WorldWideScience

Sample records for active left-sided inflammatory

  1. A phylogenetic group of Escherichia coli associated with active left-sided inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas M; Nielsen, Eva M; Litrup, Eva;

    2009-01-01

    positive ExPEC gene among different groups, 86% were found positive among active IBD patients, significantly more than 13% among inactive IBD patients (p < 0.05), and 11% among healthy controls (p < 0.05). The B2 phylogenetic group was found in a specific cluster based on MLST, but no further separation......BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli have been found in increased numbers in tissues from patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and adherent-invasive E. coli have been found in resected ileum from patients with Crohn's disease. This study aimed to characterize possible differences in phylogenetic...... 10 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated by sigmoidoscopy. Interestingly, E. coli strains of the phylogenetic group B2 were cultured from 60% of patients with IBD compared to 11% of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, when comparing the number of E. coli B2 strains with at least one...

  2. A Case Report of Left-Sided Headache with Rhinocleisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case Report A patient, with a complaint of a left-sided headache plus a rhinocleisis for a month, was admitted to our hospital. The clinical diagnosis showed that it was a primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the nasopharynx.

  3. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    OpenAIRE

    O. B. Zhukov; A. V. Verzin; P. L. Penkov

    2013-01-01

    One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler k...

  4. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  5. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  6. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  7. Epidermoid cyst radiologically mistaken as a left sided subpulmonic effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameh, Ibrahim Sersar; Gewaeli, NourEldeen Noaman; Hamza, Usama Ali; Awadalla, Mohammed Mounir el-said

    2003-09-01

    A 33-year-old female had a left sided chest pain for the last 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity. Computed tomography chest suggested a left sided subpulmonic effusion (17.5x12.2x13 cm) with thick enhanced walls with marked collapse of the left lower lobe and displacement of the heart and mediastinum to the right side. Trial of thoracocentesis was done and it was positive. Trial of intercostal tube insertion was done with a sense of very thick pleura and the patient developed a vasovagal attack. Accordingly, exploratory thoracotomy was decided. Intraoperative assessment showed a huge anterosuperior mediastinal cyst attached to the pericardium and was successfully resected. The pathological findings were compatible with epidermoid cyst. PMID:17670071

  8. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  9. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  10. Critical Questions About Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, J Alberto; Vilacosta, Isidre; López, Javier; Sarriá, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Research in different topics in cardiovascular medicine is evolving rapidly. However, this is not the case for endocarditis, despite its being the cardiovascular disease with the highest mortality and, at the same time, the entity with relatively less scientific evidence supporting its treatment. Many problems are delaying research: it is an uncommon disease, few multicenter registries are ongoing, financing for research in this topic is lacking, randomization is costly, difficult, and considered unethical by some, and conclusions coming from propensity score analysis are taken as if they came from randomized trials. In this review, we put forward the main issues in need of evidence and propose a different approach to advance the understanding of left-sided infective endocarditis. We summarize the limited evidence available, the questions that are pending, and how we should proceed to answer them.

  11. Difference between right and left side in total knee and unicondylar knee replacement: An interesting observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Thirumal Selvan

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an observation made about the differences between right and left side in case of total knee and unicondylar knee replacement. It was found that unicondylar knee replacement was performed more commonly on the left side (66%, as compared to only 34% on right side, where as total knee replacement was more common on the right side (64% as compared to 36% on left side. The exact clinical utility of this difference is yet to be known.

  12. A left-sided periappendiceal abscess in an adult with intestinal malrotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ro Lee; Jong Hun Kim; Yong Hwang; Young Kon Kim

    2006-01-01

    Left-sided periappendiceal abscesses occur in association with two types of congenital anomaly: intestinal malrotation and situs inversus. It is difficult to obtain an accurate preoperative diagnosis of these abscesses due to the abnormal position of the appendix. We present an unusual case of a left-sided periappendiceal abscess in an adult with intestinal malrotation, the diagnosis of which was a challenge.

  13. Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Kerry M.; Hummon, Amanda B.; Buechler, Steven

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the oth...

  14. Left-sided portal hypertension: Successful management by laparoscopic splenectomy following splenic artery embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Patrono

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Splenic artery embolization may be a valuable adjunct in case of left-sided portal hypertension requiring splenectomy, allowing a safe dissection of the splenic vessels even by laparoscopy.

  15. Left-sided gastroschisis with placenta findings: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yang; Farinelli, Christine K; Chang, Michael S; CARPENTER, PHILIP M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal-wall defect that typically occurs to the right of the umbilicus. Only twenty-one cases of left-sided gastroschisis have been described in the literature. Here we report a large left-sided gastroschisis with pulmonary hypoplasia, scoliosis, ventricular septal defect and absence of gallbladder. Section of placental membranes revealed vacuolization of the amnion, without increased macrophage infiltration of the chorion. Postmortem comparative genomic hybri...

  16. Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's first response to infection or injury and is critical for both innate and adaptive immunity. It can be considered as part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The search for natural compounds and phytoconstituents that are able to interfere with these mechanisms by preventing a prolonged inflammation could be useful for human health. Here, the anti-inflammatory properties of plant-based drugs are put together with both in vitro and acute (carrageenan, egg albumin and croton oil) and chronic (cotton pellet) in vivo models. PMID:26939273

  17. Rare copy number variants contribute to congenital left-sided heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Phillip Hitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided congenital heart disease (CHD encompasses a spectrum of malformations that range from bicuspid aortic valve to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It contributes significantly to infant mortality and has serious implications in adult cardiology. Although left-sided CHD is known to be highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unidentified. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of structural genomic variation on left-sided CHD and compared multiplex families (464 individuals with 174 affecteds (37.5% in 59 multiplex families and 8 trios to 1,582 well-phenotyped controls. 73 unique inherited or de novo CNVs in 54 individuals were identified in the left-sided CHD cohort. After stringent filtering, our gene inventory reveals 25 new candidates for LS-CHD pathogenesis, such as SMC1A, MFAP4, and CTHRC1, and overlaps with several known syndromic loci. Conservative estimation examining the overlap of the prioritized gene content with CNVs present only in affected individuals in our cohort implies a strong effect for unique CNVs in at least 10% of left-sided CHD cases. Enrichment testing of gene content in all identified CNVs showed a significant association with angiogenesis. In this first family-based CNV study of left-sided CHD, we found that both co-segregating and de novo events associate with disease in a complex fashion at structural genomic level. Often viewed as an anatomically circumscript disease, a subset of left-sided CHD may in fact reflect more general genetic perturbations of angiogenesis and/or vascular biology.

  18. Left-sided approach of AV junction ablation for drug refractory atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Yuniadi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available AV junction ablation has been proven effective to treat symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory to antiarrhythmias or fail of pulmonary vein isolation. However, about 15% of conventional right-sided approach AV junction ablation failed to produce complete heart block. This study aimed to characterize His bundle potential at ablation site during conventional or left-sided approach of AV junction ablation. Twenty symptomatic AF patient (age of 60.5 ± 9.28 and 11 are females underwent conventional AV junction ablation. If 10 applications of radiofrequency energy are failed, then the ablation was performed by left-sided approach. Seventeen patients are successfully ablated by conventional approach. In 3 patients, conventional was failed but successfully ablated by left-sided approach. The His bundle amplitude at ablation site was significantly larger in left-sided than correspondence right-sided (16.0 ± 4.99 mm vs. 6.9 ± 4.02 mm respectively, p = 0.001, 95% CI -14.0 to -4.3. ROC analysis of His bundle potential amplitude recorded from right-sided revealed that cut off point of > 4.87 mm given the sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 53.8% for successful right-sided approach of AV junction ablation. In case of failed conventional approach, the left-sided approach is effective for AV junction ablation. An early switch to the left-sided approach may avoid multiple RF applications in patients with a low amplitude His-bundle potential (< 4.87 mm. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:109-14Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, AV junction ablation, left-sided approach

  19. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  20. Neglecting the left side of a city square but not the left side of its clock: prevalence and characteristics of representational neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Guariglia

    Full Text Available Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images may be selectively damaged in representational neglect.

  1. Left-sided approach for mitral valve replacement in a case of dextrocardia with situs solitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikon, Mhonchan; Kazmi, Aamir; Gupta, Anubhav; Grover, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    Mitral valve surgery in dextrocardia is technically challenging due to its anatomical malposition. Minor modifications are required in the surgical technique to counteract the problems during cannulation and exposure of the mitral valve. We report a case of a patient with dextrocardia, situs solitus, rheumatic heart disease, severe mitral regurgitation, moderate pulmonary artery hypertension, and severe left ventricular dysfunction who underwent mitral valve replacement using a two-stage right atrial cannulation with left-sided left atrial atriotomy, with the surgeon standing on the left side of the patient. Our approach for mitral valve surgery in this clinical setting is simple.

  2. Left-sided gallbladder discovered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Sagar; Jahangir, Tarshid A; Roy, Manas K

    2012-04-01

    Left-sided gallbladder, a rare congenital anomaly, is often associated with transposition of single or multiple viscera of thorax and/or abdomen. Clinical features and routine presurgical ultrasonography could miss the anomalous position thereby producing unnecessary anxiety during surgery. Here we are reporting a patient with left-sided gallbladder, known to have dextrocardia with multiple intracardiac anomalies, and detected incidentally in a series of 1258 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed successfully in this patient with port site modification and careful dissection. Some degree of abdominal visceral situs inversus is to be anticipated in patients with dextrocardia.

  3. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting as a left sided pleural effusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan, Y; Ben-Yehuda, A; Okon, E.; Breuer, R

    1992-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) usually occurs in women aged 13-50 years. Pleural effusion is rarely the presenting feature of this disease. The case is reported here of a male patient with MCTD who presented at the age of 79 years with a left sided pleural effusion.

  4. Large hiatal hernia in infancy with right intrathoracic stomach along with left sided morgagni hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Uzma; Mazhar, Naveed; Zameer, Shahla

    2014-11-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a very common intrathoracic fetal anomaly with Morgagni hernia typically seen on right side anteriorly and Bochdalek hernia on left side posteriorly, because of the protective effects of liver and heart on either side respectively. Hiatal hernias range from herniation of a small portion of stomach into thoracic cavity to herniation of entire stomach into the left thoracic cavity. Very rarely the herniated stomach has been reported in the right thoracic cavity. Early diagnosis and treatment of all diaphragmatic hernias is essential to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. We present a very rare and interesting case of an 18 months old baby girl with reverse scenarios. She had a large hiatal hernia with right intrathoracic stomach along with a left sided Morgagni hernia in combination.

  5. Regional odontodysplasia: Long-term observation of a case on the mandibular left side

    OpenAIRE

    Iizawa, Futabako; Kinjoh, Natsuko; Taguchi, Yo

    2010-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual non-hereditary developmental anomaly of tooth structures in both primary and permanent dentitions. The appropriate treatment differs for each individual's clinical findings. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings and the long-term progress as to the treatment and the management of a male patient who was diagnosed with regional odontodysplasia on the left side of the mandible. The mandibular left primary molars had shown a remarka...

  6. Tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy technique for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Virén, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Janne; Myllyoja, Kimmo; Koskela, Kristiina; Lahtinen, Tapani; Seppälä, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to introduce a new restricted tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy (tVMAT) technique for whole breast irradiation and compare its dosimetric properties to other currently used breast cancer radiotherapy techniques. Method Ten consecutive women with left-sided breast cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. Four treatment plans were generated for each patient: 1) standard tangential field-in-field (FinF), 2) tangential intensity modul...

  7. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Snygg-Martin, U.; Rasmussen, R. V.; Hassager, C; Bruun, N. E.; Andersson, R.; Olaison, L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective cohort study, the CVC incidence was compared between NVE patients with and without ongoing warfarin. Among 587 NVE episodes, 48 (8%) occurred in patients on warfarin. A symptomatic ...

  8. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  9. Cenani-Lenz syndrome-like limb anomaly with more severe involvement of left side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saleem; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousef

    2012-07-13

    The authors describe a case of Cenani-Lenz syndrome, in a 3-month-old girl of non-consanguineous parents of Afghani origin. Digital anomalies consist of sandactyly of the fingers of both hands, disorganised phalanges more severe involvement of the left side without radioulnar synostosis. Although our patient lacks facial dysmorphic features reported previously. The cases of patients with CLS need to be carefully evaluated and described to determine if there is distinctive accompanying facial phenotype.

  10. Total colectomy: Options in management of acute obstruction of the left-side colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milivoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergency colorectal surgery has been associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The current trend for the management of obstruction of left-sided colorectal carcinoma favours primary resection and anastomosis, as a safe and acceptable approach to selected patients. Method Retrospective review of 81 patients (46 male and 35 female, mean 64 years. Results Morbidity after emergency total colectomy was 21%, and mortality was 6%. There were 6 anastomotic complications (2 an-astomotic disruptions and 4 anastomotic leaks. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. 82% patients had adequate continence. Discussion: Traditional approach for left-sided colon obstruction is three-stage procedure (Bloch-Paul-Mikulicz. The idea of removing dilated colon proximal to an obstructing tumor is not new, since Lane suggested this option in 1914. In 1965 Hughes and Cuthberson described their experience with 12 patients. At the moment of laparotomy 20% patients had advanced malignant disease. The cumulative morbidity and mortality are high in three-stage procedure. Three-stage approach is associated with high permanent colostomy rate. One-stage resection with primary anastomosis of the obstructed left-sided colon is a safe alternative to staged procedures. Emergency radical resection can be safely performed in majority of patients with left-colon obstruction. Conclusions Total colectomy with anastomosis is a suitable procedure for treating left-sided colonic obstruction provided that pelvic floor is adequate. Total colectomy has low mortality, acceptable morbidity and good quality of life. The success of the surgery depends on the selection of patients. .

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Rebecca L

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a description of a physiological finding rather than a diagnosis. Pulmonary arterial pressure is the result of interactions among pulmonary blood flow (right ventricular cardiac output), pulmonary vascular impedance and post-capillary pressure (typically reflecting left atrial pressure). When elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic/diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure > approximately 30/19 mmHg at rest) are accompanied by increased left atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial hypertension may be considered secondary to left-heart failure. Introduction of Doppler methods to diagnose pulmonary arterial hypertension has increased the awareness of the prevalence and importance of pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs with left-heart failure. Increasing understanding of the mechanism of development of pulmonary venous hypertension and reactive pulmonary arterial hypertension in dogs with left-heart disease has led to the development of successful additive therapies for progressive clinical signs in the setting of chronic therapy for congestive heart failure due to left-sided valvular and myocardial dysfunction. Because effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction are now available, screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension should be a regular part of the Doppler echocardiographic examination in a clinical setting of chronic therapy for left-sided congestive heart failure due to valvular or myocardial disease.

  12. Heart dose reduction by prone deep inspiration breath hold in left-sided breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Cardiac disease has been related to heart dose after left-sided breast radiotherapy. This trial evaluates the heart sparing ability and feasibility of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) in the prone position for left-sided whole breast irradiation (WBI). Materials and methods: Twelve patients underwent CT-simulation in supine shallow breathing (SB), supine DIBH, prone SB and prone DIBH. A validation cohort of 38 patients received prone SB and prone DIBH CT-scans; the last 30 patients were accepted for prone DIBH treatment. WBI was planned with a prescription dose of 40.05 Gy. Results: DIBH was able to reduce (p < 0.001) heart dose in both positions, with results for prone DIBH at least as favorable as for supine DIBH. Mean heart dose was lowered from 2.2 Gy for prone SB to 1.3 Gy for prone DIBH (p < 0.001), while preserving the lung sparing ability of prone positioning. Moreover prone DIBH nearly consistently reduced mean heart dose to less then 2 Gy, regardless of breast volume. All patients were able to perform the simulation procedure, 28/30 patients were treated with prone DIBH. Conclusions: This trial demonstrates the ability and feasibility of prone DIBH to acquire optimal heart and lung sparing for left-sided WBI

  13. Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis Presenting as a Spontaneous Left-Sided Bacterial Empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason; Nathoo, Sunina

    2016-01-01

    Decompensation of cirrhosis presents with ascites, encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Infrequently, decompensation can result from spontaneous bacterial empyema. A 38-year-old man presented with fevers, chills, and dyspnea. Labs were significant for leukocytosis, transaminitis, and coagulopathy. Imaging showed liver cirrhosis with ascites and a left pleural effusion. Treatment of the effusion consisted of chest tube drainage and antibiotics. Spontaneous bacterial empyema was diagnosed after pleural fluid cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. Our case demonstrates that spontaneous bacterial empyemas can be left-sided, and the first sign of decompensation. PMID:26958567

  14. Left-Sided Whole Breast Irradiation with Hybrid-IMRT and Helical Tomotherapy Dosimetric Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    An-Cheng Shiau; Chen-Hsi Hsieh; Hui-Ju Tien; Hsin-Pei Yeh; Chi-Ta Lin; Pei-Wei Shueng; Le-Jung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Limited-tomotherapy and hybrid-IMRT treatment techniques were compared for reductions in ipsilateral and contralateral lung, heart, and contralateral breast radiation doses. Methods and Materials. Thirty consecutively treated left-sided early-stage breast cancer patients were scheduled for lTomo and hIMRT. For the hIMRT plan conventional tangential-field and four-field IMRT plans were combined with different weightings in the prescribed dose. For the lTomo plan a geometrically limite...

  15. Left-Sided Appendicitis in an Elderly Patient with Midgut Malrotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Pei Wen; Huang, Bo-Ming; Liu, Chung Hsien; Chen, Chien-Chin; Tsai, Ming-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Appendicitis is a common surgical abdominal disease with various presentations. Its diagnosis may be obscured by asymptomatic congenital anatomical anomalies like midgut malrotation. Midgut malrotation is a rare fetal anomaly resulting from incomplete or failure of midgut rotation and fixation. It is mostly presented with bowel obstruction or volvulus in early life. Presentation in adult is rare. Here, we report an elderly patient presented with left lower abdominal pain and urinary tract infection. Abdominal computed tomography revealed left-sided appendicitis with non-rotational-type midgut malrotation. Clinicians should bear in mind the possibility of underlying midgut malrotation, as appendicitis could be the first presentation of this rare congenital condition. PMID:27011586

  16. Seizures accelerate forgetting in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Daamen, M; Zang, H; Janszky, J; Ebner, A

    2001-07-10

    Ten patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy performed a word-position association learning task every 24 hours during video EEG monitoring. On 55 occasions recall performance was tested 30 minutes and 24 hours after the initial learning phase. Patients with left- but not right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited impaired retention of word position if a seizure had occurred during the preceding 24-hour interval. Seizures may impair the consolidation of memory in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy beyond the chronic memory deficits caused by the underlying pathology.

  17. Left-sided appendicitis:Review of 95 published cases and a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami; Akbulut; Abdullah; Ulku; Ayhan; Senol; Mahmut; Tas; Yusuf; Yagmur

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To give an overview of the literature on left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM).METHODS:We present a new case of LSAA with SIT and a literature review of studies published in the English language on LSAA,accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases.RESULTS:Ninety-five published cases of LSAA were evaluated and a 25-year-old female,who presented to our clinic with left lower abdominal pain caused by LSAA,is reported.In the reviewe...

  18. Warfarin therapy and incidence of cerebrovascular complications in left-sided native valve endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, U; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, C;

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy has been anticipated to increase the risk of cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in native valve endocarditis (NVE). This study investigates the relationship between ongoing oral anticoagulant therapy and the incidence of symptomatic CVC in left-sided NVE. In a prospective...... factors for CVC, while warfarin on admission (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.94), history of congestive heart failure (adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1-0.52) and previous endocarditis (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.79) correlated with lower CVC frequency....

  19. Functional Treatment of an Asymmetry Case Having Left Side Paralysis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenduz, Meliha; Uslu, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This case report presents the results of functional and myofunctional treatment of a 9-year, 5-month-old male patient with laterognathy, facial asymmetry and dentofacial deformity. The patient had a history of herpes encephalitis at age 8.5 months and palsy on the left side in early childhood, and his left side remained paralyzed as a sequela. The patient had dentoalveolar asymmetry with a Class I right and Class III left canine relation, a 1.5 mm midline deviation, anterior cross-bite, an overjet of −3 mm and an overbite of 3 mm. The dentoalveolar and facial asymmetries were corrected using a modified removable appliance, with an acrylic vestibular shield inserted on the right side to guide the mandible in the upper arch and an acrylic plate with artificial teeth in the lower arch. The patient was instructed to practice myofunctional exercises regularly. In total, treatment, including observation, was completed in a period of 2 years and 10 months, at which time, a marked correction in facial asymmetry and profile and improvement in smile esthetics could be observed. PMID:20613926

  20. Left-Sided Whole Breast Irradiation with Hybrid-IMRT and Helical Tomotherapy Dosimetric Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Cheng Shiau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Limited-tomotherapy and hybrid-IMRT treatment techniques were compared for reductions in ipsilateral and contralateral lung, heart, and contralateral breast radiation doses. Methods and Materials. Thirty consecutively treated left-sided early-stage breast cancer patients were scheduled for lTomo and hIMRT. For the hIMRT plan conventional tangential-field and four-field IMRT plans were combined with different weightings in the prescribed dose. For the lTomo plan a geometrically limited arc was designed for the beamlet entrance. A Dp of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions was used for the PTV. The dose coverage, homogeneity index, conformity index of the target, and the dose volumes of critical structures were compared. Results. Both modalities presented similar target coverage. The homogeneity and conformity were improved for lTomo with P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively. In the lTomo plan a concave dose distribution was generated with significant dose reductions in both high and low dose regions for ipsilateral lung and heart (P<0.001. Conclusions. lTomo plan can have similar dose coverage and better homogeneity and conformity to the target. By properly designing the directionally and completely blocked structure, lTomo plan was developed successfully in reducing doses to the healthy tissues for early-stage left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy.

  1. Fetal circulation in left-sided congenital heart disease measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; van Amerom, Joshua FP; Forsey, Jonathan; Jaeggi, Edgar; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K; Seed, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) is likely to influence fetal growth, organ development, and postnatal outcome, but has previously been difficult to study. We present the first measurements of the distribution of the fetal circulation in left-sided CHD made using phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-two fetuses with suspected left-sided CHD and twelve normal controls underwent fetal CMR and echocardiography at ...

  2. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  3. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs.......Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...

  4. Detection of Left-Sided and Right-Sided Hearing Loss via Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect hearing loss more efficiently and accurately, this study proposed a new method based on fractional Fourier transform (FRFT. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance images were obtained from 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, 20 healthy controls (HC, and 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL. Twenty-five FRFT spectrums were reduced by principal component analysis with thresholds of 90%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. The classifier is the single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network (SFN trained by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The results showed that the accuracies of all three classes are higher than 95%. In all, our method is promising and may raise interest from other researchers.

  5. An unusual masquerade of community acquired pneumonia: Left-side unilateral pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akashdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of pneumonia is clinical, based on the history of lower respiratory tract symptoms, physical, and/or radiographic signs of consolidation. Several diseases such as congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and chemical pneumonitis may present with similar symptoms, signs, and chest radiographs, thus delaying the definitive diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE is a rare clinical entity that is often misdiagnosed at first as a focal lung disease. We have presented an unusual case of left-sided UPE in a 76-year-old man who developed acute heart failure resulting from dietary and pharmacological noncompliance. The patient was successfully managed with decongestive therapy and non-invasive mechanical ventilation.

  6. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V5). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahao; Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua; Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu; Liu, Jian; Ma, Shenglin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V5). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing. PMID:25534167

  8. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiahao, E-mail: mashenglin@medmail.com.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Breast Surgery, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Shenglin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou First People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V{sub 5}). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing.

  9. Tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy technique for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to introduce a new restricted tangential volumetric modulated arc therapy (tVMAT) technique for whole breast irradiation and compare its dosimetric properties to other currently used breast cancer radiotherapy techniques. Ten consecutive women with left-sided breast cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study. Four treatment plans were generated for each patient: 1) standard tangential field-in-field (FinF), 2) tangential intensity modulated radiotherapy (tIMRT), 3) tangential VMAT (tVMAT) with two dual arcs of 50-60° and 4) continuous VMAT (cVMAT) with a dual arc of 240°. The plans were created with Monaco® (tIMRT, tVMAT and cVMAT) and Oncentra® (FinF) treatment planning systems. With both VMAT techniques significantly higher cardiac avoidance, dose coverage and dose homogenity were achieved when compared with FinF or tIMRT techniques (p < 0.01). VMAT techniques also decreased the high dose areas (above 20 Gy) of ipsilateral lung. There were no significant differences in the mean dose of contralateral breast between the tVMAT, tIMRT and FinF techniques. The dose coverage (V47.5 Gy) was greatest with cVMAT. However, with cVMAT the increase of contralateral breast dose was significant. The present results support the hypothesis that the introduced tVMAT technique is feasible for treatment of left-sided breast cancer. With tVMAT dose to heart and ipsilateral lung can be reduced and the dose homogeneity can be improved without increasing the dose to contralateral breast or lung

  10. Optimum level of inferior mesenteric artery ligation for the left-sided colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compares the effectiveness and impact of high inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) versus low IMA ligation on 5-year survival, lymph node yield rates, and peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Methods: The databases of Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), the Web of Science, EBSCO and MEDLINE were searched using MeSH terms ‘colorectal cancer’, ‘inferior mesenteric artery’, ‘high ligation’, ‘low ligation’, ‘mesenteric lymph nodes’, ‘prognosis’, and ‘survival’. Only clinical studies were selected and review articles and meta-analysis were excluded. In cases of duplicate cohorts, only the latest article was included. Irrelevant articles and the articles on both right and left sided CRC were excluded. The finally selected studies were analysed for the defined end-point outcomes. Results: The published data has shown that high IMA ligation improves the yield of harvested lymph node that allows accurate tumor staging and a more reliable estimation of prognosis. High ligation was not found to be positively correlated with increased anastomotic leakage or impaired genito-urinary function. However, high ligation demands advanced surgical expertise and longer operating time. There was no significant difference in 5-year survival rates for both techniques. Some studies have reported fatal complications of high ligation such as proximal bowel necrosis. Conclusion: Although there is no consensus, this research signals the routine use of high ligation for left-sided CRC. However, the published fatal complications following high ligation and no significant difference in 5-year survival rates demand more studies to establishing a unified protocol. PMID:27381531

  11. VMAT techniques for lymph node-positive left sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, Marlies; Lutterbach, Johannes; Bjoernsgard, Mari; Reichmann, Ursula; Bartelt, Susanne [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the plan quality of two different volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Two VMAT plans were generated for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients: one plan using one single segment of a full rotation, typically an arc segment of 230 (1s-VMAT); and a second plan consisting of 2 small tangential arc segments of about 50 (2s-VMAT). For plan comparison, various dose and dose volume metrics (D{sub mean}, D{sub 98%}, D{sub 2%} for target volumes, D{sub 2%}, D{sub mean} and V{sub x%} for organs at risk (OAR)) were evaluated. Both techniques fulfilled both clinical target dose and OAR goals. 1s-VMAT achieved a slightly better homogeneity and better target coverage (D{sub 2%} = 54.2 ± 0.7 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 30.3 ± 1.8 Gy) compared to 2s-VMAT (D{sub 2%} = 55.0 ± 1.1 Gy, D{sub 98%} = 29.9 ± 1.7 Gy). For geometrical reasons, OAR sparing was noticeable but not significant better using 2s-VMAT, particularly heart and contralateral breast. The heart received a mean dose of 4.4 ± 0.8 Gy using 1s-VMAT and 3.3 ± 1.0 Gy using 2s-VMAT; the contralateral breast received 1.5 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.9 ± 0.3 Gy, respectively. A VMAT technique based on two small tangential arc segments enables improved OAR sparing; the differences between the two techniques in target coverage and homogeneity are minor. Patient age and -anatomy must be considered for each individual case when deciding which technique to be used.

  12. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

  13. A comparative dosimetric study of left sided breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery treated with VMAT and IMRT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hongfu; He, Mingyuan; Cheng, Guanghui; Han, Dongmei; Wu, Ning; Shi, Dan; Zhao, Zhipeng; Jin, Jianxue

    2015-01-01

    Background and purposes This study compared VMAT and IMRT plans for intact breast radiotherapy for left sided breast cancer and evaluated the irradiated dose of planning target volume and OARs, especially focusing on heart and coronary artery. Materials and methods Eleven patients with left sided breast cancer whose breast was relatively smaller (the mean volumes is 296 cc) treated with breast-conserving surgery were prescribed radiotherapy of 50 Gy in 25 fractions using two or four-field ste...

  14. An unusual case of metastasis to the left side of the heart: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyars Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac metastases are found in six to 20% of autopsies of patients with malignant neoplasm. The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the heart are malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia, but the relative numbers are greater with breast and lung cancers, reflecting the most common incidence of these cancers. Case presentation A 60-year-old Hispanic man presented to our hospital after being transferred from an outside hospital for workup and evaluation of an adrenal mass of the abdomen and pelvis, found on computed tomography. His chief complaint upon admission was altered mental status. Physical examination was unremarkable. He was alert and oriented and had a dry and non-erythematous oropharynx, and bilateral diffuse wheezing on lung examination. Computed tomography of the chest showed multiple hypodense lesions in the left ventricular myocardium, suggestive of metastases. There were also tiny sub-centimeter nodular densities in the right upper and lower lobes. Adrenal glands contained hypodense lesions, which showed characteristic adenocarcinomatous malignant cells. Conclusion Cancers which have metastasized to the heart are found in six to 20% of patients with malignant neoplasms. The right side of the heart is more commonly involved in metastasis. This study is unusual in that a tumor of an unknown primary origin had metastasized to the left side of the heart.

  15. Predicting the optimal depth of left-sided central venous catheters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Jeong, C-H; Byon, H-J; Shin, H K; Yun, T J; Lee, J-H; Park, Y-H; Kim, J-T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the optimal depth for insertion of a left-sided central venous catheter in children. Using 3D chest computed tomography angiography, we measured the distance from a point where the internal jugular vein is at the superior border of the clavicle, and from a point where the subclavian vein is inferior to the anterior border of the clavicle, to the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium in 257 children. Linear regression analysis revealed that the distances correlated with age, weight and height. Simple formulae for the depth of a central venous catheter via the left internal jugular vein (0.07 × height (cm)) and the left subclavian vein (0.08 × height (cm)) were developed to predict placement of the central venous catheter tip at the junction of the superior vena cava with the right atrium. Using these fomulae, the proportion of catheter tips predicted to be correctly located was 98.5% (95% CI 96.8-100%) and 94.0% (95% CI 90.8-97.3%), respectively.

  16. Noninvasive identification of left-sided heart failure in a population suspected of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wouter; Konings, Thelma C; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Bogaard, Harm Jan; van Rossum, Albert C; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2015-08-01

    Exclusion of pulmonary hypertension secondary to left-sided heart disease (left heart failure (LHF)) is pivotal in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In case of doubt, invasive measurements are recommended. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether it is possible to diagnose LHF using noninvasive parameters in a population suspected of PAH.300 PAH and 80 LHF patients attended our pulmonary hypertension clinic before August 2010, and were used to build the predictive model. 79 PAH and 55 LHF patients attended our clinic from August 2010, and were used for prospective validation.A medical history of left heart disease, S deflection in V1 plus R deflection in V6 in millimetres on ECG, and left atrial dilation or left valvular heart disease that is worse than mild on echocardiography were independent predictors of LHF. The derived risk score system showed good predictive characteristics: R(2)=0.66 and area under the curve 0.93. In patients with a risk score ≥72, there is 100% certainty that the cause of pulmonary hypertension is LHF. Using this risk score system, the number of right heart catheterisations in LHF may be reduced by 20%.In a population referred under suspicion of PAH, a predictive model incorporating medical history, ECG and echocardiography data can diagnose LHF noninvasively in a substantial percentage of cases. PMID:25837029

  17. Reduced-dose abdominopelvic CT using hybrid iterative reconstruction in suspected left-sided colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laqmani, Azien; Dulz, Simon; Behzadi, Cyrus; Schmidt-Holtz, Jakob; Wassenberg, Felicia; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Sehner, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, Hans-Dieter [Scientific and Application-oriented Studies and Consulting in Radiology (SASCRAD), Buchholz (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the effect of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and filtered back projection (FBP) on abdominopelvic CT with reduced-dose (RD-APCT) in the evaluation of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis (ALCD). Twenty-five consecutive patients with suspected ALCD who underwent RD-APCT (mean CTDIvol 11.2 ± 4.2 mGy) were enrolled in this study. Raw data were reconstructed using FBP and two increasing HIR levels, L4 and L6. Two radiologists assessed image quality, image noise and reviewer confidence in interpreting findings of ALCD, including wall thickening, pericolic fat inflammation, pericolic abscess, and contained or free extraluminal air. Objective image noise (OIN) was measured. OIN was reduced up to 54 % with HIR compared to FBP. Subjective image quality of HIR images was superior to FBP; subjective image noise was reduced. The detection rate of extraluminal air was higher with HIR L6. Reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings of ALCD significantly improved with application of HIR. RD-APCT with HIR offers superior image quality and lower image noise compared to FBP, allowing a high level of reviewer confidence in interpreting CT findings in ALCD. HIR facilitates detection of ALCD findings that may be missed with the FBP algorithm. (orig.)

  18. AN UNASCENDED RIGHT KIDNEY WITH LEFT SIDED URETERIC CALCULI: A CADAVERIC CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meril Ann Soman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the urinary system constitute approximately 30% of all the congenital malformations. There are various associated anomalies involving number, size, shape, position and vascularity of the kidneys. Unascended kidneys refers to a halt in the migration of the kidneys during their normal embryological development. Defect in the ascent of the kidneys are closely related with variations in the branching pattern of aorta. Here we report a case of an unilateral unascended right kidney in a male cadaver encountered during routine medical dissection. A left sided ureteric calculi was also seen as an incidental finding in the same cadaver. Ureterolithiasis occurs worldwide in all sets of population with 80% of the stones found in the male sex in the age group of 30- 60 years. There are various factors which favour the formation of ureteric calculi which includes geographical, socio-economical as well as the mineral content of water consumed and some general medical causes. An attempt has been made to document the causes for this variation and the preventive measures that can be adopted to prevent the formation of ureteric calculi.

  19. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Essers, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 13 patients, four treatment co

  20. A Left-Sided Prevalence of Lentigo Maligna: A UK Based Observational Study and Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gorman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer has been shown to present asymmetrically, prevalent on the left side of the body, more so in subtypes of cutaneous melanoma such as lentigo maligna. Biases have been linked to cumulative UV light exposure and automobile driving patterns. Though left-right ratios have previously correlated with the side men or women tend to position themselves or countries drive on, more recent trends indicate a consistent left-sided bias. To clarify reasons for changing trends, a review of the evidence base and LM’s laterality in a UK cohort (99 cases 2000–2011 was conducted for the first time. The strong correlation of left-sided excess, found in both genders (ratios 1.381–1.5, P<0.05  X2 0.841, is congruent with more recent findings. Though evidence indicates that driving position is no longer a risk factor for LM, due most likely to improved car window UV protection, it remains the most commonly attributed cause. Understanding phenomena such as UV lights “scatter effect” or that cumulative exposure may not be a significant risk factor helps rationalize older conclusions that would otherwise appear contradictory. The reasons for left-sided excess remain unclear but may be due to factors requiring further research such as the body’s anatomical/embryological asymmetry.

  1. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  2. Successful resection of osteosarcoma pulmonary metastasis extending into left side of heart under cardiopulmonary bypass: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴(王莹); 沈钢

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cancerous thrombi of metastatic tumors rarely extend into the cardiac cavity, but such cases usually contraindicate surgery. Here, we report a patient in whom osteosarcoma pulmonary metastasis extended into the left side of the heart, which had metastasized to the left lung after surgery of the chondroblastoma of the left knee, was successfully excised in bloc under CPB.

  3. Deep inspiration breath hold technique reduces heart dose from radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjuvant left breast radiotherapy (ALBR) for breast cancer can result in significant radiation dose to the heart. Current evidence suggests a dose–response relationship between the risk of cardiac morbidity and radiation dose to cardiac volumes. This study explores the potential benefit of utilising a deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique to reduce cardiac doses. Thirty patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent CT-simulation scans in free breathing (FB) and DIBH. Treatment plans were generated using a hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique with simultaneous integrated boost. A dosimetric comparison was made between the two techniques for the heart, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), left lung and contralateral breast. Compared with FB, DIBH resulted in a significant reduction in heart V30 (7.1 vs. 2.4%, P < 0.0001), mean heart dose (6.9 vs. 3.9 Gy, P < 0.001), maximum LAD planning risk volume (PRV) dose, (51.6 vs. 45.6 Gy, P = 0.0032) and the mean LAD PRV dose (31.7 vs. 21.9 Gy, P < 0.001). No significant difference was noted for lung V20, mean lung dose or mean dose to the contralateral breast. The DIBH plans demonstrated significantly larger total lung volumes (1126 vs. 2051 cc, P < 0.0001), smaller maximum heart depth (2.08 vs. 1.17 cm, P < 0.0001) and irradiated heart volume (36.9 vs. 12.1 cc, P < 0.0001). DIBH resulted in a significant reduction in radiation dose to the heart and LAD compared with an FB technique for ALBR. Ongoing research is required to determine optimal cardiac dose constraints and methods of predicting which patients will derive the most benefit from a DIBH technique.

  4. Positron emission tomographic localization of left-sided unilateral spatial agnosia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to clarify the localization and the underlying mechanisms of left-sided unilateral spatial agnosia (LUSA). Eleven right-handed patients with cerebral infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery who had LUSA were included in this study. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were measured with PET using 15O steady state method. Sixteen right-handed patients with cerebral infarction who did not exhibit LUSA served as a control group. The mean local values of CBF and CMRO2 in the control group were 37.4 ml/100 ml tissue/min and 2.66 ml/100 ml tissue/min, respectively. By contrast, those values of CBF and CMRO2 in the patients with LUSA were 21.7 ml/100 ml tissue/min and 1.43 ml/100 ml tissue/min, respectively. Both CBF and CMRO2 in the right posterior parietal region were significantly lower in the patients with LUSA as compared with the control group (p 2 between 1.8 and 2.2 ml/100 ml tissue/min. These ranges of CBF and CMRO2 in the right parietal region were considered to include the threshold level producing LUSA. The CMRO2 values were more stabilized in the course of cerebral infarction as compared with the CBF values which may be variable on account of luxury perfusion syndrome. The right posterior parietal CMRO2 values less than 2.0 ml/100 ml tissue/min was considered to be critical in causing LUSA. The above results may suggest that severe damages of CBF and metabolism in the posterior part of the right parietal lobe play an important role in the occurrence of LUSA. (J.P.N.)

  5. Distinctive left-sided distribution of adrenergic-derived cells in the adult mouse heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Osuala

    Full Text Available Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced within the heart from neuronal and non-neuronal sources. These adrenergic hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular development and function, yet relatively little information is available about the specific tissue distribution of adrenergic cells within the adult heart. The purpose of the present study was to define the anatomical localization of cells derived from an adrenergic lineage within the adult heart. To accomplish this, we performed genetic fate-mapping experiments where mice with the cre-recombinase (Cre gene inserted into the phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase (Pnmt locus were cross-mated with homozygous Rosa26 reporter (R26R mice. Because Pnmt serves as a marker gene for adrenergic cells, offspring from these matings express the β-galactosidase (βGAL reporter gene in cells of an adrenergic lineage. βGAL expression was found throughout the adult mouse heart, but was predominantly (89% located in the left atrium (LA and ventricle (LV (p<0.001 compared to RA and RV, where many of these cells appeared to have cardiomyocyte-like morphological and structural characteristics. The staining pattern in the LA was diffuse, but the LV free wall displayed intermittent non-random staining that extended from the apex to the base of the heart, including heavy staining of the anterior papillary muscle along its perimeter. Three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction of XGAL+ staining revealed distribution throughout the LA and LV, with specific finger-like projections apparent near the mid and apical regions of the LV free wall. These data indicate that adrenergic-derived cells display distinctive left-sided distribution patterns in the adult mouse heart.

  6. Human pulmonary vascular and venous compliances are reduced before and during left-sided heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, S; Suzuki, T; Gotoh, K; Ito, H; Tanaka, T; Ohsumi, Y; Yagi, Y; Terashima, Y; Fujiwara, H; Nagashima, K

    1995-01-01

    Human pulmonary vascular and venous compliances were measured in 41 patients with or without left-sided heart failure. Two methods were used. Method 1 was based on analysis of pulmonary capillary wedge (PCW) pressure tracings according to Cv,PCW = (SF/100)(0.075PCW + 0.90)SV/[(v - d)PCW + 1], where Cv,PCW is compliance of pulmonary venous system, SF is systolic fraction of pulmonary venous flow [related to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCW) as SF = 82 - 2.01PCW], (v - d)PCW is pulse pressure in PCW position, and SV is stroke volume. The (0.075PCW + 0.90) term equals k", i.e., systolic run-off ratio. Method 2 was used to measure to pulmonary vascular volume-pressure (V-P) relationship and pulmonary vascular compliance (Cvasc) and is based on measurement of pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and its increase with passive elevation of the legs to calculate Cvasc. Assuming the proportion of blood entering pulmonary venous system (in increase of PBV) during passive leg elevation to be 0.8, pulmonary venous compliance (Cv,PBV) was calculated as Cv,PBV = 0.8Cvasc. Cv,PCW correlated fairly closely with Cv,PBV (r = 0.81, coefficient of variation = 31%). This fair agreement between two independent methods suggests strongly that both methods may be valid, although other interpretations are possible. Cv,PCW, Cvasc, and Cv,PBV decreased going from New York Heart Association class I to classes II and III. When PBV was plotted vs. PCW, average V-P line for class II patients was flatter and shifted downward to the right compared with that for class I. This suggests pulmonary vasoconstriction as well as other factors. Average V-P line for class III patients is flatter but not displaced compared with that for class II. Another previously reported series of 50 patients, most of whom had ischemic heart disease, are included in this study. PMID:7713833

  7. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xqi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Tian X. [Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Liu, Arthur K.; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Hu, Y. Angie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed

  8. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients: Geometrical Uncertainty of the Heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topolnjak, Rajko; Borst, Gerben R.; Nijkamp, Jasper [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Huis, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Radiotherapy Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Huis, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the geometrical uncertainties for the heart during radiotherapy treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients and to determine and validate planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margins. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients treated in supine position in 28 fractions with regularly acquired cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans for offline setup correction were included. Retrospectively, the CBCT scans were reconstructed into 10-phase respiration correlated four-dimensional scans. The heart was registered in each breathing phase to the planning CT scan to establish the respiratory heart motion during the CBCT scan ({sigma}{sub resp}). The average of the respiratory motion was calculated as the heart displacement error for a fraction. Subsequently, the systematic ({Sigma}), random ({sigma}), and total random ({sigma}{sub tot}={radical}({sigma}{sup 2}+{sigma}{sub resp}{sup 2})) errors of the heart position were calculated. Based on the errors a PRV margin for the heart was calculated to ensure that the maximum heart dose (D{sub max}) is not underestimated in at least 90% of the cases (M{sub heart} = 1.3{Sigma}-0.5{sigma}{sub tot}). All analysis were performed in left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) directions with respect to both online and offline bony anatomy setup corrections. The PRV margin was validated by accumulating the dose to the heart based on the heart registrations and comparing the planned PRV D{sub max} to the accumulated heart D{sub max}. Results: For online setup correction, the cardiac geometrical uncertainties and PRV margins were N-Ary-Summation = 2.2/3.2/2.1 mm, {sigma} = 2.1/2.9/1.4 mm, and M{sub heart} = 1.6/2.3/1.3 mm for LR/CC/AP, respectively. For offline setup correction these were N-Ary-Summation = 2.4/3.7/2.2 mm, {sigma} = 2.9/4.1/2.7 mm, and M{sub heart} = 1.6/2.1/1.4 mm. Cardiac motion induced by breathing was {sigma}{sub resp} = 1.4/2.9/1.4 mm for LR/CC/AP. The PRV D{sub max

  9. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values 40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean <30 breaths/min at home. Clinicians can use these data to help determine how best to control CHF in dogs and cats.

  10. Left-sided appendicitis in children with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a diagnostic pitfall in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Issa, Ghada; Hourani, Roula; Akel, Samir

    2013-06-10

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring emergency surgery. However, acute appendicitis presenting with left lower quadrant abdominal pain is extremely rare. Imaging, particularly CT , plays an important role in establishing an accurate and prompt diagnosis, as delay in diagnosis may occur due to lack of uniformity in the clinical signs and symptoms. We report a rare case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with persistent left lower quadrant pain of several days duration, in which the CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was essential in establishing the correct diagnosis. The malpositioned inflamed appendix was clearly identified in the left side of the abdomen, with the characteristic CT findings of uncomplicated intestinal malrotation. Left-sided acute appendicitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young patients presenting with left lower quadrant pain, in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and guide the surgical intervention.

  11. Radiographic and echocardiographic assessment of left atrial size in 100 cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Karsten E; Wetli, Ellen; Drost, Wm Tod

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate left atrial size in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that left atrial size as determined by thoracic radiography can be normal in cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure. One hundred cats with acute left-sided congestive heart failure in which thoracic radiography and echocardiography were performed within 12 h were identified. Left atrial size was evaluated using right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs. Measurements were compared to two-dimensional echocardiographic variables of left atrial size and left ventricular size. On echocardiography, left atrial enlargement was observed in 96% cats (subjective assessment) whereas maximum left atrial dimension was increased (>15.7 mm) in 93% cats. On radiographs left atrial enlargement (subjective assessment) was found in 48% (lateral view), 53% (ventrodorsal view), and 64% (any view) of cats whereas left atrial enlargement was absent in 36% of cats in both views. Agreement between both methods of left atrial size estimation was poor (Cohen's kappa 0.17). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a maximum echocardiographic left atrial dimension of approximately 20 mm as the best compromise (Youden index) between sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of radiographic left atrial enlargement. Left atrial enlargement as assessed by thoracic radiography may be absent in a clinically relevant number of cats with congestive heart failure. Therefore, normal left atrial size on thoracic radiographs does not rule out presence of left-sided congestive heart failure in cats with clinical signs of respiratory distress.

  12. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS......: Consecutive patients with LNVIE, enrolled between January 2000 and September 2006, in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis were identified. Subjects without S aureus IE were matched to those with S aureus IE by the propensity of having S aureus. Survival differences were determined using log...

  13. The deep inspiration breath hold technique using Abches reduces cardiac dose in patients undergoing left-sided breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored whether the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique using Abches during left-sided breast irradiation was effective for minimizing the amount of radiation to the heart and lung compared to free breathing (FB). Between February and July 2012, a total of 25 patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent two computed tomography scans each with the DIBH using Abches and using FB after breast-conserving surgery. The scans were retrospectively replanned using standardized criteria for the purpose of this study. The DIBH plans for each patient were compared with FB plans using dosimetric parameters. All patients were successfully treated with the DIBH technique using Abches. Significant differences were found between the DIBH and FB plans for mean heart dose (2.52 vs. 4.53 Gy), heart V30 (16.48 vs. 45.13 cm3), V20 (21.35 vs. 54.55 cm3), mean left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) dose (16.01 vs. 26.26 Gy, all p 3 of the LAD (41.65 vs. 47.27 Gy, p = 0.017). The mean left lung dose (7.53 vs. 8.03 Gy, p = 0.073) and lung V20 (14.63% vs. 15.72%, p 0.060) of DIBH using Abches were not different significantly compared with FB. We report that the use of a DIBH technique using Abches in breathing adapted radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer is easily feasible in daily practice and significantly reduces the radiation doses to the heart and LAD, therefore potentially reducing cardiac risk.

  14. Contralateral breast doses depending on treatment set-up positions for left-sided breast tangential irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Chan Seong; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Chung, Yoon Sun; Park, Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate Contralateral Breast Doses with Supine and Prone Positions for tangential Irradiation techniques for left-sided breast Cancer We performed measurements for contralateral doses using Human Phantom at each other three plans (conventional technique, Field-in-Field, IMRT, with prescription of 50 Gy/25fx). For the measurement of contralateral doses we used Glass dosimeters on the 4 points of Human Phantom surface (0 mm, 10 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm). For the position check at every measurements, we had taken portal images using EPID and denoted the incident points on the human phantom for checking the constancy of incident points. The contralateral doses in supine position showed a little higher doses than those in prone position. In the planning study, contralateral doses in the prone position increased mean doses of 1.2% to 1.8% at each positions while those in the supine positions showed mean dose decreases of 0.8% to 0.9%. The measurements using glass dosimeters resulted in dose increases (mean: 2.7%, maximum: 4% of the prescribed dose) in the prone position. In addition, the delivery techniques of Field-in-field and IMRT showed mean doses of 3% higher than conventional technique. We evaluated contralateral breast doses depending on different positions of supine and prone for tangential irradiations. For the phantom simulation of set-up variation effects on contralateral dose evaluation, although we used humanoid phantom for planning and measurements comparisons, it would be more or less worse set-up constancy in a real patient. Therefore, more careful selection of determination of patient set-up for the breast tangential irradiation, especially in the left-sided breast, should be considered for unwanted dose increases to left lung and heart. In conclusion, intensive patient monitoring and improved patient set-up verification efforts should be necessary for the application of prone position for tangential irradiation of left-sided breast cancer.

  15. Overestimated Oncologic Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in G1 Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Tumor in the Left Side of the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Yang, Seok Jeong; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kang, Chang Moo; Kim, Hogeun; Lee, Woo Jung

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have expounded on the oncologic significance of lymph node metastasis in nonfunctioning (NF) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas and suggest regional lymph node dissection for treating pancreatic NET. We tested this recommendation in NF pancreatic NET-G1, as these tumors are generally small and suitable for function-preserving minimally invasive pancreatectomy.From January 2005 to December 2014, medical records of patients who underwent pancreatectomy for pathologically confirmed NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Oncologic outcomes were compared between limited pancreatectomy and distal pancreatosplenectomy.Thirty-five patients (14 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 55.9 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in this study. Six patients (17.1%) underwent distal pancreatosplenectomy. Limited pancreatectomies comprised 15 spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomies (42.8%), 10 enucleations (28.6%), and 4 central pancreatectomies (11.4%). Lymph node metastasis was not found in 6 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy with a splenectomy; meanwhile, the others were regarded as pNx since no lymph node retrieval was attempted during the limited pancreatectomy. Overall disease-free survival was 36.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.9-47.1) and no tumor-related mortality was noted. Minimally invasive pancreatectomy (P = 0.557) and limited pancreatectomy (P = 0.758) showed no adverse impact in treating NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas.The oncologic significance of lymph node metastasis is overestimated in NF NET-G1 of the left side of the pancreas. Routine conventional distal pancreatosplenectomy to retrieve regional lymph nodes may be too excessive in treating NF NET-G1 of the distal pancreas.

  16. Node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Does VMAT improve treatment plan quality with respect to IMRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, M.; Bartelt, S.; Lutterbach, J. [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, D. [Medical University Vienna/AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to explore plan quality and dosimetric accuracy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Methods: VMAT and IMRT plans were generated with the Pinnacle{sup 3} V9.0 treatment planning system for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients. VMAT plans were created using a single arc and IMRT was performed with 4 beams using 6, 10, and 15 MV photon energy, respectively. Plans were evaluated both manually and automatically using ArtiView trademark. Dosimetric plan verification was performed with a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. Results: Photon energy had no significant influence on plan quality for both VMAT and IMRT. Large variability in low doses to the heart was found due to patient anatomy (range V{sub 5} {sub Gy} 26.5-95 %). Slightly more normal tissue dose was found for VMAT (e.g., V{sub Tissue30%} = 22 %) than in IMRT (V{sub Tissue30%} = 18 %). The manual and ArtiView trademark plan evaluation coincided very accurately for most dose metrics (difference < 1 %). In VMAT, 96.7 % of detector points passed the 3 %/3 mm gamma criterion; marginally better accuracy was found in IMRT (98.3 %). Conclusion: VMAT for node-positive left-sided breast cancer retains target homogeneity and coverage when compared to IMRT and allows maximum doses to organs at risk to be reduced. ArtiView trademark enables fast and accurate plan evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Segmental omental infarction in childhood: an unusual case of left-sided location with extension into the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segmental omental infarction (OI) is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children. It generally occurs in the right lower and upper quadrants of the abdomen and only a few cases of other locations have been described in adults. We report a unique paediatric case of OI with an unusual left-sided location extending into the pelvis in a 6-year-old non-obese girl. The diagnosis was suspected on US and CT based on imaging patterns previously described in adults and children. Laparoscopic resection should be balanced with nonsurgical management. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of clinical features of left-sided infective endocarditis involving previously normal versus previously abnormal valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Del Trigo, María; Ferrera, Carlos; Vivas, David; Maroto, Luis; Hernández, Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; San Román, José Alberto

    2014-07-15

    Native valve infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with normal valves has increased in the last decades. Whether patients with normal valves present a similar prognosis to those with pathologic valves is unresolved. Our aim is to describe epidemiologic and clinical differences between patients with left-sided IE and normal valves and those with native pathologic valves. We analyzed 945 consecutive episodes of IE, 435 of which involved left-sided nonprosthetic IE. They were classified into 2 groups: episodes in normal valves (normal group, n=173) and episodes in pathologic valves (abnormal group, n=262). Patients in the normal group were younger, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis were more frequently isolated, and vegetations were more frequently found. Heart failure, septic shock, and the need for surgery or death were more common. Multivariate analysis identified the following as factors independently associated with normal valve IE: agevalve IE, patients with IE on normal valves were younger, had a more virulent microbiological profile, developed heart failure and septic shock more frequently, needed more surgical procedures, and had worse prognosis.

  19. EDUCATIONAL PECULIARITIES AND DIFFICULTIES OF CHILDREN WITH LEFT-SIDED LATERALITY: THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sitnikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a significant increase of the incidence of left-handedness and sinistrality among schoolchildren. Theydemonstrate a large number of left-sided motor and sensory preferences which are considered as external markers offunctional hemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The purposes of this study are to investigate gender peculiarities and specificityof age-related dynamics of laterality pattern’s formation in junior schoolchildren and to find out educational peculiarities anddifficulties of left-handed children. The findings show that left-handers differ greatly in their mental development by havingsome peculiarities of intelligence, world’s perception and prevailing thinking strategies, ways of memorization, specificity ofemotional-affective expression. The main problems of left-handed children in school performance are academic failure, lack ofperseverance, anxiety neurosis, and extreme emotional lability. Integrated development of the left hemisphere and the righthemisphere thinking of left-handed schoolchildren is a favorable condition for harmonious personal and intellectualdevelopment and effective mastering of various modules of the school curriculum. The technological solution of the problem ofteaching the children with left-sided laterality is to include in educational programs some special exercises to developimagination, emotional sensitivity, integrity of perception, global view to the problems, creativeness, and original approachesto tasks’ solving. So a complex program for the intensive development of the right hemisphere of children who demonstrateleft-sided laterality to overcome the possible failure at primary school is proposed in this paper.

  20. Imaging analysis of heart movement for improving the respiration-gated radiotherapy in patients with left sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhamid, Rania; Farrag, A.; Khalifa, A. [Clinical Oncology Department, Assiut University (Egypt); Block, Andreas [Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenschutz, Klinikum Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Respiration induced heart movement during radiotherapy exposes the heart to the inevitable risks of radio-exposure, and hence radiation injury, in cases of Lt. sided breast cancer. The impact of such a risk is additionally aggravated by the use of radiotherapy in combination with cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Radio-oncologists pay special attention to the coronary arteries that might be included in this small part of the heart exposed to radiation. The aim of this study was to include the internal heart movement for improving respiration-gated radiotherapy of left sided breast cancer. For 70 patients, all females left sided breast cancer, two planning CT's in inspiration and expiration, and one free breathing scan are performed. The heart motion was analyzed with the clinic-developed software ORAT in the simulator sequence for acquiring information of the cranio-caudal amplitude of heart movements in free breathing (respiration-induced amplitude) and a 15 seconds breath-hold phase (inherent amplitude). The role of inherent heart movement varies from one patient to another which should be taken in consideration during defining the parameters of respiration-gated radiotherapy. The inherent amplitude of the heart motion is the physiological lower limit of the respiration-gating window.

  1. Differential auditory-oculomotor interactions in patients with right versus left sided subjective tinnitus: A saccade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eLang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective tinnitus (ST is a frequent but poorly understood medical condition. Recent studies demonstrated abnormalities in several types of eye movements (smooth pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus, fixation and vergence in ST patients. The present study investigates horizontal and vertical saccades in patients with tinnitus lateralized predominantly to the left or to the right side. Compared to left sided ST, tinnitus perceived on the right side impaired almost all the parameters of saccades (latency, amplitude, velocity, etc. and noticeably the upward saccades. Relative to controls, saccades from both groups were more dysmetric and were characterized by increased saccade disconjugacy (i.e. poor binocular coordination. Although the precise mechanisms linking ST and saccadic control remain unexplained, these data suggest that ST can lead to detrimental auditory, visuomotor and perhaps vestibular interactions.

  2. Results and evaluation of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy after homologous left-sided lung transplantation in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left-sided homologous lung transplantations (LTP) were carried out in 18 mongrel dogs. Exhalation and perfusion scintigraphies was performed for interpreting the ventilation and perfusion in the postoperative course. The per cent 133Xe storage and the exhalation per minute showed the significant reduction of the ventilation in the transplants dependent on the duration of the postoperative interval. The compensation behavior of the ventilation of the non-operated lung showed the compartment analysis. The perfusion index Q/sub L//Q/sub R/ with /sup 99m/Tc decreased progressively in the postoperative course. These investigation methods are slightly invasive. They allow the synoptic recording of the relationships between ventilation and perfusion. A differential diagnosis of complications after lung transplantations is not possible, however. (author)

  3. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  4. Myocardial perfusion changes in patients irradiated for left-sided breast cancer and correlation with coronary artery distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate postradiation regional heart perfusion changes with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging in 69 patients treated with tangential photon beams radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer. To correlate SPECT changes with percent irradiated left ventricle (LV) volume and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Materials: Rest SPECT of the LV was acquired pre-RT and at 6-month intervals post-RT. The extent of defects (%) with a severity > 1.5 standard deviations below the mean was quantitatively analyzed for the distributions of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left circumflex (LCX) artery, and right coronary artery (RCA) based on computer assisted polar map reconstruction (i.e., bull's-eye-view). Changes in perfusion were correlated with percent irradiated LV receiving > 25 Gy (range 0-32%). Data on patient- and treatment-related factors were collected prospectively (e.g., cardiac premorbidity, risk factors for CAD, chemotherapy, and hormonal treatment). Results: In the LAD distribution, there were increased perfusion defects at 6 months (median 11%; interquartile range 2-23) compared with baseline (median 5%; interquartile range 1-14) (p<0.001). There were no increases in perfusion defects in the LCX or RCA distributions. In multivariate analysis, the SPECT perfusion changes in the LAD distribution at 6 months were independently associated with percent irradiated LV (p<0.001), hormonal therapy (p=0.005), and pre-RT hypercholesterolemia (p=0.006). The SPECT defects in the LAD distribution at 12 and 18 months were not statistically different from those at 6 months. The perfusion defects in the LAD distribution were limited essentially to the regions of irradiated myocardium. Conclusion: Tangential photon beam RT in patients with left-sided breast cancer was associated with short-term SPECT defects in the vascular distribution corresponding to the radiation portals. Factors

  5. Clinical application of self-expanding metallic stent in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ben Fan; Ying-Sheng Cheng; Ni-Wei Chen; Hui-Min Xu; Zhe Yang; Yue Wang; Yu-Yao Huang; Qi Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our experience with the application of self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in the management of acute left-sided colorectal malignant obstruction.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing placement of SEMS between April 2000 and January 2004 was performed.RESULTS: Insertion of SEMS was attempted in 26patients under fluoroscopic guidance with occasional endoscopic assistance. The sites of lesions were located in splenic flexure of two patients, left colon of seven patients, sigmoid colon of eight patients and rectum of nine patients. The intended uses of SEMS were for palliation in 7 patients and as a bridge to elective surgery in 19 patients. In the latter group, placement of SEMS allowed for preoperative systemic and bowel preparation and the following one-stage anastomosis. Successful stent placement was achieved in 22 (85%) of the 26patients. The clinical bowel obstruction resolved 24 hours after successful stent placement in 21 (95%) patients.Three SEMS-related minor complications occurred, two stents migrated and one caused anal pain.CONCLUSION: SEMS represents an effective and safe tool in the management of acute malignant colorectal obstruction. As a bridge to surgery, SEMS can provide time for systematic support and bowel preparation and obviate the need for fecal diversion or on-table lavage.As a palliative measure, SEMS can eliminate the need for emergent colostomy.

  6. Mitogen activated protein kinases: a role in inflammatory bowel disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broom, O J; Widjaya, B; Troelsen, J;

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been implicated in an ever-increasingly diverse array of pathways, including inflammatory signalling cascades. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease...... and their related signalling proteins in influencing the progression of IBD....

  7. Early closure of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgery for stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, JE van; Fockens, P.; Marinelli, A.W.; Timmer, R.; Berkel, AM van; Bossuyt, P.M.; Bemelman, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The introduction of self-expandable metal stents has offered a promising alternative for palliation of malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess whether a nonsurgical policy, with endoluminal stenting, is superior to surgical

  8. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  9. Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Tarbiat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery.Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides.Results: On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. 177 catheterizations (91.7% were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1% on the right side and 72 (91.1% on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6% was significantly more than the left side (0% (P= 0.003. The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant.Conclusion: Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides.

  10. Case Series: Fetal Pulmonary Vein A-Wave Reversal: An Early Marker of Left-Sided Cardiac Anomalies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo L. Schenone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Improvements in congenital heart disease (CHD screening are needed based on the lack of sensitivity of current screening methods and the understanding that the early detection of certain CHDs may improve outcomes. Fetal venous circulation has caught medical attention, and two studies demonstrated that it is feasible to register pulmonary vein flow velocity waveforms (FVWs during early gestation. Meanwhile, the latter study proposed pulmonary vein A-wave reversal as a marker of cardiac anomaly. Methods - We report a series of six consecutive fetuses with confirmed cardiac anomalies that underwent first-trimester screening, including pulmonary vein FVWs, at our center during 2013. CHD was confirmed by late pregnancy echocardiography, and in three cases fetal autopsies were performed. Result/Discussion - The ductus venosus (DV and nuchal translucency (NT predicted 50% of CHD cases, whereas the combination of markers identified 66.6% of CHD cases. When adding pulmonary vein assessment, the rate of detection rose to 83.3%. Total five of six cases of CHD had reversal of pulmonary vein A-wave during early pregnancy. The sixth case with CHD and nonreversal of A-wave was described as right ventricle hypoplasia with type 1 tricuspid atresia and persistent ductus arteriosus. Conclusion This is the first series reporting pulmonary vein end-diastolic reversal as a CHD screening add-on during early pregnancy. The addition of pulmonary vein FVW assessment to the current CHD screening bundle could increase the rate detection of cardiac anomalies. This pilot study suggests that pulmonary vein end-diastolic flow reversal favors detection of left-sided CHD over the right-sided ones.

  11. Abnormal left-sided orbitomedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity during happy and fear face processing: a potential neural mechanism of female MDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eAlmeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathophysiologic processes supporting abnormal emotion regulation in major depressive disorder (MDD are poorly understood. We previously found abnormal inverse left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical- amygdala effective connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD. We aimed to replicate and expand this previous finding in an independent participant sample, using a more inclusive neural model, and a novel emotion-processing paradigm.Methods: Nineteen individuals with MDD in depressed episode (12 females, and nineteen healthy individuals, age and gender matched, performed an implicit emotion processing and automatic attentional control paradigm to examine abnormalities in prefrontal cortical-amygdala neural circuitry during happy, angry, fearful and sad face processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a 3Tesla scanner. Effective connectivity was estimated with Dynamic Causal Modelling in a trinodal neural model including two anatomically defined prefrontal cortical regions, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual cingulate cortex(sgACC, and the amygdala. Results: We replicated our previous finding of abnormal inverse left-sided inverse top-down ventromedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p=.04, and also showed a similar pattern of abnormal inverse left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to these stimuli (p=0.03. These findings were paralleled by abnormally reduced positive left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical-sgACC connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p=0.008, and abnormally increased positive left-sided sgACC-amygdala connectivity to fearful faces in females, and all individuals, with MDD (p=0.008;p=0.003.Conclusions: Different patterns of abnormal prefrontal cortical-amygdala connectivity to happy and fearful stimuli might represent neural mechanisms for the excessive self-reproach and comorbid anxiety that characterize female MDD.

  12. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ferrándiz, M L; Ubeda, A; Domínguez, J N; Charris, J E; Lobo, G M; Alcaraz, M J

    1998-05-19

    Chalcones and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro, chalcones 2, 4, 8, 10 and 13 inhibited degranulation and 5-lipoxygenase in human neutrophils, whereas 11 behaved as scavenger of superoxide. Only four compounds (4-7) inhibited cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity. The majority of these samples showed anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse air pouch model.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

    2014-06-01

    Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p. o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i. p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation

  14. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Anwanga E Udoh; Samuel G Frank; Louis U Amazu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods: The crude leaf extract (39-111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results: The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 - 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions: The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of some traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Joshi, V K; Gambhir, S S

    1998-10-01

    The ethanol extract of roots, fruits and roots of solanum indicum and saccharum munja respectively and water soluble resin of commiphora myrrha were studied for antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin induced oedema in rats, the significant antiinflammatory activity were found in former two plants will slight anti inflammatory activity was observed in latter plant.

  16. Modified partially wide tangents technique in post-mastectomy radiotherapy for patients with left-sided breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Jia-yi; HU Wei-gang; GUO Xiao-mao

    2010-01-01

    from the IMRT (P=0.868 and P=0.212).Conclusions No single technique provides both the best CW and IMN coverage with minimum lung and heart dose.The modified PWT technique can be used as a clinical tool for the treatment of the left-sided post-mastectomy breast cancer patients to provide homogeneous target coverage while maintaining Iow doses to normal tissue.

  17. Enhanced inflammatory activity of endometriotic lesions from the rectovaginal septum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertschi, Dominic; Mc Kinnon, Brett; Evers, Jakob; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines...

  18. Enhanced Inflammatory Activity of Endometriotic Lesions from the Rectovaginal Septum

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Bertschi; Brett D. McKinnon; Jakob Evers; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines...

  19. Scutellarein Reduces Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting Src Kinase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Nak Yoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that have been demonstrated to exert various pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms in terms of exact target proteins of flavonoids are not fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of scutellarein (SCT), a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Oroxylum i...

  20. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Medeiros do Carmo

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine.The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  2. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Reardon, Michael A. [Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Geesey, Constance [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wijesooriya, Krishni, E-mail: kw5wx@hscmail.mcc.virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  3. Thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of late myocardial damage in left-side breast cancer treated with adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate late myocardial damage after adjuvant radiotherapy using a mixed-beam (photons plus electrons) technique to treat the internal mammary lymph nodes in left-side breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A bicycle ergometer stress test coupled with thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy and analysis by single-photon computed tomography (CT) was performed on 19 patients treated with left-side breast/chest wall and internal mammary radiation for breast cancer between 1987 and 1993. To be sure that we would evaluate late toxicity caused by the irradiation, patients had to fulfill the following eligibility criteria: left-side breast cancer, treatment between 1987 and 1993 and no recurrence during follow-up, age ≤75 years, no known risk for coronary artery disease, no previous chemotherapy, internal mammary field treated with an association of photons and electrons, and CT scan-based treatment planning. Results: Median age at scintigraphy was 59 years. Two patients did not reach optimal exercise level and were not evaluable. Among the 17 evaluable patients representing 91.6 patient years of follow-up, there were no perfusion defects by visual or quantitative analysis. Conclusion: The mixed-beam technique seemed to spare the heart from harmful irradiation and to protect the myocardium. Results need to be confirmed on the long-term use of this technique

  4. The impact of deep inspiration on cardiac volume within the radiation fields for left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the spine was measured at the transverse level corresponding to the 4-chamber view of the heart. Patients were categorized into two equal-sized groups based on their ETid AP diameter of ≤ or > 8.5 cm. Comparisons among respiratory maneuvers were performed with use of a two-sided Wilcoxon-paired test. Comparison of Insp Δ by AP groups used a two-sided Wilcoxon two-sample test. Results: Eight of the nine subjects (89%) had inclusion of at least a portion of the heart within the radiation port (median 19.0 ml, range 3-88 ml) at ETid. For these women, ETid AP diameter of the chest increased with Insp and decreased with Exp. In all subjects Insp decreased cardiac volume in the radiation portals (median: -10.1 ml, p=0.008), whereas Exp increased cardiac volume (median: +6.1 ml, p=0.008). Subjects with ETid AP diameter ≤8.5 cm had larger decreases in cardiac volume with Insp than those with diameter > 8.5 cm (median: -9.6 vs. -4.7 ml, p=0.06). Conclusions: A portion of the heart is commonly included when patients receive left-sided breast RT. Deep inspiration significantly decreases cardiac volume in the radiation fields. Subjects who experienced the greatest decrease of cardiac volume were those with smaller AP chest cavities at baseline. We conclude that implementation of simple inspiratory breathholding during delivery of RT deserves further study, and may be particularly useful in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (especially doxorubicin)

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bromelia hieronymi: comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-03-01

    Some plant proteases (e. g., papain, bromelain, ficin) have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, and especially bromelain is still being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. Bromelain is an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus. In this study the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract of Bromelia hieronymi fruits, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases, is presented. Different doses of a partially purified extract of B. hieronymi were assayed on carrageenan-induced and serotonine-induced rat paw edema, as well as in cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of the partially purified extract and bromelain showed significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses. Treatment of the partially purified extract and bromelain with E-64 provoked loss of anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, a fact which is consistent with the hypothesis that the proteolytic activity would be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action.

  6. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandan, S; Srinivasan, K; Chandra, S; Tandan, S K; Lal, J; Raviprakash, V

    2001-05-01

    The ethanolic extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. The extract did not show any sign of toxicity up to a dose of 10.125 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Significant anti-inflammatory activity was observed in carrageenin (acute), kaolin-carrageenin (subacute), formaldehyde (subacute)-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic) tests in rats. The extract did not induce any gastric lesion in both acute and chronic ulcerogenic tests in rats. Thus, the present study demonstrated that S. cumini bark extract has a potent anti-inflammatory action against different phases of inflammation without any side effect on gastric mucosa. PMID:11395258

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical profile of Galphimia glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cortazar, Manasés; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Marquina, Silvia; Alvarez, Laura; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Galphimia glauca, commonly known as "flor de estrella", is a plant species used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases that have an acute or chronic inflammatory process in common. Aerial parts of this plant contain nor-seco-triterpenoids with anxiolytic properties, which have been denominated galphimines. Other compounds identified in the plant are tetragalloyl-quinic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin, which are able to inhibit the bronchial obstruction induced by platelet-activating factor. The objective of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of crude extracts from G. glauca and, by means of bioguided chemical separation, to identify the compounds responsible for this pharmacological activity. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts showed an important anti-inflammatory effect. Chemical separation of the active methanol extract allowed us to identify the nor-seco-triterpenes galphimine-A (1) and galphimine-E (3) as the anti-inflammatory principles. Analysis of structure-activity relationships evidenced that the presence of an oxygenated function in C6 is absolutely necessary to show activity. In this work, the isolation and structural elucidation of two new nor-seco-triterpenes denominated as galphimine-K (4) and galphimine-L (5), together with different alkanes, fatty acids, as well as three flavonoids (17-19), are described, to our knowledge for the first time, from Galphimia glauca.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of novel pyrazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Kumar, R; Arif, Ibrahim A; Ahamed, Anis; Idhayadhulla, Akbar

    2016-09-01

    A new sequence of pyrazole derivatives (1-6) was synthesized from condensation technique under utilizing ultrasound irradiation. Synthesized compounds were characterized from IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Mass and elemental analysis. Synthesized compounds (1-6) were screened for antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds 3 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL) was exceedingly antibacterially active against gram negative bacteria of Escherichia coli and compound 4 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL) was highly active against gram positive bacteria of Streptococcus epidermidis compared with standard Ciprofloxacin. Compound 2 (MIC: 1 μg/mL) was highly antifungal active against Aspergillus niger proportionate to Clotrimazole. Synthesized compounds (1-6) were screened for anti-inflammatory activity and the compound 2-((5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)(4-nitrophenyl)methyl)hydrazinecarboxamide (4) was better activity against anti-inflammatory when compared with standard drugs (Diclofenac sodium). Compounds (2, 3 and 4) are the most important molecules and hence the need to develop new drugs of antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27579011

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulbha Lalsare

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey revealed that a very merge amount of pharmacological work has been carried out on Flacourtia ramontchi. Also it was observed from the Ayurvedic literature and Ethnobotanical studies that the plant is very useful in treating inflammation and infectious diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. Very merge work has been done regarding phytochemical and pharmacological effectiveness on this plant. Successive extraction of the leaves with solvents of increasing polarity; preliminary phytochemical studies of different extracts; screening of chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic extracts for anti-inflammatory (by Carrageenan induced rat paw model and antimicrobial activity (by Cup and plate method and thin layer chromatographic studies of active extracts using mobile phase i.e. chloroform and methanol. The results clearly indicate that all three extracts i.e. chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic, of the leaves having anti-inflammatory activity. But the chloroform and methano extract showed promising results and even chloroform extract at the dose 150mg/kg exhibits equipotent anti-inflammatory activity as that of the standard Indomethacin. Methanol extract possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration 10000 mg/ml whereas hydromethanolic and chloroform extracts having more or less antimicrobial activity.

  14. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments

  15. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V(20 Gy)) and 5 Gy (V(5 Gy)) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. PMID:26116150

  16. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments.

  17. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  18. Colonic stenting as bridge to surgery versus emergency surgery for management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicenter randomized trial (Stent-in 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Pieter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute left-sided colonic obstruction is most often caused by malignancy and the surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Moreover, these operated patients end up with a temporary or permanent stoma. Initial insertion of an enteral stent to decompress the obstructed colon, allowing for surgery to be performed electively, is gaining popularity. In uncontrolled studies stent placement before elective surgery has been suggested to decrease mortality, morbidity and number of colostomies. However stent perforation can lead to peritoneal tumor spill, changing a potentially curable disease in an incurable one. Therefore it is of paramount importance to compare the outcomes of colonic stenting followed by elective surgery with emergency surgery for the management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction in a randomized multicenter fashion. Methods/design Patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction eligible for this study will be randomized to either emergency surgery (current standard treatment or colonic stenting as bridge to elective surgery. Outcome measurements are effectiveness and costs of both strategies. Effectiveness will be evaluated in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Quality of life will be measured with standardized questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-CR38, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. Morbidity is defined as every event leading to hospital admission or prolonging hospital stay. Mortality will be analyzed as total mortality as well as procedure-related mortality. The total costs of treatment will be evaluated by counting volumes and calculating unit prices. Including 120 patients on a 1:1 basis will have 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 global health scale, using a two group t-test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level. Differences in quality of life and morbidity will be analyzed using mixed-models repeated measures

  19. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum corymbiflorum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Mariana; Camponogara, Camila; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-17

    Solanum corymbiflorum is popularly known as "baga-de-veado" and its leaves are applied on inflamed legs, scabies, tick bite, boils, mastitis, low back pain and otitis. The aim of this study was evaluate anti-inflammatory in vivo activity and relate this activity with antioxidant compounds present in the extract of S. corymbiflorum leaves. The extract from S. corymbiflorum leaves topically applied was able to reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity with maximum inhibition of 87±3% and 45±7%, rescpectively in the dose of 1mg/ear. Similar results were found for positive control dexamethasone, which presented inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 89±3% and 50±3%, respectively in a dose of 0.1mg/ear. These findings are due, at least in part, the presence of polyphenols (195.28mg GAE/g) and flavonoids, as chlorogenic acid (59.27mg/g), rutin (12.72mg/g), rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. This species showed potencial antioxidant by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and carbonyl groups in proteins methods which may be related with the presence of this compounds. This species possess anti-inflammatory activity confirming their popular use for the local treatment of skin inflammatory disorders. PMID:26721215

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Priyanka; Chauhan, N S; Patel, J R

    2012-01-01

    Abutilon indicum Linn. had been broadly used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of A. indicum Linn. was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity at doses 250, 500 and 750 mg kg⁻¹ using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in healthy Wistar albino rats. Results of in vivo activity led to the conclusion that the ethanolic extract of A. indicum showed predominantly significant activity in a dose-dependent manner, which is comparable to the reference standard ibuprofen. The results prove the traditional use of plant in the treatment of inflammation. PMID:21999427

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Pérez González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA- induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36±4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%. The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9±2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity and composition of Senecio salignus Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Cuauhtemoc Pérez; Vega, Roberto Serrano; González-Chávez, Marco; Sánchez, Miguel Angel Zavala; Gutiérrez, Salud Pérez

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  3. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  4. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turel Idris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I, 10 mg/kg (PM-II, 20 mg/kg (PM-III and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV. Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. Hepatoprotective Activity: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Results: Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50 value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg and CCl4 groups. Conclusion: The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.

  5. Dosimetric Comparison and Evaluation of Three Radiotherapy Techniques for Use after Modified Radical Mastectomy for Locally Advanced Left-sided Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changchun; Zhang, Wuzhe; Lu, Jiayang; Wu, Lili; Wu, Fangcai; Huang, Baotian; Lin, Yan; Li, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the post-modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRMRT) for left-sided breast cancer utilizing 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with field-in-field technique (3DCRT-FinF), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (5F-IMRT) and 2- partial arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (2P-VMAT). We created the 3 different PMRMRT plans for each of the ten consecutive patients. We performed Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Dunn's-type multiple comparisons to establish a hierarchy in terms of plan quality and dosimetric benefits. P IMRT and 2P-VMAT plans exhibited similar PTV coverage (V95%), hotspot areas (V110%) and conformity (all p > 0.05), and significantly higher PTV coverage compared with 3DCRT-FinF (both p IMRT plans provided significantly less heart and left lung radiation exposure than 2P-VMAT (all p IMRT has dosimetrical advantages compared with the other two techniques in PMRMRT for left-sided breast cancer given its optimal balance between PTV coverage and OAR sparing (especially heart sparing). Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve dosage distribution. PMID:26194593

  6. SU-E-P-56: Dosimetric Comparison of Three Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Radiotherapy Techniques for Locally Advanced Left-Sided Breast Cancer and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Zhang, W; Lu, J; Wu, L; Wu, F; Huang, B; Li, D [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry of post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRMRT) for left-sided breast cancer using 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: We created ten sets of PMRMRT plans for ten consecutive patients and utilized two tangential and one or two supraclavicular beams in 3DCRT, a total of 5 beams in IMRT and two optimized partial arcs in VMAT. The difference in results between any two of the three new plans, between new and previous 3DCRT plans were compared and analyzed by ANOVA (α =0.05) and paired-sample t-test respectively. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Both IMRT and VMAT plans had similar PTV coverage, hotspot area and conformity (all p>0.05), and significantly higher PTV coverage compared with new 3DCRT (both p<0.001). IMRT plans had significantly less heart and left lung radiation exposure compared with VMAT (all p<0.05). The 3DCRT plans with larger estimated CTV displacement had better target coverage but worse OARs sparing compared to those with smaller one. Conclusion: IMRT has dosimetrical advantages over the other two techniques in PMRMRT for left-sided breast cancer. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve dosage distribution. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  7. Anti-inflammatory activities of selected synthetic homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mahidansha M; Kruger, Hendrik G; Bodenstein, Johannes; Smith, Peter; du Toit, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Four homoisoflavanones of the 3-benzylidene-4-chromanone type, some of which were previously isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima, were synthesised to determine their anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity. A range of four different homoisoflavanones (compounds 4a-4d) were synthesised from the corresponding substituted phenols. ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR data together with high-resolution mass spectroscopy data were employed to elucidate the structures. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in mice with acute croton oil-induced auricular dermatitis. In vitro cytotoxicity was tested against a Chinese hamster ovarian cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Compound 4a exhibited a tendency to inhibit oedema in a dose-dependent manner after 3 and 6 h of treatment. Compounds 4b-4d also inhibited oedema, although a clear dose-response relationship was not observed. Compounds 4a-4c were found to be less cytotoxic than compound 4d. Compound 4b was the least cytotoxic. Compounds 4a-4d exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and varying levels of cytotoxicity. PMID:21950651

  8. A comparative dosimetric study for treating left-sided breast cancer for small breast size using five different radiotherapy techniques: conventional tangential field, filed-in-filed, Tangential-IMRT, Multi-beam IMRT and VMAT

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guang-Hua; Chen, Li-Xin; Deng, Xiao-Wu; LIU, XIAO-WEI; Ying HUANG; Huang, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background and purposes To compare the dosimetry for the left-sided breast cancer treatment using five different radiotherapy techniques. Materials and methods Twenty patients with left sided breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery followed by radiotherapy. They were planned using five different radiotherapy techniques, including: 1) conventional tangential wedge-based fields (TW); 2) field-in-field (FIF) technique; 3) tangential inverse planning intensity-modulated radiation the...

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Bufalin in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of bufalin, a major component of “Chan-su.” We used a carrageenan-induced paw edema model to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of this compound, and Western blot analysis detected NF-κB signaling during this effect. The antinociceptive activities were evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests; open-field test investigated effects on the central nervous system. Our data showed that bufalin (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg, i.p. potently decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema. Bufalin down regulated the expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α during these treatments. Further studies demonstrated that bufalin significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling. Bufalin also reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and the licking time in the formalin test and increased hot-plate reaction latencies. Naloxone pretreatment (2 mg/kg, i.p. in the early phases of the formalin test and hot-plate test significantly attenuated the bufalin-induced antinociception effects, which suggests the involvement of the opioid system. A reduction in locomotion was not observed in the open-field test after bufalin administration. Taken together, bufalin treatment resulted in in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, and bufalin may be a novel, potential drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  10. Danish cohort of monozygotic inflammatory bowel disease twins: Clinical characteristics and inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Frederik Trier; Knudsen, Lina; Harbord, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Gordon, Hannah; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the establishment of a Danish inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) twin cohort with focus on concordance of treatment and inflammatory markers. METHODS: We identified MZ twins, likely to be discordant or concordant for IBD, by merging information from the Danish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. The twins were asked to provide biological samples, questionnaires, and data access to patient files and public registries. Biological samples were collected via a mobile laboratory, which allowed for immediate centrifugation, fractionation, and storage of samples. The mean time from collection of samples to storage in the -80 °C mobile freezer was less than one hour. The diagnoses where validated using the Copenhagen diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: We identified 159 MZ IBD twin pairs, in a total of 62 (39%) pairs both twins agreed to participate. Of the supposed 62 IBD pairs, the IBD diagnosis could be confirmed in 54 pairs. The cohort included 10 concordant pairs, whereof some were discordant for either treatment or surgery. The 10 concordant pairs, where both pairs suffered from IBD, included eight CD/CD pairs, one UC/UC pair and one UC/IBDU pair. The discordant pairs comprised 31 UC, 5 IBDU (IBD unclassified), and 8 CD discordant pairs. In the co-twins not affected by IBD, calprotectin was above 100 μg/g in 2 participants, and above 50 μg/g in a further 5 participants. CONCLUSION: The presented IBD twin cohorts are an excellent resource for bioinformatics studies with proper adjustment for disease-associated exposures including medication and inflammatory activity in the co-twins. PMID:27275097

  11. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...... in patients with IBD during active disease and following therapy. DESIGN: A total of 20 healthy subjects (HC) and 26 patients with IBD hospitalized because of an acute episode of their disease (Crohn's disease (CD) n = 13, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 13) underwent a standardized (13) C-octanoic acid GE breath...

  12. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jia-Fu [Department of Radiation Physics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Dah-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Hui-Ling, E-mail: hlyeh@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chen-Fa [Department of Radiation Physics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jin-Ching [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  13. Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose–volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3–21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9–29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3–24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose–volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast

  14. Enhanced Inflammatory Activity of Endometriotic Lesions from the Rectovaginal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Bertschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The gene expression in matching eutopic and ectopic tissue was compared, as was the gene expression in lesions from different locations. A significantly higher mRNA expression of the chemokines ENA-78 and RANTES and the cytokines IL-6 and TNFα was observed in endometriotic lesions of the rectovaginal septum (RVS compared to that of matching eutopic tissue. Comparisons across lesion locations showed a significantly higher expression of IL-6 and TNFα in the RVS compared to lesions from either the ovaries or the peritoneum. These results show that the production of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines is significantly increased in the ectopic endometrial tissue compared to matching eutopic tissue. Furthermore, IL-6 and TNFα are produced in significantly higher quantities in RVS lesions compared to other lesions.

  15. Enhanced inflammatory activity of endometriotic lesions from the rectovaginal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Dominic; McKinnon, Brett D; Evers, Jakob; Bersinger, Nick A; Mueller, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of ectopic lesions at multiple locations outside the uterine cavity and may be considered a collection of distinct but related conditions. The exact aetiology of endometriosis is still not clear although a role for inflammation is increasingly accepted. We therefore investigated the inflammatory activity of eutopic tissue and that of the matching ectopic lesions from different locations by measuring the genetic expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. The gene expression in matching eutopic and ectopic tissue was compared, as was the gene expression in lesions from different locations. A significantly higher mRNA expression of the chemokines ENA-78 and RANTES and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF α was observed in endometriotic lesions of the rectovaginal septum (RVS) compared to that of matching eutopic tissue. Comparisons across lesion locations showed a significantly higher expression of IL-6 and TNF α in the RVS compared to lesions from either the ovaries or the peritoneum. These results show that the production of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines is significantly increased in the ectopic endometrial tissue compared to matching eutopic tissue. Furthermore, IL-6 and TNF α are produced in significantly higher quantities in RVS lesions compared to other lesions. PMID:24453419

  16. Acute pancreatitis associated left-sided portal hypertension with severe gastrointestinal bleeding treated by transcatheter splenic artery embolization: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yu LI; Bin LI; Yu-lian WU; Qiu-ping XIE

    2013-01-01

    Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH) followed by acute pancreatitis is a rare condition with most patients being asymptomatic.In cases where gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is present,however,the condition is more complicated and the mortality is very high because of the difficulty in diagnosing and selecting optimal treatment.A successfully treated case with severe GI bleeding by transcatheter splenic artery embolization is reported in this article.The patient exhibited severe uncontrollable GI bleeding and was confirmed as gastric varices secondary to LSPH by enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography.After embolization,the bleeding stopped and stabilized for the entire follow-up period without any severe complications.In conclusion,embolization of the splenic artery is a simple,safe,and effective method of controlling gastric variceal bleeding caused by LSPH in acute pancreatitis.

  17. Neuropsychological profile in early Parkinson′s disease: Comparison between patients with right side onset versus left side onset of motor symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Adwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Though impaired cognition in Parkinson′s disease (PD is well known, data in early PD is sparse. This study was designed to assess the cognitive profile in patients with early PD (motor symptoms <5 years and Hoehn and Yahr stage <2, and to compare the cognitive profile between these patients with right versus left side onset of motor symptoms. Materials and Methods: National Institute of National Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS neuropsychological battery was used to assess the cognitive profile in 50 patients with early PD and compared with 50 age-, education-, and gender-matched healthy controls. Within the PD group, the cognitive profile was also compared between patients with right side onset motor symptoms (RPD versus those with left side onset (LPD. The neuropsychological tests assessed the executive functions, memory, attention, visuospatial functions, and psychomotor speed. Results: Among the 50 patients, 25 each were RPD and LPD. The two subgroups were matched for age, gender, education, age at disease onset, disease duration, and degree of motor disability. There was no significant difference between the groups on Hoehn and Yahr staging or Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS motor score. Patients with early PD performed significantly worse in the tasks involving memory, executive functions, and attention compared to controls. However, there was no difference in the cognitive profile between RPD and LPD subgroups. Conclusions: Patients with early PD have cognitive dysfunction with predominant involvement of frontal and temporal lobes. Side of onset of motor symptoms probably does not have significant role in future development or profile of cognitive dysfunction in PD.

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase is activated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya S; Russe, Otto Quintus; Möser, Christine V; Ferreirós, Nerea; Kynast, Katharina L; Knothe, Claudia; Olbrich, Katrin; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2015-09-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, which is activated in stages of increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decrease of inflammatory processes and inhibition of disease progression of diabetes and obesity. A recent study suggested that salicylate, the active metabolite of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetyl-salicylic acid (aspirin), is able to activate AMPK pharmacologically. This observation raised the question whether or not other NSAIDs might also act as AMPK activators and whether this action might contribute to their cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated mouse and human neuronal cells and liver tissue of mice after treatment with various NSAIDs. Our results showed that the non-selective acidic NSAIDs ibuprofen and diclofenac induced AMPK activation similar to aspirin while the COX-2 selective drug etoricoxib and the non-opioid analgesic paracetamol, both drugs have no acidic structure, failed to activate AMPK. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK can be activated by specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as salicylic acid, ibuprofen or diclofenac possibly depending on the acidic structure of the drugs. AMPK might therefore contribute to their antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26049010

  19. Puerarin partly counteracts the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Liu; Zhigang Mei; Jingping Qian; Yongbao Zeng; Mingzhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Puerarin, a major isoflavonoid derived from the Chinese medical herb radix puerariae (Gegen), has been reported to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play an anti-inflammatory role in focal cerebral ischemia model rats. Recent findings regarding stroke pathophysiology have recognized that an-ti-inflammation is an important target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The cholinergic an-ti-inflammatory pathway is a highly robust neural-immune mechanism for inflammation control. This study was to investigate whether activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be in-volved in the mechanism of inhibiting the inflammatory response during puerarin-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Results showed that puerarin pretreatment (intravenous injection) re-duced the ischemic infarct volume, improved neurological deficit after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and decreased the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-αin brain tissue. Pretreatment with puerarin (intravenous injection) attenuated the inflammatory response in rats, which was accompanied by janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibition. These observa-tions were inhibited by the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) antagonistα-bungarotoxin (α-BGT). In addition, puerarin pretreatment increased the expression of α7nAchR mRNA in ischemic cerebral tissue. These data demonstrate that puerarin pretreatment strongly protects the brain against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammatory re-sponse. Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of puerarin may partly be me-diated through the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

  20. Flavonoids from Anoectochilus annamensis and their Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Tran Minh; Thai, Tran Van; Ha, Chu Thi Thu; Anh, Ha Thi Van; Minh, Phan Xuan Binh; Dat, Nguyen Tien

    2016-05-01

    One new flavonol diglycoside, 4',5-dihydroxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone 4'-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and two known compounds (2-3) were isolated from the methanolic extract of Anoectochilus annamensis Aver. aerial parts. The effects were evaluated of all isolated compounds (1-3) on LPS-induced production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) by RAW264.7 cells. 4',5-Dihydroxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone (2) was the most active while the addition of a rutinoside at C4' (compound 1) decreased the inhibitory activity. This is the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of A. annamensis. PMID:27319131

  1. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...

  2. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  3. BET Inhibition Attenuates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammatory Response by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Transcription and Enhancer Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjing; Wang, Zhen; Hu, Xiangming; Chen, Ruichuan; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2016-05-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. H. pylori-initiated chronic gastritis is characterized by enhanced expression of many NF-κB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. Brd4 has emerged as an important NF-κB regulator and regulates the expression of many NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. In this study, we demonstrated that Brd4 was not only actively involved in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene mRNA transcription but also H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene enhancer RNA (eRNA) synthesis. Suppression of H. pylori-induced eRNA synthesis impaired H. pylori-induced mRNA synthesis. Furthermore, H. pylori stimulated NF-κB-dependent recruitment of Brd4 to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes to facilitate the RNA polymerase II-mediated eRNA and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of Brd4 by JQ1 attenuated H. pylori-induced eRNA and mRNA synthesis for a subset of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory genes. JQ1 also inhibited H. pylori-induced interaction between Brd4 and RelA and the recruitment of Brd4 and RNA polymerase II to the promoters and enhancers of inflammatory genes. Finally, we demonstrated that JQ1 suppressed inflammatory gene expression, inflammation, and cell proliferation in H. pylori-infected mice. These studies highlight the importance of Brd4 in H. pylori-induced inflammatory gene expression and suggest that Brd4 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of H. pylori-triggered inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:27084101

  4. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALPINIA GALANGA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuturumilli Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the anti - inflammatory activity of Alpinia galanga is evaluated using rat paw edema, in comparison with Indomethacin using digital Plethysmometer. Male Wistar rats were grouped into 3 of 6 each. Test group given 250mg/kg Alpinia galang a suspended in 2% gum acacia, Standard group 20mg/kg Indomethacin orally. Hind paw edema was produced by sub plantar injection of 0.1ml of 1% carrageenin and the paw edema was measured at 0 and 3 hrs after injection using digital plethysmometer. Mean incre ase in paw volume and percentage inhibition were calculated. Data were represented as percentage inhibition of paw volume and Mean±S.E.M. Statistical analysis was done using student ‘t’ test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. CONCLUSION: Alpinia galanga showed a 52.5% percentage of inhibition in comparison with Indomethacin which showed 68.75%. The test compound Alpinia galanga showed anti - inflammatory activity with a p value of <0.05 in comparison with Indomethacin with a p value of <0.001

  5. Biomechanical Research on Left Side Support in Modern Shot Putting Technique%现代铅球投掷技术中左侧支撑的生物力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 周次保

    2011-01-01

    运用图表测量法、文献资料法,从解剖学、生物力学角度对铅球左侧支撑动作技术进行分析,探讨左侧支撑对提高运动成绩的积极因素,从而进一步阐明左侧支撑在铅球最后用力中的重要作用。%By means of graphic measurement and literature review, this paper analyzes the technique of left side support in shot putting from the angle of anatomy and biomechanics and tries to explore the left side support' s positive factors to achieve better results, thus to clarify the importance of left side support in the final explosion of shot putting.

  6. TU-F-17A-06: Motion Stability and Dosimetric Impact of Spirometer-Based DIBH-RT of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, E; Yang, W; Burnison, M; Mirhadi, A; Hakimian, B; Stephen, S; Robert, R; Yue, Y; Sandler, H; Fraass, B [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer have increased risk of coronary artery disease. Deep Inhalation Breath Hold assisted RT (DIBH-RT) is shown to increase the geometric separation of the target area and heart, reducing cardiac radiation dose. The purposes of this study are to use Cine MV portal images to determine the stability of spirometer-guided DIBH-RT and examine the dosimetric cardiopulmonary impact of this technique. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer were recruited to the IRB-approved study. Free-breathing (FB) and DIBH-CT's were acquired at simulation. Rigid registration of the FB-CT and DIBH-CT was performed using primarily breast tissue. Treatment plans were created for each FB-CT and DIBH-CT using identical paired tangent fields with field-in-field or electronic compensation techniques. Dosimetric evaluation included mean and maximum (Dmax) doses for the left anterior descending artery (LAD), mean heart dose, and left lung V20. Cine MV portal images were acquired for medial and lateral fields during treatment. Analysis of Cine images involved chest wall segmentation using an algorithm developed in-house. Intra- and inter-fractional chest wall motion were determined through affine registration to the first frame of each Cine. Results: Dose to each cardiac structure evaluated was significantly (p<0.001) reduced with the DIBH plans. Mean heart dose decreased from 2.9(0.9–6.6) to 1.6(0.6–5.3) Gy; mean LAD dose from 16.6(3–43.6) to 7.4(1.7–32.7) Gy; and LAD Dmax from 35.4 (6.1–53) to 18.4(2.5–51.2) Gy. No statistically significant reduction was found for the left lung V20. Average AP and SI median chest wall motion (intrafractional) was 0.1 (SD=0.9) and 0.5 (SD=1.1) mm, respectively. Average AP inter-fractional chest wall motion was 2.0 (SD=1.4) mm. Conclusion: Spirometer-based DIBH treatments of the left breast are reproducible both inter- and intra-fractionally, and

  7. Berberine inhibits inflammatory activation of rat brain microglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong Nyon Nam; Jae-Hong Kim; Hoon-Ji Jung; Jung-Mi Park; Sang-Kwan Moon; Young-Suk Kim; Sun Yeou Kim; Eunjoo H.Lee

    2010-01-01

    Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors.Berberine,the effective ingredient of Coptidis Rhizoma and Cortex Phellodendri,has a wide range of pharmacological functions,including anti-inflammatory,anti-atherosclerotic and anti-cancer effects.The neuroprotective potential of berberine has previously been demonstrated.The present study aimed to examine whether berberine could repress microglial activation and can be considered a potential therapeutic candidate to target neurodegenerative diseases.Primary microglial cells and BV2 microglial cells were cultured and stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide(LPS).Berberine chloride was treated prior to LPS or simultaneously with LPS stimulation.Results revealed that berberine was effective at inhibiting nitric oxide release from primary microglial cells when cells were exposed to the compound prior to LPS or simultaneously with LPS.It also reduced the LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-1β,prostaglandin E2,and intracellular reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-kappa activation.Additionally,berberine reduced nitric oxide release from microglia stimulated with interferon-γ and amyloid β.These results suggest that berberine provides neuroprotection by reducing the production of various neurotoxic molecules from activated microglia.

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL. (ACANTHACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1993-01-01

    The anti – inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall. were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in Male albino rats using carrageenin induced rat paw edema. All the extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in Carrageenin induced inflammation in rats. The maximal anti-inflammatory activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  9. The adhesion receptor CD44 promotes atherosclerosis by mediating inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Cuff, Carolyn A.; Kothapalli, Devashish; Azonobi, Ijeoma; Chun, Sam; Zhang, Yuanming; Belkin, Richard; Yeh, Christine; Secreto, Anthony; Richard K Assoian; Rader, Daniel J; Puré, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis causes most acute coronary syndromes and strokes. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis includes recruitment of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall and activation of vascular cells. CD44 is an adhesion protein expressed on inflammatory and vascular cells. CD44 supports the adhesion of activated lymphocytes to endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, ligation of CD44 induces activation of both inflammatory and vascular cells. To assess the potential contribution of CD4...

  10. /sup 67/Ga citrate scintiscanning in active inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheingold, O.J.; Tedesco, F.J.; Block, F.E.; Maldonado, A.; Miale, A. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-five hospitalized patients were studied prospectively with /sup 67/Ga citrate (GA) abdominal scintillation scanning in an attempt to define its role in the evaluation of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were nine patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), seven with Crohn's disease (CD), and nine controls. In four patients, two with UC and two with CD, a tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio was obtained and compared to normals. All the UC patients had positive GA scans and only one of seven of the CD patients had a positive scan. There were no false positive scans. Scans performed after a 3- or 5-day delay were more accurate than 6-hr scans alone. Well-delineated colinic radioactivity 6 hr after injection which persists for 3 to 5 days indicates the presence of UC in patients with IBD, while a negative scan is more consistent with active CD. Colonic uptake at 6 hr which clears by 48 or 72 hr is not indicative of UC. This procedure aided in following the course of UC, delineating the extent of disease, and in differentiating active CD from an intraabdominal abscess. Tissues from UC patients had increased tissue/plasma ratioactivity ratios while tissues from CD patients had normal or decreased ratios which were consistent with the imaging data.

  11. Transcriptional Activation of Inflammatory Genes: Mechanistic Insight into Selectivity and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afsar U; Williams, Bryan R G; Hannigan, Gregory E

    2015-11-11

    Acute inflammation, an integral part of host defence and immunity, is a highly conserved cellular response to pathogens and other harmful stimuli. An inflammatory stimulation triggers transcriptional activation of selective pro-inflammatory genes that carry out specific functions such as anti-microbial activity or tissue healing. Based on the nature of inflammatory stimuli, an extensive exploitation of selective transcriptional activations of pro-inflammatory genes is performed by the host to ensure a defined inflammatory response. Inflammatory signal transductions are initiated by the recognition of inflammatory stimuli by transmembrane receptors, followed by the transmission of the signals to the nucleus for differential gene activations. The differential transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory genes is precisely controlled by the selective binding of transcription factors to the promoters of these genes. Among a number of transcription factors identified to date, NF-κB still remains the most prominent and studied factor for its diverse range of selective transcriptional activities. Differential transcriptional activities of NF-κB are dictated by post-translational modifications, specificities in dimer formation, and variability in activation kinetics. Apart from the differential functions of transcription factors, the transcriptional activation of selective pro-inflammatory genes is also governed by chromatin structures, epigenetic markers, and other regulators as the field is continuously expanding.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26592472

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  14. WNT signaling in activated microglia is pro-inflammatory: WNT/β-catenin signaling in microglia

    OpenAIRE

    Halleskog, Carina; Mulder, Jan; Dahlström, Jenny; Mackie, Ken; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tanila, Heikki; Puli, Lakshman Kumar; Färber, Katrin; Harkany, Tibor; Schulte, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Microglia activation is central to the neuroinflammation associated with neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly since activated microglia are often a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite decades-long research, the molecular cascade of pro-inflammatory transformation of microglia in vivo remains largely elusive. Here, we report increased β–catenin expression, a central intracellular component of WNT signaling, in microglia undergoing a pro-inflammatory morphogenic t...

  15. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  16. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0 cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3 cm3, p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3 cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9 cm3, p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8 Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V20 (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this “minimal benefit.” Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation

  17. Usefulness of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation, as a Strong Predictor of Heart Failure and Death in Patients With Native Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Carlos; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; López, Javier; Sarriá, Cristina; Olmos, Carmen; Vivas, David; Sáez, Carmen; Sánchez-Enrique, Cristina; Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; San Román, José Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in adults and has been independently related to increased morbidity and mortality. AF is a frequent arrhythmia in infective endocarditis (IE). Nevertheless, there are no data on how AF affects the clinical outcome of patients with endocarditis. Our purpose was to investigate patient characteristics, microbiology, echocardiographic findings, in-hospital course, and prognosis of patients with IE who develop new-onset AF (NAF) and compare them with those who remained in sinus rhythm (SR) or had previous AF (PAF). From 1997 to 2014, 507 consecutive patients with native left-sided IE were prospectively recruited at 3 tertiary care centers. We distinguished 3 groups according to the type of baseline heart rhythm during hospitalization and previous history of AF: NAF group (n = 52), patients with no previous history of AF and who were diagnosed as having NAF during hospitalization; SR group (n = 380), patients who remained in SR; and PAF group (n = 75), patients with PAF. Patients with NAF were older than those who remained in SR (68.3 vs 59.6 years, p <0.001). At admission, heart failure was more common in NAF group (53% vs 34.3%, p <0.001), whereas stroke (p = 0.427) was equally frequent in all groups. During hospitalization, embolic events occurred similarly (p = 0.411). In the multivariate analysis, NAF was independently associated with heart failure (odds ratio 3.56, p <0.01) and mortality (odds ratio 1.91, p = 0.04). In conclusion, the occurrence of NAF in patients with IE was strongly associated with heart failure and higher in-hospital mortality independently from other relevant clinical variables. PMID:26762724

  18. SU-E-J-32: Calypso(R) and Laser-Based Localization Systems Comparison for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients Using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our institution uses a manual laser-based system for primary localization and verification during radiation treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). This primary system was compared with sternum-placed Calypso(R) beacons (Varian Medical Systems, CA). Only intact breast patients are considered for this analysis. Methods: During computed tomography (CT) simulation, patients have BB and Calypso(R) surface beacons positioned sternally and marked for free-breathing and DIBH CTs. During dosimetry planning, BB longitudinal displacement between free breathing and DIBH CT determines laser mark (BH mark) location. Calypso(R) beacon locations from the DIBH CT are entered at the Tracking Station. During Linac simulation and treatment, patients inhale until the cross-hair and/or lasers coincide with the BH Mark, which can be seen using our high quality cameras (Pelco, CA). Daily Calypso(R) displacement values (difference from the DIBH-CT-based plan) are recorded.The displacement mean and standard deviation was calculated for each patient (77 patients, 1845 sessions). An aggregate mean and standard deviation was calculated weighted by the number of patient fractions.Some patients were shifted based on MV ports. A second data set was calculated with Calypso(R) values corrected by these shifts. Results: Mean displacement values indicate agreement within 1±3mm, with improvement for shifted data (Table). Conclusion: Both unshifted and shifted data sets show the Calypso(R) system coincides with the laser system within 1±3mm, demonstrating either localization/verification system will Resultin similar clinical outcomes. Displacement value uncertainty unilaterally reduces when shifts are taken into account

  19. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 01: Dosimetric Analysis of Respiratory Induced Cardiac Intrafraction Motion in Left-sided Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Patrick, J [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Yu, E [Department of Oncology, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Gaede, S [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, Western University, London Canada (Canada); Department of Physics, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario Canada (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Long-term cardiac side effects in left-sided breast cancer patients (BREL) after post-operative radiotherapy has become one of the most debated issues in radiation oncology. Through breathing-adapted radiotherapy the volume of the heart exposed to radiation can be significantly reduced by delivering the radiation only at the end of inspiration phase of the respiratory cycle, this is referred to as inspiration gating (IG). The purpose of this study is to quantify the potential reduction in cardiac exposure during IG compared to conventional BREL radiotherapy and to assess the dosimetric impact of cardiac motion due to natural breathing. Methods: 24 BREL patients treated with tangential parallel opposed photon beams were included in this study. All patients received a standard fast helical planning CT (FH-CT) and a 4D-CT. Treatment plans were created on the FH-CT using a clinical treatment planning system. The original treatment plan was then superimposed onto the end of inspiration CT and all 10 phases of the 4D-CT to quantify the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion and IG through 4D dose accumulation. Results: Through IG the mean dose to the heart, left ventricle, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be reduced in comparison to the clinical standard BREL treatment by as much as 8.39%, 10.11%, and 13.71% respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Failure to account for respiratory motion can lead to under or overestimation in the calculated DVH for the heart, and it's sub-structures. IG can reduce cardiac exposure especially to the LAD during BREL radiotherapy.

  20. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 01: Dosimetric Analysis of Respiratory Induced Cardiac Intrafraction Motion in Left-sided Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Long-term cardiac side effects in left-sided breast cancer patients (BREL) after post-operative radiotherapy has become one of the most debated issues in radiation oncology. Through breathing-adapted radiotherapy the volume of the heart exposed to radiation can be significantly reduced by delivering the radiation only at the end of inspiration phase of the respiratory cycle, this is referred to as inspiration gating (IG). The purpose of this study is to quantify the potential reduction in cardiac exposure during IG compared to conventional BREL radiotherapy and to assess the dosimetric impact of cardiac motion due to natural breathing. Methods: 24 BREL patients treated with tangential parallel opposed photon beams were included in this study. All patients received a standard fast helical planning CT (FH-CT) and a 4D-CT. Treatment plans were created on the FH-CT using a clinical treatment planning system. The original treatment plan was then superimposed onto the end of inspiration CT and all 10 phases of the 4D-CT to quantify the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion and IG through 4D dose accumulation. Results: Through IG the mean dose to the heart, left ventricle, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be reduced in comparison to the clinical standard BREL treatment by as much as 8.39%, 10.11%, and 13.71% respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Failure to account for respiratory motion can lead to under or overestimation in the calculated DVH for the heart, and it's sub-structures. IG can reduce cardiac exposure especially to the LAD during BREL radiotherapy

  1. SU-E-J-32: Calypso(R) and Laser-Based Localization Systems Comparison for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients Using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, S [Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA (United States); Kaurin, D; Sweeney, L [Northwest Medical Physics Center, Lynnwood, WA (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); Kim, J; Fang, L; Tran, A [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Holloway, K [Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Our institution uses a manual laser-based system for primary localization and verification during radiation treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). This primary system was compared with sternum-placed Calypso(R) beacons (Varian Medical Systems, CA). Only intact breast patients are considered for this analysis. Methods: During computed tomography (CT) simulation, patients have BB and Calypso(R) surface beacons positioned sternally and marked for free-breathing and DIBH CTs. During dosimetry planning, BB longitudinal displacement between free breathing and DIBH CT determines laser mark (BH mark) location. Calypso(R) beacon locations from the DIBH CT are entered at the Tracking Station. During Linac simulation and treatment, patients inhale until the cross-hair and/or lasers coincide with the BH Mark, which can be seen using our high quality cameras (Pelco, CA). Daily Calypso(R) displacement values (difference from the DIBH-CT-based plan) are recorded.The displacement mean and standard deviation was calculated for each patient (77 patients, 1845 sessions). An aggregate mean and standard deviation was calculated weighted by the number of patient fractions.Some patients were shifted based on MV ports. A second data set was calculated with Calypso(R) values corrected by these shifts. Results: Mean displacement values indicate agreement within 1±3mm, with improvement for shifted data (Table). Conclusion: Both unshifted and shifted data sets show the Calypso(R) system coincides with the laser system within 1±3mm, demonstrating either localization/verification system will Resultin similar clinical outcomes. Displacement value uncertainty unilaterally reduces when shifts are taken into account.

  2. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Register, Steven; Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Reis, Isildinha; Zhao, Wei [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Amestoy, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Wright, Jean, E-mail: jwrigh71@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-04-01

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0 cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3 cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8 Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V{sub 20} (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this “minimal benefit.” Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation.

  3. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  4. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  5. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  6. Gallium-67 scanning at 6 hr in active inflammatory bowel disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, L.R.; Griep, R.J.; Schuffler, M.D.; Silliman, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Gallium citrate scanning at 6 hr was used to evaluate a patient with active ulcerative colitis. The localization of /sup 67/Ga in the colon correlated with the extent of the inflammatory process. When either colonoscopy or radiographic contrast studies are contraindicated, /sup 67/Ga scanning at 6 hr may prove useful in the evaluation of active inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejane B. Oliveira; Daniela A. Chagas-Paula; Adriana Secatto; Thaís H. Gasparoto; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Campanelli, Ana P.; Fernando B. Da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp.) H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Waseem Rizvi; Mohd Fayazuddin; Syed Shariq; Ompal Singh; Shagufta Moin; Kafil Akhtar; Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cichorium intybus L. commonly known as chicory is one of the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is commonly used for the treatment of diseases involving a khapa and pitta doshas. Traditionally, C. intybus is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but there are only few in vitro studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory. Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory and me...

  9. Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw norm anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia C Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw. Norm. (TFN unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%. Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01% and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04% extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract, parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second, falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses.

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graça Miguel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.

  11. An unusual presentation of inflammatory pseudotumor in mastoid area of temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip K Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a rare case of inflammatory pseudotumor in the mastoid area. A young female presented with left-sided dull otalgia with hearing loss. Otoscopy revealed normal tympanic membrane with left-sided sensori-neural hearing loss. Imaging showed a mildly enhancing lytic region in the left mastoid. Canal-wall-down mastoidectomy done and the granular tissue from the mastoid was sent for the histopathological examination (HPE. The HPE report was suggestive of inflammatory pseudotumor. No recurrence of the disease was noticed in the 3 years follow-up period.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Integrin activation as an alternative treatment approach for inflammatory diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Kam Wai WONG; Liang LIU

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of immune responses is a complex process that involves many signaling molecules in their specific interactions and interplays.For instance,the leukocytic integrin CD11b/CD18 plays a crucial role in leukocyte infiltration,which is commonly found in most inflammatory diseases.

  14. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gulecha; Sivakumar, T.; Aman Upaganlawar; Manoj Mahajan; Chandrashekhar Upasani

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  15. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF POLYGALA ROSMARINIFOLIA WIGHT & ARN (POLYGALACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Mohan et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Polygala rosmarinifolia whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg at 3rd hr after administration is compared with reference standard drug, Indomethacin. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedicinal use of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Jae Ho; Park, Gwang Hun; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Janaína K. L.; Araújo, Chrisjacele S. F.; Araújo, Tiago F. S.; Santos, Andréa F. S.; Teixeira, J.A.; Vera L M Lima; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.

    2016-01-01

    A galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia monandra leaves (BmoLL) have been purified through ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by guar gel affinity chromatography column. This study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of pure BmoLL in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by 1% carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice treated with BmoLL. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate methods evaluated antinociceptive activity. B...

  18. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. U. Seruji; H. Y. Khong; C. J. Kutoi

    2013-01-01

    In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was per...

  19. [In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from Ilex centrochinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-jun; Yu, Li-juan; Li, Yan-ci; Liu, Meng-yuan; Wu, Zheng-zhi

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of flavans from flex centrochinensis S. Y. Hu in vitro and their structure-activity relationship. LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage was used as inflammatory model. MTT assay for cell availability, Griess reaction for nitric oxide (NO) production, the content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and PGE, were detected with ELISA kits; DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals scavenging activities were also investigated. According to the result, all flavans tested exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in different levels. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed potent anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NO, TNF-alpha, IL-lp and IL-6, of which 1 was the most effective inhibitor, however, 2 and 5 were relatively weak or inactive. The order of free radical scavenging activities was similar to that of anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, these results suggest that 3, 4 and 6, especially of 1, were,in part responsible for the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ilex centrochinensis. Hydroxyl group at 4'-position of B-ring plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging capacities. PMID:26281592

  20. Exploring the anti-inflammatory activity of a novel 2-phenylquinazoline analog with protection against inflammatory injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Bose, Dipayan; Banerjee, Somenath; Das, Sujata [Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India); Chattopadhyay, Debprasad [ICMR Virus Unit, ID and BG Hospital, GB 4, 57 Dr Suresh C Banerjee Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata-700010 (India); Saha, Krishna Das, E-mail: krishnaiicb@yahoo.com [Cancer Biology and Inflammatory Disorder Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal (India)

    2012-10-15

    Inflammation is a protective immune response against harmful stimuli whose long time continuation results in host disease. Quinazolinones are nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds with wide spectrum of biological activities. The anticancer effect of a 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative was reported earlier. The anti-inflammatory effect of these quinazolinone derivatives has now been examined in endotoxin stimulated macrophages and in different in vivo models of inflammation by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), mediators NO and NF-κB (by ELISA and western blot), and translocation of the nuclear factor kB (by immunocytochemical analysis). To elucidate the in vivo effect, mice endotoxin model was and the various levels of edema, inflammatory pain and vascular permeability were studied. One of the quinazolinone derivatives showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in stimulated macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2, p-IκB and NF-κBp65. Significant (P < 0.01) improvement was observed in the mortality of endotoxemic mice. The carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema thicknesses were found to be reduced significantly (P < 0.01) along with the reduction of pain, vascular permeability and edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that 3-(arylideneamino)‐phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-one derivative as a potential anti-inflammatory agent. -- Highlights: ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog suppresses the cytokines in stimulated macrophages. ► 2-phenylquinazoline analog down regulated NF-kB P65 translocation. ► Role of 2-phenylquinazoline analog in endotoximia and peripheral inflammations.

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of ficus deltoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Z A; Hussain, M K; Mohamad, A S; Abdullah, F C; Sulaiman, M R

    2012-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea (Family Moraceae) leaves have been used traditionally by the Malays to treat ailments such as wounds, sores, and rheumatism. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of F. deltoidea leaf (FDA) using acute and chronic inflammatory models. FDA, in the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally in rats (n = 6) before the animals were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma test, and formalin test. The first two tests represent acute and chronic models of inflammation, respectively. The first and second phases of the formalin test represent neurogenic pain and inflammatory-mediated pain, respectively; thus, only the second phase was measured in the present study. Results showed that FDA exerted significant (p < .05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, with dose-response effects seen in the paw edema and formalin tests. In conclusion, the leaf of F. deltoidea possesses anti-inflammatory activity against acute and chronic inflammatory responses and against pain-associated inflammatory response. These findings justify the traditional uses of F. deltoidea leaves for treatment of inflammatory-mediated ailments.

  2. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  3. Dosimetric comparison for volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy on the left-sided chest wall and internal mammary nodes irradiation in treating post-mastectomy breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiao Li; Hu, Wei Gang; Chen, Jia Yi; Wang, Jia Zhou; Ye, Jin Song; Guo, Xiao Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric benefit of applying volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the post-mastectomy left-sided breast cancer patients, with the involvement of internal mammary nodes (IMN). Patients and methods The prescription dose was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions, and the clinical target volume included the left chest wall (CW) and IMN. VMAT plans were created and compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans on Pinnacle treatmen...

  4. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cruz Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae. Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in left-sided breast cancer. Dosimetrical comparison and clinical feasibility in 20 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepp, Rodrigo; Ammerpohl, Mark; Morgenstern, Christina; Erichsen, Patricia [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Nielinger, Lisa [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt, Lippstadt (Germany); Abdallah, Abdallah [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Senologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Galalae, Razvan [Evangelische Kliniken Gelsenkirchen, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Medizinische Fakultaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer (BC) is a well-established indication. The risk of ischaemic heart disease after radiotherapy for BC increases linearly with the heart mean dose with no apparent threshold. Radiotherapy to the left breast in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) reduces the dose to the heart. A new linac system with an integrated surface scanner (SS) for DIBH treatments was recently installed in our department. We tested it for potential benefits, safety, patients' acceptance/compliance and associated additional workload. Twenty consecutive patients following BCS for breast carcinoma of the left side were enrolled in our institutional DIBH protocol. We compared dose to the heart and ipsilateral lung (IL) between plans in DIBH and free breathing (FB) using standard defined parameters: mean dose, maximal dose to a volume of 2 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3}), volume receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V{sub 5}), 10 Gy (V{sub 10}), 15 Gy (V{sub 15}) and 20 Gy (V{sub 20}). Comparison of median calculated dose values was performed using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. DIBH was associated with a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.001) in all studied parameters for the heart and the IL. In 16 of 20 patients the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was less than 42 Gy in DIBH. In FB the heart D{sub 2} {sub cm} {sup 3} was ≥ 42 Gy in 17 of 20 patients. The median daily treatment time was 9 min. Radiotherapy of the left breast in DIBH using a SS could easily be incorporated into daily routine and is associated with significant dose reduction to the heart and IL. (orig.) [German] Die adjuvante Strahlentherapie nach brusterhaltener Operation (BCS) bei Brustkrebs (BC) ist eine seit langem anerkannte Behandlungsform. Das postradiogene Risiko einer kardialen Ischaemie steigt linear ohne erkennbaren Schwellenwert mit der mittleren Herzdosis. Die Bestrahlung der linken Brust in tiefer Inspiration unter Anhalten der

  6. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of fixed dose combination: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lahoti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  8. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Suppress Inflammatory Activation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Synovial Macrophages and Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Grabiec; S. Krausz; W. de Jager; T. Burakowski; D. de Groot; M.E. Sanders; B.J. Prakken; W. Maslinski; E. Eldering; P.P. Tak; K.A. Reedquist

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages contribute significantly to the pathology of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Macrophage activation and survival are tightly regulated by reversible acetylation and deacetylation of histones, trans

  9. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA LONGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Basir Khan , Md. Atai Rabby , Md Hasmat Ullah and Chowdhury Faiz Hossain*

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant used as a food additive. It has been reported that rhizome of this plant have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor property. Methanol extract of Rhizome of Curcuma longa was investigated here to see the antimicrobial actions and anti-inflammatory effect. During the extraction process a purified single compound (D1 was isolated and investigated for its antimicrobial activity. Significant antimicrobial activity than penicillin were found for 500µg C. longa extract. Anti-inflammatory action of C. longa was also assessed using mice models. The purified compound D1 fraction showed antimicrobial action in 50µg concentration. Our study reveal that C. longa has antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and gram negative bacteria where curcumin may not be the only compound that is responsible for the antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, C. longa extract had shown significant anti-inflammatory action.

  10. Potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandare, Amol M; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Vyawahare, Neeraj S; Hadambar, Avinash A; Thorve, Vrushali S

    2010-12-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. (ANE) nut was screened for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant potential. Three doses of ANE (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg orally) were tested for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Evaluation of analgesic activity of ANE was performed using hot plate and formalin test in mice. ANE showed maximum increase in hot plate reaction time (56.27%, pAreca catechu could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. PMID:20849907

  11. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Colombo; Enrico Sangiovanni; Mario Dell'Agli

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gast...

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Nasir, Fazli; Hassan, Muhammad; Ismail; Shah, Waheed Ali

    2014-03-01

    In present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of three medicinal plants, Xanthium strumarium, Achyranthes aspera and Duchesnea indica were evaluated, using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to carry out the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, while for in vitro screening lipoxygenase inhibition assay was used. Crude extract of all the selected plants depicted significant (plt;0.001) anti-inflammatory activity, at late phase of inflammation. Achyranthes aspera also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity (47%) at relatively lower concentration (200 mg/ml), at the initial phase of inflammation. Similarly the ethyl acetate fraction of all the selected plants showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity when compared with the standard drug (Baicalein). The results obtained from both in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of all the selected plants can be used for the isolation of new lead compounds with better anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24577927

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Vitthal Sarpate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth belongs to family Acanthaceae. The plants have been the subject of scientific research which confirms its use in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory drugs showing potent anti-rheumatic effects. Previous research claims the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Lupeol and 19α-H Lupeol isolated from Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala roots. Based on the literature cited, the unexplored parts stems and leaves of the two species were selected for the present study. Aim: The present study is designed to isolate steroidal and alkaloidal components from the two species Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala using the unexplored parts viz. stems and leaves and to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect. Settings and Design: The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated employing subacute anti-inflammatory models namely cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using isolated test components RVS-A (Lupeol, RVS-C (Doctriacantone and standard drug Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg. Results: The present study has dealt up with isolation of two phytoconstituents Lupeol and Dotriacontane which gave marked anti-inflammatory activity at the dose 20 mg/kg in both the models Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Cotton pellet granuloma. Conclusion: The results confirm that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of RVS-A (Lupeol and RVS-C (Doctriacantone involves reduction of prostaglandins through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and suppression of proliferative phase of sub acute inflammation. Thus the steroidal and alkaloidal components Lupeol and Doctriacantone isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth shows marked anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities ofPassiflora foetida L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasikala V; Saravanan S; Parimelazhagan T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract of Passiflora foetida (P. foetida) leaves.Methods:Ethanol extract ofP. foetida leaf was evaluated for analgesic action by acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate method in albino mice. The anti-inflammatory property of ethanolic leaf extract was tested by carrageenan induced acute paw edema and histamine induced acute paw edema in rats.Results:The dose200 mg/kg ofP. foetida leaf extract exhibited highest significant analgesic activity [(13.50±0.43) min] at a reaction time of20 min in hot plate method in mice. The ethanol extract of leaf dose 100 mg/kg produced a highly significant anti inflammatory effect [(1.302±0.079)mL] in rats.Conclusions: It is very clear thatP. foetidaalso has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities for the pharmaceuticals.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  16. PGH1, the precursor for the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins of the 1-series, is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory receptor CRTH2/DP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Ralf; Xue, Luzheng; Konya, Viktoria;

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin H(1) (PGH(1)) is the cyclo-oxygenase metabolite of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and the precursor for the 1-series of prostaglandins which are often viewed as "anti-inflammatory". Herein we present evidence that PGH(1) is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory PGD(2) receptor ...

  17. An activated set point of T-cell and monocyte inflammatory networks in recent-onset schizophrenia patients involves both pro- and anti-inflammatory forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Hoogenboezem, Thomas A.; Cohen, Dan; Versnel, Marjan A.; Nolen, Willem A.; van Beveren, Nico J. M.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently described a pro-inflammatory gene expression signature in the monocytes of 60% of patients with recent-onset schizophrenia (SCZ). Here we investigated whether the T-cell system is also in a pro-inflammatory state. A detailed fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, e. g. of C

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Russelia equisetiformis Schlecht AND Cham: identification of its active constituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awe Emmanuel Olorunju

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to isolate and identify the chemical constituent responsible for the antinflammatory activity of Russelia equisetiformis. Method: Isolation was carried out using column chromatography. The structure of the isolated compound was identified and established using the available spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution electron mass spectrum. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using egg albumin-induced paw edema, formaldehyde and #8211;induced arthritis and cotton pellet granuloma in-vivo tests. Prednisolone was used as a standard drug. Results: Lupeol was isolated as colorless crystals (mp 213-215OC.Lupeol at the doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg produced significant (P<0.05 and dose-dependent inhibition of egg albumin-induced edema and edematous response to arthritis. In chronic model of granuloma pouch in rat, lupeol (20 and 40 mg/kg, significantly (P<0.05 and also dose-dependently reduce the granuloma weight. Conclusion: These findings suggest that lupeol isolated from extract of Russelia equisetiformis possesses anti-inflammatory activity in acute and certain aspects of chronic inflammation. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 25-29

  19. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  20. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of extract of Vernonia Amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract ofVernonia amygdalina (V.A).Methods: Inflammatory response was induced by topical application of croton oil dissolved in suitable vehicle on the rat ear. After 6 hrs, cutting out the ear quantitated the response. The cut ear was weighed and the increase in weight relative to control group was evaluated.Results: When co-applied with croton oil to the rat ear extract of V.A. produced a reduction in the inflammatory response when croton oil alone was applied to the rat ear. The extract produced (69.1±2.0)% reduction of the inflammatory response produced by croton oil alone, lower than the reduction of the inflammatory response produced by acetyl salicylic acid [(71.1±2.0)%].Conclusions: This finding suggests that extract of V.A. exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and may explain the usefulness of the leaves of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory disease conditions by traditional healers.

  1. Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Hybrid Molecules of Terpenes and Synthetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Theoduloz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1, imbricatolic acid (2 and oleanolic acid (3 with ibuprofen (4 or naproxen (5. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9% and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%. In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%. All the terpenyl-synthetic anti-inflammatory hybrids showed better effects in the TPA assay, with best activity for 6, 12 and 15. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 8 and 10 with a free COOH, was higher than that of 2. The derivatives from 3 were less toxic than the triterpene. Several of the new compounds presented better anti-inflammatory effect and lower cytotoxicity than the parent terpenes.

  2. In vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of seven common oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Wise, Mitchell L; Gulvady, Apeksha A; Chang, Tony; Kendra, David F; Jan-Willem van Klinken, B; Shi, Yuhui; O'Shea, Marianne

    2013-08-15

    Oats are gaining increasing scientific and public interest for their purported antioxidant-associated health benefits. Most reported studies focused on specific oat extracts or particular oat components, such as β-glucans, tocols (vitamin E), or avenanthramides. Studies on whole oats with respect to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are still lacking. Here the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from whole oat groats of seven common varieties were evaluated. All oat varieties had very similar oxygen radical absorption capacity compared with other whole grains. In an anti-inflammatory assay, oat variety CDC Dancer inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation by 27.5% at 2 mg/ml, whereas variety Deiter showed 13.7% inhibition at a comparable dose. Avenanthramide levels did not correlate with the observed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Further investigations are needed to pinpoint the specific antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, and potential synergistic and/or matrix effects that may help explain the mechanisms of oat's anti-inflammatory actions.

  3. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eugenia Caryophllata Essential Oil: An animal model of anti-inflammatory activity

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is gas chromatographic analysis of Eugenia caryaphyllata (clove) essential oil and investigation of its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: The study involved eight groups; Serum physiologic, ethyl alcohol, indomethacin (3 mg/kg), etodolac (50 mg/kg), cardamom (0.05 mL/kg), EC-I (0.025 mL/kg), EC-II (0.050 mL/kg), EC-III (0.100 mL/kg) and EC-IV (0.200mL/kg). After measuring the volumes of right hind-paws of rats using a plethysmometer, drugs were injected intraperit...

  4. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarvankumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and pain are the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. A number of natural products are used in the traditional medical systems in many countries. An alternative medicine for the treatment of various diseases is getting more popular. Many medicinal plants provide relief of symptoms comparable to that of obtained from allopathic medicines. Therefore agents of natural origin with very little side effects are required as substitute chemicals therapeutics. The methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus (100& 200mg/kg Linn (Menispermaceae was investigated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in laboratory animals. The analgesic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus was investigated by eddy’s hot plate model and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cocculus hirsutus was studied by both in-vitro and in vivo models. Human red blood cells membrane stabilization method was adopted for the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and for in-vivo, Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats was employed. In eddy’s hot plate analgesic study, both the doses of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively analgesic activity. In acetic acid induced writhing model, the onset of writhing was delayed and duration of writhing was shortened by the methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus.In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti inflammatory activity in a concentration dependent manner. Cocculus hirsutus showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on both carrgeenan as well as cotton pellet induced granuloma models in rats. From the results, it was concluded that the methanolic leaf extract of Cocculus hirsutus possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  5. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:25532284

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya; Parveen Kumar; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; B R Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC STEM EXTRACTS OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor Chandra Shekhar; Bahuguna Y M; Singh Vijender

    2010-01-01

    In the present Study of Ethanolic extract of Stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae) was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema rats. The effect was assessed by Difference in paw oedema volume, before & after the low & high dose administration of the extract in Rats. Ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia stem (20 & 40 mg./kg./ml.) were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory effects were compared with Standard drug- Indomethacin (10mg./kg/ml.). These observ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and E. mulungu in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia M. M. Vasconcelos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs from Erythrina velutina Willd. (Ev and E. mulungu Mart. ex Benth. (Em in the carrageenan- and dextran-induced mice hind paw edema models. These medicinal plants belonging to the Fabaceae family are used in some Brazilian communities to treat pain, inflammation, insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. In the present work, the extracts were administered orally in male mice at the doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg. In the carrageenan-induced test, only Em showed anti-inflammatory activity, decreasing the paw edema, at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. No effect was observed with Ev in this model. On the other hand, in the dextran model, Ev demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect, showing decrease of the paw edema at the 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24th h. Em (200 or 400 mg/kg presented anti-inflammatory effect at the 2, 3 and 4th h after administration of dextran, as compared to control. In conclusion, the work showed that Ev and Em present anti-edematous actions, which possibly occurs by distinct mechanisms. While Ev seems to interfere especially in inflammatory processes in which mast cells have an important role, Em exerts greater activity in the inflammatory process that depends mainly on polymorphonuclear leucocytes. However, further studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism of action of the species investigated.

  10. Assessment of the anti-inflammatory activity and free radical scavenger activity of tiliroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Araceli; Recio, M Carmen; Schinella, Guillermo R; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Rosí, José Luis

    2003-02-01

    Three flavonoids, gnaphaliin, pinocembrin and tiliroside, isolated from Helichrysum italicum, were studied in vitro for their antioxidant and/or scavenger properties and in vivo in different models of inflammation. In vitro tests included lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes, superoxide radical generation in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and the reduction of the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Acute inflammation was induced by application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to the mouse ear or by subcutaneous injection of phospholipase A(2) or serotonin in the mouse paw. Eczema provoked on the mouse ear by repeated administration of TPA was selected as a model of chronic inflammation. The flavonoids were assayed against sheep red blood cell-induced mouse paw oedema as a model of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The most active compound, both in vitro and in vivo, was tiliroside. It significantly inhibited enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (IC(50)=12.6 and 28 microM, respectively). It had scavenger properties (IC(50)=21.3 microM) and very potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH test (IC(50)=6 microM). In vivo, tiliroside significantly inhibited the mouse paw oedema induced by phospholipase A(2)(ED(50)=35.6 mg/kg) and the mouse ear inflammation induced by TPA (ED(50)=357 microg/ear). Pinocembrin was the only flavonoid that exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in the sheep red blood cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. However, only tiliroside significantly reduced the oedema and leukocyte infiltration induced by TPA. As in the case of other flavonoids, the anti-inflammatory activity of tiliroside could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other mechanisms are probably involved.

  11. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  12. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ruweka Fernando

    Full Text Available Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells - immunoregulatory features not observed in the 'parent' IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its' anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6.

  13. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Maria Ruweka; Reyes, Jose Luis; Iannuzzi, Jordan; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek Mark

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated) subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM)) subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells - immunoregulatory features not observed in the 'parent' IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its' anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini Lucio; Steinwurz Flávio; Klug Wilmar; Rolim Ernani; Fang Chia; Vieira Andrea; Candelária Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS...

  15. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  16. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of imidazo [1,2-a] pyrimidine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Pei Zhou; Yi Wei Ding; Hui Bin Zhang; Lian Xu; Yue Dai

    2008-01-01

    A series of imidazo [1,2-a] pyrimidine derivatives substituted adjacently with two aryls at positions 2 and 3 were designed and synthesized in order to improve their anti-inflammatory activities. Biological tests suggested that these compounds have antiinflammatory activities with COX-2 selectivity to some extent.

  17. GBA2-encoded β-glucosidase activity is involved in the inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Loberto

    Full Text Available Current anti-inflammatory strategies for the treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF are limited; thus, there is continued interest in identifying additional molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Given the emerging role of sphingolipids (SLs in various respiratory disorders, including CF, drugs that selectively target the enzymes associated with SL metabolism are under development. Miglustat, a well-characterized iminosugar-based inhibitor of β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2, has shown promise in CF treatment because it reduces the inflammatory response to infection by P. aeruginosa and restores F508del-CFTR chloride channel activity. This study aimed to probe the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory activity of miglustat by examining specifically the role of GBA2 following the infection of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa. We also report the anti-inflammatory activity of another potent inhibitor of GBA2 activity, namely N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxypentyl-deoxynojirimycin (Genz-529648. In CF bronchial cells, inhibition of GBA2 by miglustat or Genz-529648 significantly reduced the induction of IL-8 mRNA levels and protein release following infection by P. aeruginosa. Hence, the present data demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of miglustat and Genz-529648 are likely exerted through inhibition of GBA2.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs. PMID:27057092

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of acetophenone semicarbazone and benzophenone semicarbazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaikh M Mohsin Ali; Mele Jesmin; M Abul Kalam Azad; M Khairul Islam; Ronok Zahan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in swiss albino mice, two schiff bases namely acetophenone semicarbazone (ASC) and benzophenone semicarbazone (BSC) were synthesized and characterized. Methods: Two doses of the test compounds 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o) for each were selected throughout the research work. The anti-inflammatory activity of the test compounds was determined by ‘carragenan induced mice paw edema inhibition’ method. The analgesic activity was determined by both, ‘acetic acid induced writhing’ and ‘tail immersion' methods. All such data were compared with standard drugs at the dose of 10 mg/kg (p.o.). Results:Both ASC and BSC have showed positive effects as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the test compounds at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) were quite comparable to those of standard drugs at 10 mg/kg (p.o.). Conclusion: Both ASC and BSC can be considered as potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

  20. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of some potential cyclic phenothiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Ram, T; Tyagi, R; Goel, B; Bansal, E; Srivastava, V K

    1998-05-01

    Some new schiff's bases (IVa-IVe), thiazolidinones (Va-Ve), delta 2-triazolines (VIa-VIe) and formazans (VIIa-VIIe) of 2-chlorophenothiazine have been synthesized and screened against Carrageenin induced oedema in albino rats. Some compounds of the series have shown promising activity. The most active compound is 2-chloro-10[5-(2-fluorophenyl-2-oxo-4 thiazolidin-1-yl)-amino acetyl] phenothiazine was found to be most potent. This compound (Vb) was further evaluated in detail and compared with phenylbutazone for its relative anti inflammatory potency (ED50), ulcerogenic liabilities (UD50) and acute toxicity (ALD50). It was found to be almost comparable to phenylbutazone as regards anti-inflammatory activity was concerned but and minimum ulcerogenic liability and cardiovascular effects. Hence, it seems promising as an anti-inflammatory agent in our preliminary studies. PMID:9689901

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  2. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  4. Tissue Distribution and Anti-inflammatory Activity of DexamethasoneAcetate Incorporated In Lipid Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanDongqin; CuiGuanghua; DongHuajin; RuanJinxiu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity and tissue distribution patterns of intravenousemulsion of dexamethasone acetate in mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory solution for injection andLimethasone(Jepanese product) given intravenously were evaluated by using the preformed carrageenan granulomapouch method in rats. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone acetate emulsion at low dose of 0.05mg.kg1 was as potent as dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution at high dose of 0.3 mg.kg1. The distributionpatterns in mice tissues of [3H]dexamethasone acetate emulsion and [3H]dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution inmice were markedly different. Dexamethasone acetate emulsion showed a much higher concentration in the liver,spleen, lung, and inflamed tissues, whereas dexamethasone sodium phosphate had a high concenti,mon in themuscles of vastus lateralis. These results may indicate that dexamethasone incoporated in lipid emulsion was taken upby the reticuloendothelial system and inflammatory cells much more than dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution.Conclusion: When dexamethasone acetate was incorporated in emulsion, the distribution patterns in tissues werechanged and they had a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

    2013-01-15

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  6. ANTI – INFLAMMATORY AND SEDATIVE – HYPNOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF MENTHA ARVENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, S. M.; Arora, H.; R. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    Mentha arvensis Linn, a plant used as traditional medicine and in perfumery, has now been explored for its pharmacological activities as an anti-inflammatory and also as sedativehypnotic plant drug. The methanolic extract of the leaves after being processed, was taken for the pharmacological study. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, the activity was compared to that of a standard anti-inflammatory drug – nimesulide and the percent inhibition of oedema determin...

  7. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract of Valeriana wallichii DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Zakiullah; Khan, Ayub; Nasir, Fazli

    2012-10-01

    Valeriana wallichii DC (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used traditional remedies for various complications associated with nervous system and digestion. No antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory studies have so far been carried out on the aerial parts of the plant. The present work was focused to evaluate the antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) and anti-inflammatory properties of V. wallichii using reported methods. Chloroform fraction (VW-2) and hexane fraction (VW-3) exhibited significant activity against S. aureus and B. subtilus, respectively. The chloroform fraction (VW-2) showed significant activity against S. aureus with 0.27 mg/ml MIC, where 0.31 mg/ml MIC was deduced for VW-3 fraction against B. subtilus. VW-3 fraction was also found to be the most potent inhibitor of M. canis, showing 70% inhibition with an MIC value of 0.19 mg/ml. Considerable inhibitory activity was also observed for VW-2 and water fraction (VW-6) against M. canis and A. flavus. A remarkable anti-inflammatory like activity was observed for the crude extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg at all observed durations. Other doses of the sample also showed excellent activity. Looking to these results it may be concluded that V. wallichii may be a potential source for activity guided isolation of natural products with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory-like properties. PMID:23009985

  8. CTGF promotes inflammatory cell infiltration of the renal interstitium by activating NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Elsa; Rayego, Sandra; Rodrigues-Díez, Raquel; Rodriguez, Javier Sánchez; Rodrigues-Díez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Vita, Juan; Carvajal, Gisselle; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Selgas, Rafael; Mezzano, Sergio A; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2009-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important profibrotic factor in kidney diseases. Blockade of endogenous CTGF ameliorates experimental renal damage and inhibits synthesis of extracellular matrix in cultured renal cells. CTGF regulates several cellular responses, including adhesion, migration, proliferation, and synthesis of proinflammatory factors. Here, we investigated whether CTGF participates in the inflammatory process in the kidney by evaluating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) pathway, a key signaling system that controls inflammation and immune responses. Systemic administration of CTGF to mice for 24 h induced marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the renal interstitium (T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages) and led to elevated renal NF-kappaB activity. Administration of CTGF increased renal expression of chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES) and cytokines (INF-gamma, IL-6, and IL-4) that recruit immune cells and promote inflammation. Treatment with a NF-kappaB inhibitor, parthenolide, inhibited CTGF-induced renal inflammatory responses, including the up-regulation of chemokines and cytokines. In cultured murine tubuloepithelial cells, CTGF rapidly activated the NF-kappaB pathway and the cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases, demonstrating crosstalk between these signaling pathways. CTGF, via mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB activation, increased proinflammatory gene expression. These data show that in addition to its profibrotic properties, CTGF contributes to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the kidney by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. PMID:19423687

  9. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice. PMID:24433073

  10. Antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Mimusops elengi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biswakanth Kar; RB Suresh Kumar; Indrajit Karmakar; Narayan Dolai; Asis Bala; Upal K Mazumder; Pallab K Haldar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antioxidant and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi L (M. elengi) leaves. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for peroxynitrite, superoxide and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity. Total phenolic content also determined. Inhibition of protein denaturation and HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) membrane stabilization method was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Results: The leave extract of M. elengi exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging property in peroxynitrite, superoxide and hypochlorous acid models and the IC50 value were found to be (205.53 ± 2.30), (60.5±2.3), (202.4±5.3) μg/mL respectively. Total phenolic content was found to be 97.3 μg/mg of extract. The maximum membrane stabilization of M. elengi L was found to be (73.85±0.80)% at a dose of 1 000 μg/0.5 mL and that of protein denaturation was found to be 86.23% at a dose of 250 μg/mL with regards to standards in the anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: From the result it can conclude that M. elengi extract show good antioxidant and in vitro anti -inflammatory activities.

  11. Sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana calyces with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Luis A; Ocampo, Yanet C; Gómez, Harold A; De la Puerta, Rocío; Espartero, José L; Ospina, Luis F

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana is a native plant from the South American Andes and is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine of as an anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, specifically the leaves, calyces, and small stems in poultice form. Previous studies performed by our group on P. peruviana calyces showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in an enriched fraction obtained from an ether total extract. The objective of the present study was to obtain and elucidate the active compounds from this fraction and evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. The enriched fraction of P. peruviana was purified by several chromatographic methods to obtain an inseparable mixture of two new sucrose esters named peruviose A (1) and peruviose B (2). Structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. The anti-inflammatory activity of the peruvioses mixture was evaluated using λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that the peruvioses did not produce side effects on the liver and kidneys and significantly attenuated the inflammation induced by λ-carrageenan in a dosage-dependent manner, probably due to an inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which was demonstrated in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of sucrose esters in P. peruviana that showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest the potential of sucrose esters from the Physalis genus as a novel natural alternative to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:25338213

  12. ω3-PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory activity in visceral adipocytes from colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo D'Archivio

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate specific fatty acid profiles of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT with inflammatory signatures potentially associated with colorectal cancer (CRC. METHODS: Human adipocytes were isolated from biopsies of visceral WAT from 24 subjects subdivided in four groups: normal-weight (BMI 22.0-24.9 Kg/m2 and over-weight/obese (BMI 26.0-40.0 Kg/m2, affected or not by CRC. To define whether obesity and/or CRC affect the inflammatory status of WAT, the activation of the pro-inflammatory STAT3 and the anti-inflammatory PPARγ transcription factors as well as the expression of adiponectin were analyzed by immunoblotting in adipocytes isolated from each group of subjects. Furthermore, to evaluate whether differences in inflammatory WAT environment correlate with specific fatty acid profiles, gas-chromatographic analysis was carried out on WAT collected from all subject categories. Finally, the effect of the ω3 docosahexaenoic acid treatment on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in adipocytes was also evaluated. RESULTS: We provide the first evidence for the existence of a pro-inflammatory environment in WAT of CRC patients, as assessed by the up-regulation of STAT3, and the concomitant decrease of PPARγ and adiponectin with respect to healthy subjects. WAT inflammatory status was independent of obesity degree but correlated with a decreased ω3-/ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio. These observations suggested that qualitative changes, other than quantitative ones, in WAT fatty acid may influence tissue dysfunctions potentially linked to inflammatory conditions. This hypothesis was further supported by the finding that adipocyte treatment with docosahexaenoic acid restored the equilibrium between STAT3 and PPARγ. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adipocyte dysfunctions occur in CRC patients creating a pro-inflammatory environment that might influence cancer development. Furthermore

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ activated murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Bennett, Louise; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; King, Kerryn; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard; Ooi, Lezanne; Gyengesi, Erika; Münch, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a well-known contributing factor to many age-related chronic diseases. One of the possible strategies to suppress inflammation is the employment of functional foods with anti-inflammatory properties. Edible mushrooms are attracting more and more attention as functional foods since they are rich in bioactive compounds, but their anti-inflammatory properties and the effect of food processing steps on this activity has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, White Button and Honey Brown (both Agaricus bisporus), Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), Enoki (Flammulina velutipes) and Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) preparations were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Potent anti-inflammatory activity (IC₅₀portion of the anti-inflammatory activity was lost suggesting that the anti-inflammatory compounds might be susceptible to heating or prone to evaporation. PMID:24262531

  14. Myelin alters the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages by activating PPARs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogie, Jeroen; Jorissen, Winde; Mailleux, Jo; Vanmierlo, Tim; van Horssen, Jack; Hellings, Niels; Stinissen, Piet; Hendriks, J. J. A.; Nijland, Philip G.; Zelcer, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Background Foamy macrophages, containing myelin degradation products, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Recent studies have described an altered phenotype of macrophages after myelin internalization. However, mechanisms by which myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype influences lesion progression remain unclear. Results We demonstrate that myelin as well as phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid found in myelin, reduce nitri...

  15. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Filomena; Sosa, Silvio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Uzunov, Dimitar; Tubaro, Aurelia; Menichini, Francesco; Loggia, Roberto Della

    2008-02-28

    Five hydroalcoholic extracts of edible plants from Calabria region (Italy) used in local traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases were evaluated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity (inhibition of croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice) and in vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties (inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bovine brain liposomes peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging). All the extracts showed an anti-inflammatory effect: 300 microg/cm(2) provoked oedema reductions ranging from 21 to 27%. All the extracts exerted also radical scavenging and/or antioxidant properties, the most active plant being Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) which contained the highest amount of phenolics (337 mg/g) and of flavonoids (15.75 mg/g). Moreover, the content and the composition of sterols were assessed by GC-MS in the examined plants Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) contained the highest number of sterols. PMID:18164564

  16. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO2 or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% 239Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO2-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% 239Pu than for 70% 239Pu. (authors)

  17. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  18. Can the anti-inflammatory activities of β2-agonists be harnessed in the clinical setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theron AJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Annette J Theron,1,2 Helen C Steel,1 Gregory R Tintinger,1 Charles Feldman,3 Ronald Anderson1 1Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, 2Tshwane Academic Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Pretoria, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (β2-agonists are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled β2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of β2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of β2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of β2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells. Keywords: adenylyl cyclase, corticosteroids, cyclic AMP, muscarinic

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  20. Pinoresinol from the fruits of Forsythia koreana inhibits inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Won; Mahesh, Ramalingam; Lee, Jong Gu; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Shik; Park, Yong-Ki

    2010-08-23

    The activation of microglia plays an important role in a variety of brain disorders by the excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated here whether pinoresinol isolated from the fruits of Forsythia koreana Nakai inhibits the inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia. Pinoresinol inhibited the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in LPS-activated primary microglia. Also, pinoresinol attenuated mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activation. However, most of these inhibitory effects of pinoresinol have been mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the NF-kappaB dependent. The results suggest that pinoresinol attenuates inflammatory responses of microglia and could be potentially useful in modulation of inflammatory status in brain disorders.

  1. Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I; Küpeli, E; Aslan, M; Kartal, M; Yesilada, E

    2006-04-21

    The ethanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) as well as its oleoresin were evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Among the extracts screened, only the oleoresin was shown to possess a marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses whereas the rest of the extracts were totally inactive. While the oleoresin was found to display significant antinociceptive activity at 500 mg/kg dose, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts belonging to fruit, leaf, branch and peduncle of Pistacia vera did not exhibit any noticeable antinociception in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. Fractionation of the oleoresin indicated the n-hexane fraction to be active, which further led to recognition of some monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (77.5%) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as the oleoresin itself. alpha-Pinene was also assessed for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in the same manner and exerted a moderate anti-inflammatory effect at 500 mg/kg dose.

  2. Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I; Küpeli, E; Aslan, M; Kartal, M; Yesilada, E

    2006-04-21

    The ethanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) as well as its oleoresin were evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Among the extracts screened, only the oleoresin was shown to possess a marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses whereas the rest of the extracts were totally inactive. While the oleoresin was found to display significant antinociceptive activity at 500 mg/kg dose, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts belonging to fruit, leaf, branch and peduncle of Pistacia vera did not exhibit any noticeable antinociception in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. Fractionation of the oleoresin indicated the n-hexane fraction to be active, which further led to recognition of some monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (77.5%) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as the oleoresin itself. alpha-Pinene was also assessed for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in the same manner and exerted a moderate anti-inflammatory effect at 500 mg/kg dose. PMID:16337351

  3. New isorhamnetin derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. leaves with distinct anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol extract and some isolated compounds were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using nitric oxide assay. All chemical structures were identified on the basis of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: Nine phenolic compounds, among them two new natural products; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronyl (1'''→4'' glucuronide (1 and its dimethyl ester; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-di glucuronate dimethyl ester (2, two isorhamnetin glycosides: Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, and isorhamnetin (5. In addition, an alkaloidal phenolic; trans N-feruloyl tyramine (6, three phenolic acids: Isovanillic acid (7, ferulic acid (8, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (9 were isolated from salsola imbricata leaves. All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant except compound (6. The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

  4. Modified eremophilanes and anti-inflammatory activity of Psacalium cirsiifolium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Vivar Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Four new modified eremophilanes, together with ten known cacalol derivatives, two caryophyllenes, one aromadendrene and one flavonoid were isolated from Psacalium cirsiifolium. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The antiinflammatory activity of extracts and of seven of the isolated compounds was evaluated on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) model of induced acute inflammation. The new compound 2{alpha}-hydroxyadenostin B (4) showed a dose dependent activity (IC{sub 50} 0.41 {mu}mol per ear) and a neutrophil inhibition effect as measured by the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay similar to that of indomethacin at 0.31 and 1.0 {mu}mol per ear. (author)

  5. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity of selected osthole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Mazol, Irena; Włodarczyk, Maciej; Gleńsk, Michał

    2009-01-01

    From osthole [7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-chromen-2-one] (I), obtained by selective extraction of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W. Koch roots, ostholic acid (II) was synthetized as a result of its oxidation with chromium trioxide. From ostholic acid, through its chloride, four amides were obtained: the morpholide 1, the p-chloro-benzylamide 2, the piperidine 3 and the N-methyl-piperazide 4. Except for 1, other compounds have not been described before. The amides 1-4 and their precursor osthole (I) were tested for their potential activities in selected immunological assays. The compounds showed moderate inhibitory activity in the humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes in mice in vitro, and 4 was the most suppressive. The effects of 1 and 3 on concanavalin A- and pokeweed mitogen-induced mouse splenocyte proliferation were inhibitory and those of 4 stimulatory. The compounds were also tested for their activity on tumour necrosis factor a and interleukin 6 production, induced by lipopolysaccharide, in cultures of rat peritoneal cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 inhibited tumour necrosis factor a (rat cells), whereas compound 2 stimulated the production of both cytokines. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were also strongly inhibitory on tumour necrosis factor a production in human blood cells (73, 78 and 80% inhibition at 10 microg/ml, respectively). On the other hand, 2 and 4 stimulated the interleukin 6 production (2- to 3-fold stimulation). In addition, 2 and 4 suppressed the carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice (56.5% and 68.3% inhibition, respectively). In summary, the compounds predominantly displayed suppressive and antiinflammatory activities in the investigated models. PMID:19678539

  6. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  7. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  9. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Alejandra H.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Cross, Raymond K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the contributions of coping and social constraint to disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to examine group differences in disease activity and HRQOL between patients with high versus low anxiety or depression symptoms in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis in which disease activity was measured with either the Harvey-Bradshaw Index or the Simple Clinical Colitis Activit...

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Sclerochloa dura (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Syed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Sclerochloa dura is traditionally used in South-East Serbia to treat menstrual disorders characterized by pain and excessive bleeding. According to subjects’ statements, a reduction in bleeding and pain is experienced shortly after oral intake. The focus of this investigation was to determine the inhibitory effects of the plant on the arachidonic acid (AA cascade alongwith the spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant capacity. The AA release assay was performed using the human fibroblastlike synoviocyte cell line SW982 to determine the AA release and hence phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity. The crude extract and subsequent fractions of S. dura inhibit IL-1 induced release of AA in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SW982 cells. The IC50 for the crude extract is 1.5 mg/mL at 4 h and 24 h of stimulation. Treating the cells with 0.22, 0.11 and 0.06 mg/mL of methanolic fraction resulted in 97%, 91%, and 63% inhibition of AA-release, respectively. One milligram of the crude extract contained 34.78 μg pyrocatechol equivalent phenolic content, 22.80 μg quercetin equivalent flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of 70.11 μg α-tocopherol equivalents. Strong inhibitory effects of the S. dura extracts on AA cascade may explain the reported pain- and discomfort relieving effects.

  11. Inflammatory memories: is epigenetics the missing link to persistent stromal cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ospelt; K.A. Reedquist; S. Gay; P.P. Tak

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction. Synovial fibroblasts are recognized as key cells in the pathogenesis of RA since they attract and activate immune cells and produce matrix degrading enzymes. Most notably synovial fibroblasts from patients with

  12. Considering depression as a consequence of activation of the inflammatory response system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, J; Klein, HC; Versijpt, J; den Boer, J; ter Horst, GJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the possible interrelation between peripheral and/or cerebral inflammation and depression. Often, depression is regarded as a consequence of life events, including disabling diseases. The question addressed here is whether activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) ca

  13. EVALUTION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Bagri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous-ethanolic (50% extracts of fruit rind (PGR, flower (PGF, and leaves (PGL of Punica granatum were examined for its oral anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Oral pretreatment with the dried extracts of P. granatum produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups. The highest activity was shown in the PGR that at 500 mg/kg p.o. inhibited inflammation by 82.14%. (79 % for indomethacin at 10 mg/kg. On the contrary, the aqueous-ethanolic (50 % extracts of PGF and PGL exhibited 71.42% and 67.85% inhibition, respectively, at 500 mg/kg dose. The extracts at tested doses were found to possess analgesic activity in mice against tail-flick method. These results indicated that extracts of P. granatum possessed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities suggesting its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent for use in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine.

  14. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  15. Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Dinis, Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Decoctions prepared from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) are widely used in the traditional Peruvian medicine for the treatment of several diseases, in particular as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine if the well-known anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw decoction was related with its reactivity with the oxidant species generated in the inflammatory process and to establish a relationship between such antioxidant ability and its phenolic composition. We observed that the decoction prepared according to the traditional Peruvian medicine presented a potent radical scavenger activity, as suggested by its high capacity to reduce the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, and by its reaction with superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals as well as with the oxidant species, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid. It also protected membrane lipids against peroxidation induced by the iron/ascorbate system, as evaluated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs). The decoction phenolic profile was established by chromatographic analysis (HPLC/DAD and TLC) revealing essentially the presence of proanthocyanidins (oligomeric procyanidins) and phenolic acids, mainly caffeic acid. Thus, our results provide evidence for an antioxidant mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of cat's claw and support some of the biological effects of proanthocyanidins, more exactly its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.

  16. Pharmacognostic study and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar S; Kumar V; Prakash OM

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study detail pharmacognosy and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemonlanceolatus (C. lanceolatus) leaf. Methods: Leaf sample was studied by organoleptic, macroscopical, microscopical, phytochemical and other WHO recommended methods for standardizations. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant was also screened for anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally. The detail pharmacognostic study of the C. lanceolatus leaf was carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. Results: C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract showed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. This significant anti-inflammatory of C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg was comparable with diclofenac sodium. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic profile of the C. lanceolatus leaf is helpful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. The methanolic extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg shows a significant activity in comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg).

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia R. C. Porto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L., Euphorbiaceae, spray-dried standardized extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of spray-dried standardized extract was observed in carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycolate-induced leukocyte migration, while antinociceptive effects were observed using Randall & Selitto, tail flick, and hot plate tests. This study showed that intraperitoneal spray-dried standardized extract at 100, 200, 800, or 1600 mg/kg reduced the vascular response in the inflammatory process of paw edema induced by 1% carrageenan. Oral spray-dried standardized extract at 100 or 200 mg/kg inhibited leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation induced by 3% thioglycolate. In rats, at 100 and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally, the extract exhibited a marked peripheral analgesic effect in a Randall & Selitto assay and showed significant central analgesic activity in a hot plate and tail flick assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract has potent inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and that these activities are not modified by standard drying process, making it feasible to use the dry extract standardized to obtain a phytotherapic preparation and thus validating its use for the treatment of pain and inflammation disorders.

  18. Immunosuppression after liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis influences activity of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristin Kaasen; Lindström, Lina; Cvancarova, Milada;

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after liver transplantation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We studied the progression of IBD in patients with PSC who have undergone liver transplantation. We also...... studied risk factors, including medical therapy, that could influence on IBD disease activity....

  19. Asian Dust Particles Induce Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Higashisaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust is a springtime meteorological phenomenon that originates in the deserts of China and Mongolia. The dust is carried by prevailing winds across East Asia where it causes serious health problems. Most of the information available on the impact of Asian dust on human health is based on epidemiological investigations, so from a biological standpoint little is known of its effects. To clarify the effects of Asian dust on human health, it is essential to assess inflammatory responses to the dust and to evaluate the involvement of these responses in the pathogenesis or aggravation of disease. Here, we investigated the induction of inflammatory responses by Asian dust particles in macrophages. Treatment with Asian dust particles induced greater production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α compared with treatment with soil dust. Furthermore, a soil dust sample containing only particles ≤10 μm in diameter provoked a greater inflammatory response than soil dust samples containing particles >10 μm. In addition, Asian dust particles-induced TNF-α production was dependent on endocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Together, these results suggest that Asian dust particles induce inflammatory disease through the activation of macrophages.

  20. Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiparasitic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Laennecia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Martínez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae. Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.

  1. The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aspidosperma tomentosum (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anansa Bezerra de Aquino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE, its fractions, and the flavonoid isorhamnetin from Aspidosperma tomentosum using models of nociception and inflammation in mice. In the writhing test, the CEE and its fractions (except for soluble phase, CHCl3 100% and EtAcO 100% at 100 mg/kg p.o. induced antinociceptive activity. Isorhamnetin (100 μmol/kg, p.o. was also active. In the hot plate test, only the treatment with the fractions Hex : CHCl3 50%, CHCl3 100%, and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% (100 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency time, reversed by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Fractions that were active in the hot plate test did not show catalepsy condition. It was observed that CEE, all fractions, and isorhamnetin reduced the formalin effects in the neurogenic phase. In the inflammatory phase, only CEE, isorhamnetin, and CHCl3 100% and CHCl3 : MeOH 5% fractions were active. CEE and all fractions, except for CHCl3 : MeOH 10% fraction, isorhamnetin, and soluble fraction were able to produce an antioedematogenic activity in the ear capsaicin-induced edema test. In the thioglycolate-induced peritonitis, only EtAcO 100% fraction was not active. The results demonstrate that A. tomentosum has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.

  2. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan CG; Deepak M; Viswanatha GL; Savinay G; Hanumantharaju V; Rajendra CE; Praveen D Halemani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. Results: In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC50 values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC50 of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (Pindica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

  4. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain by its encapsulation in katira gum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernela, Manju; Ahuja, Munish; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Bromelain-loaded katira gum nanoparticles were synthesized using 3 level optimization process and desirability approach. Nanoparticles of the optimized batch were characterized using particle size analysis, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by employing carrageenan induced rat-paw oedema method showed that encapsulation of bromelain in katira gum nanoparticles substantially enhanced its anti-inflammatory potential. This may be attributed to enhanced absorption owing to reduced particle size or to protection of bromelain from acid proteases. PMID:27083339

  5. The assessment of inflammatory activity and toxicity of treated sewage using RAW264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Makene, Vedastus W.; Pool, Edmund J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater samples were evaluated using RAW264.7 cells as a bioassay model. The RAW264.7 cell cultures were exposed to sterile filtered wastewater samples collected from a sewage treatment plant. Cell viability was evaluated using WST‐1 and XTT assays. Inflammatory effects of samples were assessed by determination of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL‐6). The NO was estimated using the Griess reaction and IL‐6 was measured by enzyme‐linked i...

  6. Muscle cells challenged with saturated fatty acids mount an autonomous inflammatory response that activates macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillon Nicolas J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Within adipose tissue of mice fed a high fat diet, resident and infiltrating macrophages assume a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by the production of cytokines which in turn impact on the surrounding tissue. However, inflammation is not restricted to adipose tissue and high fat-feeding is responsible for a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in muscle. Although skeletal muscle is the major disposer of dietary glucose and a major determinant of glycemia, the origin and consequence of muscle inflammation in the development of insulin resistance are poorly understood. We used a cell culture approach to investigate the vectorial crosstalk between muscle cells and macrophages upon exposure to physiological, low levels of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Inflammatory pathway activation and cytokine expression were analyzed in L6 muscle cells expressing myc-tagged GLUT4 (L6GLUT4myc exposed to 0.2 mM palmitate or palmitoleate. Conditioned media thereof, free of fatty acids, were then tested for their ability to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. Palmitate -but not palmitoleate- induced IL-6, TNFα and CCL2 expression in muscle cells, through activation of the NF-κB pathway. Palmitate (0.2 mM alone did not induce insulin resistance in muscle cells, yet conditioned media from palmitate-challenged muscle cells selectively activated macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of palmitate activate autonomous inflammation in muscle cells to release factors that turn macrophages pro-inflammatory. We hypothesize that saturated fat-induced, low-grade muscle cell inflammation may trigger resident skeletal muscle macrophage polarization, possibly contributing to insulin resistance in vivo.

  7. Study of anti-inflammatory activities of α-D-glucosylated eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Erli; Xiao, Min; Chen, Chang; Xu, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against a variety of noxious stimuli, such as infection, chemicals, and physical injury. Eugenol, a natural phenolic extract, has drawn much attention for its various desirable pharmacological functions and is, therefore, broadly used in our daily life and medical practice. However, further usage of eugenol is greatly limited due to its unwanted properties, such as physicochemical instability, poor solubility, and high-dose cytotoxicity. In hopes of extending its applicability through glycosylation, we previously reported a novel, efficient, and high throughput way to biosynthesize α-D-glucosylated eugenol (α-EG). In this study, we further explored the potential superior properties of α-EG to its parent eugenol in terms of anti-inflammatory activities. We demonstrated that α-EG was an effective anti-inflammatory mediator in both non-cellular and cellular environments. In addition, the non-cellular inhibitory effect of α-EG could be amplified by α-glucosidase, which ubiquitously exists in cytoplasm. Furthermore, α-EG exhibited a superior anti-inflammatory effect to its parent eugenol in a cellular environment. In words, our findings collectively suggest that α-EG is a stronger anti-inflammatory mediator and may thereby serve as a desirable substitute for eugenol and a potential therapeutic prodrug in treating inflammatory diseases in the future.

  8. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  9. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Anthraquinone Derivatives in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe emodin is isolated compound of aloe vera which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that glucuronosyl or sulfated forms of aloe emodin may provide some limitations in its absorption capacity. Aloe emodin was reported to have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (iNO and prostaglandin E2, via its action on murine macrophages. However, present work evidenced that molecular docking of aloe emodin modulates the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 in rodent. The AEC (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2 carboxylic acid was synthesized using aloe emodin as starting material. The study was planned for evaluation of possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The AE (aloe emodin and AEC significantly P<0.001 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema at 50 and 75 mg/kg. Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model showed significant P<0.001 decrease in injected and noninjected paw volume, arthritic score. AE and AEC showed significant effect on various biochemical, antioxidant, and hematological parameters. Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg showed significant P<0.001 inhibition in inflammation and arthritis.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcuminoids, Turmerones, and Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Subhash Bagad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil, the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly (P≤0.05 inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones.

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

    2011-10-01

    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control. PMID:22518936

  13. Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some New Benzoxazinone and Quinazolinone Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashash, Maher Abd El-Aziz; Azab, Mohammad Emad; Faty, Rasha Abd El-Aziz; Amr, Abd El-Galil Elsyed

    2016-01-01

    Benzoxazinones and quinazolinones have a wide spectrum of biological activity. In this paper we focused on studying the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of some newly synthesized benzoxazinone and quinazolinone derivatives. Thus we prepared 2-[α-benzoylaminostyryl]-6,8-dibromo-3,1-benzoxazin-4(H)-one 2 which underwent a reaction with primary and secondary amines, and hydrazine hydrate to give compounds 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Treatment of 2 with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, formamide and/or NaN3/AcOH afforded compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12, respectively. Also, compound 2 reacted with maleic anhydride, aromatic hydrocarbons and/or active methylene compounds to produce compounds 13, 15a-c and 16, respectively. Most of the newly synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities comparable to ampicillin, mycostatine and indomethacin positive controls. PMID:26699093

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of the glandular extracts ofThunnus alalunga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K. Azeem; C Dilip; S S Prasanth; V Junise Hanan Shahima; Kumsr Sajeev; C. Naseera

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflamattory activity ofThunnus alalunga by bothin vitro and in vivomethods.Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform water extract ofThunnus alalunga was done by both in vitro andin vivo methods.In vitro method was done by human red blood cells membrane stabilization method(HRBC).In vivoevaluation was estimated on Wister albino rats. Acute toxicity studies were done on the extract and no toxicity was reported.Results:The percentage protection exhibited by 300 mg/mL concentration was more when compared to the other ones. The400 mg/mL concentration showed potent activity on comparison with the standard during in vivo evaluation.Conclusions: In both means of estimation the extract ofThunnus alalunga was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

    2011-10-01

    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control.

  16. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Alam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities ofthe methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL. Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO- as well as  inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p

  17. Determining a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Inflammatory Activity Acceptable State Without Subsequent Radiographic Progression in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Conaghan, Philip G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical inflammation for subsequent radiographic progression in a longitudinal study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission or low disease activity (LDA), and to determine cutoffs...... for an MRI inflammatory activity acceptable state in RA in which radiographic progression rarely occurs. METHODS: Patients with RA in clinical remission [28-joint Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) LDA state (2.6 ≤ DAS28-CRP ....4 (95% CI 1.72-11.4) for radiographic progression. CONCLUSION: High MRI synovitis score predicts radiographic progression in patients in clinical remission/LDA. A cutoff point for determining an MRI inflammatory activity acceptable state based on the RAMRIS synovitis score was established. Incorporating...

  18. Genetically engineered immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus strains producing antioxidant enzymes exhibit enhanced anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti-inflammatory

  19. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages via activation of Nrf2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Abdalrahman, Akram; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Joseph S. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Ward, Keith W.; Meyer, Colin J. [Department of Pharmacology, Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irving, TX 75063 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: Dongqi.Tang@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Dh404 suppresses the expression of a selected set of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflamed macrophages via activating Nrf2. • Dh404 activates Nrf2 while keeping Keap1 function intact in macrophages. • Dh404 minimally regulates NF-κB pathway in macrophages. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is the major regulator of cellular defenses against various pathological stresses in a variety of organ systems, thus Nrf2 has evolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment and/or prevention of human disease. Several synthetic oleanolic triterpenoids including dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404) appear to be potent activators of Nrf2 and exhibit chemopreventive promises in multiple disease models. While the pharmacological efficacy of Nrf2 activators may be dependent on the nature of Nrf2 activation in specific cell types of target organs, the precise role of Nrf2 in mediating biological effects of Nrf2 activating compounds in various cell types remains to be further explored. Herein we report a unique and Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory profile of dh404 in inflamed macrophages. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inflamed RAW264.7 macrophages, dh404 dramatically suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), while minimally regulating the expression of interleulin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Dh404 potently activated Nrf2 signaling; however, it did not affect LPS-induced NF-κB activity. Dh404 did not interrupt the interaction of Nrf2 with its endogenous inhibitor Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) in macrophages. Moreover, knockout of Nrf2 blocked the dh404-induced anti-inflammatory responses in LPS-inflamed macrophages. These results demonstrated that dh404 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages via an activation

  20. Tissue kallikrein mediates pro-inflammatory pathways and activation of protease-activated receptor-4 in proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Yiu

    Full Text Available Tissue kallikrein (KLK1 expression is up-regulated in human diabetic kidney tissue and induced by high glucose (HG in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC. Since the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS has been linked to cellular inflammatory process in many diseases, it is likely that KLK1 expression may mediate the inflammatory process during the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we explored the role of KLK1 in tubular pro-inflammatory responses under the diabetic milieu. Recombinant KLK1 stimulated the production of inflammatory cytokines in PTEC via the activation of p42/44 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Molecular knockdown of endogenous KLK1 expression by siRNA transfection in PTEC attenuated advanced glycation end-products (AGE-induced IL-8 and ICAM-1 productions in vitro. Interestingly, exposure of PTEC to KLK1 induced the expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs. There was a 2.9-fold increase in PAR-4, 1.4-fold increase in PAR-1 and 1.2-fold increase in PAR-2 mRNA levels. Activation of PAR-4 by a selective agonist was found to elicit the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in PTEC while blockade of the receptor by specific antagonist attenuated high glucose-induced IL-6, CCL-2, CTGF and collagen IV expression. Calcium mobilization by the PAR-4 agonist in PTEC was desensitized by pretreatment with KLK1. Consistent with these in vitro findings, there was a markedly up-regulation of tubular PAR-4 expression in human diabetic renal cortical tissues. Together, these results suggest that up-regulation of KLK1 in tubular epithelial cells may mediate pro-inflammatory pathway and PAR activation during diabetic nephropathy and provide a new therapeutic target for further investigation.

  1. Tissue kallikrein mediates pro-inflammatory pathways and activation of protease-activated receptor-4 in proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson W L; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Leung, Joseph C K; Chan, Kwok Wah; Lan, Hui Yao; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney C W

    2014-01-01

    Tissue kallikrein (KLK1) expression is up-regulated in human diabetic kidney tissue and induced by high glucose (HG) in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Since the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) has been linked to cellular inflammatory process in many diseases, it is likely that KLK1 expression may mediate the inflammatory process during the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we explored the role of KLK1 in tubular pro-inflammatory responses under the diabetic milieu. Recombinant KLK1 stimulated the production of inflammatory cytokines in PTEC via the activation of p42/44 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Molecular knockdown of endogenous KLK1 expression by siRNA transfection in PTEC attenuated advanced glycation end-products (AGE)-induced IL-8 and ICAM-1 productions in vitro. Interestingly, exposure of PTEC to KLK1 induced the expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs). There was a 2.9-fold increase in PAR-4, 1.4-fold increase in PAR-1 and 1.2-fold increase in PAR-2 mRNA levels. Activation of PAR-4 by a selective agonist was found to elicit the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in PTEC while blockade of the receptor by specific antagonist attenuated high glucose-induced IL-6, CCL-2, CTGF and collagen IV expression. Calcium mobilization by the PAR-4 agonist in PTEC was desensitized by pretreatment with KLK1. Consistent with these in vitro findings, there was a markedly up-regulation of tubular PAR-4 expression in human diabetic renal cortical tissues. Together, these results suggest that up-regulation of KLK1 in tubular epithelial cells may mediate pro-inflammatory pathway and PAR activation during diabetic nephropathy and provide a new therapeutic target for further investigation. PMID:24586431

  2. A comparative dosimetric study for treating left-sided breast cancer for small breast size using five different radiotherapy techniques: conventional tangential field, filed-in-filed, Tangential-IMRT, Multi-beam IMRT and VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the dosimetry for the left-sided breast cancer treatment using five different radiotherapy techniques. Twenty patients with left sided breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery followed by radiotherapy. They were planned using five different radiotherapy techniques, including: 1) conventional tangential wedge-based fields (TW); 2) field-in-field (FIF) technique; 3) tangential inverse planning intensity-modulated radiation therapy (T-IMRT); 4) multi-field IMRT (M-IMRT); and 5) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The CTV, PTV and OARs including the heart, the regions of coronary artery (CA), the contralateral breast, the left and right lung were delineated. The PTV dose was prescribed 50Gy and V47.5≥95%. Same dose constraint was used for all five plans. The planned volumetric dose of PTV and PRV-OARs were compared and analyzed. Except VMAT (Average V47.5 was 94.72%±1.2%), all the other four plans were able to meet the V95% (V47.5) requirement. T-IMRT plan improved the PTV dose homogeneity index (HI) by 0.02 and 0.03 when compared to TW plan and VMAT plan, and decreased the V5, V10 and V20 of all PRV-OARs. However, the high dose volume (≥ 30Gy) of the PRV-OARs in T-IMRT plan had no statistically significant difference compared with the other two inverse plans. In all five plans, the dose volume of coronary artery area showed a strong correlation to the dose volume of the heart (the correlation coefficients were 0.993, 0.996, 1.000, 0.995 and 0.986 respectively). Compared to other techniques, the T-IMRT technology reduced radiation dose exposure to normal tissues and maintained reasonable target homogeneity, VMAT is not recommended for left-sided breast cancer treatment. In five techniques, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the heart can be used to predict the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the coronary artery

  3. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; Puja Bohra; S. Sheela

    2011-01-01

    The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC). The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new the...

  4. Highly oxygenated triterpenoids from the roots of Schisandra chinensis and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun; Nan, Zhi-Biao

    2016-01-01

    A new highly oxygenated triterpenoid, schinchinenlactone D (1), and three known compounds (2-4) were isolated from the roots of Schisandra chinensis. Their structures were determined by combining the spectroscopic analysis with the theoretical computations. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1-4 were evaluated, and compound 3 exhibits the most significant activity in the inhibition of NO production with an IC50 value of 10.6 μM.

  5. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata

    OpenAIRE

    Karker, Manel; Falleh, Hanen; Msaada, Kamel; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Legault, Jean; Ksouri, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Reaumuria vermiculata is a xero-halophytic specie widely distributed in the south of Tunisia. In the current study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Reaumuria vermiculata shoot extracts as well as its phenolic compounds were investigated in different solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). Results showed a strong antioxidant activity, using the ORAC method and a cell based-assay, in methanol extract as well as an important phenolic compositio...

  6. Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Recipe (DJW in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kunanusorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Since in our previous study, Duhuo Jisheng Wan (DJW, which means pill of pubescent angelica root and mulberry mistletoe combination, demonstrates clinically comparable efficacy to diclofenac in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA of the knee after 4 weeks of treatment.  Therefore, in order to verify its mechanisms of action, this study was performed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of DJW in various animal models.  The antinociceptive activity of DJW was investigated by using the formalin test in mice model.  The acute inflammatory model using the carrageenin-induced hind paw edema in rats and the chronic inflammatory model using the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats were utilized.  Results showed that DJW possessed a marked antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test in mice.  However, in the carrageenin-induced hind paw edema model, which is known to be sensitive to cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors, DJW showed an insignificant anti-inflammatory effect, and in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma model, it had no antigranuloma formation and showed no effect on the transudate weight.  In addition, DJW showed no suppressive effects on weight gain and the thymus weight of the rats.  In conclusion, the overall results demonstrate that DJW possess both central and peripheral antinociceptive activities.  However, its anti-inflammatory activity, if any, could not be demonstrated in these two inflammatory models in the present study and remains to be elucidate.   Industrial relevance: Since drug therapy in OA patients, such as paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and topical analgesics may prove ineffective in some patients, and long-term therapy with NSAIDs often have been associated with serious adverse effects.  Such patients are turning increasingly to herbal medicines and DJW may be an alternative since it demonstrates clinically

  7. New Isorhamnetin Derivatives from Salsola imbricata Forssk. Leaves with Distinct Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Samir M.; El Kashak, Walaa A.; Wink, Michael; El Raey, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salsola imbricata Forssk. is a shrub widely growing in Egypt, used as a camel food, traditionally, used as anti-inflammatory agent. Literature survey showed no report about the anti-inflammatory activity of S. imbricata. Aim of the Study: This work was designed to study the phenolic constituents and to provide evidence for the traditional use of S. imbricata as an anti-inflammatory agent. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the total aqueous methanol extract and some isolated compounds were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells using nitric oxide assay. All chemical structures were identified on the basis of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: Nine phenolic compounds, among them two new natural products; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronyl (1’’’→4’’) glucuronide (1) and its dimethyl ester; isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-di glucuronate dimethyl ester (2), two isorhamnetin glycosides: Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and isorhamnetin (5). In addition, an alkaloidal phenolic; trans N-feruloyl tyramine (6), three phenolic acids: Isovanillic acid (7), ferulic acid (8), and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (9) were isolated from salsola imbricata leaves. All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant except compound (6). The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: The extract and the tested compounds showed distintict anti-inflammatory activities with no toxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. SUMMARY Investigation of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Salsola imbricata led to isolation of two new isorhamnetin derivatives: isorhamnetin.3-O-β-D.glucuronyl (1’“→”) glucuronide (1) and its dimethyl ester (2), together with seven known phenolic compounds. The extract and the

  8. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME. Methods VBME was employed to assess antipyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermia. Analgesic profile was ascertained in acetic acid induced writhing, hot plat and tail immersion test. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity was tested in carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced inflammatory tests. BALB/c mice were used at test doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight intra peritoneally (i.p. Results In yeast induced pyrexia, VBME demonstrated dose dependently (78.23% protection at 300mg/kg, similar to standard drug, paracetamol (90% at 150mg/kg i.p. VBME showed a dose dependent analgesia in various pain models i.e. acetic acid, hot plat and tail immersion having 78.90%, 69.96% and 68.58% protection respectively at 300mg/kg. However, the analgesic action of VBME was completely antagonized by the injection of naloxone like opiate antagonists. Similarly carrageenan and histamine induces inflammation was significantly antagonized by VBME, 66.30% and 60.80% respectively at 300mg/kg. Conclusions It is concluded that VBME has marked antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models and this strongly supports the ethnopharmacological uses of Viola betonicifolia as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory plant.

  9. Hypoxia Potentiates Palmitate-induced Pro-inflammatory Activation of Primary Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Ryan G; Boß, Marcel; Zezina, Ekaterina; Weigert, Andreas; Dehne, Nathalie; Fleming, Ingrid; Brüne, Bernhard; Namgaladze, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue hypoxia promotes an inflammatory phenotype in ATMs. However, our understanding of how hypoxia modulates the response of ATMs to free fatty acids within obese adipose tissue is limited. We examined the effects of hypoxia (1% O2) on the pro-inflammatory responses of human monocyte-derived macrophages to the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Compared with normoxia, hypoxia significantly increased palmitate-induced mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β. Although palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor κB pathway activation were not enhanced by hypoxia, hypoxia increased the activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in palmitate-treated cells. Inhibition of JNK blocked the hypoxic induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, whereas knockdown of hypoxia-induced transcription factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α alone or in combination failed to reduce IL-6 and only modestly reduced IL-1β gene expression in palmitate-treated hypoxic macrophages. Enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and JNK activity under hypoxia were prevented by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, silencing of dual-specificity phosphatase 16 increased normoxic levels of IL-6 and IL-1β and reduced the hypoxic potentiation in palmitate-treated macrophages. The secretome of hypoxic palmitate-treated macrophages promoted IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 expression in primary human adipocytes, which was sensitive to macrophage JNK inhibition. Our results reveal that the coexistence of hypoxia along with free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation. PMID:26578520

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown.To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR activation.We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation.Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05 in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05. The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05.This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of some extracts and isolates from leonotis nepetaefolia on TPA-induced edema model

    OpenAIRE

    Hortensia Parra Delgado; Gabriela García Ruiz; Antonio Nieto Camacho; Mariano Martínez Vázquez

    2004-01-01

    Several extracts of aerial parts of Leonotis nepetaefolia showed anti-inflammatory activity on TPA-induced edema model. The chromatography of the extracts led to the isolation of stigmasterol and leonotinin. Although the presence of leonotinin is in agreement with previous phytochemical studies of this species, this is the first time that its anti-inflammatory activity is determined.

  12. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy′s hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.

  13. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  14. MALT1 Protease Activity Controls the Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Keratinocytes upon Zymosan Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anja; Grondona, Paula; Maier, Tabea; Brändle, Marc; Schönfeld, Caroline; Jäger, Günter; Kosnopfel, Corinna; Eberle, Franziska C; Schittek, Birgit; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Yazdi, Amir S; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) plays an important role in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation by controlling the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and is thus essential for the expression of inflammatory target genes. MALT1 is not only present in cells of the hematopoietic lineage, but is ubiquitously expressed. Here we report that stimulation with zymosan or Staphylococcus aureus induced MALT1 protease activity in human primary keratinocytes. Inhibition of the Src family of kinases or novel protein kinase C isoforms as well as silencing of CARMA2 or BCL10 interfered with activation of MALT1 protease. Silencing or inhibition of MALT1 protease strongly decreased the expression of important inflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-17C, CXCL8 and HBD-2. MALT1-inhibited cells were unable to mount an antimicrobial response upon zymosan stimulation or phorbolester/ionomycin treatment, demonstrating a central role of MALT1 protease activity in keratinocyte immunity and suggesting MALT1 as a potential target in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26767426

  15. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E O Agbaje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (SPH DC (Apocynaceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Doses of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous SPH were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema in mice, and formalin-induced mice hind paw oedema (sub-acute 6 days, using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg respectively as standard drugs. The study further explored the effect of the herbal drug on some inflammatory mediators-histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin, using only the highest dose of SPH. Results obtained showed that the extract exerted a dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, which compared favourably with the positive control.  Significant inhibitions of mediators were also recorded; however, the least inhibition (42.8 % was produced in the serotonin model. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and anthraquinones.  It is also noteworthy that zinc, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium were the elemental constituents in the aqueous extract of SPH, some of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. While 2 g/kg of SPH administered orally did not produce any mortality, the median lethal dose by i.p route was 39.81 mg/kg, and it is thought that the lead contribute to the toxicity recorded. The pH of the herbal drug was 6.7. Our findings substantiate the local use of SPH in the treatment of acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions, while it also suggests some possible pathways for its anti-inflammatory activity.  Lastly, since the herbal drug is liable to producing toxic effects, it must be used with caution. Industrial relevance: Herbal remedies continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions

  16. Anti-Tumor Effect and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Boschniakia rossica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effect and anti-inflammatory activity of Boschniakia rossica (BR). Methods: The expression of tumor marker, GST-P, p53 and p21ras proteins in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical technique ABC method. Anti-tumor effect of BR was investigated by inhibitory test on Sarcoma180. Anti-inflammatory activity of BR was tested by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling method. Results: BR-H2O extract (the H2O extract fractionated from BR-Methanol extract with CH2Cl2 and H2O) 500 mg/kg has inhibitory effect on the formation of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in rat liver with the expression of mutant p53 and p21ras proteins lower than those of non-treated hepatic preneoplastic lesions. BR extract showed inhibitory effect on Sarcoma180 and anti-inflammatory effect in mice by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling tests. Conclusion: BR- H2O extract exerted inhibitory effect on DEN-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and might suppress the growth of solid Sarcoma180 in mice. Both CH2Cl2 and H2O extract from BR exerted anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of the extract 100mg and 200mg per kg body weight showed significant pharmacological action. Furthermore the anti-ulcer activity was carried out with the help of Indomethacin induced ulceration model using Mesoprostol as standard drug and it showed no ulcerogenic effect in wistar albino rats.Overall, the extract was found to be significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity with no ulcerogenic adverse effect.

  18. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke during active stages of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Inflammation is considered to play a role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Hence inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be associated with AF. We therefore examined the incidence of AF and stroke in patients with IBD. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide registries 1996......-2011, we identified 24 499 patients with new-onset IBD and 236 275 age- and sex-matched controls. Poisson regression analyses with continuously updated covariates were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of AF and stroke. Disease activity stages of flare (new disease activity), persistent...... activity, and remission were defined by corticosteroid prescriptions, IBD hospital admissions, and biological treatment. Inflammatory bowel disease patients had a mean age of 43.9 years, 53.9% were women, and mean follow-up was 6.8 years. Among IBD patients, 685 had AF and 549 had a stroke, corresponding...

  19. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of non-alkaloids fractions from Aconitum flavum in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum flavum Hand.-Mazz., Ranunculaceae, has been used for the treatment of rheumatism, traumatic injury in folk and clinical medicine, but the alkaloids has high toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of non-alkaloids fractions from A. flavum in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement test in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes, hot plate test and formalin test in mice. The result showed that the LD50 value of BtOH and EtOAc fractions could not be determined as no lethality was observed up to 40 g/kg (p.o. in mice. BtOH fraction significantly decreased the dimethylbenzene-induced ear vasodilatation, carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability. EtOAc fraction only significantly attenuated paw edema and capillary permeability at the dose of 500 mg/kg. In antinociceptive test, BtOH and EtOAc fractions significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection and the licking time in both phases of the formalin test. Meanwhile BtOH and EtOAc fractions had significant effect on hot plate test after 90 min. Our data indicate that the BtOH and EtOAc fractions of NAF are no toxicity. BtOH and EtOAc fractions not only inhibit inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain but also have central antinociceptive effect.

  1. Gastric anti-ulcerative and anti-inflammatory activity of metyrosine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Polat, Beyzagul; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Halici, Zekai; Gulapoglu, Mine; Albayrak, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects of metyrosine, a selective tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor, were investigated in rats. For ulcer experiments, indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer tests and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer tests were used. For these experiments, rats were fasted for 24 h. Different doses of metyrosine and 25 mg/kg doses of ranitidine were administered to rats, followed by indomethacin at 25 mg/kg for the indomethacin-induced ulcer test, or 50% ethanol for the ethanol-induced test. Results have shown that at all of the doses used (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), metyrosine had significant anti-ulcerative effects in both indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcer tests. Metyrosine doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (especially the 200 mg/kg dose) also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw inflammation even more effectively than indomethacin. In addition, to characterize the anti-inflammatory mechanism of metyrosine we investigated its effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in inflammatory tissue (rat paw). The results showed that all doses of metyrosine significantly inhibited high COX-2 activity. The degree of COX-2 inhibition correlated with the increase in anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, we found that metyrosine has more anti-inflammatory effects than indomethacin and that these effects can be attributed to the selective inhibition of COX-2 enzymes by metyrosine. We also found that adrenalin levels are reduced upon metyrosine treatment, which may be the cause of the observed gastro-protective effects of this compound.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  3. Cajanus cajan- a source of PPARγ activators leading to anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roswitha; Holzer, Wolfgang; Doerfler, Hannes; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Viernstein, Helmut; Okonogi, Siriporn; Mueller, Monika

    2016-09-14

    Cajanus cajan is an important legume crop in the human diet in many parts of the world. Due to its pharmacological properties, C. cajan is, moreover, used in traditional medicine for treating skin diseases, diabetes, inflammatory disorders and various other dysfunctions. In this study, we focused on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as a potential therapeutic target of Cajanus cajan and its main compounds for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and inflammation-related disorders. The anti-inflammatory potential of C. cajan and its bioactive compounds and their cytotoxicity on the human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa, the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line CaCo-2 and the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 were elucidated. C. cajan and its compounds exerted significant anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, showed good cytotoxic effects on the 3 different cancer cell lines and proved PPARγ activity in vitro. The main active compounds were orientin, pinostrobin and vitexin. Cajaninstilbene acid and pinosylvin monomethylether were identified as novel PPARγ activators. Based on these data, C. cajan provides excellent beneficial medicinal attributes and may be used as a potential food or a pharmaceutical supplement. PMID:27603115

  4. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia heyneana Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganga Rao Battu; Sambasiva Rao Ethadi; Veda Priya G; Swathi Priya K; Chandrika K; Venkateswara Rao A; Satya Obbala Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia heyneana (E. heyneana) in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Three doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hours. Results:The alcoholic extract of E. heyneana produced dose dependent inhibition of superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. In carrageenan induced inflammation model, all three doses produced significant percentage inhibition of rat paw oedema and 800 mg/kg dose produced maximum percent inhibition of rat paw oedema (47.06%) among the three doses compared to control group. Conclusions:It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of E. heyneana shows good in vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

  6. Rutin-loaded chitosan microspheres: Characterization and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Donato; Failla, Paola; Costa, Nicola; Pullano, Salvatore; Fiorillo, Antonino; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fresta, Massimo; Paolino, Donatella

    2016-11-01

    Rutin was microencapsulated in a chitosan matrix using the spray-drying technique and the resulting system was investigated. High amounts of rutin were efficiently entrapped within polymeric microspheres, and these microparticles were characterized by a smooth surface and afforded a controlled release of the active compound. The anti-inflammatory activity of rutin-loaded microspheres was investigated in in vitro models of NCTC 2544 and C-28 cells treated with LPS by determining the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. The rutin-loaded microspheres showed an increase of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with respect to the free active compound. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that massive intracellular uptake of the chitosan microspheres took place after a few hours of incubation and that the drug was localized in the cytosol compartment of the treated cells. The improved anti-inflammatory activity of the rutin-loaded microspheres was further confirmed by an in vivo model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. PMID:27516307

  7. SU-E-P-51: Dosimetric Comparison to Organs at Risk Sparing Using Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Radiotherapy of Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, L; Deng, G [Department of Oncology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xie, J; Cheng, J; Liang, N; Zhang, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandon, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang, J; Luo, H [Division of Oncology, Department of Graduate, Weifang Medical College, 2610, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for left-sided breast cancer patients with modified radical mastectomy. Methods: Twenty-four left-sided breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy were selected in this study. The planning target volume (PTV) was generated by using 7-mm uniform expansion of the clinical target volume (CTV) in all direction except the skin surface. The organs at risk (OARs) included heart, left lung, right lung, and right breast. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were utilized to evaluate the dose distribution in PTV and OARs. Results: Both VMAT and IMRT plans met the requirement of PTV coverage. VMAT was superior to IMRT in terms of conformity, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.024). Mean doses, V5 and V10 of heart and both lungs in VMAT plans were significantly decreased compared to IMRT plans (P<0.05), but in terms of heart volume irradiated by high doses (V30 and V45), no significant differences were observed (P>0.05). For right breast, VMAT showed the reduction of V5 in comparison with IMRT (P<0.05). Additionally, the mean number of monitor units (MU) and treatment time in VMAT (357.21, 3.62 min) were significantly less than those in IMRT (1132.85, 8.74 min). Conclusion: VMAT showed similar PTV coverage and significant advantage in OARs sparing compared with IMRT, especially in terms of decreased volumes irradiated by low doses, while significantly reducing the treatment time and MU number.

  8. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Obstructing Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer under Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Comparison of the Clinical Results according to Stent Diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pyeong Guk; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Hae Won; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of self-expandable metallic stent for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer under fluoroscopic guidance, and to compare results according to the stent diameter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 31 self-expandable metallic stents were placed into 25 patients for palliative purposes. The rates of technical success, clinical success, complications associated with stent insertion, patient survival, and primary stent patency were evaluated. The results were also compared between two groups: 13 patients using stents with a diameter of 22 mm and 12 patients using stents with a diameter of 26 mm. The technical and clinical success rates were 93.5 and 90.3%, respectively. The complications included severe abdominal pain (6.5%), minor rectal bleeding (9.7%), stent migration (9.7%), and tumor ingrowth or overgrowth (9.7%). No statistical differences in technical were detected between the two groups for the clinical success rate and complication rates. The mean survival time was 5.5 +- 1.4 months. The primary stent patency rates were 91.3% at 5 months, 85.2% at 10 months, and 77.4% at 15 months. The mean period of stent patency was 12.4 +- 2.6 months. The mean period of primary stent patency was 16.4 +- 2.6 months in the 26 mm stent group, and significantly higher than 5.4 +- 1.4 months in the 22 mm stent group (p=0.031). A self-expandable metallic stent under fluoroscopic guidance, for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer, was feasible and effective, and yielded good clinical results. The period of primary stent patency of the 26 mm stent group was longer than the 22 mm stent group, and the complication rate was not significantly different between the two stent groups

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators.

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Infante

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes. GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl. The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of the essential oils from Senecio flammeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xia; Dai, Jia-Li; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Many species from Senecio genus have been used in traditional medicine, and their pharmacological activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Senecio flammeus. A total of 48 components representing 98.41 % of the total oils were identified. The main compounds in the oils were α-farnesene (11.26 %), caryophyllene (8.69 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.23 %), and α-pinene (6.36 %). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated in rodents (10-90 mg/kg bw) in classical models of inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma]. The essential oils at doses of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg bw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 17.42 % (P < 0.05), 52.90 % (P < 0.05), and 66.45 % (P < 0.05) 4 h after carrageenan injection, respectively, and significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.05). The essential oils (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) also produced a significant dose-dependent response to reduce TPA-induced ear edema by 20.27 % (P < 0.05), 33.06 % (P < 0.05), and 53.90 % (P < 0.05), respectively. The essential oils produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet-induced granuloma that peaked at the highest dose of 90 mg/kg (49.08 % wet weight and 47.29 % dry weight). Results demonstrate that the essential oils of S. flammeus were effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb. PMID:26417301

  12. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Kumar Saini; Manmohan Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods:Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T.capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  13. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; Alencar, Severino Matias de

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus alleviates platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory responses in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alip Borthakur

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been used as alternative prevention and therapy modalities in intestinal inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Pathophysiology of IBD and NEC includes the production of diverse lipid mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF that mediate inflammatory responses in the disease. PAF is known to activate NF-κB, however, the mechanisms of PAF-induced inflammation are not fully defined. We have recently described a novel PAF-triggered pathway of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, requiring the pivotal role of the adaptor protein Bcl10 and its interactions with CARMA3 and MALT1. The current studies examined the potential role of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in reversing the PAF-induced, Bcl10-dependent NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in IECs. PAF treatment (5 µM×24 h of NCM460 and Caco-2 cells significantly increased nuclear p65 NF-κB levels and IL-8 secretion (2-3-fold, P<0.05, compared to control, which were blocked by pretreatment of the cells for 6 h with L. acidophilus (LA or its culture supernatant (CS, followed by continued treatments with PAF for 24 h. LA-CS also attenuated PAF-induced increase in Bcl10 mRNA and protein levels and Bcl10 promoter activity. LA-CS did not alter PAF-induced interaction of Bcl10 with CARMA3, but attenuated Bcl10 interaction with MALT1 and also PAF-induced ubiquitination of IKKγ. Efficacy of bacteria-free CS of LA in counteracting PAF-induced inflammatory cascade suggests that soluble factor(s in the CS of LA mediate these effects. These results define a novel mechanism by which probiotics counteract PAF-induced inflammation in IECs.

  15. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gulecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results : The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o were found to be more effective (P<0.01 in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o. were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion : Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

  16. Is Xanthine oxidase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome associated with inflammatory and cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isık, Hatice; Aynıoglu, Oner; Tımur, Hakan; Sahbaz, Ahmet; Harma, Muge; Can, Murat; Guven, Berrak; Alptekin, Husnu; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to determine the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) and oxidative stress, inflammatory status, and various clinical and biochemical parameters. In this cross-sectional study a total of 83 women including 45 PCOS patients and 38 healthy women were enrolled. We collected blood samples for XO and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hormone levels, cholesterol values, and inflammatory markers. Body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and blood pressure were assessed. Blood samples were taken for hormonal levels, cholesterol levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell and neutrophil counts, XO and SOD activities. The basal hormone levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, TG/HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) ratios FPG, FPI and HOMA-IR levels were higher in PCOS patients compared to controls (pPCT) values, CRP, and XO activity were significantly increased, however SOD activity was decreased in PCOS patients (pPCT, FPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR, and negatively correlated with QUICKI levels. In conclusion, XO is a useful marker to assess oxidative stress in PCOS patients. Positive correlations between XO and inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors suggest that XO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and its metabolic complications. PMID:27295433

  17. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus obliquus (IO is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H2O2-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  18. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Agave Plants and the Compound Cantalasaponin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Tortoriello

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants’ leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23α-triol-3,6-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1 through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E B; Li, D W; Hyun, J E; Kim, I H; Whang, W K

    2001-10-01

    The methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark was evaluated on anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities in animal models. The extract produced a significant inhibition of vascular permeability at doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, p.o. in mice and of leucocyte emigration at doses of 0.15 and 0.3 g/rat, s.c., in CMC-pouch of rats. However, the extract (0.25 and 3 g/kg, p.o.) did not show anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema of rats. The extract at a dose of 2.5 g/kg, p.o. inhibited writhing syndromes, whereas it did not exhibit anti-nociceptive in Randall-Selitto assay. The methanol extract was then partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol to give each soluble fraction and finally water soluble fraction. Among those fractions, the inhibitory effect on vascular permeability in mice was produced by ethyl acetate soluble fraction in this activity-guided fractionation. The methanol extract showed low acute toxicity in mice. These results suggest that the methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark has an anti-inflammatory activity which is distributed in the ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:11535364

  1. Localization and activity of inflammatory bowel disease using /sup 111/In leukocyte imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotze, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Biele, B.; Wolf, F.; Knapp, F.F.

    1988-06-01

    A prospective study was initiated to compare the clinically proven results concerning localization/extent and activity of inflammatory bowel diseases with those of /sup 111/In-oxine leukocyte imaging. All patients studied were completely examined with barium enema x-ray, clinical and laboratory investigations, and endoscopy with histopathology. A total of 31 leukocyte scans were performed in 15 patients (12 with Crohn's desease, 3 with ulcerative colitis). The scans were graded by comparing the cell uptake of a lesion (when present) and a bone marrow area providing a count ratio (CR). The inflammatory lesions were correctly localized on 26 leukocyte scans, and in 21 scans the scintigraphically estimated extent of disease was identical to endoscopy. In 5 cases the disease extent was underestimated, 4 scans in patients with relapse of Crohn's disease were falsely negative, and in one patient with remission truly negative. The scintigraphically assessed disease activity was also in a good agreement with clinical disease activity based on histopathology in all cases. We conclude that leukocyte imaging provides valuable information about localization and activity of inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  3. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogo, Takayuki; Terahara, Norihiko; Hisanaga, Ayami; Kumamoto, Takuma; Yamashiro, Takaaki; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, which has been used for folk beverages and herbal medicine although the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Based on the properties of Dp3-Sam and the information of inflammatory processes, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in both cell and animal models in the present study. In the cell model, Dp3-Sam and Delphinidin (Dp) reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α induced by LPS. Cellular signaling analysis revealed that Dp3-Sam and Dp downregulated NF-κB pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. In animal model, Dp3-Sam and Dp reduced the production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α and attenuated mouse paw edema induced by LPS. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that Hibiscus Dp3-Sam possessed potential anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25728636

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation. PMID:16280100

  6. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  7. Regulating inflammation through the anti-inflammatory enzyme platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C Castro Faria Neto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor (PAF is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for its biological activity. Deacetylation induces the formation of the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF. This deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, a calcium independent phospholipase A2 that also degrades a family of PAF-like oxidized phospholipids with short sn-2 residues. Biochemical and enzymological evaluations revealed that at least three types of PAF-AH exist in mammals, namely the intracellular types I and II and a plasma type. Many observations indicate that plasma PAF AH terminates signals by PAF and oxidized PAF-like lipids and thereby regulates inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the potential of PAF-AH as a modulator of diseases of dysregulated inflammation.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds from Desmodium caudatum leaves and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Kim, Sohyun; Chae, Doobyeong; Hyun, Jin Won; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-01

    Four flavanonols (1-4), one xanthone (5), and three flavonoid glycosides (6-8), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Desmodium caudatum. Their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data with reported values. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS-induced IL-6, IL-12 p40, and TNF-α production with IC50 values ranging from 6.0 to 29.4 μM. Compound 5 exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes. These results warrant further studies of the potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits of compounds from D. caudatum. PMID:24026429

  9. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Cédric; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated feasibility, inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory ability...... the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging-activity [ASspiMRI-a, grading activity (0-6) per vertebral unit in 23 units]; the Berlin modification of the ASspiMRI-a; and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) scoring system, which scores the 6 vertebral units considered...

  10. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity evaluation of triterpenoids and a monoterpenoid glycoside from Harpagophytum procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin; Li, Na; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Yu, Bo-Yang; Qiu, Samuel X

    2010-11-01

    A new triterpenoid glycoside, designated harproside (1), and a new iridoid glycoside, named pagide (2), along with six known triterpenoids (3-8), were obtained from the tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens D. C. (devil's claw), and their structures were established through chemical methods and spectroscopic analyses. In an in vitro assay, the six triterpenoids showed anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed significant inhibitory activity against neutrophil respiratory burst stimulated by PMA, while compounds 4, 5, and 6 showed marginal inhibitory activity. PMID:20577946

  11. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  12. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, M., E-mail: majomagbe@ono.com [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Coret, F., E-mail: coret_fra@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Casanova, B., E-mail: Casanova_bon@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta{sup Registered-Sign} and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm{sup 3}, to 960 mm{sup 3} (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} to 1.42 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was -2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0-6 months PBVC -1.7%; 6-12 months PBVC -0.74%; 12-18 months PBVC -0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient -0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (-2.3% to -1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  13. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Beong Ou Lim; Jeong Eun Jo; Da Hye Kim; Trishna Debnath; Sa Ra Park

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed...

  14. Toso regulates differentiation and activation of inflammatory dendritic cells during persistence-prone virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, P A; Meryk, A; Pandyra, A A; Brenner, D; A. Brüstle; Xu, H. C.; Merches, K; Lang, F; Khairnar, V; Sharma, P; Funkner, P; Recher, M.; Shaabani, N.; Duncan, G S; Duhan, V

    2014-01-01

    During virus infection and autoimmune disease, inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs) differentiate from blood monocytes and infiltrate infected tissue. Following acute infection with hepatotropic viruses, iDCs are essential for re-stimulating virus-specific CD8+ T cells and therefore contribute to virus control. Here we used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model system to identify novel signals, which influence the recruitment and activation of iDCs in the liver. We observed that ...

  15. Antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Naveed; Saeed Muhammad; Khan Haroon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrexia, algesia and inflammation are associated with several pathological conditions. Synthetic drugs available for the treatment of these conditions cause multiple unwanted effects. Several studies are ongoing worldwide to find natural healing agents with better safety profile. The current study was thus aimed at evaluating antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of whole plant of V. betonicifolia (VBME). Methods VBME was employe...

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of mushrooms extracts, identified phenolic acids and their possible metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Taofiq, Oludemi; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Abreu, Rui M.V.; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms are rich sources of many bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, that play an important role in the organism, acting as antioxidants, antitumors, antimicrobials, immunomodulators, among others. However, their anti-inflammatory activity has not been deeply studied. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of fourteen edible mushroom species were firstly characterized in terms of phenolic acids and related compounds by HPLC-PDA, followed by the study of the ant...

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of coumarins from Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Menghini, Luigi; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Marcotullio, M. Carla; Sosa, Silvio; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Four coumarin derivatives [selidinin 1, (+)-praeruptorin A 2, visnadin 3 and (R)-(+)-7-(2',3'-epoxy-3'-methylbutoxy)-coumarin 4] were isolated from the aerial parts of Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae). This is the first report on identification of these compounds in Ligusticum genus. Their topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated as inhibition of the Croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. Each compound induced a significant...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract from red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

    OpenAIRE

    Neivys García Delgado; Ana Iris Frías Vázquez; Hiran Cabrera Sánchez; Roberto Menéndez Soto del Valle; Yusvel Sierra Gómez; Ana María Suárez Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract from D. obtusata using classic models in mice (croton oil-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing) and a phospholipase A2 activity test. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition of seaweed was also determined by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity and precipitation and color tests. Results of qualitative chemical study showed the presence of lac...

  19. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  20. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Almeida Cabrini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13 mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear. All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%. Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar; Sharma Sandeep Kumar; Misra Vimlesh; Patel Kanika

    2011-01-01

    The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of ...

  2. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib N.A; Pawase Kiran; Patil PA.

    2010-01-01

    Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum) is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR) for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP) were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose) shows significant (P

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Apparecido N. Daniel; Sartoretto, Simone M.; Gustavo Schmidt; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana M.; Ciomar A. Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji N. Cuman

    2009-01-01

    Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol) have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following...

  4. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Badryia F. Al-Mehdawi; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to ...

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epi...

  6. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranor...

  7. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Leucas cephalotes (Roxb.ex Roth) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Bhukya Baburao; Anreddy Rama Narsimha Reddy; Gangarapu Kiran; Yellu Narsimha Reddy; Gottumukkala Krishna Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The whole plant of the methanolic extract from Leucas cephalotes was screened for invitro antioxidant (using the DPPH method), invivo analgesic (using hot plate test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (using rat paw edema test) activities. The methanolic extract of Leucas cephalotes (MELC) scavenged the DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value to scavenge DPPH radicals was found to be 421.3µg/ml. A significant (p

  8. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Cassia uniflora Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She S Chaudhari; Sanjay R Chaudhari; Machindra J Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of leaves of Cassia uniflora (C. uniflora) Mill. Methods: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of C. uniflora (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) was screened for analgesic (Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing), anti-inflammatory (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and anti-arthritic (Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis). In Complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model degree of inflammation was evaluated by hind paw swelling, body weight, and biochemical parameters and supported by radiological analysis. Results: Treatment with extracts of C. uniflora showed significant (P<0.05) and dose dependant increase in paw licking time in Eddy's hot plate method. In writhing test, extracts were significantly reduced the number of writhes. A dose dependant and significant inhibition of edema was observed in carrageenan induced paw edema. Petroleum ether extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed most potent and significant activity which is supported by the results of body weight, biochemical parameters and radiological analysis in complete Freund's Adjuvant arthritis model. Conclusion:The extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

  9. Design, synthesis, and local anti-inflammatory activity of 17β-carboxamide derivatives of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobričić, Vladimir; Marković, Bojan; Milenković, Nikola; Savić, Vladimir; Jaćević, Vesna; Rančić, Nemanja; Vladimirov, Sote; Cudina, Olivera

    2014-11-01

    Molecular docking studies were performed on 18 17β-carboxamide steroids in order to select compounds with potential local anti-inflammatory activity. These derivatives are amides of cortienic acids (obtained from hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and methylprednisolone) with methyl or ethyl esters of six amino acids. Interactions with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), binding energies and ligand efficiency values of these compounds were compared with dexamethasone and cortienic acid obtained from prednisolone (inactive metabolite). On the basis of molecular docking studies, seven compounds were selected and their binding affinities for the GR were predicted by use of the exponential model created in this study. Subsequently, selected compounds were synthesized in good yields by use of modified N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) coupling procedure. Finally, the local anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was examined by use of the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In vivo evaluation of systemic side effects as well as in silico prediction of metabolism were performed on the derivative with the best local anti-inflammatory activity. The combination of molecular docking studies and the exponential model for the GR binding affinity prediction could be used as an in silico tool for the rational design of novel 17β-carboxamide steroids with potentially better biological profile than dexamethasone. PMID:25159891

  10. A functional variant of elafin with improved anti-inflammatory activity for pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Donna M; Zani, Marie-Louise; Quinn, Derek J; Dallet-Choisy, Sandrine; Glasgow, Arlene M A; O'Kane, Cecilia; McAuley, Danny F; McNally, Paul; Weldon, Sinéad; Moreau, Thierry; Taggart, Clifford C

    2015-01-01

    Elafin is a serine protease inhibitor produced by epithelial and immune cells with anti-inflammatory properties. Research has shown that dysregulated protease activity may elicit proteolytic cleavage of elafin, thereby impairing the innate immune function of the protein. The aim of this study was to generate variants of elafin (GG- and QQ-elafin) that exhibit increased protease resistance while retaining the biological properties of wild-type (WT) elafin. Similar to WT-elafin, GG- and QQ-elafin variants retained antiprotease activity and susceptibility to transglutaminase-mediated fibronectin cross-linking. However, in contrast to WT-elafin, GG- and QQ-elafin displayed significantly enhanced resistance to degradation when incubated with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with cystic fibrosis. Intriguingly, both variants, particularly GG-elafin, demonstrated improved lipopolysaccharide (LPS) neutralization properties in vitro. In addition, GG-elafin showed improved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung was reduced in lungs of mice treated with GG-elafin, predominantly neutrophilic infiltration. A reduction in MCP-1 levels in GG-elafin treated mice compared to the LPS alone treatment group was also demonstrated. GG-elafin showed increased functionality when compared to WT-elafin and may be of future therapeutic relevance in the treatment of lung diseases characterized by a protease burden. PMID:25189740

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 and carrageenan (Carr-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB, and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves ofJatropha gossypifolia L. by hrbc membrane stabilization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yerramsetty Nagaharika; Valluri kalyani; Shaik Rasheed; Ramadosskarthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    Object:To evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of leaves extracts ofJatropha gossypifolia(J. gossypifolia)L.Methods:The plantJ. gossypifoliaL.(Eurphorbiaceae) is known as belly ache bush.The plant originated fromBrazil and it is now cultivated in tropical countries throughout the world.The roots, stems, leaves, seeds and fruits of the plant have been widely used in traditional folk medicine in many parts ofWestAfrica.The young stem of the plant is used as tooth brush as well as to clean tongue in the treatment thrush.The tuber of the plant grinded into a paste is also locally used in the treatment of hemorrhoids.The present study aimed to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract ofJ. gossypifolia leaves byin vitroHRBC membrane stabilization method.Results:Thein vitro method showed significant anti inflammatory property of different extracts tested.Conclusion:The aqueous extract at a concentration of200 μg/mL showed significant activity when compared with the standard drug Diclofenac sodium.

  14. The adhesion receptor CD44 promotes atherosclerosis by mediating inflammatory cell recruitment and vascular cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Carolyn A.; Kothapalli, Devashish; Azonobi, Ijeoma; Chun, Sam; Zhang, Yuanming; Belkin, Richard; Yeh, Christine; Secreto, Anthony; Assoian, Richard K.; Rader, Daniel J.; Puré, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis causes most acute coronary syndromes and strokes. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis includes recruitment of inflammatory cells to the vessel wall and activation of vascular cells. CD44 is an adhesion protein expressed on inflammatory and vascular cells. CD44 supports the adhesion of activated lymphocytes to endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, ligation of CD44 induces activation of both inflammatory and vascular cells. To assess the potential contribution of CD44 to atherosclerosis, we bred CD44-null mice to atherosclerosis-prone apoE-deficient mice. We found a 50–70% reduction in aortic lesions in CD44-null mice compared with CD44 heterozygote and wild-type littermates. We demonstrate that CD44 promotes the recruitment of macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, we show that CD44 is required for phenotypic dedifferentiation of medial smooth muscle cells to the “synthetic” state as measured by expression of VCAM-1. Finally, we demonstrate that hyaluronan, the principal ligand for CD44, is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE-deficient mice and that the low-molecular-weight proinflammatory forms of hyaluronan stimulate VCAM-1 expression and proliferation of cultured primary aortic smooth muscle cells, whereas high-molecular-weight forms of hyaluronan inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. We conclude that CD44 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms. PMID:11581304

  15. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o. BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o. dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o. indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c. morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01 and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01. In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01. Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01. In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01 of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more

  16. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  17. In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Lipoic Acid Derivatives in Mice 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Kwiecień

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In mammals lipoic acid (LA and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA function as cofactors for multienzymatic complexes catalyzing the decarboxylation of α-ketoacids. Moreover, LA is used as a drug in a variety of diseases including inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to examine anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.Material/methods:The present paper reports the chemical synthesis of 2,4-bismethylthio-butanoic acid (BMTBA and tetranor-dihydrolipoic acid (tetranor-DHLA. BMTBA is one of the biotransformation products of LA, while tetranor-DHLA is an analogue of DHLA. Structural identity of these compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR. These compounds were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity in mice. For this purpose, the zymosan-induced peritonitis and the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema animal models were applied.Results/conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the early vascular permeability measured at 30 min of zymosan-induced peritonitis was significantly inhibited in groups receiving BMTBA (10, 30, 50 mg/kg. The early infiltration of neutrophils measured at 4 hours of zymosan-induced peritonitis was inhibited in the group receiving BMTBA (50 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (50 mg/kg. The results indicated that the increase in paw edema was significantly inhibited in the groups receiving BMTBA (50, 100 mg/kg and tetranor-DHLA (30, 50 mg/kg. In summary, the present studies clearly demonstrated that both BMTBA and tetranor-DHLA were able to act as anti-inflammatory agents. This is the first study examining in vivo the anti-inflammatory properties of LA metabolites.

  18. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Methyl Gallate on Experimental Arthritis: Inhibition of Neutrophil Recruitment, Production of Inflammatory Mediators, and Activation of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luana Barbosa; Pádua, Tatiana Almeida; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Silva, Magaiver Andrade; Candéa, André Luis Peixoto; Rosas, Elaine Cruz; Henriques, Maria G

    2016-06-24

    Methyl gallate (MG) is a prevalent phenolic acid in the plant kingdom, and its presence in herbal medicines might be related to its remarkable biological effects, such as its antioxidant, antitumor, and antimicrobial activities. Although some indirect evidence suggests anti-inflammatory activity for MG, there are no studies demonstrating this effect in animal models. Herein, we demonstrated that MG (0.7-70 mg/kg) inhibited zymosan-induced experimental arthritis in a dose-dependent manner. The oral administration of MG (7 mg/kg) attenuates arthritis induced by zymosan, affecting edema formation, leukocyte migration, and the production of inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL-1, LTB4, and PGE2). Pretreatment with MG inhibited in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis elicited by CXCL-1, as well as the adhesion of these cells to TNF-α-primed endothelial cells. MG also impaired zymosan-stimulated macrophages by inhibiting IL-6 and NO production, COX-2 and iNOS expression, and intracellular calcium mobilization. Thus, MG is likely to present an anti-inflammatory effect by targeting multiple cellular events such as the production of various inflammatory mediators, as well as leukocyte activation and migration. PMID:27227459

  19. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Leite Rozza

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg or menthol (50 mg/kg and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70 and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  20. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Commiphora molmol Extract (Myrrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antihyperlipidemic activities of Commiphora molmol extract (CME and its effect on body weight. Material and Methods: The analgesic effect was assessed using thermal (hot plate test and chemical (writhing test stimuli to induce central and peripheral pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using formalin-induced paw edema in rats. For antihyperlipidemic effect, thirty five rats were randomized into five equal groups (n=7. Group (1 was fed on basal diet (Normal control, while the other 4 groups were fed on high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity and hyperlipidemia. Thereafter, group (2 was kept obese hyperlipidemic, and groups (3, (4 and (5 were orally given CME in doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 6 weeks, respectively. Body weight gains of rats were calculated and blood samples were collected for analysis of blood lipids. Results: CME produced a dose-dependent analgesic effect using both hot plate and writhing tests in mice. The hot plate method appeared to be more sensitive than writhing test. CME exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity as it reduced volume of paw edema induced by formalin in rats. This extract decreased body weight gains; normalized the high levels of blood lipids and decreased atherogenic index (LDL/HDL in obese hyperlipidemic rats. Conclusion: The results of this study denote that Commiphora molmol extract (Myrrh has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic effects and decreases body weight. These results affirm the traditional use of Commiphora molmol for the treatment of pain, inflammations, and hyperlipidemia. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 56-62

  1. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parastoo Karimian; Gholamreza Kavoosi; Zahra Amirghofran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods:In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-αmRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 μg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-αmRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 μg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions:T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions.

  2. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity of 2',4'-difluoro-3-(carbamoyl)biphenyl-4-yl benzoates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen 2',4'-difluoro-3-(carbamoyl)biphenyl-4-yl benzoates were synthesized from diflunisal in three steps with total yields from 72% to 86%. All compounds were identified by IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity for 18 compounds were evaluated. The preliminary assay results showed that compounds 4a and 4p exhibited potent anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity.

  3. Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ppc-1, Active Principle of the Cellular Slime Mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelmat, Jabrane; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The diisopentenyloxy quinolobactin derivative 3-methylbut-2-enyl-4-methoxy-8-[(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxy] quinoline-2-carboxylate, also named as Ppc-1, has been initially isolated from the fruiting bodies of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pseudo-candidum. Given that few data are available in the literature concerning the biological properties of this compound, this study was undertaken to evaluate its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Ppc-1 exerted antibacterial activity on the Gram negative periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, while it had no such effect on the other bacterial species tested. The antibacterial activity of Ppc-1 appeared to result from its ability to permeate the cell membrane. Using the U937-3xκB-LUC human monocytic cell line, Ppc-1 was found to dose-dependently inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, a signaling pathway that has been associated with inflammatory mediator secretion. In conclusion, Ppc-1, by exhibiting a dual mode of action including antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, may represent a promising targeted therapeutic agent for periodontal diseases. PMID:25925558

  4. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Lian; Miron, Anca; Klímová, Blanka; Wan, Dan; Kuča, Kamil

    2016-08-01

    Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health. Here, we discuss the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina in both animals and humans, along with the underlying mechanisms. In addition, its commercial and regulatory status in different countries is discussed as well. Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Notably, there appears to be a threshold level above which Spirulina will taper off the antioxidant activity. Clinical trials show that Spirulina prevents skeletal muscle damage under conditions of exercise-induced oxidative stress and can stimulate the production of antibodies and up- or downregulate the expression of cytokine-encoding genes to induce immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Spirulina induces these activities is unclear, but phycocyanin and β-carotene are important molecules. Moreover, Spirulina effectively regulates the ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and IκB pathways. This review provides new insight into the potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina and may provide new ideas for future studies. PMID:27259333

  5. Ortho-eugenol exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; Aragão Neto, Humberto de C; Golzio, Adriana M F O; Caldas Filho, Marcelo R D; Melo, Cynthia G F; Leite, Fagner C; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Barbosa Filho, José M; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-09-01

    Ortho-eugenol is a much used phenylpropanoid whose ability to reduce pain and inflammation has never been studied. Researching ortho-eugenol's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanisms of action is therefore of interest. The administration of vehicle, ortho-eugenol (50, 75 and 100mg/kg i.p.), morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) or dexamethasone (2mg/kg, s.c.) occurred 30min before the completion of pharmacological tests. Pretreatment with ortho-eugenol did not change motor coordination test results, but reduced the number of writhes and licking times in the writhing test and glutamate test, respectively. The reaction time from thermal stimulus was significantly increased in the hot plate test after administration of ortho-eugenol. Treatment with yohimbine reversed the antinociceptive effect of ortho-eugenol, suggesting involvement of the adrenergic system. In anti-inflammatory tests, ortho-eugenol inhibited acetic acid induced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β by virtue of its suppression of NF-κB and p38 phosphorylated forms in the peritonitis test. From these results, ortho-eugenol antinociceptive effects mediated by the adrenergic system and anti-inflammatory activity through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-kB and p38 become evident for the first time.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the earthworms extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are the major biomass in soil. They have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. However, in the past few decades with the development of biochemical technologies the research on the pharmaceutical effects of earthworms has been commencement.Aims: Experiments were conducted to recognize the therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antioxidant activities of biologically active extract isolated from two species of earthworm (Pheretima hawayana Rosa and Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny.Materials and methods: inflammation in the hind paw of albino rat, Rattus rattus, was induced by histamine, pyrexia was induced by Escherichia coli in rats and liver damage was induced by injection of rats with CCl4. Anti-inflammatory drug - indomethacin, anti-pyretic drug - paracetamol and antioxidant drug - silymarin plus were used as standard drug for comparison.Results: Administration of Eearthworms extract (100 mg/kg and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, silymarin plus (150 mg/kg as standard drugs reduced and restored to normal the changes that induced by histamine, Escherichia coli and CCl4 in rats.Conclusions: The present study conclude that both extract of earthworms gave result as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic similar to the standard drugs. The extract of the two species showed various responds as antioxidants against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Ortho-eugenol exhibits anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; Aragão Neto, Humberto de C; Golzio, Adriana M F O; Caldas Filho, Marcelo R D; Melo, Cynthia G F; Leite, Fagner C; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Barbosa Filho, José M; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-09-01

    Ortho-eugenol is a much used phenylpropanoid whose ability to reduce pain and inflammation has never been studied. Researching ortho-eugenol's antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanisms of action is therefore of interest. The administration of vehicle, ortho-eugenol (50, 75 and 100mg/kg i.p.), morphine (6mg/kg, i.p.) or dexamethasone (2mg/kg, s.c.) occurred 30min before the completion of pharmacological tests. Pretreatment with ortho-eugenol did not change motor coordination test results, but reduced the number of writhes and licking times in the writhing test and glutamate test, respectively. The reaction time from thermal stimulus was significantly increased in the hot plate test after administration of ortho-eugenol. Treatment with yohimbine reversed the antinociceptive effect of ortho-eugenol, suggesting involvement of the adrenergic system. In anti-inflammatory tests, ortho-eugenol inhibited acetic acid induced vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, reducing TNF-α and IL-1β by virtue of its suppression of NF-κB and p38 phosphorylated forms in the peritonitis test. From these results, ortho-eugenol antinociceptive effects mediated by the adrenergic system and anti-inflammatory activity through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-kB and p38 become evident for the first time. PMID:27355133

  9. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. PMID:22842335

  11. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  13. Nuclear Control of the Inflammatory Response in Mammals by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mandard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of a very large number of biological processes including inflammation. Using specific examples, this paper focuses on the interplay between PPARs and innate immunity/inflammation and, when possible, compares it among species. We focus on recent discoveries establishing how inflammation and PPARs interact in the context of obesity-induced inflammation and type 2 diabetes, mostly in mouse and humans. We illustrate that PPARγ ability to alleviate obesity-associated inflammation raises an interesting pharmacologic potential. In the light of recent findings, the protective role of PPARα and PPARβ/δ against the hepatic inflammatory response is also addressed. While PPARs agonists are well-established agents that can treat numerous inflammatory issues in rodents and humans, surprisingly very little has been described in other species. We therefore also review the implication of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease; acute-phase response; and central, cardiac, and endothelial inflammation and compare it along different species (mainly mouse, rat, human, and pig. In the light of the data available in the literature, there is no doubt that more studies concerning the impact of PPAR ligands in livestock should be undertaken because it may finally raise unconsidered health and sanitary benefits.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Senthil Kumar; Balasubramanian Rajkapoor; Perumal Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract ofIndigofera cassioides(I. cassioides)(MEIC) using various animal models.Methods:Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities ofMEIC was assessed by using different animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma method.Anti-nociceptive activity of the extract was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions by usingEddy’s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing respectively.The study was carried out using dose of200 &400 mg/kg orally.Aceclofenac, aspirin and pentazocine was used as standard drugs to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, respectively.Results:Treatment withMEIC significantly (P<0.001) decrease the paw volume and weight of cotton pellet in the tested models.It also exhibit potent analgesic activity on chemical and thermal induced pain in mice.MEIC exhibit potent and dose dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in all the tested animal models. Conclusions:All the results obtained revealed that the extractMEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used.The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  15. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  16. Inhibition of Metalloproteinase Activity by Chinese Formulations Used to Treat Inflammatory Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in a number of pathological processes including cancer, atherosclerosis, arthritis and neurodegenerative disease among others. The drive to develop MMP inhibitors as therapeutics has been put forward for years by pharmaceutical companies as well as academicians. In an attempt to screen for MMP inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), a number of Chinese formulations used to treat inflammatory diseases such as nephritis and hepatitis have been studied. Strong inhibitory effects of three Chinese formulations toward the activity of MMP-16 have been discovered. These results suggest that these anti-inflammatory medicines contain some unknown MMP inhibitory compound(s) and provide reasonable molecular mechanisms for their therapeutic effects.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arpona Hira; Shubhra Kanti Dey; Md Sariful Islam Howlader; Arif Ahmed; Hemayet Hossain; Ismet Ara Jahan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inflammatory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of aerial part of Vernonia patula (Dryand.) Merr (EAV). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity of EAV was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, reducing power and Fe2+ion chelating ability were used for determining antioxidant activities. Results: The EAV, at the dose of 400 mg/kg, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P Conclusions: Therefore, the obtained results suggest the acute anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the EAV and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for inflammations.

  18. SPONTANEOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN-SYNTHESIZING ACTIVITY OF B LYMPHOCYTES IN INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. T. Mamasaidov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of present work was to evaluate clinical significance of B-lymphocytes spontaneous antibody-synthesizing activity by B-lymphocytes (LASA in patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases (RD, i.e., reactive arthritis (ReA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Significantly higher LASA levels were revealed in the patients with ReA, AS, RA, and SLE, as compared with healthy persons and patients with osteoarthrosis. Clinical significance of LASA indexes and their changes may reflect manifestation and degree of immunological activities in ReA, AS, RA, and SLE.

  19. The association between the gut microbiota and the inflammatory bowel disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosberg, Michelle; Bendtsen, Flemming; Vind, Ida;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based...... on a published protocol. Included patients had ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) classified as active or in remission. We selected bacteria assessed in at least three studies identified through electronic and manual searches (November 2015). Bias control was evaluated with the Newcastle Ottawa...

  20. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide from Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S; Gato, A; Lamela, M; Freire-Garabal, M; Calleja, J M

    2003-06-01

    Crude polysaccharide extracts were obtained from aqueous extracts of the microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The crude extracts were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose columns. The molecular weights of the polysaccharides in each fraction were estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl columns. The crude polysaccharide extracts of both microalgae showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. In assays of effects on the delayed hyper-sensitivity response, and on phagocytic activity assayed in vivo and in vitro, the C. stigmatophora extract showed immunosuppressant effects, while the P. tricornutum extract showed immunostimulatory effects. PMID:12820237

  1. EVALUTION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Shahnaz Sultana; Malay Bhowmik

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous-ethanolic (50%) extracts of fruit rind (PGR), flower (PGF), and leaves (PGL) of Punica granatum were examined for its oral anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Oral pretreatment with the dried extracts of P. granatum produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups. The highest activity was shown in the PGR that at 500 mg/kg p.o...

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogs, in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia Yangchen; Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan; Pathak Uma

    2010-01-01

    Objectives : To find out the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, if any, of Amifostine [S-2(3 amino propyl amino) ethyl phosphorothioate], DRDE-07 [S-2(3 amino ethyl amino) ethyl phenyl sulphide] and their analogs DRDE-30 and DRDE-35, the probable prophylactic agent for sulphur mustard (SM). Materials and Methods : In order to find out the analgesic activities of the compounds two methods were employed, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking. The pe...

  3. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF BIS (INDOLYL METHANES (BIMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Kaishap*, Chandrajit Dohutia and Dipak Chetia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal (GI toxicity is the common adverse effect which has been associated with most of NSAIDs available in the market. So the search for new therapeutic agents with high margin of safety and freedom from normally associated GI toxic effects has been a priority of pharmacologists and pharmaceutical industries. There are virtually limitless series of structurally novel heterocyclic compounds with a wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties. Literature survey reveals that coupling of two or more biodynamic molecules resulted in the enhanced biological activity. The present work embodied here involves synthesis and evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of some bis (indolyl methane derivatives.

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nain Parminder; Saini Mamta; Malik Manisha

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of dried leaves of Punica granatum linn was studied for the anti-inflammatory activity in rat using carrageenan induced paw edema with plethysmometer and analgesic activity on mice by Eddy’s hot plate & tail immersion method. A preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and steroids. Among all the doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, 600mg/kg, 800mg/kg) of methanolic extract 600mg/kg orally showed maximum signifi...

  5. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Le Son; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; To, Dao Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A novel pyrrolizidine alkaloids, madhumidine A (1), and two known alkaloids, lindelofidine benzoic acid ester (2) and minalobine B (3) were isolated from the leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard) H. J. LAM. The chemical structures of these alkaloids were established mainly by NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophage RAW264.7 cell. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was tested against a panel of cancer cell lines. PMID:26027474

  6. Lack of glutathione peroxidase-1 facilitates a pro-inflammatory and activated vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpeeta; Yuen, Derek; Huet, Olivier; Pickering, Raelene; Stefanovic, Nada; Bernatchez, Pascal; de Haan, Judy B

    2016-04-01

    A critical early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is vascular inflammation leading to endothelial dysfunction (ED). Reactive oxygen species and inflammation are inextricably linked and declining antioxidant defense is implicated in ED. We have previously shown that Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme in the protection against diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. In this study we aimed to investigate mechanisms by which lack of GPx1 affects pro-inflammatory mediators in primary aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) isolated from GPx1 knockout (GPx1 KO) mice. Herein, we demonstrate that lack of GPx1 prolonged TNF-α induced phosphorylation of P38, ERK and JNK, all of which was reversed upon treatment with the GPx1 mimetic, ebselen. In addition, Akt phosphorylation was reduced in GPx1 KO PAECs, which correlated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability as compared to WT PAECs. Furthermore, IκB degradation was prolonged in GPx1 KO PAECS suggesting an augmentation of NF-κB activity. In addition, the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) was significantly increased in GPx1 KO PAECs and aortas. Static and dynamic flow adhesion assays showed significantly increased adhesion of fluorescently labeled leukocytes to GPx1 KO PAECS and aortas respectively, which were significantly reduced by ebselen treatment. Our results suggest that GPx1 plays a critical role in regulating pro-inflammatory pathways, including MAPK and NF-κB, and down-stream mediators such as VCAM-1, in vascular endothelial cells. Lack of GPx1, via effects on p-AKT also affects signaling to eNOS-derived NO. We speculate based on these results that declining antioxidant defenses as seen in cardiovascular diseases, by failing to regulate these pro-inflammatory pathways, facilitates an inflammatory and activated endothelium leading to ED and atherogenesis. PMID:26569096

  7. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Satish Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and antiinflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and antiinflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The plant Abutilon indicum (AI is reported to be used as a febrifuge, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used to treat ulcers, toothache and hepatic disorders. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of the plant Abutilon indicum. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method were used to study the analgesic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. 200 mg/kg dose was selected to study both activities. Wistar strain albino rats were used for all studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was highly significant (P < 0.001 with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Abutilon indicum as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1% carrageenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the plant significantly (P <0.01 reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extract of the plant under study. The phytochemical constituents present in these extracts may be responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant Abutilon indicum and the actions may be

  9. RTA 408, A Novel Synthetic Triterpenoid with Broad Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Probst

    Full Text Available Semi-synthetic triterpenoids are antioxidant inflammation modulator (AIM compounds that inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Compounds in the AIM class bind to Keap1 and attenuate Nrf2 degradation. In the nucleus, Nrf2 increases antioxidant gene expression and reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression. By increasing Nrf2 activity, AIMs reduce reactive oxygen species and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, which reverses tumor-mediated immune evasion and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. AIMs also directly inhibit tumor cell growth by modulating oncogenic signaling pathways, such as IKKβ/NF-κB. Here, we characterized the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of RTA 408, a novel AIM that is currently being evaluated in patients with advanced malignancies. At low concentrations (≤ 25 nM, RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and suppressed nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in interferon-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, RTA 408 inhibited tumor cell growth (GI50 = 260 ± 74 nM and increased caspase activity in tumor cell lines, but not in normal primary human cells. Consistent with the direct effect of AIMs on IKKβ, RTA 408 inhibited NF-κB signaling and decreased cyclin D1 levels at the same concentrations that inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. RTA 408 also increased CDKN1A (p21 levels and JNK phosphorylation. The in vitro activity profile of RTA 408 is similar to that of bardoxolone methyl, which was well-tolerated by patients at doses that demonstrated target engagement. Taken together, these data support clinical evaluation of RTA 408 for cancer treatment.

  10. RTA 408, A Novel Synthetic Triterpenoid with Broad Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Brandon L; Trevino, Isaac; McCauley, Lyndsey; Bumeister, Ron; Dulubova, Irina; Wigley, W Christian; Ferguson, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Semi-synthetic triterpenoids are antioxidant inflammation modulator (AIM) compounds that inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Compounds in the AIM class bind to Keap1 and attenuate Nrf2 degradation. In the nucleus, Nrf2 increases antioxidant gene expression and reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression. By increasing Nrf2 activity, AIMs reduce reactive oxygen species and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, which reverses tumor-mediated immune evasion and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. AIMs also directly inhibit tumor cell growth by modulating oncogenic signaling pathways, such as IKKβ/NF-κB. Here, we characterized the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of RTA 408, a novel AIM that is currently being evaluated in patients with advanced malignancies. At low concentrations (≤ 25 nM), RTA 408 activated Nrf2 and suppressed nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in interferon-γ-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, RTA 408 inhibited tumor cell growth (GI50 = 260 ± 74 nM) and increased caspase activity in tumor cell lines, but not in normal primary human cells. Consistent with the direct effect of AIMs on IKKβ, RTA 408 inhibited NF-κB signaling and decreased cyclin D1 levels at the same concentrations that inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. RTA 408 also increased CDKN1A (p21) levels and JNK phosphorylation. The in vitro activity profile of RTA 408 is similar to that of bardoxolone methyl, which was well-tolerated by patients at doses that demonstrated target engagement. Taken together, these data support clinical evaluation of RTA 408 for cancer treatment.

  11. Methanol extract of Xanthium strumarium L. possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    As an attempt to identify bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we evaluated the effects of the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. (MEXS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicate that MEXS is a potent inhibitor of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production. Consistent with these findings, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEXS inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity and the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus by blocking the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha). We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of MEXS in vivo. MEXS (100, 200 mg/kg/d, p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activities in an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. Thus, our study suggests that the inhibitions of iNOS, COX-2 expression, and TNF-alpha release by the methanol extract of the semen of Xanthium strumarium L. are achieved by blocking NF-kappaB activation, and that this is also responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:15635170

  12. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  13. Synthesis, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-oxidant activity of some substituted Benzimidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Benzimidazoles are an important class of compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activity ranging from anti-hypertensive, anti-viral, anti-fungal, antitumor and anthelmintic activity. In addition, few N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives have shown to exhibit significant activity against several viruses, including HIV, herpes simplex (HSV-1, influenza, picorna, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and hepatitis C virus. The five membered heterocyclic moiety 1,3,4-oxadiazole also confers for various biological activity. Hence a series of benzimidazole derivatives fused with oxadiazole ring system have been synthesized, characterized by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectral data and evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of epiisopiloturine, an imidazole alkaloid isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valdelânia G; Silva, Renan O; Damasceno, Samara R B; Carvalho, Nathalia S; Prudêncio, Rafael S; Aragão, Karoline S; Guimarães, Maria A; Campos, Stefano A; Véras, Leiz M C; Godejohann, Markus; Leite, José Roberto S A; Barbosa, André L R; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R

    2013-06-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of epiisopiloturine (1), an imidazole alkaloid found in the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 was evaluated using several agents that induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Paw tissue and peritoneal fluid samples were obtained to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing, the hot plate test, and pain induction using formalin. Compared to vehicle treatment, pretreatment with 1 (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, ip) of mice significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05). Furthermore, compound 1 at a dose of 1 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran sulfate, serotonin, and bradykinin, but had no effect on histamine-induced edema. The administration of 1 (1 mg/kg) following carrageenan-induced peritonitis reduced total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts and also carrageenan-induced paw MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the peritoneal cavity. Pretreatment with 1 also reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and inhibited the first and second phases of the formalin test, but did not alter response latency in the hot plate test. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of 1. PMID:23734744

  15. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  16. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karker, Manel; Falleh, Hanen; Msaada, Kamel; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Legault, Jean; Ksouri, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Reaumuria vermiculata is a xero-halophytic specie widely distributed in the south of Tunisia. In the current study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Reaumuria vermiculata shoot extracts as well as its phenolic compounds were investigated in different solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). Results showed a strong antioxidant activity, using the ORAC method and a cell based-assay, in methanol extract as well as an important phenolic composition (117.12 mg GAE/g). Hexane and dichloromethane proved an interesting anticancer activity against A-549 lung carcinoma cells, with IC50 values of 17 and 23 µg/ml, respectively. Besides, dichloromethane extract displayed the utmost anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting NO release over 100 % at 80 µg/ml in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. Taken together, these finding suggest that R. vermiculata exhibited an interesting biological activities which may be related to the phenolic composition of this plant. Moreover, the identification of phenolic compounds in R. vermiculata dichloromethane extract using RP-HPLC revealed that myricetin was the major molecule. These results allow us to propose R. vermiculata as a valuable source for bioactive and natural compounds exhibiting interesting biological capacities. PMID:27298615

  17. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Wattakaka volubilis (Dreagea volubilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Debkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wattakaka volubilis (Family: Asclepiadaceae has been reported to possess medicinal effects. In the present study, the dried leaf extract [methanol-water (1:1] of W. volubilis designated as ′the extract′ was evaluated for pharmacological activity in rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. In the acute toxicity study, it was found that the extract was non-toxic up to 1 g/kg, i.p. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The extract significantly inhibited the arachidonic acid-induced paw oedema in rats, indicating that the extract inhibited both the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. The extract also significantly enhanced the macrophage count in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It is possible that the saponins present in the extract may be responsible for these activities.

  18. Bone marrow-derived macrophages exclusively expressed caveolin-2: The role of inflammatory activators and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceckova, Michaela; Martiskova, Hana; Koudelka, Adolf; Kubala, Lukas; Lojek, Antonin; Pekarova, Michaela

    2015-11-01

    Caveolins are specific proteins involved in regulation of signal transduction to intracellular space. Still, their contribution to immune functions has not been completely clarified. Thus, we decided to characterize the expression of caveolins in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) under resting and inflammatory conditions. The effect of classical activators (lipopolysaccharide, LPS; interferon-gamma, IFN-γ) was further potentiated with hypoxic (5% O2) conditions. The activation of p44/42-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and expression of caveolin-1, -2, and -3, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was monitored using the Western blot technique. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) was analyzed by Griess method or ELISA, respectively. BMDMs were also transfected with siRNA against caveolin-2. Importantly, our study showed for the first time that BMDMs expressed only caveolin-2, and its level decreased after activation of macrophages with LPS, IFN-γ, and/or hypoxia. The expression of caveolin-2 negatively correlates with the iNOS and HIF-1α protein levels, as well as with the LPS/IFN-γ- and hypoxia-induced activation of ERK1/2. We concluded that caveolin-2 is most probably involved in regulation of pro-inflammatory responses of BMDMs, triggered via activation of ERK1/2. PMID:26215374

  19. JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

    OpenAIRE

    Han Sang; Lee Jeong; Song Min; Song Ho; Son Dong; Choi Myung; Lee Hwa; Park Hye; Kim Youngsoo; Hong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase family is implicated in the NF-κB activation and inflammatory reaction, we further in...

  20. MODULATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NSAIDS IN NORMAL RATS TREATED WITH ANTIHISTAMINICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilam Nigam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available NSAIDs are frequently used for relief of inflammati on and Antihistaminics are indicated for simultaneous administration for aller gic manifestations. Opioids analgesics have been reported to interact with Antihistaminics. To e xplore the interacting potentiality, in the present study the effects of combined treatment with NSAIDs and antihistaminics were examined in rats. Anti-inflammatory effect was eval uated by Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema in rats. NSAIDs like aspirin, ibuprofen and pir oxicam were selected for study on per se and on concurrent administration with Antihistamini cs such as Promethazine, Cetrizine and Astemizole. All NSAIDs protected animals show anti-i nflammatory activity. Aspirin shows highly significant potentiation of anti-inflammatory effect at all dose level, however ibuprofen and piroxicam show highly significant anti-inflammatory effect at higher doses only and on concurrent administration of antihistaminics, aspiri n, piroxicam and ibuprofen with all antihistaminics produced highly significant potentiat ion except ibuprofen with Cetrizine produced significant potentiation of anti-inflammator y response at higher doses only.

  1. Cissus sicyoides: Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiarrheal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Cássia Santos, Raquel; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Rodrigues, Vinicius Peixoto; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Pupo, André Sampaio; da Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smooth muscle and/or intestinal transit. PMID:26805827

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bonciani Nader

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term that defines a family of homo- and hetero-polysaccharides containing sulfated l-fucose in its structure. In this work, a heterofucan (F2.0v from the seaweed, Dictyota menstrualis, was evaluated as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agent. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg inhibits 100% of leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity after chemical stimulation. However, F2.0v does not alter the expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. F2.0v (20.0 mg/kg has peripheral antinociceptive activity with potency similar to dipyrone. On the other hand, it had no effect on pain response on the hot plate test. Confocal microscopy analysis and flow cytometry showed that F2.0v binds to the surface of leucocytes, which leads us to suggest that the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive F2.0v is related to its ability to inhibit the migration of leukocytes to the site of tissue injury. In summary, the data show that F2.0v compound has great potential as an antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory, and future studies will be performed to further characterize the mechanism of action of F2.0v.

  3. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  4. Variation in antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of different growth forms of Malva parviflora and evidence for synergism of the anti-inflammatory compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, T L; Stirk, W A; van Staden, J

    2005-01-01

    Malva parviflora leaves and roots were collected from five sites within the Qacha's Nek District in Lesotho. These plants had two distinct growth forms--upright and prostrate. Hexane, methanol and water extracts were made from the plant material and tested for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity using the disc diffusion and cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) bioassays, respectively. Hexane, methanol and water extracts made from Malva parviflora with a prostrate growth form inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while extracts made from plants with an upright growth form inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only. Cox-1 anti-inflammatory activity of hexane, methanol and water extracts did not show any variation between the two growth forms. The hexane extracts of both the leaves and roots were the most inhibitory. The water extracts had the least inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the root dichloromethane extract showed that Cox-1 anti-inflammatory activity was caused by at least two compounds that acted synergistically to produce the biological effect.

  5. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  6. Differential activation of JAK enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disorders by pro-inflammatory cytokines: potential drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Malemud, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Charles J MalemudArthritis Research Laboratory, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Although several pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-12/IL-23, IL-17, IL-2, interferon, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4/IL-13, IL-10, and IL-22, all activate the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, in autoimmune disorders, ...

  7. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vikas V.; Vijay R. Patil

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a st...

  8. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  9. Intestinal CCL25 expression is increased in colitis and correlates with inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Palak J.; Bruns, Tony; Ward, Stephen; Mai, Martina; Schmidt, Carsten; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Weston, Chris J.; Adams, David H.

    2016-01-01

    CCL25-mediated activation of CCR9 is critical for mucosal lymphocyte recruitment to the intestine. In immune-mediated liver injury complicating inflammatory bowel disease, intrahepatic activation of this pathway allows mucosal lymphocytes to be recruited to the liver, driving hepatobiliary destruction in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, in mice and healthy humans CCL25 expression is restricted to the small bowel, whereas few data exist on activation of this pathway in the inflamed colon despite the vast majority of PSC patients having ulcerative colitis. Herein, we show that colonic CCL25 expression is not only upregulated in patients with active colitis, but strongly correlates with endoscopic Mayo score and mucosal TNFα expression. Moreover, approximately 90% (CD4+) and 30% (CD8+) of tissue-infiltrating T-cells in colitis were identified as CCR9+ effector lymphocytes, compared to <10% of T-cells being CCR9+ in normal colon. Sorted CCR9+ lymphocytes also demonstrated enhanced cellular adhesion to stimulated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium compared with their CCR9– counterparts when under flow. Collectively, these results suggest that CCR9/CCL25 interactions are not only involved in colitis pathogenesis but also correlate with colonic inflammatory burden; further supporting the existence of overlapping mucosal lymphocyte recruitment pathways between the inflamed colon and liver. PMID:26873648

  10. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor and ameliorates pro-inflammatory responses following trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mojtahedzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: Besides its hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin (EPO by mobilization of iron and modulation of some inflammatory cytokines has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these effects of erythropoietin and its impact on organ function in traumatized patients. "n Methods: Twenty-six ICU-admitted traumatized patients within 24 hrs after trauma were randomly assigned to the EPO (received EPO, 300 units/Kg/day and Control (not received EPO groups. The inflammatory biomarkers including Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, Interleukin 1 (IL-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and Nitrotyrosine were recorded at the admission, 3, 6 and 9 days thereafter. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores were also recorded. "n Results: Among 12 patients (EPO group TNF-α level at the day of 9 (P=0.046, and within EPO group at the days of 3 (P=0.026 ameliorate, 6 (P=0.016, and 9 (P=0.052 were significantly lowered. Level of IL-1 and PAI-1 decreased significantly at days of 3, 6 and 9 post intervention. Also there were significant differences between two groups in the SOFA score during three measured time intervals (the first, third and seventh days. "n Conclusion: From the results of this study it seems that injection of erythrocyte stimulating agent is well tolerated and inhibits the inflammatory response and oxidative stress following trauma.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and opioid-like activities in methanol extract of Mikania lindleyana, sucuriju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico A. Vanderlinde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana DC., Asteraceae (sucuriju, grows in the Amazon region, where is frequently used to treat pain, inflammatory diseases and scarring. This study was carried out to investigate phytochemical profile accompanied by in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening of n-hexane (HE, dichloromethane (DME and methanol (ME extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. The oral administration of ME (0.1, 0.3, 1 g/kg caused a dose-related reduction (16.2, 42.1 e 70.2% of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing while HE and DME (1 g/kg, p.o. were ineffective. In the hot plate test, ME (300 mg/kg, p.o. increased the latency of heat stimulus between 30 and 120 min and inhibited the first (45% and second (60% phases of nociception in the formalin test. The antinociception induced by ME or positive control fentanyl (150 µg/kg, s.c. in hot plate and formalin tests was prevented by naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, ME (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 46.8, 59.4 and 64.8% respectively, while positive control dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 71.1%. These results indicate that the antinociception obtained after oral administration of methanol extract of M. lindleyana involves anti-inflammatory mechanisms accompanied with opioid-like activity which could explain the use of the specie for pain and inflammatory diseases.

  12. Four new phenanthrenoid dimers from Juncus effusus L. with cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Liu, Feng; Ding, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Yue; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    Four new phenanthrenoid dimers, effususins A-D (1-4), were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the medullae of Juncus effuses (Juncaceae). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-4 was in vitro evaluated for their cytotoxic activities by CCK-8 assay against five human cancer cell lines (SHSY-5Y, SMMC-7721, HepG2, Hela, and MCF-7) and their inhibitory effects on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Effususin B exhibited moderate to strong cytotoxic activities against the tested cancer cell lines and moderate anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26072042

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of 4-amino-2,6-diarylpyrimidine-5-carbonitriles with anti-inflammatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Bosco P. da; Ramos, Mozart N.; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental]. E-mail: mramos@ufpe.br; Melo, Sebastiao Jose de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos]. E-mail: melosebastiao@yahoo.com.br; Falcao, Emerson Peter da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria de Santo Antao; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2008-07-01

    The experimental anti-inflammatory activities of eight 4-amino-2,6-diarylpyrimidine-5- carbonitriles were subjected to a QSAR analysis based on results from B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and AM1 electronic structure calculations. Principal component analyses and regressions based on these data indicate that potentially more active compounds should have low dipole moment and partition coefficient values and also be affected by the values of the charges of the carbon atoms through which the two aromatic rings are bonded to the pyrimidinic ring. Two new molecules were predicted to be at least as active as those with the highest activities used in the model building stage. One of them, having a methoxy group attached to one of the aromatic rings, was predicted to have an anti-inflammatory activity value of 52.3%. This molecule was synthesized and its experimental activity was found to be 52.8%, in agreement with the AM1 theoretical prediction. This value is 5% higher than the largest value used for modeling. (author)

  14. The Case for Increased Physical Activity in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer, but there is little information on the merits of such activity in the prevention and management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The present systematic review thus documents current levels of habitual physical activity and aerobic and muscular function in CIBD, and examines the safety, practicality and efficacy of exercise programmes in countering the disease process, correcting functional deficits and enhancing quality of life. A systematic search of the Ovid/Medline database from January 1996 to May 2015 linked the terms physical activity/motor activity/physical fitness/physical training/physical education/training/exercise/exercise therapy with Crohn's disease/colitis/ulcerative colitis/inflammatory bowel disease, supplementing this information by a scanning of reference lists and personal files.12 of 16 published studies show a low level of habitual physical activity in CIBD, with sub-normal values for aerobic power, lean tissue mass and muscular strength. 3 of 4 studies suggest physical activity may reduce the risk of developing IBD, and 11 interventions all note that exercise programmes are well tolerated with some decreases of disease activity, and functional gains leading to an increased health-related quality of life. Moreover, programme compliance rates compare favourably with those seen in the treatment of other chronic conditions. More information on mechanisms is needed, but regular moderate aerobic and/or resistance exercise improves the health status of patients with CIBD both by modulating immune function and by improving physical function. A regular exercise programme should thus become an important component in the management of CIBD. PMID:27116344

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  16. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler A Johnson; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering...

  17. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  18. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27575472

  19. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugni, Tim S; Andjelic, Cynthia D; Pole, Ann R; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

    2009-07-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of P. saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranorin were tested in a COX-1 and -2 enzyme inhibition assay, which showed that atranorin inhibited COX-1 in a dose dependent manner and suggests partial inhibition by atranorin and chloroatranorin of COX-2 and COX-1, respectively. PMID:19289158

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A; C. H. Janaki Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam (EECO) in experimental animals. Methods: Acute toxicity test was done following OECD guidelines. Carrageenan induced paw edema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of EECO (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o) were used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st hr, ...

  1. Cathelicidins: peptides with antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anticancer and procancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    The family of peptides designated as cathelicidins was identified over a decade ago. Cathelicidins have since gained increasing recognition, both as endogenous antibiotics and as effector molecules of the innate immune system. The human cathelicidin LL-37 is widely expressed in human tissues and plays diverse biological roles. It contributes substantially to host defense and impacts multiple aspects of immunity. In view of the escalating importance of cathelicidins, the activities of LL-37 with an emphasis on antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, anticancer and procancer effects are discussed in this review article.

  2. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  3. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of medicinal plants grown in Jordan and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooman A. Khalaf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs like Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae, Peganum harmala (Nitrariaceae, Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Artemasia herba-alba (Asteraceae and Arum palaestinum (Araceae have been studied for its various biological activities, the extract of fresh aerial parts of plant have not been reported for their antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities. Our aim was to study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of fresh aerial parts of the plant. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant and effect of extract on gastro-intestinal tract motility was studied. Phenolic content of Verbena officinalis was higher (652.5 mg GAE % than the other plant extracts. Whereas antioxidant activity is concerned the Rosmarinus officinalis exhibited highest antioxidant activity (IC50= 6.25 µg/ml, and showed excellent anti-inflammatory (65.5% as compared to ascorbic acid (6.14 ± 0.09 µg/ml and diclofenac sodium (70.1% respectively. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract showed significant inhibition of the gastrointestinal activity (31.3 % when compared to all the other ethanolic extracts. The ethanolic extract of Arum palaestinum Bioss did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity nor had any effect on gastrointestinal tract inhibition

  4. Assessment of inflammatory bowel disease activity by technetium 99m phagocyte scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullman, W.E.; Sullivan, P.J.; Barratt, P.J.; Lising, J.; Booth, J.A.; Doe, W.F.

    1988-10-01

    Autologous technetium 99m-labeled phagocyte scanning has been used to assess disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease in 51 consecutive patients. Strong correlations were found between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and the histologic score of mucosal biopsy specimens (rS = 0.84, p less than 0.001, where rS is Spearman's rank correlation coefficient), and between the 24-h fecal excretion of isotope and a clinical inflammatory bowel disease activity index based on the Crohn's disease activity index (rS = 0.87, p less than 0.001). To develop a clinically useful and objective measure of inflammatory bowel disease activity that did not require a 24-h stool collection, the intensity of bowel uptake on scanning was graded visually from 0 to 4, a ratio of count rates for the region of interest to the iliac crest reference region was calculated, and the rapidity of labeled phagocyte uptake into inflamed bowel was measured as the peak uptake time. Visual grading of disease activity on the scans was validated by comparing it with the ratio of count rates from inflamed bowel regions of interest and those from the iliac crest reference region. The ratio of count rates showed a significant correlation with the clinical disease activity index (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001). The visual scan grade also correlated well with the clinical activity index (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). Count rates from hourly scans were also used to calculate the time of peak uptake of counts for a given region of interest. There was a strong negative correlation between this peak uptake time and the fecal excretion of isotope (rS = -0.81, p less than 0.001), a clinical activity index (r = -0.60, p less than 0.001), and the histologic score of the mucosal biopsy specimens (r = -0.84, p less than 0.001).

  5. Acupuncture inhibits microglial activation and inflammatory events in the MPTP-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Mo; Park, Hi Joon; Choi, Yeong Gon; Choe, Il Hwan; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2007-02-01

    Using a mouse model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD), this study investigated on the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture by examining whether acupuncture contributed to inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events. C57BL/6 mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. Acupuncture was then applied to acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34) and Taichong (LR3) starting 2 h after the first MPTP administration and then at 48 h intervals until the mice were sacrificed for analyses at 1, 3, and 7 days after the last MPTP injection. These experiments demonstrated that acupuncture inhibited the decreased of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (IR) and generated a neuroprotective effects in the striatum (ST) and the substantia nigra (SN) on days 1, 3, and 7 post-MPTP injections. Acupuncture attenuated the increase of macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1), a marker of microglial activation, at 1 and 3 days and reduced the increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on days 1, 3, and 7. In MPTP group, striatal dopamine (DA) was measured by 46% at 7 days, whereas DA in the acupuncture group was 78%. On the basis of these results, we suggest that acupuncture could be used as a neuroprotective intervention for the purpose of inhibiting microglial activation and inflammatory events in PD. PMID:17173870

  6. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

    2013-08-15

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S J; Tsai, J Y; Chang, S P; Lin, D L; Wang, S S; Huang, S N; Ng, L T

    2006-12-01

    Physalis peruviana L. (PP) is a medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) method was employed to obtain three different PP extracts, namely SCEPP-0, SCEPP-4 and SCEPP-5. The total flavonoid and phenol concentrations, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these extracts were analyzed and compared with aqueous and ethanolic PP extracts. Among all the extracts tested, SCEPP-5 demonstrated the highest total flavonoid (234.63+/-9.61 mg/g) and phenol (90.80+/-2.21 mg/g) contents. At concentrations 0.1-30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect. At 30 microg/ml, SCEPP-5 significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/ml)-induced cell cytotoxicity in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells. At 10-50 microg/ml, it also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO release and PGE2 formation in a dose-dependent pattern. SCEPP-5 at 30 microg/ml remarkably blocked the LPS induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results suggest that SCEPP-5, an extract of SFE-CO2, displayed the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to other extracts. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. PMID:16820275

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Rageeb Md.Usman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.

  9. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogs, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutia Yangchen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To find out the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, if any, of Amifostine [S-2(3 amino propyl amino ethyl phosphorothioate], DRDE-07 [S-2(3 amino ethyl amino ethyl phenyl sulphide] and their analogs DRDE-30 and DRDE-35, the probable prophylactic agent for sulphur mustard (SM. Materials and Methods : In order to find out the analgesic activities of the compounds two methods were employed, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking. The persistent pain model of formalin-induced hind paw licking was carried out to test the effect of the compounds on neurogenic pain or early phase (0 to 5 minutes and on the peripheral pain or the late phase (15 to 30 minutes. To test the effect of the compound in acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema was carried out. This model of inflammation involves a variety of mediators of inflammation. Results : DRDE-07 (81.7% and DRDE-30 (79.4% showed significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. DRDE-07 (93.1%, DRDE-30 (82%, and DRDE-35 (61.3% showed significant reduction in the second or late phase of formalin-induced paw licking. All the analogs (more than 60% including amifostine (43.9% showed significant reduction of paw edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Conclusion : The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the antidotes were comparable with aspirin.

  10. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  11. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eLauritano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active molecules for applications in the food industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. In this study, 21 diatoms, 7 dinoflagellates and 4 flagellate species were grown in three different culturing conditions and the corresponding extracts were tested for possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In addition, for two diatoms we also tested two different clones to disclose diversity in clone bioactivity. Six diatom species displayed specific anti-inflammatory, anticancer (blocking human melanoma cell proliferation and anti-biofilm (against the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis activities whereas, none of the other microalgae were bioactive against the conditions tested for. Furthermore, none of the 6 diatom species tested were toxic on normal human cells. Culturing conditions (i.e. nutrient starvation conditions greatly influenced bioactivity of the majority of the clones/species tested. This study denotes the potential of diatoms as sources of promising bioactives for the treatment of human pathologies.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin, a pterocarpene from Erythrina mildbraedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njamen, Dieudonné; Talla, Emmanuel; Mbafor, Joseph Tanyi; Fomum, Zacharias Tanee; Kamanyi, Albert; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Ríos, José Luis

    2003-05-01

    Erycristagallin, a pterocarpene isolated from Erythrina mildbraedii, was tested in vitro for its antioxidant properties on the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and on the arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, erycristagallin was tested on different experimental models of inflammation, such as the acute and chronic inflammation induced by the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on mice and the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema test. In the carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema test, the ethyl acetate extract obtained from E. mildbraedii showed anti-inflammatory activity, and erycristagallin was isolated as the active principle. In vivo, erycristagallin significantly inhibited the phospholipase A(2)-induced mouse paw oedema as well as the mouse ear oedema induced by TPA (ID(50)DPPH test. As with other phenolics, the anti-inflammatory activity of erycristagallin may be based on its capacity to inhibit the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. PMID:12729844

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of orpanoxin administered orally and topically to rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R R; Bonk, K R; Decker, G E; Miller, K E

    1985-07-01

    Orpanoxin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lacking gastric ulcerogenic effects in the therapeutic dose range in rats, was compared with six reference NSAIDs for oral activity in the rat paw carrageenin-induced edema assay. Tested NSAIDs were ranked on the basis of oral mg/kg ED50 values: piroxicam, 0.55; orpanoxin, 35.6; diflunisal, 59.6; benoxaprofen, greater than 300; tolmetin sodium, greater than 300; and sulindac, greater than 300. Zomepirac sodium was inactive. Only the three most potent compounds produced greater than 60% inhibition of edema. Inhibition was generally greater at 4 h than at 6 h post carrageenin for all compounds. Oral activity of orpanoxin was also demonstrated in the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model (ED50 = 24.2 mg/kg p.o. when given 1 h before irradiation) and in the mouse ear croton oil induced edema test (ED50 value = 131 mg/kg p.o.). Topical activity of orpanoxin was assessed in both the guinea-pig and mouse models. In the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model, application (1 h after u.v.) of 1, 5, and 10% (w/v) orpanoxin creams (containing 10% urea) significantly inhibited erythema at 2, 3, and 4 h post-irradiation. Orpanoxin, mefenamic acid, and indomethacin as 1% creams inhibited total erythema scores 70, 92 and 74%, respectively. Evidence for topical activity in the mouse ear assay was also obtained for orpanoxin in diethyl ether or 10% urea cream, but not in dimethylsulfoxide. It was concluded that orpanoxin has anti-inflammatory activity comparable to reference NSAIDs in the rat paw edema test, is active orally in rat, mouse, and guinea-pig models, and shows topical activity in the guinea-pig and the mouse.

  14. Elevated plasma cryofibrinogen in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease is morbigenous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Sawada; Ryouki Takahashi; Abbi R Saniabadi; Maiko Ohdo; Takashi Shimoyama

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cryofibrinogen (CF) in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: CF was assayed in 284 subjects: 61 with active and 63 with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 who had proctocolectomy, 35 with active and 20 with inactive Crohn's disease (CD), 40 with other diseases and 20 healthy controls. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) and TI antibody (TI-Ab) were measured in plasma and CF complex by ELISA.RESULTS: CF in active UC was strikingly high compared with all other groups (χ2<0.001). Similarly, CF was significantly higher in active CD than in inactive CD or in controls (χ2<0.01). In UC, high CF and TI-Ab were associated with the need for operations. Further, high CF, CF/fibrinogen ratio, low TI and high TI-Ab in plasma were associated with disease activity or refractoriness to medication. Elevated CF was not associated with acute reactants like C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts except for erythrocyte sedimentation rate,suggesting that elevated CF was not a consequence of acute inflammation.CONCLUSION: Elevated CF in active IBD appears to be morbigenous. CF promotes IBD via two main mechanisms, quenching of TI (an anti-inflammatory substance)and impairing microvascular perfusion by forming protein aggregates. CF may also serve as a biomarker of chronic IBD. Additional studies are warranted to fully evaluate the role of CF in IBD and the outcome should contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD.

  15. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC. The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic agent. In this work the methanolic extract of Basella alba (M.E.B.A. and aqueous extract of Basella alba (A.E.B.A. were studied for its in-vitro antiinflammatory activities. The potency of the extracts was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (50 and 100 @g/ml. The aqueous extract showed the most significant membrane stabilizing action on human red blood cell membrane.

  16. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of labdane and cis-clerodane type diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, C; Dimas, K; Hatziantoniou, S; Anastasaki, T; Angelopoulou, D

    2001-10-01

    Two labdane type diterpenes, labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-diol (1) and labd-13(E)-ene,-8alpha,15-yl acetate (2) were isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet leaves, while (+)-19-acetoxy-cis-clerodan-3-en-15-oic acid (3) was isolated from the hexane extract of Cistus monspeliensis L. leaves. The compounds were examined for their in vitro cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against nine human leukemic cell lines, three of which exhibited a multidrug resistant phenotype. They were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on the back of hairless mice. The cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of the tested diterpenes followed the order 1>2>3. Topical application of the diterpenes on barrier disrupted skin did not seem to have a significant contribution to the repair rate of the skin barrier. PMID:11582537

  17. Pain mechanisms and ultrasonic inflammatory activity as prognostic factors in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Christensen, Robin; Dreyer, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent pain is a major concern for patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Pain may be due to inflammatory activity or augmented central pain processing. Unawareness of the origin and mechanisms of pain can lead to misinterpretation of disease activity (by composite scores......) and erroneous treatments. Ultrasonography (US) is a highly sensitive method to detect tissue inflammation. Evaluating pain mechanisms in relation to US measures may prove valuable in predicting response to treatment in PsA. AIMS: To study the association and prognostic value of pain mechanisms, ultrasonic...... activity and clinical outcomes in patients with PsA who intensify antirheumatic treatment. METHODS AND ANALYSES: 100 participants >18 years of age with PsA who initiate or switch antirheumatic treatment (biologicals and/or conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs...

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity in mice of extracts from Mediterranean marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ubeda, A; Ferrándiz, M L; Terencio, M C; Alcaraz, M J; García-Carrascosa, M; Capaccioni, R; Payá, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the marine invertebrates Leptogorgia ceratophyta, Holothuria tubulosa, Coscinasterias tenuispina and Phallusia fumigata on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice were investigated. The dichloromethane extract of Coscinasterias tenuispina and the methanol extract of Holothuria tubulosa administered p.o. at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, inhibited oedema in a dose-dependent manner 3 h after administration of carrageenan. Both extracts partially decreased elastase activity and PGE2 levels measured in homogenates from inflamed paws, without affecting the levels of this prostanoid present in stomach homogenates. As observed with the selective inhibitor NS398, both extracts can decrease cyclo-oxygenase activity in inflamed tissues but do not modify the constitutive cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Therefore, these extracts represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents active on inflammatory conditions.

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti-inflammatory

  20. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chun Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (PC is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat not only common cold, nausea and diarrhea but also headache and fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of standardized PC methanol extract (PCMeOH in vivo. Investigations were performed in mice with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid-induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested by λ-carrageenan (Carr-induced mice paw edema. These analgesic experimental results indicated that PCMeOH (1.0 g/kg decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, Carr-induced paw edema inflammation was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner when PCMeOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg was administered 3 and 4 h after the Carr injection. Mechanistic studies showed that PCMeOH decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in the edema paw by increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and decreasing the cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α activities in the edema paw. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of PCMeOH, thus verifying its popular use in traditional medicine.

  1. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  2. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  3. Vanillic Acid Inhibits Inflammatory Pain by Inhibiting Neutrophil Recruitment, Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production, and NFκB Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto-Campos, Cássia; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Zarpelon, Ana C; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-08-28

    Vanillic acid (1) is a flavoring agent found in edible plants and fruits. It is an oxidized form of vanillin. Phenolic compounds form a substantial part of plant foods used as antioxidants with beneficial biological activities. These compounds have received considerable attention because of their role in preventing human diseases. Especially, 1 presents antibacterial, antimicrobial, and chemopreventive effects. However, the mechanisms by which 1 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in vivo are incompletely understood. Thus, the effect of 1 was evaluated in murine models of inflammatory pain. Treatment with 1 inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, the second phase of the formalin test, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Treatment with 1 also inhibited carrageenan- and CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, paw edema, myeloperoxidase activity, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of 1 involved the inhibition of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and NFκB activation in the carrageenan model. The present study demonstrated 1 presents analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in a wide range of murine inflammation models, and its mechanisms of action involves antioxidant effects and NFκB-related inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:26192250

  4. The role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in eosinophil activation during inflammatory allergic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are important chemotactic cytokines that play a fundamental role in the trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. They are also potent cell-activating factors, inducing cytokine and histamine release and free radical production, a fact that makes them particularly important in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. The action of chemokines is regulated at the level of agonist production and processing as well as at the level of receptor expression and coupling. Therefore, an analysis of the ligands must necessarily consider receptors. Eosinophils are target cells involved in the allergic inflammatory response since they are able to release a wide variety of mediators including CC and CXC chemokines and express their receptors. These mediators could damage the airway epithelial cells and might be important to stimulate other cells inducing an amplification of the allergic response. This review focuses on recently emerging data pertaining to the importance of chemokines and chemokine receptors in promoting eosinophil activation and migration during the allergic inflammatory process. The analysis of the function of eosinophils and their chemokine receptors during allergic inflammation might be a good approach to understanding the determinants of asthma severity and to developing novel therapies.

  5. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW THIO-ETHER DERIVATIVES OF QUINOXALINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Dharmchand Prasad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of thioether derivatives of 2-Chloro-3-methylquinoxaline have been synthesized by reacting 3- methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium with 2-chloro-N-(substituted aryl/alkyl-acetamides. The synthesis was initiated with the reaction of o-phenylenediamine (1 with ethyl pyruvate in n-butanol to yield 2-hydroxy-3-methyl quinoxaline (2, which on treatment with POCl3 ,yielded 2-chloro-3-methylquinoxaline(3.A mixture of the compound(3 and sodium sulphide in DMF was refluxed to yield 3-methylquinoxalin-2-thiosodium(4,which on treatment with different Nsubstituted chloroacetamides afforded the one pot synthesis of 2-(2-methylquinoxalin-3-ylthio-N-substitutedaryl/ alkyl-acetamides(5a-k. 2-chloro-N-substituted acetamides were prepared by treating substituted anilines in glacial acetic acid with chloroacetylchloride, warming on the water bath for half an hour and then precipitating, 2- chloro-N-substituted acetamides by addition of saturated aqueous solution of anhydrous sodium acetate. A compound 2-(benzylthio-3-methylquinoxaline 5l was also prepared. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, and 1HNMR spectra, analysis. All compounds (5a-l were screened for their in vivo anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Compounds 5a, 5b, 5d, 5e, 5g and 5k have been found to possess good anti inflammatory activity.

  6. Activation of Human Neutrophils by the Anti-Inflammatory Mediator Esenbeckia leiocarpa Leads to Atypical Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Liz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Esenbeckia leiocarpa, a Brazilian plant, possesses potential anti-inflammatory properties, its effect in neutrophils, key players in inflammation, has never been investigated. In this study, a crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE was used to evaluate the potential toxic or agonistic effect of E. leiocarpa in human neutrophils. At a noncytotoxic concentration of 500 μg/mL, CHE increased actin polymerization and cell signaling events, especially p38 MAPK. Its modulatory activity on neutrophil cell apoptosis was investigated by cytology and by flow cytometry and, although CHE increased the apoptotic rate (by cytology and increased annexin-V binding, it did not, unexpectedly, increase CD16 shedding. CHE increased the degradation of the cytoskeletal proteins gelsolin and paxillin but, surprisingly, not of vimentin. The proapoptotic activity of CHE was reversed by a pan-caspase inhibitor but not by a p38 inhibitor. We conclude that CHE is a novel human neutrophil agonist that induces apoptosis by a caspase-dependent and p38-independent mechanism in an atypical fashion based on its lack of effect on CD16 shedding and vimentin degradation. Since the resolution of inflammation occurs by elimination of apoptotic neutrophils, the ability of CHE to induce neutrophil apoptosis correlates well with its anti-inflammatory properties, as previously reported.

  7. Is Synovial Macrophage Activation the Inflammatory Link Between Obesity and Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Antonia RuJia; Friis, Thor; Sekar, Sunderajhan; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin; Prasadam, Indira

    2016-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease, affecting nearly 25 % of the world population (WHO reports), leading to pain and disability. There are as yet no clinically proven therapies to halt OA onset or progression; the development of such therapies is, therefore, a national as well as international research priority. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome has been identified as the most significant, but also an entirely preventable risk factor for OA; however, the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. We have examined the available literature linking OA and metabolic syndrome. The two conditions have a shared pathogenesis in which chronic low-grade inflammation of affected tissues is recognized as a major factor that is associated with systemic inflammation. In addition, the occurrence of metabolic syndrome appears to alter systemic and local pro-inflammatory cytokines that are also related to the development of OA-like pathologies. Recent findings highlight the importance not only of the elevated number of macrophage in inflamed synovium but also the activation and amplification of the inflammatory state and other pathological changes. The role of local inflammation on the synovium is now considered to be a pharmacological target against which to aim disease-modifying drugs. In this review, we evaluate evidence linking OA, synovitis and metabolic syndrome and discuss the merits of targeting macrophage activation as a valid treatment option for OA. PMID:27422277

  8. Anti-inflammatory activities of cecropin A and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Areum; Kim, Yangmee

    2015-01-01

    Cecropin A is a novel 37-residue cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide isolated from the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia. We have demonstrated that cecropin A is an antibacterial agent and have investigated its mode of action. In this study, we show that cecropin A has potent antimicrobial activity against 2 multidrug resistant organisms-Acinetobacter baumanii and-Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interactions between cecropin A and membrane phospholipids were studied using tryptophan blue shift experiments. Cecropin A has a strong interaction with bacterial cell mimetic membranes. These results imply that cecropin A has selectivity for bacterial cells. To address the potential the rapeutic efficacy of cecropin A, its anti-inflammatory activities and mode of action in mouse macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined. Cecropin A suppressed nitrite production, mTNF-α, mIL-1β, mMIP-1, and mMIP-2 cytokine release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, cecropin A inhibited intracellular cell signaling via the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathway, leading to the prevention of COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results strongly suggest that cecropin A should be investigated as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25319409

  9. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel Pyrazole Derivatives of Gallic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arunkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new series of [5-substituted-3-(phenylamino-1H-pyrazol-1yl] (3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-methanone (4a-j have been synthesized. 3, 4, 5-Trihydroxy benzohydrazide (1 was synthesized from propyl gallate and hydrazine hydrate in presence of ethanol. Chalcones (2a-j were synthesized from acetanilide and various aromatic aldehydes in presence of ethanol and sodium hydroxide solution. By refluxing the compound (1 and compounds (2a-j in presence of ethanol yielded [5-substituted-3-(phenylamino-4.5-dihydropyrazol-1yl] (3,4,5-trihydroxy phenyl-methanone (3a-j. The final compounds [5-substituted-3-(phenylamino-1H-pyrazol-1yl] (3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-methanone (4a-j were synthesized by treating compounds (3a-j with bromine water. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, 1HNMR and Mass spectral data. The compounds were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema test. In general all compounds were found to exhibit good anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Induction of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.A.; Dessypris, E.N.; Koury, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The production of megakaryocytic colony-stimulating activity (MEG-CSA) was assayed in acetic acid extracts of skin from mice topically treated with inflammatory and tumor-promoting agents. A rapid induction of MEG-CSA was found in skin treated both with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a strong tumor promoter, and with mezerein, a weak tumor promoter, but no induction was found in untreated skin. The time course of induction of MEG-CSA following treatment of skin with PMA or mezerein was very similar to that previously demonstrated for the induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by these agents. The induced MEG-CSA was found in both the epidermis and the dermis. Pretreatment of the skin with US -methasone abrogated the MEG-CSA induction. The cell number response curve suggests that the MEG-CSA acts directly on the progenitor cells of the megakaryocyte colonies. That topical administration of diterpene esters results in the rapid, local induction of MEG-CSA which can be blocked by US -methasone pretreatment suggests a mechanism for the thrombocytosis associated with some inflammatory states. The indirect action in which diterpene esters induce in certain cells the production or release of growth regulatory factors for other cell types may also aid in understanding their carcinogenic properties.

  11. Microparticles Containing Curcumin Solid Dispersion: Stability, Bioavailability and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C C C; Mendonça, L M; Bergamaschi, M M; Queiroz, R H C; Souza, G E P; Antunes, L M G; Freitas, L A P

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent.

  12. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon.

  13. Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2008-09-10

    In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate coughs and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO) are well recognized as key events in inflammation-related respiratory tract diseases. Despite the fact that the enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels has been well documented, the impact of heat treatment on citrus peel beneficial activities regarding anti-inflammation is unclear. To address this issue, we determined the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts by measuring their inhibitory effect upon NO production by lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel was significantly elevated after 100 degrees C heat treatment in a time-dependent fashion during a period from 0 to 120 min. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression was the major NO-suppressing mechanism of the citrus peel extract. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel extract highly correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Conclusively, proper and reasonable heat treatment helped to release nobiletin and tangeretin, which were responsible for the increased anti-inflammatory activity of heat-treated citrus peels. PMID:18683945

  14. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatma Alhakmani; Sokindra Kumar; Shah Alam Khan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods: Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results:Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions:The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihantola-Vormisto, A; Summanen, J; Kankaanranta, H; Vuorela, H; Asmawi, Z M; Moilanen, E

    1997-12-01

    Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and 1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%, thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis.

  16. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p activities (p activity in radiographic records (p activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Acidosis activation of the proton-sensing GPR4 receptor stimulates vascular endothelial cell inflammatory responses revealed by transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Dong

    Full Text Available Acidic tissue microenvironment commonly exists in inflammatory diseases, tumors, ischemic organs, sickle cell disease, and many other pathological conditions due to hypoxia, glycolytic cell metabolism and deficient blood perfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the acidic microenvironment are not well understood. GPR4 is a proton-sensing receptor expressed in endothelial cells and other cell types. The receptor is fully activated by acidic extracellular pH but exhibits lesser activity at the physiological pH 7.4 and minimal activity at more alkaline pH. To delineate the function and signaling pathways of GPR4 activation by acidosis in endothelial cells, we compared the global gene expression of the acidosis response in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC with varying level of GPR4. The results demonstrated that acidosis activation of GPR4 in HUVEC substantially increased the expression of a number of inflammatory genes such as chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, NF-κB pathway genes, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2 or COX-2 and stress response genes such as ATF3 and DDIT3 (CHOP. Similar GPR4-mediated acidosis induction of the inflammatory genes was also noted in other types of endothelial cells including human lung microvascular endothelial cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Further analyses indicated that the NF-κB pathway was important for the acidosis/GPR4-induced inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, acidosis activation of GPR4 increased the adhesion of HUVEC to U937 monocytic cells under a flow condition. Importantly, treatment with a recently identified GPR4 antagonist significantly reduced the acidosis/GPR4-mediated endothelial cell inflammatory response. Taken together, these results show that activation of GPR4 by acidosis stimulates the expression of a wide range of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. Such inflammatory response can be

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  19. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  20. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Cormac T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Silke, E-mail: silke.ryan@ucd.ie [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin (Ireland); Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  1. Stressful life events and psychosocial correlates of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, George; Chouliaras, George; Margoni, Daphne; Korlou, Sophia; Hantzara, Vassiliki; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Liakopoulou, Magda; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of psychiatric and psychosocial correlates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity in children and adolescents. METHODS A total of 85 pediatric IBD patients (in remission or active state of the disease) and their parents completed a series of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews measuring life events, depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, and parent mental health. Differences between the remission and the IBD active group and the association of any significant variable with the disease activity state were examined. RESULTS Parents of children being in active state of the disease reported more life events (P = 0.005) and stressful life events (P = 0.048) during the past year and more mental health symptoms (P < 0.001), while the children themselves reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms (P = 0.017) compared to the remission group. In the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the only predictor which had a significant positive effect on the probability of the patients being in active state was parent mental health symptoms (OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-25.8). CONCLUSION Life events, child anxiety and parent mental health symptoms may be important correlates of pediatric IBD activity and targets of thorough assessment and treatment. PMID:27679771

  2. Interleukin 27 is up-regulated in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzawa Carballeda, Janette; Fonseca Camarillo, Gabriela; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify tissue gene and protein expression of IL-27 in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. This is an observational and cross-sectional study. Fifty-four patients with IBD were studied: 27 active UC, 12 inactive UC, 10 active CD, and 5 inactive CD. All patients belonged to the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición. We found that IL-27 gene expression was significantly higher in active UC versus inactive UC group (P = 0.015). The IL-27 mRNA expression was increased in patients with active CD compared with inactive CD disease (P = 0.035). The percentage of IL-27 immunoreactive cells was higher in active UC versus active CD patients and non-inflamed tissue controls. The IL-27 was significantly elevated in active UC and CD patients, and it was associated with disease severity.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids.

  4. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for left-sided breast cancer and all regional nodes improves target volumes coverage and reduces treatment time and doses to the heart and left coronary artery, compared with a field-in-field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared two intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for left-sided breast treatment, involving lymph node irradiation including the internal mammary chain. Inverse planned arc-therapy (VMAT) was compared with a forward-planned multi-segment technique with a mono-isocenter (MONOISO). Ten files were planned per technique, delivering a 50-Gy dose to the breast and 46.95 Gy to nodes, within 25 fractions. Comparative endpoints were planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose to surrounding structures, and treatment delivery time. PTV coverage, homogeneity and conformality were better for two arc VMAT plans; V95%PTV-T was 96% for VMAT vs 89.2% for MONOISO. Homogeneity index (HI)PTV-T was 0.1 and HIPTV-N was 0.1 for VMAT vs 0.6 and 0.5 for MONOISO. Treatment delivery time was reduced by a factor of two using VMAT relative to MONOISO (84 s vs 180 s). High doses to organs at risk were reduced (V30left lung = 14% using VMAT vs 24.4% with MONOISO; dose to 2% of the volume (D2%)heart = 26.1 Gy vs 32 Gy), especially to the left coronary artery (LCA) (D2%LCA = 34.4 Gy vs 40.3 Gy). However, VMAT delivered low doses to a larger volume, including contralateral organs (mean dose [Dmean]right lung = 4 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 3.2 Gy). These were better protected using MONOISO plans (Dmeanright lung = 0.8 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 0.4 Gy). VMAT improved PTV coverage and dose homogeneity, but clinical benefits remain unclear. Decreased dose exposure to the LCA may be clinically relevant. VMAT could be used for complex treatments that are difficult with conventional techniques. Patient age should be considered because of uncertainties concerning secondary malignancies. (author)

  5. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs.

  6. Synthesis of Aromatic Retinoids and Curcuminoids and Evaluation of their Antiproliferative, Antiradical, and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W; Rárová, Lucie; Grúz, Jiři; Sawczuk, Tomasz; Kiełczewska, Urszula; Siergiejczyk, Leszek; Wojtkielewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    Natural retinoids and curcuminoids are known for their broad spectrum of biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and so forth. In this work, a convenient synthesis of aromatic retinoids and curcuminoids from vinyl or allyl ketones, and the corresponding alcohols, using olefin metathesis as a key reaction, was elaborated. The best yields and diastereoselectivities were obtained from allylic or homoallylic alcohols by employing the two-step cross-metathesis/oxidation procedure. The synthesized analogues were tested for their antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines of various origin (leukemia CEM, adenocarcinoma MCF7, cervical carcinoma HeLa) as well as for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. All examined derivatives exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity in vitro without affecting cell viability. They also showed strong cytotoxicity against leukemia cell line CEM, except for 18 and 35. The antioxidant activity of the tested compounds was rather weak. PMID:27547644

  7. Synthesis of Aromatic Retinoids and Curcuminoids and Evaluation of their Antiproliferative, Antiradical, and Anti‐inflammatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W.; Rárová, Lucie; Grúz, Jiři; Sawczuk, Tomasz; Kiełczewska, Urszula; Siergiejczyk, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural retinoids and curcuminoids are known for their broad spectrum of biological properties, such as antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, antitumor, and so forth. In this work, a convenient synthesis of aromatic retinoids and curcuminoids from vinyl or allyl ketones, and the corresponding alcohols, using olefin metathesis as a key reaction, was elaborated. The best yields and diastereoselectivities were obtained from allylic or homoallylic alcohols by employing the two‐step cross‐metathesis/oxidation procedure. The synthesized analogues were tested for their antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines of various origin (leukemia CEM, adenocarcinoma MCF7, cervical carcinoma HeLa) as well as for their antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity in vitro. All examined derivatives exhibited strong anti‐inflammatory activity in vitro without affecting cell viability. They also showed strong cytotoxicity against leukemia cell line CEM, except for 18 and 35. The antioxidant activity of the tested compounds was rather weak. PMID:27547644

  8. Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Ruppelt

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant or 20% (fresh plant corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  10. Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, Rainer; Eferl, Robert; Scheinecker, Clemens; Redlich, Kurt; Smolen, Josef; Schonthaler, Helia B; Kenner, Lukas; Tschachler, Erwin; Wagner, Erwin F

    2008-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) (Fos/Jun) is a transcriptional regulator composed of members of the Fos and Jun families of DNA binding proteins. The functions of AP-1 were initially studied in mouse development as well as in the whole organism through conventional transgenic approaches, but also by gene targeting using knockout strategies. The importance of AP-1 proteins in disease pathways including the inflammatory response became fully apparent through conditional mutagenesis in mice, in particular when employing gene inactivation in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. Besides the well-documented roles of Fos and Jun proteins in oncogenesis, where these genes can function both as tumor promoters or tumor suppressors, AP-1 proteins are being recognized as regulators of bone and immune cells, a research area termed osteoimmunology. In the present article, we review recent data regarding the functions of AP-1 as a regulator of cytokine expression and an important modulator in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. These new data provide a better molecular understanding of disease pathways and should pave the road for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications.

  11. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF H1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIS T CETIRIZINE IN ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardhamane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: The present study was designed to study anti-inflam matory activity of Cetirizine in albino rats and compare with standard drug Diclofenac. MATERIAL & METHODS : 1. Carrageenin induced rat paw edema method (Acute i nflammation: 5 animals in each group (3groups received orally 4% Gum acacia, Diclofenac sodium and Cetirizine respectively one hour before carrageenin injection into right paw. Th e rat paw edema was measured with plethysmograph after 3 hours and percentage inhibitio n of edema was calculated in each group. 2. Rexin pellet granuloma method (Chronic inflammati on: Four rexin pellets were implanted into dorsum skin of each rat of 3 groups (n=5, whic h include control, Diclofenac and Cetirizine respectively. The animals were treated with fixed do ses of drugs once a day for 7 days including the day of implantation of pellets and on 8th day rex in pellets were removed after sacrificing animals. Rexin pellets were kept in incubator at 60 0 C overnight. Pellets were then weighed and percent inhibition of granuloma tissue was calculate d. 3. Study of Mast cell counts. RESULT: Cetirizine showed significant anti-inflammatory act ivity both in acute and chronic animal models. CONCLUSION: Cetirizine may be used as potential drug for both a cute and chronic inflammation due to its anti-inflammatory property.

  12. ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MIKANIA LINDLEYANA IN RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa S. B. Silva et al.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lindleyana is a plant widely distributed in Brazilian Amazonia, popularly known as “sucuriju” and largely used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, chronic ulcers and pain. In the present study, we identified the secondary metabolites of the aqueous extract of M. lindleyana (AEML and investigate its effects on several models of inflammation and nociception in rodents. Phytochemical screening of the AEML showed the presence of saponins, proteins, amino acids, phenols, tannins, organic acids and flavonoids. Oral pretreatment of mice with AEML significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the abdominal constrictions evoked by acetic acid injection and the licking time in both first and second phases in the formalin test but has no significant effect on hot plate test. In rats, AEML inhibited the edema formation induced by carrageenan and croton oil while has no significant effects on the edema induced by dextran. AEML inhibited the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration as well as the rolling and the adhesion of leukocytes. The present study shows for the first time that AEML displays antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities which could be attributed respectively to a possible opioid mechanism and to an inhibition of the adhesion molecules by interference on pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results support the widespread use of M. lindleyana in popular medicine to treat inflammation and pain.

  13. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Alafia barteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret O. Sofidiya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Alafia barteri Oliv., Apocynaceae, based on its medicinal use in the treatment of toothaches, inflammation and fevers. The antinociceptive effect was assessed in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing, tail clip, tail immersion and formalin assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats, and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract at different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly (p < 0.05 and dose-dependently reduced pain by 35.04, 56.49 and 84.25%, respectively. The extract also significantly inhibited both the early and late phases of formalin-induced nociception in mice. In the tail immersion test, the extract caused a significant inhibition of pain (34.43% inhibition, after 90 min at a dose of 200 mg/kg, while the effect of the extract in the tail clip test was only significant at the 100 mg/kg dose. A. barteri caused a significant inhibition of paw oedema development in the carrageenan and xylene-induced oedema tests. There was no mortality recorded following treatment with the extract (5 g/kg, p.o.. The results support the traditional use of A. barteri in the treatment of various diseases associated with pain and inflammation.

  14. A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rachel W; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N; Lin, G David; Leach, Greg

    2003-03-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12576199

  15. An Unusual Case of Systemic Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor with Successful Treatment with ALK-Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivini V. Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an exceedingly rare entity. A 45-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 6-month history of left-sided thigh pain, low back pain, and generalized weakness. PET/CT scan revealed abnormal activity in the liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas. MRI of the abdomen demonstrated two 6-7 cm masses in the liver. MRI of the lumbar spine demonstrated lesions in the L2 to L4 spinous processes, paraspinal muscles, and subcutaneous tissues, as well as an 8 mm enhancing intradural lesion at T11, all thought to be metastatic disease. A biopsy of the liver showed portal tract expansion by a spindle cell proliferation rich in inflammation. Tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin and anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 (ALK1. Tissue from the L5 vertebra showed a process histologically identical to that seen in the liver. FISH analysis of these lesions demonstrated an ALK (2p23 gene rearrangement. The patient was successfully treated with an ALK-inhibitor, Crizotinib, and is now in complete remission. We present the first reported case, to our knowledge, of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with systemic manifestations and ALK translocation. This case is a prime example of how personalized medicine has vastly improved patient care through the use of molecular-targeted therapy.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydrolyzed sasanquasaponins from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Chen, Xuelan

    2013-08-01

    The defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera (Abel.) are used for stopping itching and pain in old days, the effective compounds need to be investigated. Sasanquasaponin as a rich fraction was extracted with 70% ethanol, purified by AB-8 macro-reticular resin, crystallized in 80% ethanol, and further hydrolyzed by 4% hydroxyl potassium or 2 M hydrochloride. Anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice; the analgesic activities were analyzed by hot plate test, acetic acid induced writhing in mice; the levels of pain mediators of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE₂ were determined; the antioxidative activities in vivo were evaluated by MDA, SOD and GSH-Px in serum of rats. The extracts showed significant (p < 0.01) anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, remarkably (p < 0.01) inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2, decreased MDA and increased SOD and GSH-Px in serum. Inhibition of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 may contribute to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; elimination of free radicals is also involved. The sapogenin and acid hydrolyzed product have better anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects, and stronger antioxidative activity than sasanquasaponin and alkaline hydrolyzed product, and they are better candidate medicines for inflammation and pain. PMID:23625174

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pistacia khinjuk in different experimental models: isolation and characterization of its flavonoids and galloylated sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Ahmed; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Algandaby, Mardi M; Moussa, Ashaimaa Y; Labib, Rola M; Ayoub, Nahla A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed at isolating and elucidating the structure of the main components of Pistacia khinjuk L. and exploring its potential anti-inflammatory effect in different experimental models. The extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by measuring paw volume in three experimental models. Then, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) level, ear edema, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology, nitric oxide (NO) level, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level were assessed. Seven phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids and galloylated compounds, were isolated from the aqueous methanol extract: gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-⁴C₁-galactopyranoside (hyperin) (3), myricetin-3-O-α-L-¹C₄-rhamnopyranoside (myricitrin) (4), 1,6-digalloyl-β-D-glucose (5), 1,4-digalloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 2,3-di-O-galloyl-(α/β)-⁴C₁-glucopyranose (nilocitin) (7). The anti-inflammatory activity was evidenced by decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and PGE₂ elevation. In the croton oil-induced ear edema model, MPO activity was significantly inhibited, and inflammatory histopathological changes were ameliorated. In the rat air pouch model, NO generation and TNF-α release were significantly inhibited. The isolation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data of compound 6 from the genus Pistacia are revealed for the first time. Also, P. khinjuk L. aqueous methanol extract possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. PMID:22082098

  18. Anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities of a bioactive alkaloid from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Vijayalakshmi; V Ravichandiran; Malarkodi Velraj; S Hemalatha; G Sudharani; S Jayakumari

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-anaphylactic, anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of plumerianine (compound 1) isolated from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Methods: The anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was studied by using models such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive paw anaphylaxis and its anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in albino rats was also investigated using ketotifen and indomethacin as reference drugs. Results: A dose-dependent beneficial effect was observed on leakage of evans blue dye in skin challenged with antigen and on paw anaphylaxis induced by antiserum. The compound 1 also exhibited significant (P<0.01) inhibition of rat paw edema and granuloma tissue formation, including significant protection of RBC against the haemolytic effect of hypotonic solution, an indication of membrane-stabilizing activity. Conclusions: Anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 may be possibly due to inhibition of the release of various inflammatory mediators. Anti-inflammatory activity of compound may be related to the inhibition of the early phase and late phase of inflammatory events.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF 75 PERCENT V/V METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABUTILON INDICUM (LINN. SWEET LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ponnudurai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The active constituent of leaf extract of the plant (Abutilon indicum contains various components such as essential oils in particular eugenol which is reported to possess antioxidant potential. Eugenol is the one of the constituents of plant under investigation. Therefore based on the above facts, it is clear that no scientific studies have been carried out in Abutilon indicum regarding the anti-inflammatory and gastro protective activity, the present study has been carried out to investigate and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of 75 percent methanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (Linn. Sweet leaves.

  20. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, M; Kiran, G; Rajyalakshmi, G; Venkateshwa, Rao J; Sarangapani, M

    2010-06-01

    A series of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 2-substituted-5-carbomethoxy benzoxazole with different secondary amines. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS) & elemental analysis. All these compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. All of these compounds exhibited significant activity. Among the tested compounds Ve, Vg, Vf and Va were considered to have potent anti-inflammatory activity and was comparable with standard.

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Gloriosa superba Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jomy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa supberba (family: Liliaceae is widely used as a medicinal plant, and the alkaloids from the plant (Colchicines and Gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. We evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract (50% v/v of dried aerial parts of G. superba. The analgesic activity of the extract was evaluated by using Eddy′s hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using the cotton wool granuloma model and the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The percentage inhibitions of writhes or percentage protection were found to be 64.09%, 78.56% and 81.45% for extract at a dose 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage increase in reaction time at 90 minutes were 21.02%, 79.96% and 158.05% for extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively, in Eddy′s hot plate method (P < 0.01 when compared with control. The percentage inhibition of paw edema was increased with time and gave maximum effect at 2 hours, then declined in case of standard extract 400 mg/kg body weight. Only the 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight extracts exhibited significant result (P < 0.05 when compared with control. The rats exhibited 9.59%, 28.72% and 45.8% inhibition of granuloma mass formation after the 7 days treatment with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract when compared with control (P < 0.05 in cotton pellet granuloma.

  2. Antioxidant, Anti-Glycation and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Phenolic Constituents from Cordia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine compounds have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of C. sinensis, namely protocatechuic acid (1, trans-caffeic acid (2, methyl rosmarinate (3, rosmarinic acid (4, kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7, kaempferide-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (9, all reported for the first time from this species. The structures of these compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic studies, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1–9 were investigated for biological activity and showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageen induced rat paw edema test. The antioxidant activities of isolated compounds 1–9 were evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging test, and compounds 1, 2, 4 and 7–9 exhibited marked scavenging activity compared to the standard BHA. These compounds were further studied for their anti-glycation properties and some compounds showed significant anti-glycation inhibitory activity. The purity of compounds 2–5, 8 and 9 was confirmed by HPLC. The implications of these results for the chemotaxonomic studies of the genus Cordia have also been discussed.

  3. The role of N-glycan modification of TNFR1 in inflammatory microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhang, Dongmei; Tao, Tao; Sun, Xiaolei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Guizhou; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Wangrui; Ke, Kaifu; Shen, Aiguo

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that microglia activation and the autocrine loop of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of several CNS diseases. TNFα exerts its biological effects by interacting with two different receptors: TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2. The classic proinflammatory activity of TNFα is mainly mediated by TNFR1. In the present study, we found that TNFR1 was modificated by N-glycosylation on Asn151 and Asn202 in microglia. The N-glycosylation of TNFR1 could facilitate its capability of binding to TNFα and further promote the formation of TNFα autocrine loop in microglia stimulated by TNFα, resulting in excessive microglia activation and CNS inflammation. All these processes were related to TNFR1-mediated NF-κB pathways. Elimination of N-glycosylation did not affect the subcellular transportation and cell surface localization of TNFR1, but suppressed ligand-binding affinity. These findings indicated that the N-glycosylation of TNFR1 played an important role during microglia activation in CNS inflammation. By this study, we aimed to provide some valuable experimental evidence for a better understanding of the significance of protein glycosylation in microglia inflammatory activation and CNS disease.

  4. Neuroactive and Anti-inflammatory Frankincense Cembranes: A Structure-Activity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Federica; Golin, Samantha; Chianese, Giuseppina; Putra, Masteria Yunovilsa; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; De Petrocellis, Luciano; García, Victor; Munoz, Eduardo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Appendino, Giovanni

    2016-07-22

    An expeditious isolation method for the cembrane diterpene alcohols incensol (1a) and serratol (2) has been developed from respectively African and Indian frankincense. The two native alcohols and a series of semisynthetic derivatives of incensol were evaluated for transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) activation and the inhibition of NF-κB, the putative molecular targets underlying the psychotropic and anti-inflammatory activities of incensol acetate (IA, 1b). Serratol (2) was the most potent TRPV3 activator, outperforming by 2 orders of magnitude the reference agonist thymol and by 1 order of magnitude incensol acetate (1b). Acylation, epimerization, and oxidation did not significantly improve the affinity of incensol for TRPV3, while NF-κB inhibition, marginal for both natural alcohols, could be improved by esterification of incensol (1a) with lipophilic acids. Interestingly, incensol (1a) but not IA (1b) was a potent inhibitor of STAT3, raising the possibility that hydrolysis to incensol (1a) might be involved in the in vivo biological activity of IA (1b). Serratol was not amenable to chemical modification, but some marine cembranoids related to the frankincense diterpenoids showed a certain degree of TRPV3-activating properties, qualifying the aliphatic macrocyclic cembrane skeleton as a selective chemotype to explore the pharmacology of TRPV3, a thermo-TRP otherwise resistant to modulation by small molecules. PMID:27352042

  5. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All the results obtained revealed that the extract MEIC showed potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity against all the tested models and the results obtained were comparable with the standards used. The activity of the extract may be due to the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and other phytochemicals.

  6. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 3-indolyl pyridine derivatives through one-pot multi component reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakasam Thirumurugan; S Mahalaxmi; Paramasivan T Perumal

    2010-11-01

    A simple protocol for the efficient preparation of 2-(1-Indol-3-yl)-6-methoxy-4-arylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile has been achieved through one-pot multi-component reaction under reflux condition. These compounds showed a good anti-inflammatory activity. Also a series of bis-Hantzsch dihydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and they exhibit analgesic activity.

  7. PGH1, the precursor for the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins of the 1-series, is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory receptor CRTH2/DP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Schröder

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin H(1 (PGH(1 is the cyclo-oxygenase metabolite of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA and the precursor for the 1-series of prostaglandins which are often viewed as "anti-inflammatory". Herein we present evidence that PGH(1 is a potent activator of the pro-inflammatory PGD(2 receptor CRTH2, an attractive therapeutic target to treat allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. Non-invasive, real time dynamic mass redistribution analysis of living human CRTH2 transfectants and Ca(2+ flux studies reveal that PGH(1 activates CRTH2 as PGH(2, PGD(2 or PGD(1 do. The PGH(1 precursor DGLA and the other PGH(1 metabolites did not display such effect. PGH(1 specifically internalizes CRTH2 in stable CRTH2 transfectants as assessed by antibody feeding assays. Physiological relevance of CRTH2 ligation by PGH(1 is demonstrated in several primary human hematopoietic lineages, which endogenously express CRTH2: PGH(1 mediates migration of and Ca(2+ flux in Th2 lymphocytes, shape change of eosinophils, and their adhesion to human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells under physiological flow conditions. All these effects are abrogated in the presence of the CRTH2 specific antagonist TM30089. Together, our results identify PGH(1 as an important lipid intermediate and novel CRTH2 agonist which may trigger CRTH2 activation in vivo in the absence of functional prostaglandin D synthase.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Eun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; PARK, Jin-Kyu; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investig...

  9. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Israel J M; Leite, Gerlânia O; Costa, José Galberto M; Alves, Romulo R N; Campos, Adriana R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V; Nunes, Maria Janeth H; Almeida, Waltécio O

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  10. A new acylated flavonoid tetraglycoside with anti-inflammatory activity from Tipuana tipu leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    A new acylated kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-4-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-galactopyranoside, has been isolated from the leaves of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Lillo growing in Egypt, along with three known flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and kaempferol 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2]-β-d-glucopyranoside. Structure elucidation was achieved through different spectroscopic methods. Structure relationship with anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model is discussed.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Enoxacin Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Arayne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work comprises the synthesis of enoxacin (Heno complexes with various transition metals. Two types of complexes [M(eno2(H2O2]3H2O(M=CuII, NiII or MnII and [M(eno(H2O2]Cl⋅4H2O  (M=FeIII were obtained. The complexes were characterized by different physicochemical, spectroscopic, and elemental analysis. Results suggest that enoxacin interacts with the metals as a monoanionic bidentate ligand. These complexes were also tested for their antibacterial activity against eleven (11 different microorganisms, and the results were compared with the parent drug. Moreover all the metal complexes were also tested for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species where by MnII and CuII complexes exhibited potential to mediate anti-inflammatory response.

  12. A New Population of Parvocellular Oxytocin Neurons Controlling Magnocellular Neuron Activity and Inflammatory Pain Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliava, Marina; Melchior, Meggane; Knobloch-Bollmann, H Sophie; Wahis, Jérôme; da Silva Gouveia, Miriam; Tang, Yan; Ciobanu, Alexandru Cristian; Triana del Rio, Rodrigo; Roth, Lena C; Althammer, Ferdinand; Chavant, Virginie; Goumon, Yannick; Gruber, Tim; Petit-Demoulière, Nathalie; Busnelli, Marta; Chini, Bice; Tan, Linette L; Mitre, Mariela; Froemke, Robert C; Chao, Moses V; Giese, Günter; Sprengel, Rolf; Kuner, Rohini; Poisbeau, Pierrick; Seeburg, Peter H; Stoop, Ron; Charlet, Alexandre; Grinevich, Valery

    2016-03-16

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide elaborated by the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Magnocellular OT neurons of these nuclei innervate numerous forebrain regions and release OT into the blood from the posterior pituitary. The PVN also harbors parvocellular OT cells that project to the brainstem and spinal cord, but their function has not been directly assessed. Here, we identified a subset of approximately 30 parvocellular OT neurons, with collateral projections onto magnocellular OT neurons and neurons of deep layers of the spinal cord. Evoked OT release from these OT neurons suppresses nociception and promotes analgesia in an animal model of inflammatory pain. Our findings identify a new population of OT neurons that modulates nociception in a two tier process: (1) directly by release of OT from axons onto sensory spinal cord neurons and inhibiting their activity and (2) indirectly by stimulating OT release from SON neurons into the periphery.

  13. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel J. M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications, arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control, dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH.

  14. SYNTHESIZING DERIVATIVES FROM CYCLOPENTANONE ANALOGUE CURCUMIN AND THEIR TOXIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zamri1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three types of cyclopentanone derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehyde and ketone derivatives undera base condition through aldol condensation. These cyclopentanone products were 2,5-dibenzylidene-cyclopentanone(a, 2,5-bis-(4-hydroxy-benzylidene-cyclopentanone (b, and 2,5-bis-(4-hydroxy-benzylidene-cyclopentanone (cwhich has a yield of 63-99%. The chemical structure of these compounds were determined using UV, IR and NMRspectroscopy. In order to clarify the role of hydroxyl and amine moieties, toxic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryactivities were carried out. The toxic test indicated that the compounds showed strong toxicity. In addition, the presenceof hydroxyl and amine groups on both rings of curcumin increased the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

  15. Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Corzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here.

  16. Different Activation of TRAF4 and TRAF6 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, interests combining the exploration of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4 and TRAF6 in immune cells and transgenic mice are emerging. Although it has been found that TRAF4 and TRAF6 share the same TRAF binding sites, comprehensive study of TRAF4 and TRAF6 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is still lacking. This paper shows similar and different expression patterns of TRAF4 and TRAF6 in patients with IBD. The results indicate that TRAF4 and TRAF6 are overexpressed in IBD. TRAF4 and TRAF6 play different roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. Moreover, TRAF4 may be an indicator of endoscopic disease activity of UC and TRAF6 preactivation can be detected in noninflamed colonic segments.

  17. 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chia-Ching; Huang, Hui-Chi; Hsiao, Ping-Chun; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Hwang, Syh-Yuan; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2015-01-01

    Five new 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane triterpenoids, taikugausins A-E (1-5), together with 5β,19-epoxy-25-methoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19-diol (6), have been isolated and characterized from the 70 % EtOH extract of the fresh fruits of Momordica charantia. The chemical structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments and HRESIMS data. The relationship between NMR chemical shifts and the configuration of C-19 with an OMe group in 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane are described. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activities by the inhibition of nitric oxide production at the concentration of 10 µg/mL. In addition, 3 and 4 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against WiDr, Hep G2, MCF-7, and HEp-2 human tumor cell lines. PMID:25469855

  18. AGN 190383, a novel phospholipase inhibitor with topical anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, G W; Lee, G; Amdahl, L; Wenzel, M; Garst, M; Wheeler, L A

    1991-09-01

    AGN 190383 is a 5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone ring analog of the marine natural product manoalide. When applied topically, AGN 190383 inhibits phorbol ester induced mouse ear edema. It is a potent inhibitor of bee venom phospholipase A2 and blocks the release of arachidonic acid from calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated human neutrophils. AGN 190383 also inhibits both hormone-operated and depolarization-dependent calcium mobilization in GH3 cells, as well as fMLP stimulated increases in free cytosolic calcium in human PMNs. Furthermore, it is also able to block the release of the neutral protease elastase from stimulated neutrophils. The effects of AGN 190383 on arachidonic acid metabolism and leukocyte function may account, in part, for its anti-inflammatory activity in vivo.

  19. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. Results: In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01 compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01 in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.. Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05 compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01. In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05 and 70.4% (p<0.01 inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001, and time of peak effects was 30–180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001. The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine.

  20. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Viviana de Oliveira Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME, acetate (AE, hexanic (HE and chloroform (CE extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism