 and Hr2, we hypothesized that H1/2r antagonists might be more effective if they were used topically to treat inflammatory dermatoses. Topical H1/2r antagonists additively enhanced permeability barrier homeostasis in normal mouse skin by the following mechanisms: (i) stimulation of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r antagonists likely oppose mast cell-derived histamines. In four immunologically diverse, murine disease models, characterized by either inflammation alone (acute irritant contact dermatitis, acute allergic contact dermatitis) or by prominent barrier abnormalities (subacute allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased inflammation and enhanced barrier function. These results could shift current paradigms of antihistamine utilization from a predominantly systemic to a topical approach.

  13. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor and ameliorates pro-inflammatory responses following trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mojtahedzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: Besides its hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin (EPO by mobilization of iron and modulation of some inflammatory cytokines has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these effects of erythropoietin and its impact on organ function in traumatized patients. "n Methods: Twenty-six ICU-admitted traumatized patients within 24 hrs after trauma were randomly assigned to the EPO (received EPO, 300 units/Kg/day and Control (not received EPO groups. The inflammatory biomarkers including Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin 1 (IL-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and Nitrotyrosine were recorded at the admission, 3, 6 and 9 days thereafter. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores were also recorded. "n Results: Among 12 patients (EPO group TNF-α level at the day of 9 (P=0.046, and within EPO group at the days of 3 (P=0.026 ameliorate, 6 (P=0.016, and 9 (P=0.052 were significantly lowered. Level of IL-1 and PAI-1 decreased significantly at days of 3, 6 and 9 post intervention. Also there were significant differences between two groups in the SOFA score during three measured time intervals (the first, third and seventh days. "n Conclusion: From the results of this study it seems that injection of erythrocyte stimulating agent is well tolerated and inhibits the inflammatory response and oxidative stress following trauma.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of 4-amino-2,6-diarylpyrimidine-5-carbonitriles with anti-inflammatory activity

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    Silva, Joao Bosco P. da; Ramos, Mozart N.; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental]. E-mail: mramos@ufpe.br; Melo, Sebastiao Jose de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos]. E-mail: melosebastiao@yahoo.com.br; Falcao, Emerson Peter da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria de Santo Antao; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2008-07-01

    The experimental anti-inflammatory activities of eight 4-amino-2,6-diarylpyrimidine-5- carbonitriles were subjected to a QSAR analysis based on results from B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and AM1 electronic structure calculations. Principal component analyses and regressions based on these data indicate that potentially more active compounds should have low dipole moment and partition coefficient values and also be affected by the values of the charges of the carbon atoms through which the two aromatic rings are bonded to the pyrimidinic ring. Two new molecules were predicted to be at least as active as those with the highest activities used in the model building stage. One of them, having a methoxy group attached to one of the aromatic rings, was predicted to have an anti-inflammatory activity value of 52.3%. This molecule was synthesized and its experimental activity was found to be 52.8%, in agreement with the AM1 theoretical prediction. This value is 5% higher than the largest value used for modeling. (author)

  15. Polyenylpyrrole derivatives inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammatory mediator expression by reducing reactive oxygen species production and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Feng Hua

    Full Text Available Two polyenylpyrroles from a soil ascomycete Gymnoascus reessii were previously identified as hit compounds in screening for cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. These compounds and various analogs, which have been previously synthesized and tested for anti-lung cancer cell activity, were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. After preliminary screening for cytotoxicity for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, the non-toxic compounds were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1h, 1i, and 1n reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production, with respective ED50 values of 15 ± 2, 16 ± 2, and 17 ± 2 µM. They also reduced expression of inducible NO synthase and interleukin-6 (IL-6 without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Compound 1h also reduced secretion of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by LPS-activated J774A.1 murine macrophage cells, primary mice peritoneal macrophages, and JAWSII murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β secretion by LPS + adenosine triphosphate-activated J774A.1 and JAWSII cells. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of compound 1h were found to be a decrease in LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation and a decrease in ATP-induced ROS production and PKC-α phosphorylation. These results provide promising insights into the anti-inflammatory activity of these conjugated polyenes and a molecular rationale for future therapeutic intervention in inflammation-related diseases. They also show how compound 1h regulates inflammation and suggest it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents to ameliorate inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases.

  16. Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinampudur V Chandrasekaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids of Curcuma longa (C. longa has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02 and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin TM , Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India on proliferation, nitric oxide (NO, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukins (ILs and prostaglandin (PGE 2 levels of mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 cells were determined. Results: NR-INF-02 increased splenocytes number in presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or concanavalin A. Treatment of NR-INF-02 showed a significant increase of NO, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha and MCP-1 production in unstimulated mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophages. Interestingly, NR-INF-02 showed potent inhibitory effect towards release of PGE 2 and IL-12 levels in LPS stimulated mouse splenocytes. Further, NR-INF-02 was fractionated into polysaccharide fraction (F1 and mother liquor (F2 to study their immune-modulatory effects. F1 was found to be more potent than F2 toward inhibiting PGE 2 and IL-12 in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Conclusion: Present findings revealed the novel anti-inflammatory property of NR-INF-02 and its polysaccharide fraction by inhibiting the secretion of IL-12 and PGE 2 in vitro.

  17. Characterization of bergenin in Endopleura uchi bark and its anti-inflammatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunomura, Rita C.S.; Nunomura, Sergio M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao em Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais], e-mail: ritasn@ufam.edu.br; Oliveira, Viviane G.; Silva, Saulo L. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec. is an Amazon species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammations and female disorders. Pure bergenin was isolated from the methanolic extract of bark of E. uchi, firstly by using liquid-liquid partition chromatography followed by column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20 and then silica gel 60 flash chromatography. The structure of bergenin was identified on the basis of its NMR spectra. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the measurement of the inhibitory concentration (IC) of bergenin against three key enzymes: COX-1, COX-2 (cyclooxygenases) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). These enzymes were selected because they are important targets for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory drugs associated with the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The IC50 of bergenin for phospholipase A2 was determined as 156.6 {mu}mol L-1 and bergenin was not considered active as compared to the positive control, tioetheramide PC. Bergenin did not inhibit COX-1 as well (IC50 = 107.2 {mu}mol L-1). However, bergenin selectively inhibited COX-2 (IC50 = 1.2 {mu}mol L-1). Because of the use of E. uchi in traditional medicine, bergenin was quantified in teas prepared as prescribed in traditional medicine by RP-HPLC as being 3% in the bark of E. uchi. The inhibitory activity towards COX-2 is important, since selective inhibitors of COX-2 have been clinically validated as anti-inflammatory therapeutics due to their enhanced gastrointestinal safety. (author)

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Serjania erecta Radlk (Sapindaceae) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Guedes, Alessandro; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Calderari, Mirele Titton; Guimarães, Claudio Laurentino; Pinheiro, Rafael Mota; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-07-23

    Serjania erecta Radlk (Sapindaceae), commonly called cinco-folhas or cipó-cinco-folhas in Brazil, is thought to be effective for treating several inflammatory diseases. In order to verify the topical anti-inflammatory effect of Serjania erecta, hydroalcoholic extract and fractions were obtained by extraction in solvents of increasing polarity and were tested in mouse models using croton-oil-induced inflammation. Our findings showed that topical application of Serjania erecta hydroalcoholic extract (0.01-3.0 mg/ear), and the dichloromethane (0.03-1.0 mg/ear), ethyl acetate (0.03-1.0 mg/ear), and hexane (0.003-1.0 mg/ear) fractions revealed significant activity, causing a dose-dependent reduction of croton-oil ear edema (ID(50)=0.14 mg/ear, 0.23 mg/ear, 0.14 mg/ear, 0.04 mg/ear, respectively). The extract and all tested fractions also decreased tissue myeloperoxidase activity (indicative of polymorphonuclear leukocytes influx) in mouse-ears treated with croton oil with a maximum inhibition of 72% at 3.0 mg/ear for the hydroalcoholic extract and 81%, 78%, and 83% at 1.0mg/ear for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions, respectively. As expected, dexamethasone (0.05 mg/ear) was effective in inhibiting both edema and myeloperoxidase activity (99% and 82%, respectively). In conclusion, our results indicate a topical anti-inflammatory effect for the species of Serjania studied.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

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    Gautam Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS (family Nyctaginaceae is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g. Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory activity was evaluated by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46% in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.

  1. Mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent NLRP3 activation exacerbates the Pseudomonas aeruginosa-driven inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimessi, Alessandro; Bezzerri, Valentino; Patergnani, Simone; Marchi, Saverio; Cabrini, Giulio; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-02-04

    The common pathological manifestation of cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with an excessive lung inflammatory response characterized by interleukin-1β accumulation. CF airway epithelial cells show an exacerbated pro-inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, it is unclear whether this heightened inflammatory response is intrinsic to cells lacking CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Here we demonstrate that the degree and quality of the inflammatory response in CF are supported by P. aeruginosa-dependent mitochondrial perturbation, in which flagellin is the inducer and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) is a signal-integrating organelle member for NLRP3 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 processing. Our work elucidates the regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by mitochondrial Ca(2+) in the P. aeruginosa-dependent inflammatory response and deepens our understanding of the significance of mitochondria in the Ca(2+)-dependent control of inflammation.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia variegata Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, R N; Reddy, V Madhu Sudhan

    2003-06-01

    Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as 'Kachnar' in Hindi. It is distributed almost throught India. Its powdered bark is traditionally used for tonic, astrain, ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are used as antidote to snake poison. The present article deals with the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1) from the roots of Bauhinia Variegata and its structure was identified by spectral analysis and chemical degradations. The novel compound (1) showed anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, C. C. C.; Mendonça, L. M.; Bergamaschi, M. M.; QUEIROZ, R. H. C.; Souza, G. E. P.; L. M. G. ANTUNES; Freitas, L. A. P. de

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, res...

  4. Sepsis and Inflammatory Response Mechanisms: An Activity Stress Model in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-31

    Suzui M, Zamecnik 1, Sabiston BH, Shek PN, Shephard RJ. B- endorphin and natural killer cell activity during prolonged exercise. Is there a connection? Am...A.A. and Wilmore, D.W. 1996. The systemic inflammatory response: Perspective of human endotoxemia. Shock 6: S50-S56. Shek, P.N., Sabiston , B.H...Gannon, G., Rhind, S.G., Suzui, M., Zamecnik, J., Sabiston , B.H., Shek, P.N. & Shephard, R.J. (1998). B-endorphin and natural killer cell cytolytic

  5. Cathelicidins: peptides with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anticancer and procancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    The family of peptides designated as cathelicidins was identified over a decade ago. Cathelicidins have since gained increasing recognition, both as endogenous antibiotics and as effector molecules of the innate immune system. The human cathelicidin LL-37 is widely expressed in human tissues and plays diverse biological roles. It contributes substantially to host defense and impacts multiple aspects of immunity. In view of the escalating importance of cathelicidins, the activities of LL-37 with an emphasis on antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anticancer and procancer effects are discussed in this review article.

  6. Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease activity by technetium 99m phagocyte scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullman, W.E.; Sullivan, P.J.; Barratt, P.J.; Lising, J.; Booth, J.A.; Doe, W.F.

    1988-10-01

    Autologous technetium 99m-labeled phagocyte scanning has been used to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease in 51 consecutive patients. Strong correlations were found between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and the histologic score of mucosal biopsy specimens (rS = 0.84, p less than 0.001, where rS is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), and between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and a clinical inflammatory bowel disease activity index based on the Crohn's disease activity index (rS = 0.87, p less than 0.001). To develop a clinically useful and objective measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity that did not require a 24-h stool collection, the intensity of bowel uptake on scanning was graded visually from 0 to 4, a ratio of count rates for the region of interest to the iliac crest reference region was calculated, and the rapidity of labeled phagocyte uptake into inflamed bowel was measured as the peak uptake time. Visual grading of disease activity on the scans was validated by comparing it with the ratio of count rates from inflamed bowel regions of interest and those from the iliac crest reference region. The ratio of count rates showed a significant correlation with the clinical disease activity index (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). The visual scan grade also correlated well with the clinical activity index (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). Count rates from hourly scans were also used to calculate the time of peak uptake of counts for a given region of interest. There was a strong negative correlation between this peak uptake time and the fecal excretion of isotope (rS = -0.81, p less than 0.001), a clinical activity index (r = -0.60, p less than 0.001), and the histologic score of the mucosal biopsy specimens (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001).

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of orpanoxin administered orally and topically to rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R R; Bonk, K R; Decker, G E; Miller, K E

    1985-07-01

    Orpanoxin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lacking gastric ulcerogenic effects in the therapeutic dose range in rats, was compared with six reference NSAIDs for oral activity in the rat paw carrageenin-induced edema assay. Tested NSAIDs were ranked on the basis of oral mg/kg ED50 values: piroxicam, 0.55; orpanoxin, 35.6; diflunisal, 59.6; benoxaprofen, greater than 300; tolmetin sodium, greater than 300; and sulindac, greater than 300. Zomepirac sodium was inactive. Only the three most potent compounds produced greater than 60% inhibition of edema. Inhibition was generally greater at 4 h than at 6 h post carrageenin for all compounds. Oral activity of orpanoxin was also demonstrated in the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model (ED50 = 24.2 mg/kg p.o. when given 1 h before irradiation) and in the mouse ear croton oil induced edema test (ED50 value = 131 mg/kg p.o.). Topical activity of orpanoxin was assessed in both the guinea-pig and mouse models. In the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model, application (1 h after u.v.) of 1, 5, and 10% (w/v) orpanoxin creams (containing 10% urea) significantly inhibited erythema at 2, 3, and 4 h post-irradiation. Orpanoxin, mefenamic acid, and indomethacin as 1% creams inhibited total erythema scores 70, 92 and 74%, respectively. Evidence for topical activity in the mouse ear assay was also obtained for orpanoxin in diethyl ether or 10% urea cream, but not in dimethylsulfoxide. It was concluded that orpanoxin has anti-inflammatory activity comparable to reference NSAIDs in the rat paw edema test, is active orally in rat, mouse, and guinea-pig models, and shows topical activity in the guinea-pig and the mouse.

  8. Elevated plasma cryofibrinogen in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease is morbigenous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Sawada; Ryouki Takahashi; Abbi R Saniabadi; Maiko Ohdo; Takashi Shimoyama

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cryofibrinogen (CF) in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: CF was assayed in 284 subjects: 61 with active and 63 with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 who had proctocolectomy, 35 with active and 20 with inactive Crohn's disease (CD), 40 with other diseases and 20 healthy controls. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) and TI antibody (TI-Ab) were measured in plasma and CF complex by ELISA.RESULTS: CF in active UC was strikingly high compared with all other groups (χ2<0.001). Similarly, CF was significantly higher in active CD than in inactive CD or in controls (χ2<0.01). In UC, high CF and TI-Ab were associated with the need for operations. Further, high CF, CF/fibrinogen ratio, low TI and high TI-Ab in plasma were associated with disease activity or refractoriness to medication. Elevated CF was not associated with acute reactants like C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts except for erythrocyte sedimentation rate,suggesting that elevated CF was not a consequence of acute inflammation.CONCLUSION: Elevated CF in active IBD appears to be morbigenous. CF promotes IBD via two main mechanisms, quenching of TI (an anti-inflammatory substance)and impairing microvascular perfusion by forming protein aggregates. CF may also serve as a biomarker of chronic IBD. Additional studies are warranted to fully evaluate the role of CF in IBD and the outcome should contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD.

  9. Inflammatory transcription factors as activation markers and functional readouts in immune-to-brain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Immune-to-brain communication pathways involve humoral mediators, including cytokines, central modulation by neuronal afferents and immune cell trafficking to the brain. During systemic inflammation these pathways contribute to mediating brain-controlled sickness symptoms including fever. Experimentally, activation of these signaling pathways can be mimicked and studied when injecting animals with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPS). One central component of the brain inflammatory response, which leads, for example, to fever induction, is transcriptional activation of brain cells via cytokines and PAMPS. We and others have studied the spatiotemporal activation and the physiological significance of transcription factors for the induction of inflammation within the brain and the manifestation of fever. Evidence has revealed a role of nuclear factor (NF)κB in the initiation, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 in the maintenance and NF-interleukin (IL)6 in the maintenance or even termination of brain-inflammation and fever. Moreover, psychological stressors, such as exposure to a novel environment, leads to increased body core temperature and genomic NF-IL6-activation, suggesting a potential use of NF-IL6-immunohistochemistry as a multimodal brain cell activation marker and a role for NF-IL6 for differential brain activity. In addition, the nutritional status, as reflected by circulating levels of the cytokine-like hormone leptin, influence immune-to-brain communication and age-dependent changes in LPS-induced fever. Overall, transcription factors remain therapeutically important targets for the treatment of brain-inflammation and fever induction during infectious/non-infectious inflammatory and psychological stress. However, the exact physiological role and significance of these transcription factors requires to be further investigated.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polyacetylene from Dendropanax dentiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Hsu, Wei-Ning; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Dendropanax dentiger has been used as a folk medicine since ancient times. In our current study, we observed that D. dentiger exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity, which could efficiently inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammation assay. (9Z,16S)-16-Hydroxy-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid (HODA) was isolated from the leaves of D. dentiger following a bioactivity guided fractionation protocol. Our data indicated that HODA significantly inhibited the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells (IC50 = 4.28 μM). Consistent with these observations, the mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS were also inhibited by HODA in a dose-dependent manner. HODA also reduced the translocation of NF-κB into nuclear fractions. Meanwhile, HODA enhanced Nrf-2 activation and its downstream antioxidant gene HO-1. We concluded that HODA possessed significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity; the compound may have a potential for development as a chemoprevention agent.

  11. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO LINN. LEAVES

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    Md.Rageeb Md.Usman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.

  12. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

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    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  13. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eLauritano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active molecules for applications in the food industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. In this study, 21 diatoms, 7 dinoflagellates and 4 flagellate species were grown in three different culturing conditions and the corresponding extracts were tested for possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In addition, for two diatoms we also tested two different clones to disclose diversity in clone bioactivity. Six diatom species displayed specific anti-inflammatory, anticancer (blocking human melanoma cell proliferation and anti-biofilm (against the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis activities whereas, none of the other microalgae were bioactive against the conditions tested for. Furthermore, none of the 6 diatom species tested were toxic on normal human cells. Culturing conditions (i.e. nutrient starvation conditions greatly influenced bioactivity of the majority of the clones/species tested. This study denotes the potential of diatoms as sources of promising bioactives for the treatment of human pathologies.

  14. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-02

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

    2013-08-15

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application.

  16. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  17. Is the Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique Superior to the Free Breathing Technique in Cardiac and Lung Sparing while Treating both Left-Sided Post-Mastectomy Chest Wall and Supraclavicular Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Darapu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of the deep inspirational breath-hold (DIBH technique and its dosimetric advantages over the free breathing (FB technique in cardiac (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD] and ipsilateral lung sparing in left-sided post-mastectomy field-in-field conformal radiotherapy. DIBH is highly reproducible, and this study aims to find out its dosimetric benefits over FB. Materials and Methods: Nineteen left-sided mastectomy patients were immobilized using breast boards with both arms positioned above the head. All patients had 2 sets of planning CT images (one in FB and another in DIBH with a Biograph TruePoint HD CT scanner in the same setup. DIBH was performed by tracking the respiratory cycles using a Varian Real-Time Position Management system. The target (chest wall and supraclavicular region, organs at risk (OARs; ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, LAD, and contralateral breast, and other organs of interests were delineated as per the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring guidelines. The single-isocenter conformal fields in the field treatment plans were generated with the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Varian Medical Systems for both FB and DIBH images, and the doses to the target and OARs were compared. The standard fractionation regimen of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over a period of 5 weeks was used for all patients in this study. Results and Discussion: The target coverage parameters (V95, V105, V107, and Dmean were found to be 97.8 ± 0.9, 6.1 ± 3.4, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.5% in the FB plans and 98.1 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 3.2, 0.2 ± 0.3, and 101.9 ± 0.4% in the DIBH plans, respectively. The plan quality indices (conformity index and homogeneity index also showed 1.3 ± 0.2 and 0.1 for the FB plans and 1.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 for the DIBH plans, respectively. There was a significant reduction in dose to the heart in the DIBH plans compared to the FB plans, with p values of nearly 0 for the

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity in mice of extracts from Mediterranean marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ubeda, A; Ferrándiz, M L; Terencio, M C; Alcaraz, M J; García-Carrascosa, M; Capaccioni, R; Payá, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the marine invertebrates Leptogorgia ceratophyta, Holothuria tubulosa, Coscinasterias tenuispina and Phallusia fumigata on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice were investigated. The dichloromethane extract of Coscinasterias tenuispina and the methanol extract of Holothuria tubulosa administered p.o. at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, inhibited oedema in a dose-dependent manner 3 h after administration of carrageenan. Both extracts partially decreased elastase activity and PGE2 levels measured in homogenates from inflamed paws, without affecting the levels of this prostanoid present in stomach homogenates. As observed with the selective inhibitor NS398, both extracts can decrease cyclo-oxygenase activity in inflamed tissues but do not modify the constitutive cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Therefore, these extracts represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents active on inflammatory conditions.

  19. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered......) assessed by Z-scores was good and comparable among methods. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of multiple-reader MRI scoring exercises for method comparison, provides evidence for the feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory capacity of all 3 tested scoring...

  20. Pain mechanisms and ultrasonic inflammatory activity as prognostic factors in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Christensen, Robin; Dreyer, Lene

    2016-01-01

    ) and erroneous treatments. Ultrasonography (US) is a highly sensitive method to detect tissue inflammation. Evaluating pain mechanisms in relation to US measures may prove valuable in predicting response to treatment in PsA. AIMS: To study the association and prognostic value of pain mechanisms, ultrasonic...... activity and clinical outcomes in patients with PsA who intensify antirheumatic treatment. METHODS AND ANALYSES: 100 participants >18 years of age with PsA who initiate or switch antirheumatic treatment (biologicals and/or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs......INTRODUCTION: Persistent pain is a major concern for patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Pain may be due to inflammatory activity or augmented central pain processing. Unawareness of the origin and mechanisms of pain can lead to misinterpretation of disease activity (by composite scores...

  1. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti-inflammatory

  3. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of spirobarbitunylphenothiazines in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Lata, S; Kumar, A; Srivastava, V K

    2002-04-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of newly synthesized spirobarbitunylphenothiazines viz 10-[7, 11-Di(4-4' dimethoxphenyl)-3-oxo-9-methylaminoimino-2, 4-diazaspiro [5.5] undecane 1, 5 dione] acetylphenothiazine (test drug A) and 10-[7, 11-Di (N.N-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-oxo-9-methylaminoimino-2, 4-diazaspiro [5, 5] undecane-1, 5 dione] acetylphenothiazine (test drug B) have been screened in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. The peripheral analgesic activity of test drugs A and B was investigated by acetic acid induced writhing test in Swiss mice while the central analgesic action was assessed by hot-wire (tail flick test) of the analgesiometer and tail-clip test in Wistar rats. Antipyretic activity was assessed on Brewer's yeast induced pyrexic model while antiinflammatory activity was seen on carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. Analgesic activity was found to be only of peripheral type as there was reduction of 66% in writhing responses by test drugs A and B in dose of 80 mg/kg in mice. No change in the tail flick responses was observed on analgesiometer or by tail clip by both the test drugs. Reduction of 1.5 to 2.0 degrees C in rectal temperature was observed in pyretic rats by test drugs A and B in dose of 80 mg/kg. 80% reduction in paw volume was noted in 80 mg/kg dose of both the test drugs which was comparable to the anti-inflammatory activity of 300 mg/kg, p.o. of phenylbutazone.

  4. Thymoquinone: An IRAK1 inhibitor with in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Daewon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive component of black seed (Nigella sativa) volatile oil and has been shown to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanisms that underlie the anti-inflammatory effect of TQ and its target proteins using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 and human monocyte-like U937 cells, together with LPS/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute hepatitis and HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis mouse models. TQ strongly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and repressed NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase (COX)−2, interleukin (IL)−6, and IL-1β expression in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of LPS/D-GalN–induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl–induced gastritis mouse models with TQ significantly ameliorated disease symptoms. Using luciferase reporter gene assays, we also showed that the nuclear levels of transcription factors and phosphorylation patterns of signaling proteins, activator protein (AP)−1, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways were all affected by TQ treatment. Finally, we used additional kinase and luciferase validation assays with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) to show that IRAK1 is directly suppressed by TQ treatment. Together, these findings strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory actions of TQ are caused by suppression of IRAK-linked AP-1/NF-κB pathways. PMID:28216638

  5. Anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity of fibrous clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio-; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Ronquillo de Jesús, Elba

    2015-05-01

    Produced worldwide at 1.2m tons per year, fibrous clays are used in the production of pet litter, animal feed stuff to roof parcels, construction and rheological additives, and other applications needing to replace long-fiber length asbestos. To the authors' knowledge, however, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and cytotoxic activity by sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejon El Rubio, Spain). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) methods. Histological cuts were obtained for quantifying leukocytes found in the epidermis. Palygorkite and sepiolite caused edema inhibition and migration of neutrophils ca. 68.64 and 45.54%, and 80 and 65%, respectively. Fibrous clays yielded high rates of infiltration, explained by cleavage of polysomes and exposure of silanol groups. Also, fibrous clays showed high inhibition of myeloperoxidase contents shortly after exposure, but decreased sharply afterwards. In contrast, tubular clays caused an increasing inhibition of myeloperoxidase with time. Thus, clay structure restricted the kinetics and mechanism of myeloperoxidase inhibition. Fibrous clays were screened in vitro against human cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the protein-binding dye sulforhodamine B (SRB). Exposing cancer human cells to sepiolite or palygorskite showed growth inhibition varying with cell line. This study shows that fibrous clays served as an effective anti-inflammatory, limited by chemical transfer and cellular-level signals responding exclusively to an early exposure to clay, and cell viability decreasing significantly only after exposure to high concentrations of sepiolite.

  6. 门控心肌灌注显像在老年左心力衰竭患者中的应用价值%Application of gated myocawdial pewfusion imaging in eldewly patients with left-sided heawt failuwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玲; 贾鹏

    2016-01-01

    [Abstwact] Objective To investigate the clinical application of gated myocardial perfusion imaging combined with ultrasonic cardiography in elderly patients with left-sided heart failure and normal left ventricular ej ection fraction (LVEF ),thereby providing an important basis for the management of clinical heart failure. Methods Hospitalized patients with left-sided heart failure were divided into two groups,one with normal LVEF(n= 46 )and the other with reduced LVEF(n=60). Of the 106 patients,39 were male and 67 female,aged between 60 and 85 years,with an average age of 69. 8±16. 8. Gated myocardial perfusion imaging was performed for patients in both groups, recording stress/rest left ventricular end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume in duplicate,andχ2 test was conducted to detect differences in ischemic area and ventricular volume between the two groups. Results In the group with normal LVEF,gated myocardial perfusion imaging identified mild ischemia in 11 cases,moderate ischemia in 22 cases and severe ischemia in 13 cases,with the ischemic area at(15. 6±6. 6)%,the standard deviation at -2. 3±1. 1 and LVEF at(56. 8±9. 6)%. In the group with reduced LVEF,mild ischemia was found in 8 cases,moderate ischemia in 27 cases and severe ischemia in 15 cases,with the ischemic area at(22. 0±8. 6)%,the standard deviation at -3. 1±2. 6 and LVEF at 31. 9±6. 5%. Differences in ischemic area,severity of ischemia and LVEF between the groups were statistically significant(all P<0. 01 ),as were differences in stress end-diastolic volume, rest end-diastolic volume,stress end-systolic volume and rest end-systolic volume(all P<0. 01 ),and differences in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter,diastolic interventricular septal thickness,posterior left ventricular wall end-diastolic thickness and left ventricular apical diastolic myocardial thickness(all P<0. 01 ). Conclusions Gated myocardial perfusion imaging is a valuable clinical tool in the diagnosis and

  7. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  8. The role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in eosinophil activation during inflammatory allergic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are important chemotactic cytokines that play a fundamental role in the trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. They are also potent cell-activating factors, inducing cytokine and histamine release and free radical production, a fact that makes them particularly important in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. The action of chemokines is regulated at the level of agonist production and processing as well as at the level of receptor expression and coupling. Therefore, an analysis of the ligands must necessarily consider receptors. Eosinophils are target cells involved in the allergic inflammatory response since they are able to release a wide variety of mediators including CC and CXC chemokines and express their receptors. These mediators could damage the airway epithelial cells and might be important to stimulate other cells inducing an amplification of the allergic response. This review focuses on recently emerging data pertaining to the importance of chemokines and chemokine receptors in promoting eosinophil activation and migration during the allergic inflammatory process. The analysis of the function of eosinophils and their chemokine receptors during allergic inflammation might be a good approach to understanding the determinants of asthma severity and to developing novel therapies.

  9. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  10. Resveratrol as a Bioenhancer to Improve Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Apigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ah; Ha, Sang Keun; Cho, EunJung; Choi, Inwook

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs) in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ARMs prominently inhibited (p apigenin alone (AMs). ARMs also effectively suppressed protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Co-administration of apigenin (50 mg/kg) and resveratrol (25 mg/kg) also showed a significant reduction of carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (61.20% to 23.81%). Co-administration of apigenin and resveratrol led to a 2.39 fold increase in plasma apigenin levels compared to administration of apigenin alone, suggesting that co-administration of resveratrol could increase bioavailability of apigenin. When the action of resveratrol on the main apigenin metabolizing enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), was investigated, resveratrol mainly inhibited the formation of apigenin glucuronides by UGT1A9 in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 7.782 μM. These results suggested that resveratrol helps apigenin to bypass hepatic metabolism and maintain apigenin's anti-inflammatory activities in the body.

  11. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  12. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF QUINOXALINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Dharmchand Prasad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of thioether derivatives of 2-Chloro-3-methylquinoxaline have been synthesized by reacting 3- methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium with 2-chloro-N-(substituted aryl/alkyl-acetamides. The synthesis was initiated with the reaction of o-phenylenediamine (1 with ethyl pyruvate in n-butanol to yield 2-hydroxy-3-methyl quinoxaline (2, which on treatment with POCl3 ,yielded 2-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline(3.A mixture of the compound(3 and sodium sulphide in DMF was refluxed to yield 3-methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium(4,which on treatment with different Nsubstituted chloroacetamides afforded the one pot synthesis of 2-(2-methylquinoxalin-3-ylthio-N-substitutedaryl/ alkyl-acetamides(5a-k. 2-chloro-N-substituted acetamides were prepared by treating substituted anilines in glacial acetic acid with chloroacetylchloride, warming on the water bath for half an hour and then precipitating, 2- chloro-N-substituted acetamides by addition of saturated aqueous solution of anhydrous sodium acetate. A compound 2-(benzylthio-3-methylquinoxaline 5l was also prepared. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, and 1HNMR spectra, analysis. All compounds (5a-l were screened for their in vivo anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Compounds 5a, 5b, 5d, 5e, 5g and 5k have been found to possess good anti inflammatory activity.

  13. Diuretic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Microencapsulated Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) Oil on Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2015-06-01

    Acrocomia aculeata, popularly known as "bocaiuva," is widely acknowledged in culinary and traditional medicines to treat cardiovascular diseases, a combined effect with diuretics that are also used for hypertension. However, there are no scientific data published to support its use as functional food and its ethnopharmacological use. This study intended to determine the composition of fatty acids of the pulp oil and evaluate the diuretic action and anti-inflammatory activity of the in natura and microencapsulated oil orally administrated on rats. The obtained results confirm the prevalence of monounsaturated fatty acids (68.51%), especially oleic acid (65.68%±1.05%), in the oil from the bocaiuva pulp. The in natura A. aculeata oil has diuretic (P<.01) and anti-inflammatory potential, which promoted a marked inhibition on the hind paw edema induced by carrageenan (67%±7% after 2 h) (P<.01). In addition, results show that the oral administration of the bocaiuva oil at 300 (P<.05) and 700 (P<.05) mg/kg doses significantly inhibited the leukocyte migration induced by carrageenan to the pleural cavity in rats. The inhibitions equaled 91%±3% and 81%±16%, respectively. The microencapsulated oil also showed antiedematogenic (P<.01) as well as diuretic activities (P<.01). The microencapsulation by complex coacervation was shown to be a technique that favors the bioavailability and preservation of bioactive components of the bocaiuva oil.

  14. Molecular Characterization and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Galactosylglycerides and Galactosylceramides from the Microalga Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Reyes, Carolina; Ortega, María J; Rodríguez-Luna, Azahara; Talero, Elena; Motilva, Virginia; Zubía, Eva

    2016-11-23

    Isochrysis galbana is a marine microalga rich in PUFAs that is widely used as feed in aquaculture and more recently investigated for its potential in food applications and as source of bioactive compounds. In this study, the biomass obtained from cultures of I. galbana has been investigated to determine its content in glycosylglycerides and glycosylceramides. By using NMR, UPLC-MS/MS, and fatty acid profiles, the structures of ten monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs 1-10) and nine digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs 11-19) have been established. Two distinctive features of the galactosylglycerides from I. galbana are the wide presence of highly unsaturated acyl chains derived from stearidonic acid (18:4Δ(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)) and octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5Δ(3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)), as well as the unusual coexistence of αβ-DGDGs and ββ-DGDGs. Three new galactosylceramides, isogalbamides A-C (20-22), have also been isolated and characterized by NMR and MS/MS. These metabolites, which are the first galactosylceramides described from microalgae, derive from unprecedented tetraolefinic sphingoid bases. In anti-inflammatory assays, the MGDG and DGDG mixtures and the isolated DGDGs 11 and 12 showed significant activity as inhibitors of the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages, while the galactosylceramides showed moderated activity.

  15. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C C C; Mendonça, L M; Bergamaschi, M M; Queiroz, R H C; Souza, G E P; Antunes, L M G; Freitas, L A P

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent.

  16. Inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology is associated with disease activity in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febronio, M V; Pereira, R M R; Bonfa, E; Takiuti, A D; Pereyra, E A G; Silva, C A A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate cervicovaginal cytology in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and to compare them to controls. Fifty-two female adolescents with JSLE (ACR criteria) were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls. All Pap smears were evaluated by the same cytopathologist blinded to gynecology examination (Bethesda 2001). The mean age of JSLE patients and controls were similar (16.17 +/- 1.94 versus 16.13 +/- 2.16 years, P = 0.92). The cervicovaginal cytology was found to be similar in both groups, although sexual intercourses in the last month were less frequent in JSLE than controls (23% versus 59.6%, P = 0.0003). Only one patient (2%) with JSLE versus two controls (4%) had cervical dysplasia (LGSIL) and human papilomavirus (P = 1.0). Candida spp vaginitis was observed in seven JSLE (14%) versus none in controls (P = 0.012) and was associated with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.01) and high dose of prednisone (P = 0.002). Of interest, inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology was observed in 21 (60%) of patients with SLEDAI > or = 4 and only four (23%) of those with SLEDAI < 4 (P = 0.001). Likewise, a higher frequency of inflammatory changes was also observed in virgin JSLE (57% versus 8%, P = 0.005). Our findings supports the notion that female genital tract may be a potential target organ in SLE since cervical inflammation is associated to disease activity independently of sexual activity.

  17. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel Pyrazole Derivatives of Gallic Acid

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    S. Arunkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new series of [5-substituted-3-(phenylamino-1H-pyrazol-1yl] (3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-methanone (4a-j have been synthesized. 3, 4, 5-Trihydroxy benzohydrazide (1 was synthesized from propyl gallate and hydrazine hydrate in presence of ethanol. Chalcones (2a-j were synthesized from acetanilide and various aromatic aldehydes in presence of ethanol and sodium hydroxide solution. By refluxing the compound (1 and compounds (2a-j in presence of ethanol yielded [5-substituted-3-(phenylamino-4.5-dihydropyrazol-1yl] (3,4,5-trihydroxy phenyl-methanone (3a-j. The final compounds [5-substituted-3-(phenylamino-1H-pyrazol-1yl] (3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-methanone (4a-j were synthesized by treating compounds (3a-j with bromine water. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, 1HNMR and Mass spectral data. The compounds were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema test. In general all compounds were found to exhibit good anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. 6-Hydroxyflavone and derivatives exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity among mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones in kidney mesangial cells.

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    Xing Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4',6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment.

  19. Stem bark extraction of Ficus bengalensis Linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Vishnu N; Suralkar, Anupama A; Deshpande, Avinash D; Naik, Suresh R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis (AEFB) and methanolic extract of F. bengalensis (MEFB) was evaluated in animal models. Preliminary results indicated that MEFB treatment possesses significant anti-inflammatory potential as compared to AEFB. The anti-inflammatory activity of MEFB exhibited in both acute (carrageenan induced hind paw edema and acetic acid induced vascular permeability) and subchronic (cotton pellet-induced granuloma) models of inflammation was found to be significant. In addition, the extract also showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing. Pretreatment with MEFB during inflammatory condition (both acute and sub-chronic) prevented increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and myeloperoxidase activity in edematous as well as granulomatous tissue. Further, serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) increased in inflammatory conditions were also inhibited with MEFB treatment. Hence, the anti-inflammatory activity observed in the present study with MEFB could be attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola-Vormisto, A; Summanen, J; Kankaanranta, H; Vuorela, H; Asmawi, Z M; Moilanen, E

    1997-12-01

    Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and 1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%, thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis.

  1. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatma Alhakmani; Sokindra Kumar; Shah Alam Khan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods: Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results:Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions:The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p activities (p activity in radiographic records (p activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  4. Stressful life events and psychosocial correlates of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, George; Chouliaras, George; Margoni, Daphne; Korlou, Sophia; Hantzara, Vassiliki; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Liakopoulou, Magda; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of psychiatric and psychosocial correlates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity in children and adolescents. METHODS A total of 85 pediatric IBD patients (in remission or active state of the disease) and their parents completed a series of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews measuring life events, depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, and parent mental health. Differences between the remission and the IBD active group and the association of any significant variable with the disease activity state were examined. RESULTS Parents of children being in active state of the disease reported more life events (P = 0.005) and stressful life events (P = 0.048) during the past year and more mental health symptoms (P < 0.001), while the children themselves reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms (P = 0.017) compared to the remission group. In the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the only predictor which had a significant positive effect on the probability of the patients being in active state was parent mental health symptoms (OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-25.8). CONCLUSION Life events, child anxiety and parent mental health symptoms may be important correlates of pediatric IBD activity and targets of thorough assessment and treatment. PMID:27679771

  5. Interleukin 27 is up-regulated in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzawa Carballeda, Janette; Fonseca Camarillo, Gabriela; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify tissue gene and protein expression of IL-27 in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. This is an observational and cross-sectional study. Fifty-four patients with IBD were studied: 27 active UC, 12 inactive UC, 10 active CD, and 5 inactive CD. All patients belonged to the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición. We found that IL-27 gene expression was significantly higher in active UC versus inactive UC group (P = 0.015). The IL-27 mRNA expression was increased in patients with active CD compared with inactive CD disease (P = 0.035). The percentage of IL-27 immunoreactive cells was higher in active UC versus active CD patients and non-inflamed tissue controls. The IL-27 was significantly elevated in active UC and CD patients, and it was associated with disease severity.

  6. Acidosis activation of the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor stimulates vascular endothelial cell inflammatory responses revealed by transcriptome analysis.

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    Lixue Dong

    Full Text Available Acidic tissue microenvironment commonly exists in inflammatory diseases, tumors, ischemic organs, sickle cell disease, and many other pathological conditions due to hypoxia, glycolytic cell metabolism and deficient blood perfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the acidic microenvironment are not well understood. GPR4 is a proton-sensing receptor expressed in endothelial cells and other cell types. The receptor is fully activated by acidic extracellular pH but exhibits lesser activity at the physiological pH 7.4 and minimal activity at more alkaline pH. To delineate the function and signaling pathways of GPR4 activation by acidosis in endothelial cells, we compared the global gene expression of the acidosis response in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC with varying level of GPR4. The results demonstrated that acidosis activation of GPR4 in HUVEC substantially increased the expression of a number of inflammatory genes such as chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, NF-κB pathway genes, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2 or COX-2 and stress response genes such as ATF3 and DDIT3 (CHOP. Similar GPR4-mediated acidosis induction of the inflammatory genes was also noted in other types of endothelial cells including human lung microvascular endothelial cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Further analyses indicated that the NF-κB pathway was important for the acidosis/GPR4-induced inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, acidosis activation of GPR4 increased the adhesion of HUVEC to U937 monocytic cells under a flow condition. Importantly, treatment with a recently identified GPR4 antagonist significantly reduced the acidosis/GPR4-mediated endothelial cell inflammatory response. Taken together, these results show that activation of GPR4 by acidosis stimulates the expression of a wide range of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. Such inflammatory response can be

  7. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

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    Taylor, Cormac T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Silke, E-mail: silke.ryan@ucd.ie [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  8. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

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    Ali Pourmotabbed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids.

  10. H2S dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activity of zofenoprilat in cells of the vascular wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martina; Terzuoli, Erika; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases as atherosclerosis are associated to an inflammatory state of the vessel wall which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction, and adherence and activation of circulating inflammatory cells. Hydrogen sulfide, a novel cardiovascular protective gaseous mediator, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity. We have recently demonstrated that the SH containing ACE inhibitor zofenoprilat, the active metabolite of zofenopril, controls the angiogenic features of vascular endothelium through H2S enzymatic production by cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE). Based on H2S donor/generator property of zofenoprilat, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether zofenoprilat exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vascular cells through its ability to increase H2S availability. Here we found that zofenoprilat, in a CSE/H2S-mediated manner, abolished all the inflammatory features induced by interlukin-1beta (IL-1β) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), especially the NF-κB/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostanoid biochemical pathway. The pre-incubation with zofenoprilat/CSE dependent H2S prevented IL-1β induced paracellular hyperpermeability through the control of expression and localization of cell-cell junctional markers ZO-1 and VE-cadherin. Moreover, zofenoprilat/CSE dependent H2S reduced the expression of the endothelial markers CD40 and CD31, involved in the recruitment of circulating mononuclear cells and platelets. Interestingly, this anti-inflammatory activity was also confirmed in vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts as zofenoprilat reduced, in both cell lines, proliferation, migration and COX-2 expression induced by IL-1β, but independently from the SH moiety and H2S availability. These in vitro data document the anti-inflammatory activity of zofenoprilat on vascular cells, reinforcing the cardiovascular protective effect of this multitasking drug.

  11. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs.

  12. Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Most A.; Ritesh Raju; Beattie, Karren D.; Frances Bodkin; Gerald Münch

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to multiple ageing-related musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, chronic neuroinflammation has been attributed to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders. To date, pharmacotherapy of inflammatory conditions is based mainly on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which in contrast to cytokine-suppress...

  13. ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MIKANIA LINDLEYANA IN RODENTS

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    Andressa S. B. Silva et al.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana is a plant widely distributed in Brazilian Amazonia, popularly known as “sucuriju” and largely used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, chronic ulcers and pain. In the present study, we identified the secondary metabolites of the aqueous extract of M. lindleyana (AEML and investigate its effects on several models of inflammation and nociception in rodents. Phytochemical screening of the AEML showed the presence of saponins, proteins, amino acids, phenols, tannins, organic acids and flavonoids. Oral pretreatment of mice with AEML significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the abdominal constrictions evoked by acetic acid injection and the licking time in both first and second phases in the formalin test but has no significant effect on hot plate test. In rats, AEML inhibited the edema formation induced by carrageenan and croton oil while has no significant effects on the edema induced by dextran. AEML inhibited the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration as well as the rolling and the adhesion of leukocytes. The present study shows for the first time that AEML displays antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities which could be attributed respectively to a possible opioid mechanism and to an inhibition of the adhesion molecules by interference on pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results support the widespread use of M. lindleyana in popular medicine to treat inflammation and pain.

  14. Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Scheinecker, Clemens; Redlich, Kurt; Smolen, Josef; Schonthaler, Helia B; Kenner, Lukas; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2008-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) (Fos/Jun) is a transcriptional regulator composed of members of the Fos and Jun families of DNA binding proteins. The functions of AP-1 were initially studied in mouse development as well as in the whole organism through conventional transgenic approaches, but also by gene targeting using knockout strategies. The importance of AP-1 proteins in disease pathways including the inflammatory response became fully apparent through conditional mutagenesis in mice, in particular when employing gene inactivation in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. Besides the well-documented roles of Fos and Jun proteins in oncogenesis, where these genes can function both as tumor promoters or tumor suppressors, AP-1 proteins are being recognized as regulators of bone and immune cells, a research area termed osteoimmunology. In the present article, we review recent data regarding the functions of AP-1 as a regulator of cytokine expression and an important modulator in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. These new data provide a better molecular understanding of disease pathways and should pave the road for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications.

  15. A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rachel W; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N; Lin, G David; Leach, Greg

    2003-03-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rory P Kennelly; Brenda Murphy; John O Larkin; Brian J Mehigan; Paul H McCormick

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio(NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ~2 tests where appropriate.RESULTS: Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9(P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio(≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated.

  17. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Sesame Oil and Sesamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Maria Henriques Monteiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame oil is widely consumed as nutritious food, cooking oil, and in pharmaceuticals and food. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the sesame oil and sesamin were investigated. The sesame oil and sesamin reduced the number of abdominal contortions at the doses 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. The first and second phases of the time paw licking were inhibited by sesame oil and sesamin (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. After 90 min of treatment, sesame oil and sesamin increased the reaction time on a hot plate (200 or 400 mg/kg. Considering the tail-immersion assay, the sesame oil and sesamin produced significant effect after 60 min at the doses of 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. After 4 h of application of the carrageenan, the sesame oil and sesamin were effective against the paw edema. The exudate volume and leucocyte migration were also reduced by sesame oil and sesamin. These results suggest that sesamin is one of the active compounds found in sesame oil and justify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of this product.

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesame oil and sesamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Erika Maria Henriques; Chibli, Lucas Apolinário; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Pereira, Mônica Cecília Santana; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; Rodarte, Mírian Pereira; Pinto, Míriam Aparecida de Oliveira; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques; Silvério, Marcelo Silva; Araújo, Ana Lúcia Santos de Matos; de Araújo, Aílson da Luz André; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2014-05-12

    Sesame oil is widely consumed as nutritious food, cooking oil, and in pharmaceuticals and food. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the sesame oil and sesamin were investigated. The sesame oil and sesamin reduced the number of abdominal contortions at the doses 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. The first and second phases of the time paw licking were inhibited by sesame oil and sesamin (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). After 90 min of treatment, sesame oil and sesamin increased the reaction time on a hot plate (200 or 400 mg/kg). Considering the tail-immersion assay, the sesame oil and sesamin produced significant effect after 60 min at the doses of 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg. After 4 h of application of the carrageenan, the sesame oil and sesamin were effective against the paw edema. The exudate volume and leucocyte migration were also reduced by sesame oil and sesamin. These results suggest that sesamin is one of the active compounds found in sesame oil and justify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of this product.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  20. Moringa oleifera, a species with potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Claudia Lizbeth; Martínez, Laura; Martínez-Ortiz, Efraín J; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Díaz-Reval, Irene

    2017-03-01

    Moringa oleifera has long been used in large demand in folk medicine to treat pain. The present study was undertaken to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory spectrum of M. oleifera leaf extracts discriminating the constituents' nature by using different kind of experimental models in rats. Pharmacological evaluation of a non-polar and/or polar extracts at several doses (30-300mg/kg, p.o.) was explored through experimental nociception using formalin test, carrageenan-induced paw edema and arthritis with subcutaneous injection of collagen in rats. Basic morphology characterization was done by scanning electronic microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Not only polar (from 30 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) but also non-polar extract produced significant inhibition of the nociceptive behavior with major efficacy in the inflammatory response in different assessed experimental models. This antinociceptive activity involved constituents of different nature and depended on the intensity of the induced painful stimulus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of kaempferol-3-glucoside in the polar extract and fatty acids like chlorogenic acid, among others, in the non-polar extract. Data obtained with M. oleifera leaf extracts give evidence of its potential for pain treatment.

  1. Exopolysaccharide produced by Pleurotus sajor-caju: its chemical structure and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marcia L L; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Agostini, Franciane; Pereira, Eduardo M; Bonatti-Chaves, Mariane; Wisbeck, Elisabeth; Ruthes, Andréa Caroline; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R; Furlan, Sandra A; Iacomini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    Edible mushrooms are high nutritional value foods, which contain proteins, fibers, minerals, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Among their carbohydrates are some polysaccharides with recognized therapeutic effects. It was reported in this manuscript the structural characterization and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Pleurotus sajor-caju. The purified EPS was a mannogalactan (PEIsR), which was composed by mannose (37.0%), galactose (39.7%), and 3-O-methyl-galactose (23.3%). The polysaccharide was purified by freeze-thawing and dialysis, and it was characterized by GC-MS analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The mannogalactan is constituted by a main chain of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Galp and 3-O-methyl-α-D-Galp units. Some of the α-D-Galp units were substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end units of β-D-Manp. According to the literature review conducted, this is the first time that a methylated polysaccharide was observed on EPS of P. sajor-caju. The mannogalactan was able to reduce the nociception, in vivo, in the writhing and formalin tests and also reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema, which indicates that it could be an effective antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent.

  2. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

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    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  3. Synthesis of Aromatic Retinoids and Curcuminoids and Evaluation of their Antiproliferative, Antiradical, and Anti‐inflammatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W.; Rárová, Lucie; Grúz, Jiři; Sawczuk, Tomasz; Kiełczewska, Urszula; Siergiejczyk, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural retinoids and curcuminoids are known for their broad spectrum of biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, antitumor, and so forth. In this work, a convenient synthesis of aromatic retinoids and curcuminoids from vinyl or allyl ketones, and the corresponding alcohols, using olefin metathesis as a key reaction, was elaborated. The best yields and diastereoselectivities were obtained from allylic or homoallylic alcohols by employing the two‐step cross‐metathesis/oxidation procedure. The synthesized analogues were tested for their antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines of various origin (leukemia CEM, adenocarcinoma MCF7, cervical carcinoma HeLa) as well as for their antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity in vitro. All examined derivatives exhibited strong anti‐inflammatory activity in vitro without affecting cell viability. They also showed strong cytotoxicity against leukemia cell line CEM, except for 18 and 35. The antioxidant activity of the tested compounds was rather weak. PMID:27547644

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via ERK and NF-κB pathway regulation.

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    Jung, Yun Chan; Kim, Mi Eun; Yoon, Ju Hwa; Park, Pu Reum; Youn, Hwa-Young; Lee, Hee-Woo; Lee, Jun Sik

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation is the major symptom of the innate immune response to microbial infection. Macrophages, immune response-related cells, play a role in the inflammatory response. Galangin is a member of the flavonols and is found in Alpinia officinarum, galangal root and propolis. Previous studies have demonstrated that galangin has antioxidant, anticancer, and antineoplastic activities. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Galagin was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells, and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages was significantly decreased by the addition of 50 μM galangin. Moreover, galangin treatment reduced mRNA levels of cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-6, and proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Galangin treatment also decreased the protein expression levels of iNOS in activated macrophages. Galangin was found to elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK and NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation. In addition, galangin-inhibited IL-1β production in LPS-activated macrophages. These results suggest that galangin elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated macrophages via the inhibition of ERK, NF-κB-p65 and proinflammatory gene expression.

  5. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, M; Kiran, G; Rajyalakshmi, G; Venkateshwa, Rao J; Sarangapani, M

    2010-06-01

    A series of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 2-substituted-5-carbomethoxy benzoxazole with different secondary amines. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS) & elemental analysis. All these compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. All of these compounds exhibited significant activity. Among the tested compounds Ve, Vg, Vf and Va were considered to have potent anti-inflammatory activity and was comparable with standard.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Free Radial Scavenging Activities of the Constituents Isolated from Machilus zuihoensis

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    Shui-Tein Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(3¢→O-3¢¢¢- quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9, together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae. The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by various types of spectroscopic data analysis. Analysis of the biological activity assay found that compound 9 showed significant superoxide anion scavenging activity (IC50 is 30.4 μM and markedly suppressed LPS-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1 protein secretion in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the HMGB-1 protein secretion was also inhibited by quercitrin (3, ethyl caffeate (6, and ethyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate (7 treatment. In the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activation analysis, two known compounds, quercetin (1 and ethyl caffeate (6, were found to markedly suppress nitric oxide (NO production (IC50 value, 27.6 and 42.9 μM, respectively in RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, it was determined that ethyl caffeate (6 down-regulated mRNA expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the LPS-treatment of RAW264.7 cells via a suppressed NF-kB pathway. These results suggested for the first time that the new compound 9 and other constituents isolated from M. zuihoensis have potential anti-inflammatory and superoxide anion scavenging effects. These constituents may be useful for treating various inflammatory diseases.

  7. Resveratrol as a Bioenhancer to Improve Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Apigenin

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    Jin-Ah Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin through co-treatment with resveratrol as a bioenhancer of apigenin. RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with hepatic metabolites formed by the co-metabolism of apigenin and resveratrol (ARMs in HepG2 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. ARMs prominently inhibited (p < 0.05 the production of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Otherwise no such activity was observed by hepatic metabolites of apigenin alone (AMs. ARMs also effectively suppressed protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Co-administration of apigenin (50 mg/kg and resveratrol (25 mg/kg also showed a significant reduction of carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (61.20% to 23.81%. Co-administration of apigenin and resveratrol led to a 2.39 fold increase in plasma apigenin levels compared to administration of apigenin alone, suggesting that co-administration of resveratrol could increase bioavailability of apigenin. When the action of resveratrol on the main apigenin metabolizing enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, was investigated, resveratrol mainly inhibited the formation of apigenin glucuronides by UGT1A9 in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 7.782 μM. These results suggested that resveratrol helps apigenin to bypass hepatic metabolism and maintain apigenin’s anti-inflammatory activities in the body.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn

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    John Jomy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa supberba (family: Liliaceae is widely used as a medicinal plant, and the alkaloids from the plant (Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. We evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v of dried aerial parts of G. superba. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated by using Eddy′s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the cotton wool granuloma model and the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The percentage inhibitions of writhes or percentage protection were found to be 64.09%, 78.56% and 81.45% for extract at a dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage increase in reaction time at 90 minutes were 21.02%, 79.96% and 158.05% for extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in Eddy′s hot plate method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage inhibition of paw edema was increased with time and gave maximum effect at 2 hours, then declined in case of standard extract 400 mg/kg body weight. Only the 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight extracts exhibited significant result (P < 0.05 when compared with control. The rats exhibited 9.59%, 28.72% and 45.8% inhibition of granuloma mass formation after the 7 days treatment with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract when compared with control (P < 0.05 in cotton pellet granuloma.

  9. Antioxidant, Anti-Glycation and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Phenolic Constituents from Cordia sinensis