WorldWideScience

Sample records for active labour market

  1. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, LIsbeth

    2007-01-01

    transformation over the past fifteen years. From the initial curbing of unemployment among the insured unemployed through standard activation offers, the aim today is also to increase labour supply among non-economic active groups using individually tailored programmes. Danish activation policies this embrace...

  2. Compulsion in Active Labour Market Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is on compulsion in active labour market programs (ALMP). When an unemployed worker has to participate in a programme order to remain eligible for benefits there are two separate effects. First, there is the treatment effect, i.e. the program makes the worker more attractive for a potenti

  3. Selected problems of targeting active labour market policies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Maria Maksim; Dominik Sliwicki

    2012-01-01

    Well targeted active labour market policies create better prospects for achieving higher net employment effects. This article attempts to analyse targeting of active labour market policies in the context of regulations contained in the Act of Employment Promotion and Labour Market Institutions, and current evaluation findings. The paper analyses basic active labour market policies, that have been in place in Poland in 2009. To assess program targeting logistic regression was applied.

  4. Active Labour Market Policies for Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    The main objective of this paper is to provide relevant information about existing active labour market policies for the disabled people in Denmark. The paper presents an over-view of active labour market schemes in Denmark. The description suggests that the policy emphasises active labour market...... market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...

  5. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...

  6. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...

  7. Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2015-01-01

    Although employment participation of older workers and their timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual-level decision, the opportunities or late career employment, and restrictions that older workers potentially face, are largely shaped by labour market contextual factors. Thes

  8. Disability pensions and active labour market policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix

    2013-01-01

    client types, including those who are far from labor market participation due to social, mental, physical, or other problems. We analyze the application of active labor market policy measures used to support clients with substantial problems besides unemployment. This study utilizes Danish register data......Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all...

  9. Disability pensions and active labour market policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix

    2013-01-01

    Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all ...

  10. The Relative Efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non...

  11. Childhood Sporting Activities and Adult Labour-Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabane, Charlotte; Clark, Andrew E.

    2017-01-01

    We here ask whether childhood sport participation is positively correlated with adult labour-market outcomes. There are many potential channels for this effect, although, as usual, identifying a causal relationship is difficult. We appeal to two widely-separated waves of Add Health data to map out the correlation between childhood sports and a number of adult labour-market outcomes. We show that different types of childhood sports are associated with both managerial responsibilities and autonomy at work when adult. We take the endogeneity of sport seriously, and appeal to a variety of techniques, including the use of data on siblings, in order to obtain estimates that are as close to unbiased as possible. Last, we compare the effect of sporting activities to that of other leisure activities.* PMID:28798886

  12. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...... met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised by the review authors. The available evidence suggests that there is a general effect of participating in ALMP. The findings are mixed, however, depending on the approach used to investigate the effect, with no effect found of being assigned...

  13. Active Labour Market Policies for Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...

  14. Labour Market Performance in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Ingi Rúnar Eðvarðsson

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the unique performance of the Icelandic labour market. It demonstrates, by using international statistics, that the activity rates of both sexes are very high in Iceland, the unemployment rate is low, a high proportion of the the labour force work part time, and labour legislation is unrestricted. Contrary to the competitive labour market–, and flexible models of neo– classic economic theory, the author argues for a historical and institutional explan...

  15. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  16. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    2015-01-01

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual deci

  17. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  18. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  19. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  20. Denmark a Nordic Welfare State - Are the Active Labour Market Policy Withering Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2012-01-01

    concludes, based on a detailed case-analysis of Denmark, that profound changes has taken place over the last 10-15 years implying that the active labour market policy has strengthened its focus on work-first. Access to benefits has moved in a less citizen based direction, and the principles of universality......Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and integration...

  1. Labour Market Institutions and Labour Market Performance in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Tvrdon

    2008-01-01

    The presented article deals with labour market institutions and labour market performance in the European Union. The first chapter is devoted to theoretical and methodological background of labour market performance. Theoretical literature has created a set of institutional aspects such as employment protection legislation, structure of wage bargaining, taxation of labour, active labour market policy, the system of unemployment and social benefits. All these aspects determine the institutiona...

  2. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  3. Essays on Labour Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    ), on modelling the arousal and persistence of occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social subgroups (chapter 4), and respectively on characterizing the link between the firms' health and safety work environment and their financial performance (chapter 5). Each of the essays contributes......This book represents an eclectic combination of four independent, self-contained essays on various dimensions of the labour market. The main chapters focus on theoretically and empirically analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3...... return to seniority", with seniority the position of the worker in the tenure hierarchy of her firm, this concept establishing parsimoniously but effectively the link between the worker's fate in the labour market and her firm's fate in the product market; if network referrals are relevant for job search...

  4. Separate, joint or integrated? Active labour market policy for unemployed on social assistance and unemployment benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, L.; Berden, C.; de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the integration of active labour market policies for two groups of unemployed from a theoretical perspective. In general a model with only one type of agent performs better than a model with two types of agents. If there are two types of agents part of the effort of one agent lea

  5. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which...

  6. The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and...

  7. The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and...

  8. How do we know what works in active labour market policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Active labour market policies (ALMPs) continue to be a hot topic in Danish politics, as well as in many other countries. Despite a substantial amount of resources spent on ALMPs there is still a lack of results, especially when it comes to the disadvantaged unemployed. The disadvantaged unemployed...... realistic evaluation techniques....

  9. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-01-01

    Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies tar...

  10. Wages in Labour Market Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

  11. Vietnam's Labour Market in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the employment structure and structural change (1986-1999) of Vietnam, discusses Vietnam's labour market regulations and examines how Vietnam's labour markets could become more efficient. Vietnam’s labour policies remain focused on control of state enterprises: who they employ, how many, and what they pay them. The Labour Code of 1995 saw a move to extend state worker privileges throughout the economy. This is a futile exercise to establish a welfare state in a country wi...

  12. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the 1990s, many countries introduced Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMPs) in an effort to reduce unemployment. The introduction of ALMPs is often motivated by the need to upgrade the skills of especially those suffering long-term unemployment to improve their productivity and...... assistance and education) are part-time and have a short duration (e.g. few days/weeks). It is possible to classify these programmes into a set of four core categories: A: (labour market) training, B: Private sector programmes, C: direct employment programmes in the public sector and D: Job search assistance....... The categories we use broadly correspond to classifications that have been suggested and used by the OECD and Eurostat (OECD, 2004 and Eurostat, 2005), even though there are differences between OECD and Eurostat in how they define and categorise these programmes. OBJECTIVES The objective of this systematic...

  13. Marginalisation Processes in the Danish Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Lars

    In the Ph.D Thesis, the author examines whether there is a tendency that unemployed individuals choose to leave the unemployment insurance system when they are faced with the threat of active labour market policy. The results presented in the thesis do indicate that unemployed individuals......' probability of obtaining work increase when they enter compulsory labour market period. That is, before they actually participate in labour market training. This incentive effect decreases about 10 months into the perod, during which almost all unemployed individuals participate in labour market training....... The analysis is bases on 10% of the Danish population between 25 and 45 years extracted from Danish Labour market data during the period 1994-1998. The report contains also two other analyses: analysis of unemplyed individuals' behaviour in cennection with the termination of the unemployment insunrance system...

  14. Adult Workers in Theory or Practice? : Lone Mothers’ Participation in Active Labour Market Programmes in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Zabel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.

  15. Essays on Labour Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    to its research topic with original and innovative theoretical and/or empirical insights, often building on techniques borrowed from other economic fields or disciplines. Such uncommon approaches are real options methodology applied to wage-tenure profile analysis; social network modelling...... return to seniority", with seniority the position of the worker in the tenure hierarchy of her firm, this concept establishing parsimoniously but effectively the link between the worker's fate in the labour market and her firm's fate in the product market; if network referrals are relevant for job search...... and matching, and if social groups are minimally homophilous, the optimal social welfare policy is occupational segregation in both first and second-best regimes; improving certain physical dimensions of the workplace health and safety environment ("internal climate" and respectively, "repetitive and strenuous...

  16. Organization of the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the organization of the labour market in a general equilibrium model of a closed economy with two industries and two types of labour input. Workers are organized in industry- and skill-specific unions. The wage is set in cooperation either between identical labour types...... across industries or within industries across labour types. If the organization structure is endogenous, the result will be joint unions of homogenous groups; the structure with the highest employmenIn this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ...

  17. The effects of active labour market policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and......, surprisingly, even most in-programme effects are positive. The effects are largest for subsidized employment programmes, but effects are also large and significant for direct employment programmes and other programmes. Effects are larger if programmes begin after six months of unemployment. Implications of our...... estimates are illustrated by calculating effects on the duration to regular employment over a five-year period....

  18. Organization of the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the organization of the labour market in a general equilibrium model of a closed economy with two industries and two types of labour input. Workers are organized in industry- and skill-specific unions. The wage is set in cooperation either between identical labour types...... with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from...

  19. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  20. Globalization and Labour Markets Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Dimitrova; Anton Tchipev

    2004-01-01

    We present a model consistent with the stylized fact that rigid Europe has witnessed higher unemployment and a more compressed wage structure than flexible America . A distinguishing feature of the present paper is that it endogenises the labour market regulations that account for this divergent experience. We use our political economy model to investigate the policy responses to globalization, i.e. to an increase in international capital mobility. It turns out that labour market instituti...

  1. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  2. Trade, Labour Markets and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Courtney; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Previous analyses indicate that there are a number of potentially serious health risks associated with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The objective of this work is to provide further insight into the potential health impacts of the TPP by investigating labour market pathways. The impact of the TPP on employment and working conditions is a major point of contention in broader public debates. In public health literature, these factors are considered fundamental determinants of health, yet they are rarely addressed in analyses of trade and investment agreements. We therefore undertake a prospective policy analysis of the TPP through a content analysis of the agreement's Labour Chapter. Provisions of the Chapter are analyzed with reference to the health policy triangle and four main areas through which labour markets influence health: power relations, social policies, employment conditions and working conditions. Findings indicate that implementation of the TPP can have important impacts on health through labour market pathways. While the Labour Chapter is being presented by proponents of the agreement as a vehicle for improvement in labour standards, we find little evidence to support this view. Instead, we find several ways the TPP may weaken employment relations to the detriment of health.

  3. Narratives about labour market transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...... learning experience during which radical career decisions are taken, and how support structures may work to the detriment of such learning and of the principles behind flexicurity. The article points to a reconceptualisation of transitions as important learning opportunities during which (more) adequate...

  4. Do labour market institutions matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible intuitive reasons for why there may be differences in the impact of outsourcing across the three countries, based on labour market institutions. This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three...... European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible...

  5. Get a Job! Active Labour Market Policies and Persons with Disabilities in Danish and European Union Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Pedersen, Mads; Ventegodt Liisberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the overall level of employment is a goal of the Europe 2020 strategy and Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) have become a key tool used by the European Union and its Member States with a view to increasing employment. This article examines the use of ALMPs, with a special focus on

  6. Do Labour Market Institutions Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. Estimating the same specification on different data show that there are some interesting differences in the effect of outsourcing across countries. We discuss some possible reasons for these differences based on labour market institutions...

  7. Flexicurity - labour market performance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    is not automatically among them since the basic flexicurity properties were also in place during the 1970s and 1980s where high and persistent unemployment was prevalent. Labour market performance has changed due to a series of reforms during the 1990s, the main thrust of which were a shift from a passive focus...... of labour market policies to a more active focus on job search and employment. The policy tightened eligibility for unemployment benefits and their duration as well as introduced workfare elements into unemployment insurance and social policies in general. Thereby policy makers attempted to strengthen...... the incentive structure without taking resort to general benefit reductions. We argue that the workfare policies have played an important role running primarily via motivation/threat and wage effects. However, active labour market policies are resource demanding, and although the workfare reforms have improved...

  8. Flexicurity - labour market performance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    is not automatically among them since the basic flexicurity properties were also in place during the 1970s and 1980s where high and persistent unemployment was prevalent. Labour market performance has changed due to a series of reforms during the 1990s, the main thrust of which were a shift from a passive focus...... of labour market policies to a more active focus on job search and employment. The policy tightened eligibility for unemployment benefits and their duration as well as introduced workfare elements into unemployment insurance and social policies in general. Thereby policy makers attempted to strengthen...... the incentive structure without taking resort to general benefit reductions. We argue that the workfare policies have played an important role running primarily via motivation/threat and wage effects. However, active labour market policies are resource demanding, and although the workfare reforms have improved...

  9. IMMIGRANTS’ LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica-Iris ALEXE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.

  10. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  11. Homeownership and the labour market in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing labour market flexibility is at the top of the European agenda. A new and challenging view is a lack of mobility in the labour market may arise from rigidities in the housing market. The research in this book has been inspired by the intriguing hypothesis put forward by Andrew Oswald that

  12. Labour Market Policies in International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Juul

    2014-01-01

    in the labour market, employed or unemployed. The labour market is modelled using search matching theory. When unemployed the workers receive unemployment benefits while receiving a wage as employed. The wage is determined through Stole-Zwiebel bargaining. I show that a labour market reform which increases job......Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states...... search intensity of unemployment workers in the Home country will reduce Home's aggregate productivity. This happens for two reasons. First, firms with lower productivity will enter the market as a response to the labour market reform. Secondly, the least productive exporters will cease exporting....

  13. Labour market status and migration dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this empirical paper we assess how labour market transitions and out- and repeated migration of immigrants are interrelated. We estimate a multi-state multiple spell competing risks model with four states: employed, unemployed receiving benefits, out-of-the-labour market (no benefits) and abroad.

  14. Labour market status and migration dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this empirical paper we assess how labour market transitions and out- and repeated migration of immigrants are interrelated. We estimate a multi-state multiple spell competing risks model with four states: employed, unemployed receiving benefits, out-of-the-labour market (no benefits) and abroad.

  15. Labour Market Status and Migration Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this empirical paper we assess how labour market transitions and out- and repeat migration of immigrants are interrelated. We estimate a multi-state multiple spell competing risks model with four states: employed, unemployed receiving benefits, out-of-the-labour market (no benefits) a

  16. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    , subsequently, their employability. Other ALMPs are designed to encourage the unemployed to return to work. Typically, compulsory programme participation is required after the individual has received unemployment benefits for a certain period of time. A large variety of different ALMPs exist among countries....... They can consist of job search assistance, training, education, subsidized work and similar programmes. Some of the programmes (such as subsidized work, training and education) demand full-time participation over a long time period (e.g. several months), while other programmes (such as job search...... assistance and education) are part-time and have a short duration (e.g. few days/weeks). It is possible to classify these programmes into a set of four core categories: A: (labour market) training, B: Private sector programmes, C: direct employment programmes in the public sector and D: Job search assistance...

  17. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND LABOUR MARKET IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana SON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to identify and analyse the impact of labour emigration on labour markets within the European Union. The analysis is based on developing double-log macroeconometric models that combine cross-section and time series in a panel structure, by using a set of indicators specific for the emigration process and labour market, as main explanatory variables. The results show that an intense emigration process has extremely negative effects on the size and structure of the labour force, generating its significant reduction, especially regarding the highly skilled labour. At the same time, we identified a relaxation of the labour market pressures generated by high unemployment, through a downsize of this rate and a slight increase in employment, mainly due to a general improvement of the local employment opportunities.

  18. Gender inequality in the Serbian labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Olgica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.

  19. Micro-evidence on day labourers and the thickness of labour markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Krugell

    2014-08-01

    The South African labour market is characterised by sharp segmentation, high unemployment and apparently limited informal sector employment. Recent work has focussed on the importance of the quality of education while others have argued that the rigidity of the labour market constrains employment growth. This paper considers the spatial aspects of the day labour market and argues that the size and proximity of economic activity found in agglomerations ensure a thick labour market that allows for better matching between workers and jobs. The results indicate that the day labourers who were hired by the same employer more often received higher earnings. Once workers have a matric qualification they receive earnings above the average, as do workers who have completed vocational training. Skills, as well as factors associated with a thicker labour market are positively associated with wages. The thicker metropolitan labour market allows workers to become more specialised and receive higher earnings. This has important policy implications and calls for the development of people and places.

  20. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...

  1. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction

  2. The Relations between Labour Market Institutions and Employment of Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicián Máté

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available International migration is one the greatest challenges in the era of globalization and has become a focus of political debate in recent years. Although the economic effects of migration increase the efficiency of labour markets, some governments have rigorously rejected solutions proposed for the current refugee crisis. Meanwhile, immigration policies have recently become stricter in several OECD countries. Based on this conceptual framework, several labour market institutions, such as a minimum wage, unemployment benefits, union density, and active labour market policies etc., are analysed in the context of enhancing the employment of immigrants. In order to support the findings of literature this paper concentrates on the determinants of immigration tendencies and dynamic regression models analysed to clarify how these institutions can affect native- and foreign-born migrants. Hence, our results also highlight that various reforms need to enhance the efficiency of labour market migration policies.

  3. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  4. Migration in a segmented labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I

    1995-01-01

    "Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves." excerpt

  5. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  6. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  7. Substitution and crowding-out effects of active labour market policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The search model contains two matching technologies, the public employment service (PES) with its type-specific registers for workers and vacancies, and the search market where firms advertise vacancies and unemployed who have not been placed by the PES search for jobs. The placement activity of the PES increases the bargained wages, reduces active job search, decreases the number of advertised vacancies, but - compared with the laissez- faire regime - increases employment and per capita cons...

  8. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note...

  9. The Major Tendencies in Ukraine’s Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ostapa, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the currenttendencies in Ukraine’s labour market and develops practical recommendations as to overcoming major disproportions and raisingthe demand for labour force. The article highlights the labour force and market in Ukraine in 2003-2013. The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the currenttendencies in Ukraine’s labour market and develops practical recommendations a...

  10. [Labour market, occupational health and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, A; Fernández Baraibar, J; García López, V; Ayestarán, J R; Extremiana, E

    2006-01-01

    The process of economic and social change that Navarra has undergone in recent decades has been associated with the arrival of a growing flow of immigrants since the start of the new century. They have had a decisive influence as a factor of economic change in terms of production increase and internal demand. A new Navarra is being built thanks to the phenomenon of migration. In the first place, we analyse their impact on demographic growth. Their influence on the labour market, with its highlights and shadows, is evaluated. Foreigners already are about 10% of the active population and their presence in some productive sectors is decisive for their viability. The dysfunctions and problems of the labour market are reviewed, especially the question of accidents. Finally, the behaviour of the indicators of temporary disability of this collective are set out. Although this phenomenon has brought an imbalance in some spheres of social policy (education, housing, health), it can be said that the model of integration in Navarra is based on a generous welfare system, a social climate that is in general tolerant, and sustained economic growth.

  11. Illegal Immigration and Agrarian Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venancio Salcines

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.

  12. Risk Sharing in Labour Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigsten, Arne; Collier, Paul; Dercon, Stefan; Fafchamps, Marcel; Gunning, Jan Willem; Oduro, Abena; Oostendorp, Remco; Pattillo, Cathy; Soderbom, Mans; Teal, Francis; Zeufack, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Empirical work in labour economics has focused on rent sharing as an explanation for the observed correlation in cross-sections between wages and profitability. The alternative explanation of risk sharing between workers and employers has not been tested. Using a unique panel data set for four Afric

  13. Labour market in the Catalan cotton textile sector: Employment and fertility (1850-1913)

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Enriqueta

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals whit the dynamics of the Catalan textile labour market (the Spanish region that concentrated most of the industrial and factory activity during the 19 Century) and offers hypotheses and results on the impact it had on living standards and fertility levels. We observe the formation of an uneven labour market in which male supply for labour (excluding women and children) grew much faster than the demand. We stress the fact that labour supply is very dependant on institutional f...

  14. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  15. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  16. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  17. Early labour market returns to college subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Buonanno, Paolo

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  18. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups......It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...

  19. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...

  20. Optimal tax progressivity in imperfect labour markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    that there may be an optimal degree of tax progressivity where the marginal welfare gain from reduced involuntary unemployment is just offset by the marginal welfare loss from lower productivity. This paper sets up four different models of an imperfect labour market in order to identify the degree of tax......All modern labour market theories capable of explaining involuntary unemployment as an equilibrium phenomenon imply that increased income tax progressivity reduces unemployment, but they also imply that higher progressivity tends to reduce work effort and labour productivity. This suggests...... progressivity which would maximise the welfare of the representative wage earner. Simulations with these models suggest that the optimal degree of tax progressivity could be quite large, although the results are sensitive to the generosity of unemployment benefits and to the after-tax wage elasticity of work...

  1. Active Ageing between Labour Market and Retirement: Externalization and Integration - Two Contradictory Patterns for Ageing Workforce in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bangali, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    This WiP-Paper draws on the findings of two research projects, which examined manager's awareness about ageing society and their attitudes towards older workers in Germany. One of the major results of the projects is the paradox facing the labour market situation of older workers and the ensuing policy paths dominated by the contradictory pattern of externalization through extensive "early retirement" and the pattern of integration and employability as a focus of social policies to enable wor...

  2. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  3. Preventing mismatch? A regional labour market pilot.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.T. Geling; dr. H.A.M. van Lieshout; mr. A. Scholing

    2015-01-01

    . In 2013 the Centre of Applied Labour Market Research (Kenniscentrum Arbeid, KCA) has developed a method for data collection to get an insight in employer’s future demand for staff. The method is developed to contribute to solve an action problem in the Eemsdelta region. Despite indications of a th

  4. Learning for career and labour market transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Juul, Ida

    Presentation of the results of 21 narrative interviews with people in middle range positions in the Danish labour market focusing on learning and support during transitions. The narratives presented bring forth many paradoxes in the Danish model and education and training system. There seems to b...

  5. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    between being on the labour market, access to a variety of welfare benefits and the ability to finance welfare states. It uses concepts such as under-employment and new forms of jobs as indicators of change. These changes implying, more than ever, that having a job does not necessarily entail...

  6. Preventing mismatch? A regional labour market pilot.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, H.A.M. van; Geling, M.C.T.; Scholing, A.

    2015-01-01

    . In 2013 the Centre of Applied Labour Market Research (Kenniscentrum Arbeid, KCA) has developed a method for data collection to get an insight in employer’s future demand for staff. The method is developed to contribute to solve an action problem in the Eemsdelta region. Despite indications of a th

  7. Does Labour Market Training Motivate Job Search?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Lars

    In the Paper it is argued that the improved performance of the Danish Labour Market may in part be due to the Danish Unemployment Insurance System (UI), which was reformed in 1994. - Denmark has experienced a remarkable constant fall in unemployment from more than 10 per cent in 1993 to a little...

  8. Education and the Labour Market in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…

  9. Does Labour Market Training Motivate Job Search?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Lars

    In the Paper it is argued that the improved performance of the Danish Labour Market may in part be due to the Danish Unemployment Insurance System (UI), which was reformed in 1994. - Denmark has experienced a remarkable constant fall in unemployment from more than 10 per cent in 1993 to a little ...

  10. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...

  11. Earnings Capacity and Labour Market Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Fontein, P.F.; Euwals, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze models for individuals' labour market state.We distinguish between full-time and part-time work, but also between various types of economic inactivity, i.e. unemployment, disability, early retirement and working in the household.We consider the impact on the state probabilities of individ

  12. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new ref...

  13. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction w

  14. Global competition and the labour market

    CERN Document Server

    Driffield, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    This study combines an industry level and a firm level analysis on the wage and employment effects of multinational companies. This has not been attempted in any previous work. In view of the results, important questions are raised regarding how global changes in the structure of production may affect labour markets and the organisation of work in the future.

  15. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....

  16. Labour Market Programmes and the Equility-Efficiency Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...... conditioned on the individual being unemployed (for a period) – the typical Active Labour Market Programme – creates a favourable trade-off between equity and efficiency and this encourages high spending on training....

  17. Why do health labour market forces matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage.

  18. Labour market transitions in policy and in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia

    the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby...

  19. Labour market transitions in policy and in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia

    the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby...

  20. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM LABOUR MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SHUVAEV A.V.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of information subsystem of regulation of labor market at the level of the region is provided in article; offers on mitigation and the prevention of unemployment, taking into account information approach are proved.

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND OTHER EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TĂNASE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU countries. The paper ends by forwarding a series of conclusions related to the labour market in Romania, identifying several measures meant to boost the labour market competitiveness in our country. The methods used in the present paper are the interpretative method, the structural-systemic approach, as well as the epistemological method.

  2. Labour market transitions and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bijwaard, Govert; Van Dijk, Bram; de Koning, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction with the job and discrepancies between the actual and the desired number of hours worked. Transitions can be changes in the hours worked, changes to a different job and/or employers, or combinations...

  3. Measuring Inefficiency of the Czech Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the performance of the Czech regional labour markets and to reveal the most influential economic factors standing behind its dynamics in the last fifteen years. Investigated labour markets are described using matching function approach. The successful matches are treated as an output of production process, where the unemployed are paired with vacancies. Efficiency of this matching process plays an important role in determining unemployment outflows. Using stochastic frontier model approach, dynamics of quantified efficiency terms is revealed and differences among regions are evaluated. The model specification includes a fixed effect term, where individual effect terms and inefficiency terms are estimated jointly. The stochastic frontier is estimated using monthly and quarterly regional panel data of 77 districts for the period 1999-2014. Matching efficiency of the Czech regional labour markets is negatively influenced people who have been unemployed for a long time and by the unemployed aged over 50 years. Although all districts were able to operate at their stochastic frontiers of matching, an upward trend in the inefficiency has been found within the investigated period. These tendencies are accompanied by rising disparities among the regions. Low levels of estimated matching inefficiency do not necessary mean the low unemployment in the corresponding districts.

  4. Work and nonwork: a more difficult labour market

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    What we achieve and what we contribute are not independent of the level of demand for labour. Substantial labour reserves indicate that the labour market fails to discover a balance that reflects the needs and preferences of the population of working age. Different data sets -- unemployment, vacancies, full-time equivalent jobs, and census data on forms of nonwork -- are used to build a picture of the shift from tight to slack labour markets. The different sources confirm that unemployment be...

  5. Graduates’ integration on the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the study programs’ curriculum, in order to build specific competences for students, which make them capable to obtain a better job position after graduation.

  6. Unemployment, Wages, and the Impact of Active Labour Market Policies in a Regional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hilbert (Christoph)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn a globalized world, products are highly mobile. Transportation costs are low, production is no longer determined by natural resources, and, as a result, economic activity is also mobile. Companies choose their location on the basis of multiple criteria in order to maximize their profi

  7. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET. MOBILITY, CAREER DEVELOPMENT, INCOMES. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Liviu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking

  8. Obesity and Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane

    This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined...... with administrative registers, covering 8000 individuals. Results show a negative effect of body weight on employment for women, with a small positive effect of being overweight on employment for men. When the sample is split into the private and the public sector, results further show that in the private sector body...... weight has a negative effect on wages for women but a positive effect for men, whereas in the public sector body weight has no influence on wages for either men or women....

  9. Scandinavian exceptionalism? Civic integration and labour market activation for newly arrived immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, a wide range of so-called new civic integration policies aimed at civilizing or disciplining newcomers have been introduced. Consequently, migration scholars have discussed whether a converging restrictive ‘civic turn’ has taken place in Western Europe or whether national...... of the Scandinavian welfare states prevail when confronted with newcomers? Activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants exemplifies how the ambition of states to promote functional, individual autonomy is also an important, ongoing process in diverse policy areas of the welfare state and not restricted...

  10. Education and labour market outcomes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Education plays a central role in preparing individuals to enter the labour market, by offering them the opportunity to improve and increase their amount of knowledge, skills and abilities. Considering this aspect, the purpose of our study is to identify and analyse the relationship that exists between the educational stock, as a measure of the quality, quantity and availability of human resources, and the labour markets’ outcomes in Romania. In order to reach this goal, we have conducted an analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature. These secondary sources included various statistical yearbooks and reports, as well as different scientific researches. The results of our study show that, in Romania, the level of education is positively linked not only to the employment rate but also to the income level.

  11. Differential labour market impacts from disability onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidano, Cain; Vu, Ha

    2015-03-01

    We estimate the causal labour market impacts of disability onset by gender, age and education levels up to 4 years after onset using longitudinal data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Australia survey and difference-in-difference propensity score matching techniques. We find lasting negative impacts on employment, especially full-time employment, which is due more to reduced movement into full-time employment than downshifting from full-time to part-time work following onset. Those without post-school education qualifications are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of onset and are more likely to be out of work and on income support than those with qualifications up to 4 years after onset, due in part because they have greater difficulty adjusting.

  12. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  13. An overview of Spanish labour market reforms, 1985-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Martín, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    Most European countries are affected by high unemployment rates. Among the OECD countries, the performance of the Spanish labour market is among the worst as far as employment activity is concerned, with unemployment rates during the 1990s having reached levels far exceeding 20%. Accordingly, employment creation has been one of the primary challenges facing the Spanish government since 1980. We follow the approached used by the OECD, by which a division into passive and active polici...

  14. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.

  15. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…

  16. Social Cohesion and the Labour Market: Societal Regimes of Civic Attitudes and Labour Market Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal…

  17. A treatise on labour. A matching-model analysis of labour-market programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Labour-market programmes are often put forward as a means of reducing unemployment; but they are not without problems. Programmes may lead to crowding out of regular employment and may even have the adverse effect of increasing unemployment. This thesis looks theoretically at how labour-market progr

  18. Unemployment Policy: Unemployment, Underemployment and Labour Market Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bell; John Quiggin

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we argue that Australia’s labour market features too much unemployment, underemployment or associated forms of labour market insecurity. The later term implies a weak or tenuous connection to the labour force through underemployment or involuntary casual or part-time work and/or low wages or other manifestations of weakness visà- vis employers. The direct and indirect costs of such malfunctions in the labour market are reflected in a range of economic, social, health and other...

  19. ESSENCE, FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LABOUR DIGITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Azmuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author has presented the comparative analysis of both digital and traditional segments of the global labour market. The main functions of the digital labour market are social, economic and stimulant ones. The features of the digital labour market are digital employment, globality, high level of flexibility, large competition, dynamic changes of labour force and working places. The main kinds of digital employment are electronic free lance and electronic outsourcing. In the article the advantages and the risks of digital employment using have been determined.

  20. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... for both the overall performance of the monetary union and the country-specific situation are analysed. It is shown that asymmetries are not only critical for countryspecific performance but also for the overall performance of the monetary union. A striking finding is that aggregate output volatility...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  1. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... for both the overall performance of the monetary union and the country-specific situation are analysed. It is shown that asymmetries are not only critical for countryspecific performance but also for the overall performance of the monetary union. A striking finding is that aggregate output volatility...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  2. Corporate cartels and challenges to European labour market models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Karlson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that one of the main causes of shortcomings in European labour markets is the existence of corporate cartels, through which the state has delegated various forms of regulatory power to employers and employees that act as cartels. Analysis indicates that these cartel arrangements are not in the interest of labour because they are hard to combine with the demands of a modern and knowledge-based economy. Hence, a modernization of European labour market models is needed.

  3. Labour market in modern tennis: features of functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisovа O.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose - to define the features of functioning of labour-market in modern tennis. Primary information is got by the analysis of scientific and methodical literature, documentary sources, these official sites of organizational structures of tennis (more than 450 sources. It is marked that development of world professional tennis takes place in accordance with conformities to the law, inherent the difficult systems. Commercial organizations are formed by the markets of finances and labour, production and sale sporting-spectacle services and consumer goods. It is shown that belong of the system of professional tennis to the sphere of business stipulates the atmosphere of hard competition in all of its structural educations. It is marked that regulation of activity from the side of federations requires the observance of positions normatively-legal documents, obligatory participating in the educational and antistimulant programs, observance of code of honour.

  4. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fi

  5. The European Economic and Monetary Union and Labour Market Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bednarek-Sekunda, E.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine whether the EMU has led to greater labour market flexibility, differentiating between reform that enhances the capacity of an economy to adjust to economic shocks and reform that aims to increase long-run output. Based on a panel model and using OECD data on labour market reforms for 27 O

  6. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  7. The European Economic and Monetary Union and Labour Market Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bednarek-Sekunda, E.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; de Haan, J.

    We examine whether the EMU has led to greater labour market flexibility, differentiating between reform that enhances the capacity of an economy to adjust to economic shocks and reform that aims to increase long-run output. Based on a panel model and using OECD data on labour market reforms for 27

  8. De-Professionalization through managerialization in labour market policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Nørup, Iben

    2015-01-01

    Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications......Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications...

  9. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show.

  10. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... to the employees. This study contributes to the literature on four main dimensions. First, we extend the analysis of organisational change to a public sector setting. Second, while previous findings remain inconclusive regarding causal effects due to problems of endogeneity, our analysis contributes to research...... of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...

  11. The Crisis Impact on the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Valeria TOMA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of the current global economic crisis on the labour market, including the risk that the recession will be followed by a jobless recovery that contributes to a lost generation of young people in the workforce. The crisis affects different sectors in different ways, but the impact also varies according to age, gender, skills level and type of contract. Although it had a more significant effect on the private sector of the economy, the crisis’s impact on the broader public sector is also obvious. Migrants, both legal and illegal, are particularly vulnerable during crises because they are typically not being provided the same level of employment protection as native workers and hence they are the first to lose their jobs during an economic downturn.

  12. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...... change. And fourth, we have access to objective measures of health outcomes from register data. The results show that the effects of organisational change on health outcomes are limited and heterogeneous. Change per se does not necessarily lead to worsened employee outcomes. However, the degree...

  13. The disintegrating Canadian labour market? The extent of the market then and now

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Coe; J. C. Herbert Emery

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of real wages for three occupations in 13 Canadian cities for 1901-50 suggests Canada had a national labour market at least until 1950. However, analysis of real wages for 10 Canadian cities for 1971-2000 yields little evidence favouring integration of Canada's regional labour markets. The apparent lack of labour market integration reflects a weakness of an approach that assumes markets are in equilibrium. Unemployment rates after 1970 suggest that some regional markets may be charac...

  14. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... skilled workers face different unemployment risks. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted to the unemployed complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike a general training subsidy. Combining passive subsidies with a training subsidy conditioned on the individual...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....

  15. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... skilled workers face different unemployment risks. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted to the unemployed complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike a general training subsidy. Combining passive subsidies with a training subsidy conditioned on the individual...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....

  16. Economic implications of ASEAN integration for Malaysia's labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...

  17. Labour Market And Corruption Issues In Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John WALSH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repeated very regularly and therefore have a significant impact upon the income generating possibilities for local workers and for their future prospects, not to mention the overall competitiveness of the country. The corrupt activities also lead to lower levels of safety in the workplace and for such issues as collective bargaining and freedom of association. The paper attempts to identify the major issues involved and some possible solutions.

  18. Particularities of youth unemployment and the labour market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela RÎMBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.

  19. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....

  20. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    , can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market......Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however...... policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...

  1. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost......, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market...... doubled if unemployment benefits are meagre. This moderating effect can be explained both by a resource as well as a non-pecuniary mechanism. The positive moderating effect of active labour market policy is less robust across model specifications....

  2. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern…

  3. PRESSURE OF AGEING ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT. CHALLENGES AND LIMITS FOR THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia\tPISICĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available sing official statistics, the paper aims to contribute to regional perspective of labour market challenges and limits and the increasing number of elderly people participating in economic activity. Regional level is considered for analysing the social productivity of labour in terms of GDP and employment. The employment is analysed from the perspective of share and structure of elderly people on the labour market. In this respect, activity rates, ageing index and economic dependency ratio are reviewed. In order to shape the determinants of employment of elderly people, poverty measures at NUTS 2 level are figured out.

  4. Do labour market reforms reduce labour productivity growth? A panel data analysis of 20 OECD countries (1960–2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on comprehensive regression analysis, the authors find that weak wage growth and a smaller labour share of national income significantly reduce labour productivity growth. They conclude that supply-side labour market reforms have contributed to reducing labour productivity growth: this cannot

  5. Do labour market reforms reduce labour productivity growth? A panel data analysis of 20 OECD countries (1960–2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on comprehensive regression analysis, the authors find that weak wage growth and a smaller labour share of national income significantly reduce labour productivity growth. They conclude that supply-side labour market reforms have contributed to reducing labour productivity growth: this cannot

  6. THE SPLITTING OF LABOUR MARKET AND EMPLOYMENT ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA CLAUDIA MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal structure of the labour market has a highly complex character, which enabled the formulation of conclusions as there is no a single scale labour market economy. Inside it is identify different sections. Market segmentation are represented by all splitting techniques of a population database and follow up a groups of components that satisfy a condition of classification, according to the criteria considered. Labour market segmentation is determined both by economic considerations, also the characteristics of the workforce (level of training, qualifications, job mobility and institutional issues (regulation of employment, level of union organization. As such, there is barriers to transition from one segment to another job mobility occurs mainly within each segment and limited, between different segments, and wages are not the result of market forces free event, being the effect of social factors, institutional policies with specific expression of each labour market segment. Actual labour market segments are highlighted and analyzed by using several criteria: type of ownership, firm size, degree of organization of labour supply, etc.

  7. Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban Ethiopia: a Micro-simulation approach. ... why incomes and inequality largely remained stable at a time of fundamental changes in macroeconomic policy environment.

  8. Skills and occupational needs: labour market forecasting systems in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglioni, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2014-01-01

    The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective

  9. Security and labour market flexibility: an alternative view from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Stine; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2017-01-01

    and labour market segmentation. In Denmark, employee protection in terms of notice periods and dismissal compensation, which is mainly regulated by collective agreement, is among the lowest in the EU. Unemployment was, before the crisis, among the lowest in the EU but the crisis also negatively affected......In the face of the economic and financial crisis, several European countries have implemented a number of structural reforms to increase employment and the flexibility of the labour market, in particular by reducing employment protection in an effort to deregulate labour markets. Reform proponents...... employment. Conversely, reform opponents claim that this view builds on a misguided view of labour market dynamics. They do not believe that such reforms will lead to job growth, asserting that such reforms are as likely to reduce as to increase employment and that they will lead to growing inequality...

  10. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown......This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  11. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....

  12. Transitions from vocational education to the labour market in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Tønder, Anna Hagen

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines how the different systems of initial vocational education and training (VET-systems) in four Nordic countries connect to the labour market and how they provide access to employment for the students. The aim is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the four VET......-systems on this issue. The chapter is structured in four parts. First it outlines the theoretical and methodological approach, and secondly it examines the connections to the labour market of each of the Nordic VET-system and how they have Next, the role of employment protection and active labour market policy...... is examined and some recent initiatives to connect initial VET closer to the labour market are presented. A special interest is taken in attempts to revive and strengthen apprenticeship programmes. The conclusion summarises the strengths and weaknesses in the ways the four Nordic VET-systems connect...

  13. Methodological approaches to staff recruitment at labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The purpose of the article is to improve and formalize methodological approaches to staff recruitment at labour markets. The results of the analysis. The integral result of the study is the following. The author systematized the main problems of the staff recruitment according to the subjects of the employment process (or their place of origin: 1 on the part of the applicants: - inflated / deflated self-esteem; - incorrect understanding of their own capabilities, abilities and aptitudes; - incorrect assessment of their own physical and mental health; - incorrect formulation of expectations from the new position (inflated, deflated or inadequate; - willful false responses in the survey (in order to get a better position; - inaccurate responses in the survey (due to misunderstanding of the nature of questions; - popular or prestigious professions preference, but not those to which the applicant has more talent; - providing inaccurate personal information (false or willful; 2 on the part of employers: - wrong definition of the criteria list to be met by applicants; - inflated requirements to applicants; - the best quality choice among applicants, but not employees for teamwork; 3 on the part of Heads of Labour Markets (as well as employment agencies: - lack of adequate supervision of Labour Market specialists activity (i.e., the quality level in the staff recruitment for specific employers orders; - lack of motivation to improve the skill level of subordinates; 4 on the part of experts on recruitment: - recruitment of the best available applicants, rather than looking for the applicants who fully meet the requirements; - not precise understanding of the requirements for applicants; - the use of inappropriate methods for the applicants recruitment. Such systematization of major problems can determine the direction of management decisions aimed at improving the process of recruitment more accurately. The essential characteristics

  14. Social exclusion of the young from the labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Velinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina is confronted with many challenges - economic, institutional and social. The participation of young people in education drops significantly after they turn 18, while entry into the labour market happens around 20 years of age. Unemployment mostly affects people with lower education levels, such as those with a secondary school degree or qualified workers. The youth unemployment rate, the most commonly used indicator of the disadvantages faced by young people in the labour market, is very high in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The single most significant factor affecting the labour market experiences of young people is the extensive informal economy in the country. Active Labour Market Policy for young people attempts to reduce the problems faced by young people in their attempts to find decent work once they enter the labour market. They attempt to remedy failures of the educational system and to improve the efficiency of labour market matching. The percentage of unemployed youth is of great importance because the youth are in the age when the ability and motivation for work are at their peak. Any society that excludes half of its population from the sphere of work acts against public interest.

  15. From Labour Market to Labour Process: Finding a Basis for Curriculum in TVET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In the sociology of education the relation between education and work is analysed in many ways and, since the rise of neoliberalism, increasingly in market terms. Skills are the dominant labour market currency, described in terms of competence profiles that seek to link educational qualifications directly to work. Contrary to the widespread appeal…

  16. From Labour Market to Labour Process: Finding a Basis for Curriculum in TVET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In the sociology of education the relation between education and work is analysed in many ways and, since the rise of neoliberalism, increasingly in market terms. Skills are the dominant labour market currency, described in terms of competence profiles that seek to link educational qualifications directly to work. Contrary to the widespread appeal…

  17. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES......) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance...

  18. The Role of the OECD and the EU in the Development of Labour Market Policy in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la

    2009-01-01

    ) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance......This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES...

  19. A PROPOSAL OF MODEL OF ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ACTIVE LIFE OF ECONOMISTS BASED ON INTER-REGIONAL LABOUR MARKET PARTNERSHIP. STUDY CASE OF PRACTEAM PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirila Lavinia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the integration of young people into the labour market has become more difficult, being accomplished in a gradual, complex and less uniform way comparatively to the years prior to the crises. The rate of youth employment is much lower than among other categories of population, and the insertion of young people on the labour market has become a difficult process, both in Romania and in the European Union, process that is characterised especially through raising the period of time passed from the moment of graduating from school to the moment of finding the first ‘significant’ workplace (for at least six months and with a length of at least 20 hours of work per week, preferably, from qualitative point of view, in accordance to the qualification obtained. In this context, in order to analyse the way in which the integration of young people into the labour market is done in Romania, the present paper makes, in the first part, a short theoretic incursion regarding the main theories referring to youth employment, transition from school to active life and, more specific, transition from higher education to employment, the main determinants of the transition from school to active life and the way in which the process is affected by the tendencies on the labour market, the ways of measurement and evaluation used up to the present etc. In the second part, the paper tries to propose a research methodology of the transition from higher education in the field of economics to employment, analyse that will be carried out in the project called „The practice of economist students. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and the business environment" (PRACTeam in the purpose of creating policy and strategy recommendations for diminishing the difficulties felt by young people in the process of transition from school to active life.

  20. A contemporary overview labour market of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Gençler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure of Kazakhstan's labor market and workforce development are examined in this context. Kazakhstan is rich in resources, and active because of the potential mobility of labor is a country in the world. Country gained its independence in the 90’s from the social and economic change / transformed. At the end of this process rather than the central state's economy, albeit a relatively free market economy, privatization and structural reforms are adopted and have been started. A deep recession in the global economy experienced a period of Kazakhstan, of course, it also affected the world of work. Kazakhstan is not a familiar topic in modern working life enough in our country. Although it is the analysis of operational data in this context, the current labor market, workers' wages, social security and the changing profile of the characteristics of labor migration are explained.

  1. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  2. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  3. LABOUR FORCE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCES AND LABOUR MARKET REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate some of the educational mismatches occurred in the Romanian labour market and to try to find solutions for a more rapid adaptation of the education system to labour market transformations. The analysis is based on a quantitative research aimed at studying employers’ opinions related to the relationship between education system performances and labour market requirements.The results show that even in a crisis period when unemployment is at high values, employers have difficulties in fi nding appropriate qualifications for some jobs, or the right candidate for the vacancies. Even current employees lack some important abilities or skills such us: motivation, loyalty or responsibility.

  4. Determinants of Labour Force Participation for Selected Groups With Weak Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner...... income only seems to be exogenous to the participation decision for home-working housewives. We also estimate participationequations with own potential income gab from working, which in the case of recipients of social assistence are found to have signifcant positive effect. The elasticities fromchanging...

  5. Labour market emancipation results in booming Dutch owner-occupied housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, the proportion of dual-income households in the Netherlands increased rapidly. Dutch society lagged a little behind other Western societies in terms of the emancipation of women in the labour market, but women began to enter the labour market more often and continue

  6. Labour market emancipation results in booming Dutch owner-occupied housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, the proportion of dual-income households in the Netherlands increased rapidly. Dutch society lagged a little behind other Western societies in terms of the emancipation of women in the labour market, but women began to enter the labour market more often and continue worki

  7. Labour Market Trends in Transition Economies with Emphasis on Gender Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theranda Beqiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this research paper is to show the recent trends of labour market issues regarding gender inequality in the countries that are still in the transition to the market oriented economy. Transition to competition has effected in increasing the level of unemployment to economically active population, with the higher consequence for females than for males, from which some females have left labour market and they became inactive in job searching. In this paper we analyze and compare gender gaps through the main components of labour market trends as level of education, active participation in labour market, occupational segregation, employment and unemployment for both genders of the countries that are still in transition like Albania, FYR of Macedonia and Kosovo in comparison with EU countries. Given that closer are these countries in joining the EU; higher are the requirements for increasing the level of employment targets and in approving and implementing social policies on gender equality in labour market according to the EU legislations. Methodology used in this paper is through case studies by using secondary data from the most recent labour force surveys (LFS of transition countries in South East Europe and comparing them with the EU targets. Also regarding occupational segregation by gender the Duncan & Duncan Index is calculated. The study shows that depending on the stages that countries are in transition earlier or latter, the labour market components regarding gender are more comparable and closer with the targets of the EU countries, and that occupational segregation is higher in the transition countries where the unemployment level of females is in the higher range.

  8. Analysis of Factors of Influence of the Market Environment upon Formation of the Enterprise Labour Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborovska Olha M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential by means of realisation of programmes of international education, legal regulation of migration, active participation in various inter-state projects, etc. Influence of political-legal factors of formation of the labour potential shows up in inter-state agreements on labour migration regulation, in application of the system of uniform branch tariff-qualification reference books and in establishment of the system of licensing individual types of activity. Natural-climate conditions exert significant influence upon the level of labour potential. This influence shows up: in different life expectancies, sickness rate, labour life duration, etc. for various natural-climate zones. The article classifies the factors of labour potential with respect to the enterprise also both by exogenous and endogenous groups.

  9. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  10. Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert F; Ma, Ada H Y; Scott, Anthony; Bell, David; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This novel application of spatial wage theory to health service labour markets analyses the competitiveness of nurse's pay and how this differs between local labour markets in Britain. A switching regression model is estimated to derive standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) for nurses and their comparators. An SSWD gap is constructed and its relationship to vacancies estimated. A reduction in the gap in a local area is shown to result in an increase in the long-term vacancy rate for National Health Service (NHS) nurses. The competitiveness of nursing pay is shown to have a strong effect on the ability of the NHS to attract and retain nurses.

  11. The impact of Chernobyl on health and labour market performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. WHAT ARE THE FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET?

    OpenAIRE

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2015-01-01

    The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series...

  13. Labour Market Intermediaries: A Corrective to the Human Capital Paradigm (Mis)matching Skills and Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Tony; Plows, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The orthodox supply-side human capital theory (HCT) paradigm is inadequate for understanding and adjusting to labour market volatility in UK regional economies like Wales. This article explores the role of regional labour market intermediaries (LMIs) in matching supply (skills) and demand (job opportunities) in regional labour markets. Some LMIs…

  14. The Interaction between Higher Education and Labour Market in Changing Economic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravite, Aija

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores challenges higher education institutions face while ensuring one of the quality assurance criteria--meeting the demands of labour market. The relationship between labour market and higher education institutions becomes even more complicated during the periods of rapid changes in labour market caused by economic collisions. In…

  15. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bispo

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality

  16. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  17. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. Within a search and matching model, we show that all natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...

  18. Career Education and Labour Market Conditions: The Skills Gap Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Welsh, Benjamin H.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that it is a questionable claim that a widespread knowledge and skill shortage is causing current labour market supply problems, unemployment, or increased social stratification. Adds that the percentage of new jobs requiring high levels of knowledge and skill is limited when compared to low-skilled service industry occupations. Questions…

  19. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  20. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).…

  1. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  2. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  3. High schools and labour market outcomes: Italian graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    2007-01-01

    To provide empirical evidence on differences across high school tracks in early occupational labour market outcome, I estimate how the employment probability, the time before the first job is taken up, and earnings depend on high school type, controlling for student characteristics by a propensit...

  4. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bispo

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality

  5. Vocational Trajectories within the Australian Labour Market. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is…

  6. High schools and labour market outcomes: Italian graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    2007-01-01

    To provide empirical evidence on differences across high school tracks in early occupational labour market outcome, I estimate how the employment probability, the time before the first job is taken up, and earnings depend on high school type, controlling for student characteristics by a propensit...

  7. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  8. LABOUR MARKET EFFECTS OF FLEXICURITY FROM A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Ayolt J.; Elhorst, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the main questions for politicians is how to introduce more flexibility in the labour market while still providing employees with ample social security. The concept of flexicurity has sprung to attention through its success in Denmark. This paper explores whether the Danish model can also be

  9. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  10. Self-efficacy beliefs of youth entering the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kot Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.

  11. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  12. LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN TERMS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUNEA DANIELA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies have a high dynamics because of the rapid fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and parameters. Moreover, globalization emphasises the interdependencies among national economies, increasing their production capacities but, at the same time, making them more vulnerable to external perturbations. Shocks resulting from this turmoil can be absorbed depending on the degree of macromarket flexibility: goods market, labour market and money market. This flexibility becomes even more important for the member states of some optimal currency areas (OCA because it considers both the mobility of production factors and the symmetry of business cycle transmission; i.e. the correlation of macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper intend to analyse the situation of the internal mobility of workers as a basis for labour market flexibility.

  13. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-Off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...... and differently skilled workers face different levels of risk of unemployment. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted at the disadvantaged workers complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike general training subsidies. Combining passive subsidies with a training subsidy...... conditioned on the individual being unemployed (for a period) – the typical Active Labour Market Programme – creates a favourable trade-off between equity and efficiency and this encourages high spending on training...

  14. Labour Market Structure in Malaysia: Pre- and Post-Market Gender Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Khain Wye; Rahmah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to...

  15. Labour Market Structure in Malaysia: Pre- and Post-Market Gender Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Khain Wye; Rahmah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to...

  16. Usage Of R in Defining Labour Market Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Stopinski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Labour Market Area is a territory in which high rate of people both live and work. It does not need to be consistent with area restricted by administrative boarders. It seems rather obvious that administrative boarders are not always a proper criterion in making certain decisions. The government should sometimes base on functional regions instead. That is the reason for which in 2013 Eurostat decided to from the Task Force responsible of creating a common methodology of defining Labour Market Areas. A couple of member states have already had certain experience in using their own definitions of Labour Market Areas. Nevertheless, due to independence of each method the results achieved in different countries were obviously incomparable. This caused a need to create a methodology, which would be universal for entire European Union. According to proposal there are two criteria deciding whether an area is a Labour Market Area or not – size (number of employed inhabitants and self-containment, which is a minimal value of the following: 1 the proportion of an area’s employed population that works within the area and 2 the proportion of jobs within an area that are filled by residents of that area. Since the results should be possibly stable, population censuses are desirable sources. As travel-to-work matrices contain relations between places of living and places of work at LAU-2 level, datasets may have large size (for Poland almost 350 000 records. The aim is to join areas into clusters so that all of them fulfill conditions to be considered as Labour Market Area. In each step only two areas are joined. Then computations for all new areas need to be performed from the beginning. There are also certain situations when once joined areas are divided, which makes the whole process more complicated. R seems to be a proper tool to carry out necessary analyses of such a big dataset.

  17. Attitudes of graduates on the labour market (on the example of graduates of economics from zachodniopomorskie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Gołąb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of growing unemployment rate among tertiary graduates, as well as competition on the education and labour market, proper preparation of graduates to function on the labour market is becoming more and more important. Attitudes, including expectations towards work, play a very important role as well. This article attempts at gaining knowledge of professional activity of tertiary graduates, becoming familiar with current problems connected with a transition from education to the labour market and studying a career path from graduation to the moment of carrying out the study.

  18. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei M RGULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  19. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  20. Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik in OECD-Ländern : Entwicklungstendenzen und Effekte (Active labour market policy in OECD countries : development tendencies and effects)

    OpenAIRE

    Walwei, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    "In 1994 the OECD countries spent an average of almost 1% of their particular gross domestic product (GDP) on putting into effect labour market policy objectives. Astonishing differences can, however, be seen between the countries. The size of the expenditure (in each case expressed as a percentage of the GDP) ranged from the peak of 2.89% in Sweden to the minimum of 0.09% in Japan. The figure for Germany according to OECD statistics was still 1.32%. In the political debate there are some voi...

  1. Adult learning, education, and the labour market inthe employability regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Nilsson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw on the research and scholarly literature to explorethe changing discourses and perspectives concerning adult learning, education, and thelabour market in the employability regime. The focus of the nalysis is a Nordic context.The dominant employability regime maintains a technical-rational perspective onlearning and employability. Education is predominantly regarded as an instrumentalpreparation for the labour market. The future demands of the labour market are largelyunknown, however, and vocational and professional training may not provide sufficientpreparation for the increasing complexities of work. Theoretical discussions have beendominated by an alleged mismatch between individual competence and thequalifications that are required in the world of work. There is no consensus regardinghow the gap should be described, explained, or bridged. New demands on educationaldesign have emerged, and ideas related to liberal education and ‘bildung’ have beenreinserted into the political agenda, offering general preparation for a wider array ofchallenges.

  2. High Technology and International Labour Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the impact of "high-tech" industries on labor markets, the division of labor and the organization of work, and the policy options open to societies for dealing with the effects. (CT)

  3. The dual labour market theory and the informal sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Uys

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper: The purpose of this paper is to revisit the dual labour market theory as far as the informal sector in South Africa is concerned. The hypothesis is that the dual labour market theory must be extended in order to be applicable to the informal sector of the South African economy. It is our view that within some informal occupations a further segmentation exists. Problem investigated: Among South Africa ’s grave socio-economic problems, unemployment is one of the most serious and intractable. An increase in informal and self-employment was experienced during the last decades. Traditional dual labour market theory maintains that jobs can be roughly divided into two groups: those with low wages, bad working conditions, unstable employment and little opportunity for advancement; and those with relatively high wages, good working conditions and opportunities for advancement. The problem that confronts researchers is that even within informal employment, further segmentation is possible. Approach: To determine whether the dualism, that described by the dual labour market theory, is also present within the informal sector itself, available data on a typical informal sector activity, namely car guarding, is analysed. This provides the evidence to achieve the objective of this paper. Findings and implications: The case study of car guards confirms that the dual labour market theory can also apply within the informal sector on the condition that it is expanded to make provision for a further segmentation of the periphery sector. This finding presents several important policy implications. A basket of policies is needed to address the problem of unemployment as effectively as possible. Value of the research: The paper provides further knowledge on informal employment in South Africa. This is an area that requires a lot of attention, given the importance of the informal sector in South Africa and Africa at large. It goes further than

  4. Labour Market Structure in Malaysia: Pre- and Post-Market Gender Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Khain Wye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to have its bearing on wagedetermination. As such, future research is expected to analyse gender wage decomposition taking into considerations of different types of labour market discrimination, occupational preferences, and gender differences in employability skills.

  5. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

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    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  6. Towards a Sociology of Teacher Labour Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    There is very little discussion of the structure of the teaching profession and the implications of that structure for the teacher's professional identity. A model of the teacher labor market is of importance to a theoretical understanding and to an appreciation of structural changes that face teachers in the future. (CJ)

  7. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both sectors. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....

  8. Labour Market Policy under Conditions of Permanent Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; de la Porte, Caroline; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Social investment (SI) is part of a strategy to modernize the European welfare states by focusing on human resource development throughout the life-course, while ensuring financial sustainability. Recognizing that this strategy was only partially implemented by the EU member states prior...... to the financial and Eurozone crises, this article investigates whether reforms and expenditure patterns in labour market policy (LMP) have moved more towards or away from SI following the 2008 financial crisis. We use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the degree to which there have been shifts...... in the SI aspects of LMPs in eight countries across four welfare state regimes. We also investigate which aspects of LMPs have been strengthened and which have been weakened, enabling us to make a nuanced assessment of labour market SIs across the EU in a period of permanent austerity. We find that although...

  9. Labour Market Performance Effects of Discrimination and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both sectors. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....

  10. The Unaccompanied Refugee Minors and the Swedish Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Celikaksoy, Aycan; Wadensjö, Eskil

    2015-01-01

    More unaccompanied refugee children arrive to and get a residence permit in Sweden than in any other country in Europe. The number of children who arrives is increasing fast. The Swedish experiences are therefore of great interest also for other countries. In this paper we study the labour market situation in terms of employment and income for those who have arrived as unaccompanied minors and have been registered in Sweden. We compare them with those who also arrived as minors from the same ...

  11. Does Immigration Contribute to Convergence Among Regional Labour Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan R. Cuadrado-Roura; Llorente, Raquel; Iglesias, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Foreign immigration is still a recent phenomenon in Spain, but its magnitude and growth has been extraordinarily important during the last years. According to the available data (Foreigners Official Register), foreign residents have increased by 382 percent between 1996 and 2005, that is from around 538.000 to more than 2.5 million people. It is generally accepted that immigrants may have, according to their magnitude, important effects on labour markets of the destination countries. First, b...

  12. Globalisation and Labour Markets in Boom and Crisis: The Case of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Manning

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the global financial crisis on the Vietnam labour market against the backdrop of economic performance and labour dynamics before the crisis. The impact on labour has been milder compared with several neighbouring countries, than might have been expected for a country with Vietnam’s degree of international exposure. This can attributed to the timely stimulus package of late 2008, the tight labour market before the crisis, the competitive nature of Vietnam’s ke...

  13. Economic Growth and Labour Market in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Urbain Thierry YOGO

    2007-01-01

    How do Growth affects labor market’s work? This question is important, because, labor market plays a key role in determining the success of poverty reduction policies. Using the times series data, we have been able to confirm the prediction of theory which present a positive effect of growth on the labor market’s work. However, this effect is not strong, and calls to the reinforcement of growth and the set up of pro investment incentives as well as in the level of good and knowledge productio...

  14. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  15. Market-Based Manpower Planning with Labour Market Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Adams, Arvil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)

  16. Workplace health promotion and labour market performance of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes.

  17. Effects of foreign direct investment on the performance of local labour markets - The case of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Fazekas, Karoly

    2003-01-01

    Post transitional labour markets of the CEE countries have been characterised by marked regional differences. Since labour market differences were mainly generated by demand side factors the paper will concentrate on the spatial pattern of job creation determined mostly by the allocation decisions of foreign investors. Thus, the success or failure of local economies or local labour markets were largely determined by the attractiveness of the individual regions towards FDI. Posttransitional wi...

  18. The Polish Regional Labour Market Welfare Indicator and Its Links to Other Well-being Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ręklewski Marek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and construct an indicator of labour market well-being in Poland for the year 2013. The indicator is positively related to the degree of civilizational welfare, social welfare, material welfare and psychological well-being in Poland. We conclude that ameliorating the labour market situation improves the quality of the public’s life. The link between our labour market indicator and the total fertility rate turned out to be statistically insignificant.

  19. DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET OF SR AND MODELS OF DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík

    2012-01-01

    IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...

  20. European Integration, Labour Market Dynamics and Migration Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinoia, Michela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries

  1. Social Interaction and Labour Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Guangyi

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of social interaction on employment status and employment quality by using longitudinal data from BHPS (British Household Panel Survey). Active community membership is employed as the measurement of social Interaction. Various identification strategies provide robust evidence that a higher level of social interaction results in increased probability of being full-time employed. The effect of social interaction on employment status is also investigated among diffe...

  2. A matter of discretion; an essay on the US labour market.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.

    1989-01-01

    This a study on the labour market. More in particular it is a study on the supply of labour, the modes of its formation and its internal structure and dynamics. The avowed goal of the study is to elucidate a concept of labour power in which its commodity-status is played down and its status of s

  3. A matter of discretion : an essay on the US labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.

    1989-01-01

    This a study on the labour market. More in particular it is a study on the supply of labour, the modes of its formation and its internal structure and dynamics. The avowed goal of the study is to elucidate a concept of labour power in which its commodity-status is played down and its

  4. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dubovik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  5. Older workers in the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts show that demographic changes will greatly affect changes in the structure of work force. Due to the coming mass retiring of the “baby-boom” generation, a fall in the active population share is to be expected and, consequently, changes in the social and health insurance amenities of the population. The European politicians press on the member countries with the demand to raise the retirement age, which raises the questions of what changes will employment of older people entail, what employment needs exist for older workers, and what measures are required to actually implement the new employment patterns. This article also deals with the question of education and training, an important factor for employment of older workers.

  6. Explaining low international labour mobility: the role of networks, personality and perceived labour market opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Why is international labour mobility so low in high-income regions of the European Union? To shed light on this issue, we examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended (temporary) labour migration of the Dutch is that it

  7. Explaining low international labour mobility: the role of networks, personality, and perceived labour market opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2012-01-01

    Why is international labour mobility so low in high-income regions of the European Union? To shed light on this issue, we examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended (temporary) labour migration of the Dutch is that it

  8. Explaining low international labour mobility: the role of networks, personality, and perceived labour market opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2012-01-01

    Why is international labour mobility so low in high-income regions of the European Union? To shed light on this issue, we examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended (temporary) labour migration of the Dutch is that it occur

  9. Explaining low international labour mobility: the role of networks, personality and perceived labour market opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Why is international labour mobility so low in high-income regions of the European Union? To shed light on this issue, we examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended (temporary) labour migration of the Dutch is that it occur

  10. The political logic of labour market reforms and popular images of target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and...... explanation for the different popular images of target groups and 2) by showing - using a national Australian sample - that these general popular images influence the way the public wants ‘active' labour market policy to be conducted.......Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and 2......) as the target group gradually came to include ‘ordinary' unemployed, most countries made exceptions for the oldest unemployed. The article argues that this striking policy convergence has to do with the public perception of the target groups. The article substantiates this argument 1) by giving a theoretical...

  11. Labour Market Effects of Employment Protection. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwei, Ulrich

    The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…

  12. Poverty and the Labour Market in Indonesia: Employment Trends across the Wealth Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ‘Poverty and the Labour Market in Indonesia: Employment Trends across the Wealth Distribution’, isamong Indonesia’s first papers on the relationship between poverty and the labour market. It providesa detailed analysis of employment indicators (labour force participation rates, hours worked, and typeand sector of employment) for the period 2000-2012 across the entire wealth distribution, by location,gender and various sociodemographic characteristics.Despite high economic growth rates, the cr...

  13. Gendering Insiders and Outsiders. Labour Market Status and Preferences for Job Security.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmenegger, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of gender in the relationship between labour market status and preferences for job security. We hypothesize that the insider/ outsider theory of employment and unemployment suffers from a gender bias. It neither takes the possibility of family-related labour market transitions nor the role of the household situation (division of labour, presence of children, dual-earner households etc.) into account. We adapt the insider/ outsider theory of employment and unemploy...

  14. THE ROLE OF WORK AND LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN WORKING LIFE PROLONGATION: CASE SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen, SIROK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the premise that the prolongation of working life presents an adequate approach to address the fast approaching challenges of population ageing, the paper presents labour market outcomes of older workers in Slovenia in order to explore the role of social system and labour market flexibility in retirement behaviour. By applying bivariate graphic analysis and series of logistic models, paper finds that decisions of older workers (aged 50 - 69 of whether to retire or to continue working up to legal retirement age is being predominately shaped by the pension system parameters. Economic activity beyond this age (or when retired on the other hand predominately correlates with flexible work arrangements and work motivation. Thus, the future policies in Slovenia aiming to prolong working careers within formal or informal sector should simultaneously do both; change pension system parameters and significantly expand the system flexibility stimulating willing and capable elderly to continue working within the formal sector.

  15. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is influenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs influence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the first two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to country-specific factors and can quantify the relative impact of specific socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  16. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is infl uenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs infl uence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the fi rst two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to countryspecifi c factors and can quantify the relative impact of specifi c socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  17. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  18. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  19. Down before they go in : A study on pre-prison labour market attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Anke; van Wilsem, Johan; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with describing the employment history of prisoners. Past labour market performance is a major predictor of later performances. Yet, the substantial field of reentry research paid little attention to pre-prison employment patterns and the magnitudes of labour market disadvant

  20. Exclusionary risks on the transitional labour market [with Methodological appendix, 6 p.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, J.; Bijwaard, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The emergent transitional labour market offers new opportunities to workers, while increasing the risk of social exclusion at the same time. This article deals with exclusionary risks on the transitional labour market in the Netherlands. We try to find out whether immigrants bear higher risks than

  1. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  2. Down before they go in : A study on pre-prison labour market attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Anke; van Wilsem, Johan; Nieuwbeerta, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138622973; Dirkzwager, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with describing the employment history of prisoners. Past labour market performance is a major predictor of later performances. Yet, the substantial field of reentry research paid little attention to pre-prison employment patterns and the magnitudes of labour market

  3. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  4. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  5. Do Labour Market Programmes Necessarily Crowd out Regular Employment? A Matching Model Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is often claimed that the usage of labour market programmes will necessarily crowd out regular employment (see, for example, Holmlund & Lindén (1993)). As a result, it could be argued that, despite their probable negative impact on unemployment, the overall benefits of using labour market program

  6. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  7. Graduate Employability and Student Attitudes and Orientations to the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the way students, making the transition from higher education into the labour market, construct, understand and begin to manage their employability. It draws upon a qualitative study of 53 final-year undergraduates in a pre-1992 university in the UK. It firstly explores students' perceptions of the current labour market for…

  8. Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development 2009/10-2011/12 Service Plan Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…

  9. Labour Market Developments and Their Significance for VET in Germany: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…

  10. Ageing shocks and short-run regional labour market dynamics in a spatial panel VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Schmidt, Torben Dall; Rauhut, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Using a flexible spatial panel VAR model for a small-scale labour market system, we investigate the dynamic interdependences between changes in the demographic structure and the labour market performance of a regional economy. With a particular focus on ageing shocks, we describe an increase...

  11. Labour Market Developments and Their Significance for VET in Germany: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…

  12. Has the Economic Crisis Contributed to More Segmentation in Labour Market and Welfare Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    This paper analyses whether developments on the labour market and in the welfare system during the economic crisis can be seen as perpetuating the trend towards labour market segmentation or whether the crisis may actually have contributed to containing some of the divisions forged in recent...

  13. WHAT ARE THE FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series of statistical data that has been collected and reviewed, while highlighting the main factors that shape the current situation of the Romanian labour market. As regards the employment rate, the gender difference in Romania falls within the limits of that recorded for most EU countries (the employment rate is higher for the male than female population. On the contrary, the unemployment rate is reversed (higher unemployment rate in male than female population.

  14. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activis...

  15. the structure of labour market and demand for hired labour for oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Keywords: structure of labour, hired labour, oil palm production, demand elasticities. INTRODUCTION .... theory of the firm, where the farmer seeks to maximize output subject ... signs of the parameters and significance of the student t-statistics ...

  16. Application of New Instruments to Increase Effectiveness of Implementation of Social Policies on Labour Market in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, public employment services face a number of urgent tasks as raising the employment rate and reducing the number of vacant jobs for which is difficult to find enough qualified workers. New realities on labour market and dynamic environment require adequate actions, rational and timely decision making and optimization of work. Dynamic changes in social environment impacting labour markets and activities of public employment services impose various tasks which implementation should be carefully planned, organized and controlled. To achieve that public employment services should take a more comprehensive look at the demand and supply of labour, considering the numerous transitions taking place constantly on the labour market and people's personal development. Improving processes and the quality of the administrative services in the Bulgarian employment agency is seen as a prerequisite for effective implementation of employment policies. The study presents opportunities for improving the quality of services offered in the Directorates "Labour Office" in the Republic of Bulgaria by introducing a process model and improvements in the capacity and efficiency of work in the field of labour mediation.

  17. Globalization and Women's Labour Activism in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BISHOP, Beverley

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization not only encompasses increased economic integration and increased flows of capital, but also social, political and cultural change. While considerable attention has been paid to the pro-active role that Japanese government and business actors have played, there has been rather less analysis of the way civil actors in Japan have been affected by, and have adapted their goals and strategies to the changing global polity. This paper examines how female labour activists in Japan have adapted their strategies to the existing national and international institutions, and changed their strategies as the processes of globalization have altered the relative power of these institutions. Section B of the paper examines the lack of influence that women labour activists have traditionally had in party and trade union politics, and how changes in these institutions are affecting the way women engage with them. Section C looks at the alternative way campaigners for women's labour rights actually organize. Section D goes on to examine the way women's groups are increasingly directing action at international bodies, and sharing information and activities with activists overseas.

  18. How far merit selection? Social stratification and the labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    The question of how societies allocate occupational positions and subsequent rewards has long been of interest to sociologists. According to one influential theory, the needs of modern industrial societies and economies demand that high-level and functionally important occupational positions are allocated according to meritocratic principles. I argue that, ultimately, employers get the final say about which characteristics are rewarded in the labour market. In order to examine which skills and attributes are required by employers for particular occupations I analyse data drawn from a content analysis of c.5000 British newspaper job advertisements. The results show that both merit and non-merit characteristics are requested by employers in job advertisements, even for occupations falling within the higher classes. I also find evidence that employers have similar requirements for similar occupations, cross-cutting class boundaries.

  19. Labour market inequalities and the role of institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Damiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large body of studies has documented the changing wage structure and increasing inequalities that in the last decades have characterised many OECD countries. The importance of these topics has been addressed by the workshop on "Comparing Inequalities" organised by the Italian Association for Comparative Economic Studies (AISSEC, and held in Assisi in June 2010. One session of the workshop was devoted to "Labour Market Institutions and Wage Inequalities: a Comparative Perspective". This special issue, which includes a selection of papers that were originally presented at the workshop, offers contributions which can be helpful to obtain an enriched view of ongoing changes and a broader spectrum of plausible explanations. In this paper a short appraisal of the large economic literature on wage inequality and institutions is offered with the main aim to clarify how the papers collected in this symposium contribute to related literature and in which directions they move

  20. Exploring misery discourses: problematized Roma in labour market projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Vesterberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse learning practices in labour market projects cofinanced by the European Social Fund (ESF targeting unemployed Roma in Sweden. The empirical material consists of 18 project descriptions from ESF projects, as well as national and European policy documents concerned with the inclusion of the Roma in contemporary Europe. The contemporary empirical material is analysed in relation to a government report from 1956 concerning the 'Roma issue' in Sweden. The analytical perspective of the study is governmentality, and the analysis focuses on different kinds of problematizations and the discursive positioning of the Roma subjects. One of the main findings is that unemployed Roma are situated in various discourses of misery and constructed as in need of reshaping their subjectivities in order to become educable as well as employable.

  1. Attitudes Towards Immigrants, Immigration Policies and Labour Market Outcomes: Comparing Croatia with Hungary and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrić Valerija

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides comparative evidence on attitudes towards immigrants, their labour market outcomes and policies in Croatia and two neighbouring countries – Slovenia and Hungary. Three different data sources have been used: the European Social Survey, an ad-hoc Labour Force Survey module for the year 2014, and the MIPEX index. Although immigrants have a disadvantaged position on the Croatian labour market, most analysed indicators do not imply that they are in a worse position than in other European economies. Migrant integration policies related to the labour market are assessed as being relatively favourable for Croatia. Judging by the comparable indicators for the native population in Croatia, immigrants’ adverse labour market outcomes seem to be more related to the unfavourable general economic situation, and particularly by the deep and long recession.

  2. The relationship between immigration and labour market performance in Sabah’s oil palm plantation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Mansur

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between immigration and labor market performance in Sabah region's oil palm plantation industry. The labour market performance refers to the wages and employment of local workers in the oil palm plantation sector. The relationship of these variables can be in short run or/ and in the long run. This study uses Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to examine the relationship between the immigration and labour market performance. In...

  3. TRANSITION OF YOUTH WITH DISABILITIES FROM EDUCATION TO LABOUR MARKET IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Tabaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the transition of youth with disabilities from education to labour market in Slovenia. The article introduces the European Social Fund project “Transition”, provided by the partnership of Racio, University Rehabilitation Institute and Auris, operated from 2010 to 2013. The Transition project was intended for two target groups: youth with disabilities in the education process, with the aim to achieve their integration from education to the labour market, and for professionals who provide the transition. Young people in Europe have been facing increasing uncertainty in the labour market. The labour market transition for youth, and especially for youth with disabilities, is a very demanding question. Policymakers and experts in the European Union have therefore developed programs for social inclusion, improved access, achievement and integration of young people with disabilities into the labour market. Youth unemployment during economic crises has increased in all parts of the world, with the impact of prolonging the duration of unemployment. The transition of young people with disabilities from school to the labour market in Slovenia is not integrally and adequately organised. A support system should be introduced to monitor young people with disabilities while they are still at school and prepare them for entering the labour market. After finishing school, a model of transition from school to work is proposed to prevent unemployment.

  4. Analysis of Factors of Influence of the Market Environment upon Formation of the Enterprise Labour Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Zborovska Olha M.; Halan Olena Ye.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential ...

  5. Exposure to Global Markets, Internal Labour Markets, and Worker Compensation: Evidence from Canadian Microdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address two bodies of sociological research: the effects of globalization and theories of pay. Most sociological writings on globalization emphasize its negative consequences. Most sociological writings on pay allow no role for productivity but, rather, assert the importance of power in the production of labour market outcomes. In this paper we examine the effects of threeforms of globalization — exporting, foreign ownership, and outsourcing — and include in our analysis institutional features of organizations typically associated with worker power. Using the rich data available in the Workplace and Employee Survey we find: i pay tends to be higher in workplaces that export and are foreign owned; ii employees in more productive workplaces are paid more; iii pay is higher where internal labour markets are present; and iv treating productivityand power as alternative explanations for pay differentials is a mistake.

  6. Youths on labour market.Features. Particularities. Pro-mobility factors for graduates. Elements of a balanced policy for labour migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.

  7. Does Labour Market Risk Increase the Size of the Public Sector? Evidence from Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that the public sector is an insurance against otherwise uninsurable risks. If that is the case, it is reasonable to expect the public sector to be larger in regions where the private labour-market is risky. Using data from Swedish municipalities, this paper reports that labour-market risk has a substantial impact on public employment. The results for aggregate spending and taxation are, however, much weaker and labor-market risk thus affects the labour intensity of the mun...

  8. The Impact of the Reform of the Italian Higher Education System on the Labour Market for Young Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potestio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of a reform of the higher education system aimed at stimulating employability and faster access to the labour market for Italian graduates. Using the Taylor formula, the evolution of the employment rates has been followed through the movements and interaction of activity and unemployment rates. The progress…

  9. The Impact of the Reform of the Italian Higher Education System on the Labour Market for Young Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potestio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of a reform of the higher education system aimed at stimulating employability and faster access to the labour market for Italian graduates. Using the Taylor formula, the evolution of the employment rates has been followed through the movements and interaction of activity and unemployment rates. The progress…

  10. The State of the Labour Market in South Africa after the First Decade of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Rulof; Woolard, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This article attempts to document and identify the key…

  11. The Relationship between Higher Education and Labour Market in Greece: The Weakest Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…

  12. Distribution of responsibility for social security and labour market policy. - Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, T.

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although the

  13. Distribution of responsibility for social security and labour market policy. - Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, T.

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although

  14. Erasmus Student Mobility as a Gateway to the International Labour Market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; Gerhards, J.; Hans, S.; Carlson, S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main rationales of the Erasmus programme, initiated in 1987, is the promotion of the European labour market. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on the links between student mobility, international labour mobility and employability remains relatively limited. In this chapter, I investigate

  15. The Relationship between Higher Education and Labour Market in Greece: The Weakest Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…

  16. Distribution of responsibility for social security and labour market policy. - Country report: Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. De Deken

    2007-01-01

    High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although the

  17. Positive and Disputable Consequences of Connecting Science and Education with Labour Market within New Polish Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrowski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    The problem of positive and disputable consequences of connecting science and education with labour market within new Polish reality has been analyzed. The dominant determinants of contemporary civilization development namely science, education and labour have been stressed. Tasks of pedagogical sciences have been outlined among which are…

  18. Essays on Labour Markets: Worker-Firm Dynamics, Occupational Segregation and Workplace Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Buhai (Sebastian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe main chapters of this book, “Essays on Labour Markets”, focus on analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), modelling occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social groups (chapter 4) and characterizing

  19. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  20. Male and Female Graduates in the Canadian Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)

  1. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  2. Methodologies on labour market indicators: job vacancies, job creation and job destruction in small businesses in the Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyma, A.O.J.; de Graaf, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and the Family of the Slovak Republic (MoLSAF) requires reliable information for policy making. An important way to strengthen the institutional capacities of MoLSAF in the field of labour market policies is to acquire a number of reliable labour market indicat

  3. Dentist education and labour market in Mexico: elements for policy definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2012-09-13

    Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population's health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.

  4. Why Have Labour Markets Reacted to the Global Crisis in Different Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiatkowski Eugeniusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the effects of the global crisis on employment and unemployment in the EU countries and indicate factors which may explain the differentiated response of labour markets to this crisis.

  5. Youth labour market integration across Europe: The impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional

  6. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN EXPLAINING YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IMBALANCES IN CEE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMIAN, Gina Cristina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of youth labour market performances and their influence on the future economic and social development of a country. The objectives refer to the assessment of demographic and labour market trends for young people, the analysis of the factors responsible for increasing youth unemployment and for the differences between skilled and unskilled young people concerning unemployment rates. To achieve the paper’s objectives several statistical and econometric models (descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis have been used. The main interest was to look for the key driver of youth labour market sustainable performances. The degree of originality is given by our choice to analyse youth labour market dynamics from an interconnected perspective (demographic trends, youth unemployment, education and to apply the model for 10 CEE countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia in order to compare their performances.

  7. Labour Markets for Immigrants: A Comparison of the Labour Market Integration of Immigrants from Turkey and the Former Yugoslavia in Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Fassmann

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the occupational positions of immigrant workers from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia and their children in Germany and Austria. In both host countries these two immigrant groups constitute the majority of the foreign labour force, and the two states are comparable with regard to their social and economic structure and to their labour market structure. The differing degree of integration of foreign workers in the German and Austrian employment systems can therefore not be attributed to general factors, but requires explanations specific to the particular country. The analyses show that labour migrants in Austria are concentrated to a far greater extent in subordinate positions in the labour market hierarchy than this is the case in Germany. This remains true when education, training and length of stay are taken into account. In 1994, for example, 51% of the foreign nationals in Germany who came from former Yugoslavia are employed as unskilled or semiskilled workers, whereas it was 75% in Austria. Germany's labour market structure shows, in comparison with that in Austria, a lower degree of segregation and somewhat more permeability. The far lower occupational and spatial mobility of foreign labour in Austria as compared to Germany results from the high share of the public sector (national administration, schools and institutions of higher education, almost all health services as well as of state owned or state controlled industries (railways, postal services, telecommunications, national airlines, local transport companies, electronic media, food production, banks and insurance companies, mineral oil production, the gas and electricity industry and the tobacco industry which constitute a “protected” segment of the labour market in which job security is high and employment opportunities are overwhelmingly set aside for Austrian nationals. In addition, Austria's foreign workers are less often employed in large enterprises

  8. The current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Rebublic

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšínová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Republic. It emphasizes on differentiation of individual hearing impairment which is very important to explore the issue. The work examines the offer of education for deaf and deals with obstacles in the transition from school to working life, which is closely related to future labour market outcomes. It also focuses on organizations that help deaf people to overcome these barriers. It defines employ...

  9. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the United Kingdom's Labour Market: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Drydakis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from heteronormativity affect labour market dynamics. Hierarchies of sexual orientation can result in job dismissals, wage discrimination, and the failure to promote gay and lesbian individuals to top ranks. In this paper, I report on a field experiment (144 job-seekers and their correspondence with 5,549 firms) that tested the extent to which sexual orientation affects the labour market outcomes of gay and lesbian job-seekers in the United Kingdom. Their minority sexual orientatio...

  10. The 'employability gap': long-term unemployment and barriers to work in buoyant labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald W; Colin Lindsay

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the main barriers limiting the employability of long-term unemployed job seekers within a local labour market characterised by generally high levels of demand. We use four key elements of employability (employability assets, the deployment of assets, the presentation of assets, and context) as an analytical framework in order to analyse the manner in which job seekers' personal characteristics, social and family circumstances, and perceptions of the labour market affect their abili...

  11. Lyapunov stability in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Azevedo Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the existence and stability of equilibriums in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market is studied by using the Lyapunov method. The model displays multiple equilibriums and it is shown that the Nash equilibriums of the static game are evolutionary stable equilibrium in the game theory evolutionary set up. A complete characterization of the dynamics of an evolutionary model of the labour market is provided.

  12. The role of workfare in striking a balance between incentives and insurance in the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    Workfare policies are often introduced in labour market policies to improve the trade-off between incentives and insurance as an alternative to benefit reductions. Most of the debate on such policies has focussed on the direct effect of those participating in the scheme, and in particular...... unemployment. It is also shown that the direct search effects of workfare policies are a poor indicator of the overall effect workfare policies have on labour market policies....

  13. Labour market dynamics in Canada, 1891-1911: a first look from new census samples

    OpenAIRE

    Inwood, Kris; MacKinnon, Mary; Minns, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses newly available census evidence to portray changes in labour market outcomes in Canada between 1891 and 1911. Multiple census cross-sections allow for the documentation of how the location, occupation, and earnings of Canadian and foreign-born cohorts changed over time. The westward movement of young anglophones after 1901 contributed to the formation of a national labour market. Anglophone, francophone, and foreign-born cohorts all experienced significant occupational mobilit...

  14. Job satisfaction as a unified mechanism for agent behaviour on a labour market with referral hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvid, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Existing agent-based labour-market models include a very simplistic mechanism of choosing vacancies. This paper proposes to use job satisfaction as a unified mechanism for deciding on both starting to work on a particular job and quitting the current job. An enhanced job satisfaction mechanism consisting of monetary, social, content, and career components is proposed. As an illustrative context, a labour-market model with referral hiring and informal job search through own social networks is ...

  15. Educational mismatch in the labour market: overqualification and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bečić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational mismatch as a labour market disruption has lately attracted the interest of many economic experts and scholars. This interest is spurred by considerable improvements in the educational profile of the population, combined with changes in the demand for highly-qualified workers linked to technological developments. The mismatch can appear if an increase in highly-qualified workforce supply is not accom - panied by an equal growth in the demand. Overqualification is one such type of mismatch: it means that knowledge and skills acquired during formal education remain unused in the workplace. Many economies face this problem that can have negative consequences for individuals, businesses, and the government alike. This paper provides an overview of the basic concepts related to overqualification, focusing on the possible implications of this phenomenon, given that employee dissatisfaction can affect businesses and their productivity, and ultimately, the country as a whole. Systematization of previous research and analysis of the basic concepts related to overqualification can contribute to the literature in economics of education in Croatia and create a foundation for future research

  16. Labour Market Integration of young EU Migrant Citizens in Germany and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spreckelsen, Thees; Leschke, Janine; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin

    This papers examines the quantitative and qualitative labour market integration of recent young EU migrant citizens in Germany and the UK, separately for citizens from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Romania and Bulgaria, and Southern European countries. It estimates weighted-proportions from G...... participation of young EU migrants  a labour market segmentation for young EU migrant citizen from CEE and Bulgaria, who experience more precarious work in both Germany and the UK.......This papers examines the quantitative and qualitative labour market integration of recent young EU migrant citizens in Germany and the UK, separately for citizens from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Romania and Bulgaria, and Southern European countries. It estimates weighted-proportions from...... market outcomes of all migrants, ignoring a potential double-labour market disadvantage of migrant youth. Routinely, EU migrants’ labour market outcomes are compared for EU-15 and CEE countries, rather than separately and against third country nationals. This paper finds two things:  a high labour force...

  17. Workplace change and the internal labour market: evidence from the NSW hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Alex

    2002-01-01

    After a decade of labour market reform and workplace change, increasing attention has focussed on public sector industries. In this paper, domestic and maintenance occupations in the hospital industry are examined, as previous work has focussed on nursing, with other occupations being largely ignored. Grimshaw and Rubery's (1998) model of internal labour markets is adopted as the preferred theoretical approach. This model, in acknowledging external factors, the role of workers, and custom and norms within the firm, provides a basis from which to examine labour use practices within the hospital industry.

  18. Regularities of Formation of the Labour Reimbursement Institute in the Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povoroznyuk Inna M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of production and hired labour, although, to a big extent, this institute is adapted, on the one hand, to the existing in the society forms of resolution of contradictions, inherent in means of production ownership relations, and, on the other hand, to the situation in a relevant labour market segment. However, the labour reimbursement institute itself significantly influences realisation of interests of employees and employers. The article states that wages in the modern economy should be understood as an incomplete labour reimbursement – the entrepreneur spends on an employee not only the sum of wages, but also uses other forms of resource provision of the processes of acquisition of certain benefits by the enterprise employees.

  19. Analysis of the Level of Development of the Socio-labour Sphere of Ukrainian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bibikova Viktoriia V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the article is the study of the level of development of the socio-labour sphere of Ukrainian regions. In order to achieve the goal, the article develops a complex scorecard, which takes into account all elements of the socio-labour sphere (socio-labour relations, labour market system of labour reimbursement, social accompaniment of labour activity, professional development of economically active population, level and quality of labour life, safety and security of labour). On the b...

  20. China’s New Demographic Challenge: From Unlimited Supply of Labour to Structural Lack of Labour Supply. Labour market and demographic scenarios: 2008-2048

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Bruni

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the demographic and labour market consequences of the dramatic decline in fertility that has characterized China starting at the beginning of the ‘50s. It is shared opinion that a sustained decline in fertility below replacement level will provoke a decline in Total population, an even more pronounced decline in Working age population and very relevant ageing phenomena. I have recently shown that, on the contrary and coherently with empirical evidence, a decline in fertil...

  1. Older Knowledge Workers as the Labour Market Potential (Slovenia versus Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupančič Magda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the challenge of demographic changes gaining attention in many developed countries. The European Union recognized the need to activate older knowledge workers, who are underrepresented and pushed out of the labour market or are inadequately motivated to continue their employment for various reasons, despite their accumulated knowledge and experiences. EU member states respond differently to their ageing, with more or less successful national policies. This article is based on research of the labour market development for older knowledge workers in Slovenia compared to the Finnish age management policy at the end of the 1990s that successfully increased Finnish older knowledge workers’ employment through focused and holistic measures. Slovenia stagnated in the same period due to a lack of holistic solutions-a situation that continues today. The results and deficiencies of past bad and good practices in these two compared EU member states might offer some further reflections on possible steps to follow or avoid regarding active ageing solutions in the EU.

  2. The labour market for nursing: a review of the labour supply literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonazzo, Emanuela; Scott, Anthony; Skatun, Diane; Elliott, Robert F

    2003-06-01

    The need to ensure adequate numbers of motivated health professionals is at the forefront of the modernisation of the UK NHS. The aim of this paper is to assess current understanding of the labour supply behaviour of nurses, and to propose an agenda for further research. In particular, the paper reviews American and British economics literature that focuses on empirical econometric studies based on the classical static labour supply model. American research could be classified into first generation, second generation and recent empirical evidence. Advances in methods mirror those in the general labour economics literature, and include the use of limited dependent variable models and the treatment of sample selection issues. However, there is considerable variation in results, which depends on the methods used, particularly on the effect of wages. Only one study was found that used UK data, although other studies examined the determinants of turnover, quit rates and job satisfaction. The agenda for further empirical research includes the analysis of discontinuities in the labour supply function, the relative importance of pecuniary and non-pecuniary job characteristics, and the application of dynamic and family labour supply models to nursing research. Such research is crucial to the development of evidence-based policies.

  3. Computer models to study uterine activation at labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G C; Saunders, P T K; Norman, J E

    2013-11-01

    Improving our understanding of the initiation of labour is a major aim of modern obstetric research, in order to better diagnose and treat pregnant women in which the process occurs abnormally. In particular, increased knowledge will help us identify the mechanisms responsible for preterm labour, the single biggest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Attempts to improve our understanding of the initiation of labour have been restricted by the inaccessibility of gestational tissues to study during pregnancy and at labour, and by the lack of fully informative animal models. However, computer modelling provides an exciting new approach to overcome these restrictions and offers new insights into uterine activation during term and preterm labour. Such models could be used to test hypotheses about drugs to treat or prevent preterm labour. With further development, an effective computer model could be used by healthcare practitioners to develop personalized medicine for patients on a pregnancy-by-pregnancy basis. Very promising work is already underway to build computer models of the physiology of uterine activation and contraction. These models aim to predict changes and patterns in uterine electrical excitation during term labour. There have been far fewer attempts to build computer models of the molecular pathways driving uterine activation and there is certainly scope for further work in this area. The integration of computer models of the physiological and molecular mechanisms that initiate labour will be particularly useful.

  4. The increasing impact of Europeanization and migrating labour on the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    agreements especially for low-skilled labour in sectors like agriculture and cleaning, that have high inflows. A large number of Eastern Europeans are working significantly below the de facto minimum wages negotiated between the social partners. This paper provides case study research from the agricultural...... though EU8/2 workers still only accounts for around three per cent of total Danish employment there may be more significant regulatory and institutional effects since employers use the labour inflow to put pressure on wage levels, working conditions and the general scope and range of the collective...... sector and cleaning, where large cohorts of workers now are Eastern European, on how e.g. collective bargaining and wage levels experiences high pressure. The outcome might be increasing dualisation between EU 8/2 workers and native workers and low-skilled Danish workers may be pushed out of the labour...

  5. The increasing impact of Europeanization and migrating labour on the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    though EU8/2 workers still only accounts for around three per cent of total Danish employment there may be more significant regulatory and institutional effects since employers use the labour inflow to put pressure on wage levels, working conditions and the general scope and range of the collective...... agreements especially for low-skilled labour in sectors like agriculture and cleaning, that have high inflows. A large number of Eastern Europeans are working significantly below the de facto minimum wages negotiated between the social partners. This paper provides case study research from the agricultural...... sector and cleaning, where large cohorts of workers now are Eastern European, on how e.g. collective bargaining and wage levels experiences high pressure. The outcome might be increasing dualisation between EU 8/2 workers and native workers and low-skilled Danish workers may be pushed out of the labour...

  6. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment. PMID:27499601

  7. Temporary agency work, migration and the crisis in Greece: labour market segmentation intensified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroukis, Thanos

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment.

  8. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  9. Labour market initiatives: potential settings for improving the health of people who are unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Rose, Vanessa; Ritchie, Jan; Harris, Neil

    2009-12-01

    Unemployment is detrimental to health. The Unemployment and Health Project in South Western Sydney sought to work with labour market programs to improve the health, particularly, mental health, of unemployed people. This paper describes the experiences of the Project. Phase one commenced in 1995 and involved consultation with the majority of Skillshares (labour market programs under the Labor government) in south-western Sydney to identify potential areas of action. Phase two commenced in 1998 and involved the development of a brief cognitive behaviour therapy intervention that was delivered in Job Network Settings (the next generation of labour market programs under the Liberal government). The cognitive behaviour therapy intervention has been successful in improving mental health in five small scale trials but the intervention has proved difficult to scale up and evaluate comprehensively. Generating more general interest in improving the health of unemployed people through the Job Network has also been difficult. This is related to different understanding and valuing of evidence, a highly volatile context, lack of shared core business by the health and employment sectors, and the changing nature of work in Australia. There are theoretical and practical reasons why it is difficult for labour market programs to be a setting for improving the health of unemployed people. However, the reach of labour market programs into the high risk groups warrants more attention by mental health promotion programs.

  10. Labour market for youth in Romania – a demographic and qualitative approach of their employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pisică

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the implications of demographic developments on the labour market in terms of potential labour from structural and professional perspectives. The aspects of the youth demographic and educational potential for labour market, of the national policies potential for new job creation and of the opportunities of alternative free movement of workers are presented. The paper emphasizes positive and negative labour market pressures as derived from the demographic structure (including ethnicity, skills and competences, and educational attainment. The influences factors on qualitative youth employability in Romania are also highlighted. Some empirical analyses of the working age population in terms of demographic factors, as well as its demographic forecast are presented. Statistical software used for this analysis is the R Project, along with specific packages forecasting analysis. Final part of the paper is focused on some specific recommendations for policy instruments and measures to support youth employability on the national labor market based on the changed typology of the youth supply on labour market.

  11. Poverty and Politics on the Labour Market in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Šošić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares indicators of the Croatian labor market and implemented policies with indicators and policies in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Although unemployment and long-term unemployment (which latter is particularly correlated with poverty in the transition countries do not in Croatia depart from the range in which other transition countries are positioned, still they are above their average, which is connected with the somewhat less flexible nature of the Croatian labor market. New findings on the effects of labor market policies in the transition countries indicate that the process of the reform of the institutional framework through which in the last few years the restrictiveness of Croatian employment protection legislation has been reduced might work in the direction of reducing overall and long-term unemployment. The paper suggests that it is possible to improve the effectiveness of the application of active policy measures. Furthermore, a better compensation for a reduction in the restrictiveness of the regulations would probably be an increase in average unemployment benefits rather than an extension of their duration, while greater labor market flexibility, resulting from the reforms, should contribute to a greater coverage of unemployed persons. The expected reduction of overall and long-term unemployment under the influence of the new institutional framework, in spite of the possible emergence of low-paid and insecure jobs, might alleviate the problem of poverty, because unemployment and, especially, long-term unemployment are among the prime causes of poverty in the transition countries.

  12. The labour market of the Silesian voivodeship (Poland, and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłosowski Franciszek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship and its determinants between 2010 and 2012, although in order to show certain trends in changes data from the beginning of the 21st century are also used as a basis whereas from the more forward-looking perspective, projections up until 2020 were used. This market is very important from the nationwide perspective, and this is due to its complexity, size (it concentrates 2 million employed people, that is 14.4% of the whole workforce of Poland and specificity (industry still plays a crucial role. In order to achieve the objective indicated above, a set of measures relating to the number of employed people, business entities or GDP were used for the purpose of the analysis. The presented material shows the high volatility of the situation on the labour market both at the voivodeship level and individual communities – this is particularly true of the number of employed people and the rate of unemployment. An advantage of the newly created jobs over those that are shed which has been continuously recorded since 2008 and a decrease in the unemployment rate are positive symptoms. Katowice being the largest market and, moreover, characterised by the highest rank range of its impact and lowest unemployment rate have gained a dominant position in the regional labour market. Bielsko-Biała, Tychy, Gliwice and Bieruń-Lędziny County also clearly stand out against the background of other communities. The most difficult situation can be observed in Bytom, Świętochłowice, Piekary Śląskie and in the counties located in the northern part of the voivodeship, that is Częstochowa, Myszków and Zawiercie. Not only today but also in the coming decade, in terms of demand the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship will be strongly affected by its demographic situation; population decline, ageing population, migration, including, in particular, foreign migration will

  13. [Young rehabilitants in vocational training at the transition to the labour market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reims, N; Gruber, S

    2014-12-01

    This study tackles the question, whether and to what extent labour market integration is achieved by young rehabilitants participating in an apprenticeship provided by the Federal Employment Agency. In order to identify salient determinants for the entry into as well as the sustainability of fi rst employment, event history analyses are applied. After a relatively short period, first integrated rehabilitants mostly fi nd unsubsidized employment. The entry into employment is determined by factors similar to those influencing the labour market transition of young adults without disabilities: higher educational achievements, a successfully completed apprenticeship at best within an establishment, high regional mobility and good structural conditions favour labour market integration. Furthermore, physically disabled graduates and those with shorter unemployment and sickness periods stay longer in fi rst employment than graduates showing other disabilities and those with longer periods in unemployment and sickness.

  14. Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Denmark: Using or Losing human Capital?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Pohl Nielsen, Chantal

    information. (3) Wage-employment is the focus of the third part, where we will discuss the extent to which immigrants make use of their skills / education on the formal labour market. Characteristics of over-employed immigrants (i.e. those who are formally overqualified for their job) will be given, including......Joint Paper: Shahamak Rezaei, Chantal Pohl Nielsen & Marco Goli: The presentation will consist of three parts: (1) We will begin by providing a overall description of immigrants'participation in the Danish labour market (i.e. the shares of wage-employed, self-employed and non-employed) as well...... of self-employment as a last resort in response to barriers to entry into the formal labour market. A description of the self-employed based on register data will be provided, including level of education and indications as to whether or not this level of education is commensurate with the line...

  15. Labour market reforms in the context of political power theory: The case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity of labour market has several important negative economic consequences: it stifles job creation, increases discrimination of those that it is actually aimed at protecting (young, women and the low-skilled, hurts the unemployed, slows down economic restructuring and damages its global competitiveness. But reforms are slow and often marked with disputes among partners in the collective bargaining process. Afraid of social security loss, unions usually oppose the reform, while governments usually give in to the union pressures and negative image of reform consequences created by unions and assisted by media. The characteristics of the labour market and labour market reform with respect to bargaining among power groups are examined both theoretically and empirically in the case of Slovenia.

  16. Explaining Leaving Union Membership by the Degree of Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    By particularly stressing the weaker labour market attachment of workers with non-standard contracts, this article contributes to the rather unexplored issue of mainly non-union-related reasons for leaving trade unions. Germany has been selected as a case study because German unions experienced...... a steady decline in membership, while at the same time non-standard employment arrangements increased considerably and more so than the European average. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data, the authors construct a labour market attachment variable capturing different degrees of attachment....... Their analysis shows the impact of labour market attachment and firm-level characteristics on union leaving and points especially to important differences across gender....

  17. The impact of labour market imbalances on regional disparities in the post-crisis context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine how existing imbalances in the labour market influence regions’ future development and to formulate a series of recommendations that will allow that catching up process to be done in an sustainable manner.Basically, the objective refers to the integration of the development and restructuring strategy of the labour market policy to strengthen regional competitive advantage.Our intentions is to stress the fact that between labour market imbalances and regional disparities exists a bi-univocal relationship, both manifested in a complex external environment, dominated by variable factors and uncertainty.To achieve paper’ objectives scientific methods like: descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and aggregate indexes are applied.The main results are focused on formulating a set of scientifically based recommendations that can be used to conceive strategies whose overall objective is the reduction of economic disparities existing in certain regions through training and proper human resources development.

  18. The performance of the Czech labour market after the 2004 EU enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strielkowski Wadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there has been a significant change in the performance of the Czech labour market after the Czech Republic’s EU Accession in May 2004. We analyse methodological changes of measuring unemployment caused by inevitable legislative adjustments and follow the development of the Czech labour market and the inflows of foreign workers to the Czech Republic over the past two decades. Our results show that the EU Accession resulted in simplifying foreigners’ access to the Czech labour market and did not cause a significant change in its performance. Our findings might be of some relevance for the countries seeking EU Membership in the near future (e.g., Serbia or Montenegro.

  19. Perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their future labour market participation - an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, Nanna; Lund, Thomas; Winding, Trine Nohr; Labriola, Merete

    2017-03-31

    Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register of social benefits for 12 months in 2011-2012 and was categorized into active and passive labour market participation. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between perceived stress and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by gender. The effects of perceived stress on future labour market participation differed significantly among young women and young men (p = 0.029). For young men, higher levels of perceived stress reduced the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for socioeconomic factors, self-rated health and copings strategies (p = 0.045). For young women, higher levels of perceived stress increased the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for the same potential confounding factors, although unlike the men, this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.335). The observed gender difference has important implications from a public health point of view. Healthcare professionals might need to differentiate between the genders in terms of health communication, research and when developing preventive strategies.

  20. A narrative review on the effect of economic downturns on the nursing labour market: implications for policy and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alameddine Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Economic downturns and recession lead to budget cuts and service reductions in the healthcare sector which often precipitate layoffs and hiring freezes. Nurses, being the largest professional group in healthcare, are strongly affected by cost reductions. Economic downturns destabilize the nursing labour market with potential negative outcomes, including serious shortages, extending beyond the recessionary period. The objectives of this manuscript are to provide an overview of the potential short- and long-run impact of economic downturns on the supply and demand of nurses, and present healthcare decision makers with a framework to enhance their ability to strategically manage their human resources through economic cycles. A narrative review of the literature on the effects of economic downturns on the nursing labour market in developed countries was carried out with a special focus on studies offering a longitudinal examination of labour force trends. Analysis indicates that economic downturns limit the ability of public payers and institutions to finance their existing health workforce. As salaried healthcare workers, nurses are especially susceptible to institutional budget cuts. In the short run, economic downturns may temporarily reduce the demand for and increase the supply of nurses, thereby influencing nursing wages and turnover rates. These effects may destabilise the nursing labour market in the long run. After economic downturns, the market would quickly display the pre-recessionary trends and there may be serious demand–supply imbalances resulting in severe shortages. Potential long-term effects of recession on the nursing labour market may include a downsized active workforce, difficulty in retaining younger nurses, a decreased supply of nurses and workforce casualisation. Lack of understanding of labour market dynamics and trends might mislead policy makers into making misinformed workforce downsizing decisions that are

  1. Recent Developments and Probable Future Scenarios Concerning Seafarer Labour Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne; Poulsen, René Taudal

    2009-01-01

    for the maritime industries. In connection with this, the follow­ing issues are covered: the age and nationality structure of the coming seafaring workforce, future scenarios concerning the provision of seafaring education, and possible future reorgani­sation of broader shore-based maritime labour between nations...

  2. Foreign Language Skills for Employability in the EU Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita

    2011-01-01

    To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…

  3. Foreign Language Skills for Employability in the EU Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita

    2011-01-01

    To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…

  4. Dementia care and labour market : the role of job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Faber, M.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Braat, D.D.M.; Raas, G.P.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A labour shortage in the dementia care sector is to be expected in the near future in the Netherlands and in many other European states. The objective of this study is to analyse why people quit or avoid jobs in dementia care. METHOD: An integrative analysis was used to study reports, ar

  5. Dementia care and labour market : the role of job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Faber, M.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Braat, D.D.M.; Raas, G.P.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A labour shortage in the dementia care sector is to be expected in the near future in the Netherlands and in many other European states. The objective of this study is to analyse why people quit or avoid jobs in dementia care. METHOD: An integrative analysis was used to study reports,

  6. Training and Labour Market Integration of Education Science Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Amparo Jimenez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research behind this article is to identify the relationships that must exist between university training and the social and occupational environment. One of the many functions that derive from the university-society relationship is to train students to carry out certain professions. as a result, the analysis of the labour market…

  7. Determinants of regional female labour market participation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, An; Noback, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the determinants of female labour participation. Structural equation modelling is used to handle theoretical concepts and to solve the typical problem of multicollinearity. The proposed methodology is applied to a dataset for the year 2002 made up of a sample of 278 municipalities

  8. Gender Equality, the Labour Market and Fertility : A European comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Fertility has fallen to extremely low levels in Europe, prompting some to argue that we are on the brink of a ‘demographic crisis’ that will have serious societal consequences. There is also a parallel need to strengthen the labour force and increase productivity, materialized in

  9. Lost in transition? Substance abuse and risk of labour market exclusion from youth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torild Hammer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite low levels of youth unemployment in Norway, concerns have been raised about the high numbers of youth in inactivity, receiving health related social security benefits. It is argued that parts of the system of social security may work as welfare traps. OECD recommends welfare policies with the overall aim of fostering youth employability, not benefit dependency. In this article we use a unique combination of register data and survey data from the panel survey “work, lifestyle and health”. This survey follows a representative sample of the cohorts born between 1965 and 1968 from 1985 through follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2003. This allows us to follow individual life trajectories from ages 17-20 to 35-39. The aim of the article is first to study the impact of substance abuse upon risk of receiving social assistance, since previous research has found that receiving social assistance increases the probability of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Second, we analyse the impact of receiving social assistance, to have mental health problems and substance abuse in youth and consequences for labour market integration in adulthood. Analyses reveal that neither cannabis use nor alcohol consumption in youth have a direct effect on the risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. However, cannabis use increases the probability of receiving social assistance, which in turn increases risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Mental health problems in youth increase risk for later labour market exclusion, but these effects are mediated through factors like problem behaviour related to alcohol abuse and the use of illegal drugs other than cannabis. Receiving social assistance in youth has long time effects on the risk of labour market exclusion, especially for individuals from the lower socioeconomic groups.

  10. Generalised Partially Linear Regression with Misclassified Data and an Application to Labour Market Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Mammen, Enno; Wilke, Ralf

    We consider the semiparametric generalised linear regression model which has mainstream empirical models such as the (partially) linear mean regression, logistic and multinomial regression as special cases. As an extension to related literature we allow a misclassified covariate to be interacted...... with a nonparametric function of a continuous covariate. This model is tailormade to address known data quality issues of administrative labour market data. Using a sample of 20m observations from Germany we estimate the determinants of labour market transitions and illustrate the role of considerable...

  11. The organisation of work and systems of labour market regulation and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....

  12. The effect of psychiatric illness and labour market status on suicide; at healthy worker effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben

    2005-01-01

    admitted to a psychiatric hospital within the past year are at increased suicide risk. Patients who are unemployed, social benefits recipients, disability pensioners, or otherwise marginalised on the labour market have a suicide risk of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.46 to 0.78), 0.41 (0.23 to 0.74), 0.70 (0.45 to 1...... structural model is applied. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results show an increased suicide mortality associated with unemployment and labour market marginalisation in the general population, the results suggest little or an inverse association between unemployment and suicide in people with psychiatric illness...

  13. The impact of social housing on the labour market status of the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled.

  14. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  15. Application of Former Professional Players of e-sports on the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...

  16. Gender segregation in the labour market and education Denmark, 29-30 September 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    programme was, as it was phrased, dominated by women. Parallel with this observation, the policy objective of breaking down the gender-segregated labour market was established in the Danish national plans of action and as a result of analysis and observations of the effect of “the shortage of men” within......, for the benefit of work environment and labour market structure and for the sake of gender equality. The newest action has been a series of five projects (described in chapter 2.2.) that aim to promote more diversity and aim to attract, recruit and retain male pedagogues to childcare and kindergartens2, i.e. day...

  17. Application of Former Professional Players of e-sports on the Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lipták, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...

  18. Expectations of employers on the example of Słupsk local labour market (with the particular emphasis on the need for geographical competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmielińska-Pietraszek Paulina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On today's labour markets, the basic characteristics of the quality of the labour force is knowledge, qualifications, skills and experience possessed by it. Today, employers are looking for employees with high interpersonal competences, manners, responsible, hard-working, independent, honest and having the ability to learn quickly. For this, as an asset, they add the higher education, preferably directional, creativity and experience. The taken research area is characterized by economic lag in comparison with Gdańsk agglomeration area, as well as with other regions. In the article the reference was made to the declared needs of employers towards future employees, based on interviews conducted in 101 entities of the city of Słupsk and Słupsk county. The main aim of the research was to determine the usefulness of geographic knowledge for the local labour market. And thus indicating the possibility of increasing the attractiveness of geographical graduates in the labour market. Among the needs of employers of Słupsk labour market in accordance with the overall national trend, there is a large deficit of soft competencies, but also, among others, the gap typically professional related to information technology and engineering skills have been diagnosed. There has been a large gap identified in the ability to apply the knowledge (academic in practical activities, which is called by the employers 'the professional experience'. In contrast, the studies on the usefulness of (the attractiveness of the labour market competencies that are possible to learn while studying geography, showed the particular importance, valuable for the modern labour market skills of searching, collecting and processing of information. Currently in Poland, even in conditions of high unemployment existing mismatch between qualification and professional structure of supply and demand for labour can be observed. In the labour market, the presence is noted at the same time, the

  19. A Note on Child Policy and Fertility in an Overlapping Generations Small Open Economy: When the Labour Market Institutions Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine how fertility reacts to the public provision of child allowances in a small open economy with overlapping generations. When the labour market is competitive, we find that a child allowance policy acts as a fertility-enhancing device. In contrast, when the labour market is unionised the child policy may be ineffective.

  20. Getting through Closed Doors? Labour Market Entry among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth with Low Levels of Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storen, Liv Anne; Opheim, Vibeke; Helland, Havard

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the labour market situation among youth with low or medium levels of formal education. The analyses focus on studying the effects of level of competence, grades and immigrant background. Which factors contribute to labour market success among this group of youth? And which factors may increase the risk of not getting into the…

  1. Creating Linkages between the Labour Market and Agricultural Higher Education in Iran: Strategies and Mechanisms for Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Reza; Saadi, Heshmatollah; Farani, Ahmad Yaghoubi

    2011-01-01

    Employment of agriculture graduates in Iran is a major problem that needs to be addressed. There are three main issues: lack of robust strategies for linking agricultural higher education and the labour market, the lack of relevance of agricultural curricula to the real needs of the labour market, and diminishing levels of government services for…

  2. Renewing VET Provision: Understanding Feedback Mechanisms between Initial VET and the Labour Market. Research Paper No 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    A strong VET system is increasingly seen as essential to overcoming the current economic crisis in Europe. VET is seen as a powerful tool to assist in balancing labour market inefficiencies, increasing youth employment possibilities, and reducing skills mismatch. Its inherent flexibility and closeness to the labour market place VET in a good…

  3. Effects of migration flows on the host country labour market following the 2004 EU enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peković Drinka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries which did not restrict the access of new member immigrants to their labour markets. The analysis was realized for the period of 2004 to 2008 when the migration inflow was the largest. The empirical literature suggests that the migration effects on unemployment and employment probabilities of natives are very small. The young and low skilled native workers are more affected by migration flows than other groups of workers. Also, most empirical studies show small negative wage effects of immigration. Although the results of public researches and econometric studies have shown the modest potential labour migration flows from new member states and the small potential effects on EU-15 labour market, twelve out of fifteen old member states decided to apply transitional arrangements. The evidence presented in the report of the European Commission pointed out positive EU labour market impact of modest inflow of immigrants from new member states. Sectoral and skill composition of immigrants from new member states suggests their complementary role on EU labour market. The majority of immigrants from new member states are men, aged between 18 and 34, mediumlevel of education. Most immigrants have been employed in service sector, manufacturing and construction. The high employment rate of immigrants from new member states (78% and low unemployment rate (6% in the post-enlargement period have confirmed positive migration impact on EU labour market performances. The unemployment

  4. Population ageing, labour markets and the outlook for public finances

    OpenAIRE

    Helvi Kinnunen

    2002-01-01

    Keeping public finances on a sustainable foundation while the population ages is clearly a problem in Finland, as in many other western countries. The shrinking of the working-age population, ageing of the labour force, and growth in the number of very old persons form a difficult combination vis-à-vis sustainable public finances. An age structure that is changing in unfavourable ways has long-run consequences for balance of public finances and room for fiscal policy. With structural unemploy...

  5. Labour market effects of social security contributions reform in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković-Rakić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia the inactivity rate of the working-age population is close to 40%, among the highest in Europe. The country also faces a high informal employment rate of 24%. Previous research has argued that high levels of informality and inactivity are mostly due to a high effective tax wedge at low wage levels caused by a minimum base for calculation of social security contributions (SSC, sudden withdrawal of means-tested benefits once formal income is earned, and low progressivity of income tax. This paper evaluates the impact of the minimum SSC base reform scenarios on labour supply and employment formalization using tax and benefit micro-simulation models together with the structural discrete choice labour supply model based on the Survey on Income and Living Conditions Data. Although we do not find positive employment effects of the reform, it would be premature to deduce that abolishment of the minimum SSC base is not needed. At this stage in our research, until alternative labour-supply modelling is applied, with both sector and hours of work choice alternatives, it is only safe to conclude that the proposed reform will not significantly contribute to the transformation of informal full-time to formal full-time jobs.

  6. The impact of mental health on labour market outcomes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Frank, Richard G; Liu, Yuanli; Shen, Jian

    2009-09-01

    Mental illnesses account for 20% of the total burden of disease in China. Yet, health policy in China has not devoted much attention to mental health problems and their impact on Chinese society. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of mental health status on labour market outcomes, such as employment and income, and provide evidence about some of the economic consequences of mental illnesses. Using the China Health Surveillance Baseline 2001 Survey and an instrumental variables estimation approach, we address possible reverse causation between work and mental health. To estimate the impact of self-reported mental health status, we use the two-part model, the first part estimating a logit equation for the probability of being employed and the second-part estimating an ordinary least squares (OLS) model on the log of individual income condition on being employed. We use a list of symptoms of mental disorders to constitute a measure of mental health status. Our identification strategy relies on instruments that measure average mental health status by zip code other than the observed individual to implement an instrumental variables model. Both men and women suffer a significant reduction in the employment rate and annual income if the average mental health deteriorates at a population level. The mental health index has a positive and significant effect on the likelihood of being employed. Our findings are consistent with what has been found in industrialised countries. This is the first empirical study that reveals that poor mental health status can be disruptive of labour market activities in China. A rapid rise of mental and behavioural problems in population reflects the transition to a market economy and indicates pressing problems that have gone unrecognised and unaddressed. The negative economic consequences in labour market outcomes suggest a potential gain from preventing and curing the mental disorder. Our study about the impact of mental

  7. Hierarchical cluster analysis of labour market regulations and population health: a taxonomy of low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaner Carles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important contribution of the social determinants of health perspective has been to inquire about non-medical determinants of population health. Among these, labour market regulations are of vital significance. In this study, we investigate the labour market regulations among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs and propose a labour market taxonomy to further understand population health in a global context. Methods Using Gross National Product per capita, we classify 113 countries into either low-income (n = 71 or middle-income (n = 42 strata. Principal component analysis of three standardized indicators of labour market inequality and poverty is used to construct 2 factor scores. Factor score reliability is evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Using these scores, we conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a labour market taxonomy, conduct zero-order correlations, and create box plots to test their associations with adult mortality, healthy life expectancy, infant mortality, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and years of life lost to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Labour market and health data are retrieved from the International Labour Organization's Key Indicators of Labour Markets and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. Results Six labour market clusters emerged: Residual (n = 16, Emerging (n = 16, Informal (n = 10, Post-Communist (n = 18, Less Successful Informal (n = 22, and Insecure (n = 31. Primary findings indicate: (i labour market poverty and population health is correlated in both LMICs; (ii association between labour market inequality and health indicators is significant only in low-income countries; (iii Emerging (e.g., East Asian and Eastern European countries and Insecure (e.g., sub-Saharan African nations clusters are the most advantaged and disadvantaged, respectively, with the remaining clusters experiencing levels of population

  8. Analysis of the Structure of Job Offers on the Czech Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínek Tomáš

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Labour market development is an important macro-economic indicator of every national economy. Labour supply in particular fields should reflect on demands of employers on newly recruited employees. These demands can be analysed by studying published job offers. This analysis of Czech labour market is conducted based on the aggregated statistical data collected by an on-demand application. The studied data sample covers more than 60% of all the job offers published in the Czech Republic. The situation in respective occupational fields is compared with aggregate nation-wide average as well as with data from other fields. Results show distinct differences in absolute quantity of offers, compensations to employees offered as well as qualification requirements.

  9. THE EVOLUTION, BLOCKING STEPS AND NEW TRENDS ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU CONSTANTA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will focus on identifying the policies and strategies of employment for the graduates with a higher education in both the European Union and Romania, trying to create a framework of laws of the EU and Romania that should coexist in a perfect integration, in order to facilitate the insertion on the national and international labour market of qualified personnel. Considering that the labour market is seen as the contact area between graduates of higher education and the employing companies, we considered important to (reanalyze the labour market with all the elements that characterize its functions, including the theories, the relations between the offer and the demand on the labour market, but also the elements that determine the possible changes occurring in the process of integration and employment. Without any doubt, any critical situation that appears on the labour market shall entail the defining elements of unemployment seen as a distortion of the labour market. Unemployment represents a dramatic situation if we take into consideration the psychosocial aspects of a person that is in such a situation. Job loss is felt in different ways and in varying intensities by individuals who are affected on either short or long terms, according to their life experiences and conflicting trends that are specific to their personalities. We also wanted find out how well the modern economy functions in the development of the relationship between the society and the individual, thinking that it has become more and more difficult for higher educated graduates with expertise only at a theoretical level to be absorbed on the labour market without having in their portfolios years and years of practical experience. All of these analyses have led to the completion of a particular case study conducted on a group of subjects who are undergraduate students at the "Oil and Gas" University, in Ploiesti, concerning the integration of higher educated

  10. Economic Lives of Artists : Studies into Careers and the Labour Market in the Cultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rengers, M.

    2002-01-01

    The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two mo

  11. Learning to Be Swedish: Governing Migrants in Labour-Market Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterberg, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on adult learning in labour-market projects targeting unemployed migrants in Sweden. Drawing on a Foucauldian analysis of governmentality, the results of the study problematize the ways that such projects produce individualizing discourses--targeting individuals, constructing them as responsible for their position as…

  12. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  13. Matching of Developed Generic Competences of Graduates in Higher Education with Labour Market Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Pileicikiene, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Higher education provides graduates with both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Globalization and technological developments foster utilitarian approach, therefore the transmission of competences that are relevant in labour market is an important target for higher education institutions. The paper presents findings of research on the match of…

  14. Learning as Sociocultural Practice: Chinese Immigrant Professionals Negotiating Differences and Identities in the Canadian Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongxia; Guo, Shibao

    2013-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed both an expansion and a transformation of immigration flows, which pose significant challenges with respect to how people work with differences across culture and space. Against this background, this paper explores how some Chinese immigrant engineers respond to differences in the Canadian labour market. It not…

  15. Does it work? The Effect of Continuing Training on Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckhoff, Martina

    2007-01-01

    , which may affect the quality of the training provided. Drawing on data coming from the European Community Household Panel the article analyses (1) how far continuing training reduces the risk of future unemployment spells, (2) if training increases the odds of re-entering the labour market given...

  16. Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap, Regional Studies. This paper analyses gender-specific employment rates and the gender employment gap in Dutch municipalities for 2002. The novelty of this analysis is that it takes into account the e

  17. Family-Friendly Labour Market Policies and Careers in Sweden--and the Lack of Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornqvist, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour…

  18. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  19. Can Education Be a Path to Gender Equality in the Labour Market? An Update on Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…

  20. Higher Education, the Graduate and the Labour Market: From Robbins to Dearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide…

  1. Education and occupational status in 14 countries: the role of educational institutions and labour market coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Robert; van de Werfhorst, Herman G

    2010-06-01

    This article explores the role of national institutional factors--more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination--in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that skill transparency is the primary moderator. Countries with a highly transparent educational system (i.e., extensive tracking, strong vocational orientation, limited tertiary enrolment) tend to be characterized by a strong relationship between education and occupational status. These findings hold even after controlling for the level of labour market coordination. Nevertheless, we also find that labour market coordination plays an independent role by dampening the effect of education on occupational status. Taken together, these results suggest two quite different policy implications: (1) strengthening the skill transparency of the education system by increasing secondary and tertiary-level differentiation may strengthen the relationship between education and occupation, regardless of the level of coordination, and (2) increasing labour market coordination could lead to improved social inclusion and a reduction in inequalities related to educational attainment.

  2. Higher Education, the Graduate and the Labour Market: From Robbins to Dearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide…

  3. Eliminating national borders as labour market barriers in the EU : a socio-legal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, H.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to

  4. The Intergenerational Relationship of Occupational Status and Sex-Typing at Children's Labour Market Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, S.E.; Sanders, K.; Ganzeboom, H.B.G.

    2002-01-01

    To what extent do the mother's and father's jobs and occupational sex-typing influence the status and sex-typing of their children's occupation at first entry into the labour market? Referring to a database containing 5027 respondents of two merged Dutch surveys held between 1992 and 1995, this stud

  5. Labour Market Mismatch among UK Graduates: An Analysis Using REFLEX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…

  6. Young people and the post-recession labour market in the context of Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective i

  7. Short and long-term labour market consequences of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Davidsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse to what extent individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) leave the labour market earlier than individuals without CHD and to discuss the implications for rehabilitation. DATA AND METHODS: Individuals with CHD were identified from the Danish...

  8. STEM Education Policies and Their Impact on the Labour Market in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselova, Rita; Gravite, Aija

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the results of implementing the state education policy aimed at satisfying the labour market demand for engineering and medicine specialists via strengthening STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education both in schools and higher education. [For the complete Volume 15 proceedings, see ED574185.

  9. Careers in Academe: The Academic Labour Market as an Eco-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…

  10. The Intergenerational Relationship of Occupational Status and Sex-Typing at Children's Labour Market Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, S.E.; Sanders, K.; Ganzeboom, H.B.G.

    2002-01-01

    To what extent do the mother's and father's jobs and occupational sex-typing influence the status and sex-typing of their children's occupation at first entry into the labour market? Referring to a database containing 5027 respondents of two merged Dutch surveys held between 1992 and 1995, this stud

  11. The intergenerational transmission of occupational status and sex-typing at children's labour market entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, SE; Sanders, K; Ganzeboom, HBG

    2002-01-01

    To what extent do the mother's and father's jobs and occupational sex-typing influence the status and sex-typing of their children's occupation at first entry into the labour market? Referring to a database containing 5027 respondents of two merged Dutch surveys held between 1992 and 1995, this stud

  12. Returns on vocational education over the life cycle: Between immediate labour market preparation and lifelong employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2017-03-01

    An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On the other hand, these programmes tend to put less emphasis on developing general knowledge, skills and competencies, including numeracy and literacy, which are foundational to lifelong learning. Hence, when the needs of the labour market change, employees who opted for a vocational track when they were at secondary school risk being less flexible in adapting to such changes later in their career. The authors of this article examine whether this results in a trade-off between short-term gains and long-term losses by considering differences in the labour market careers of vocationally and generally educated respondents in the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Their results suggest that early labour market benefits of vocational specialisation decrease over time; the authors relate this to its lower ability to equip secondary school students - future employees - with skills for lifelong learning.

  13. Youth labour market integration across Europe: The impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional fa

  14. From Individual Heroism to Political Resistance: Young People Challenging Everyday Racism on the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathzel, Nora

    2006-01-01

    The labour market in Sweden today does not offer a rosy picture for young people. Among them are youth with a migrant background that have the lowest chance of becoming employed. The table below shows the unemployment rates of young people with a migrant background. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure and 11 notes.)

  15. Higher Education, Changing Labour Market and Social Mobility in the Era of Massification in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…

  16. Competition in online job marketplaces: towards a global labour market for outsourcing services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.; Lambregts, B.

    2015-01-01

    A new form of service outsourcing has emerged, namely the global online job marketplace for freelance contractors. Such platforms are currently the closest proxy to the idea of a global labour market where everyone competes for jobs regardless of location. In this article, we examine how competition

  17. Vocational Imagination and Labour Market Literacy: Young New Zealanders Making Education-Employment Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jane; Nairn, Karen; Sligo, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the concepts of vocational imagination and labour market literacy, arguing that these are important elements in the crafting of effective education-employment linkages. Evidence of truncated understandings of both is found in the talk of 93 young New Zealanders in transition from secondary school to their post-school lives. We…

  18. Returns on vocational education over the life cycle: Between immediate labour market preparation and lifelong employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2017-04-01

    An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On the other hand, these programmes tend to put less emphasis on developing general knowledge, skills and competencies, including numeracy and literacy, which are foundational to lifelong learning. Hence, when the needs of the labour market change, employees who opted for a vocational track when they were at secondary school risk being less flexible in adapting to such changes later in their career. The authors of this article examine whether this results in a trade-off between short-term gains and long-term losses by considering differences in the labour market careers of vocationally and generally educated respondents in the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Their results suggest that early labour market benefits of vocational specialisation decrease over time; the authors relate this to its lower ability to equip secondary school students - future employees - with skills for lifelong learning.

  19. Young people and the post-recession labour market in the context of Europe 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective

  20. Voices from the United Arab Emirates: Engineering Graduates' Labour Market Requisite Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sakran, Tharwat M.; Awad, Asmaa

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on engineering graduates' labour market requisite communication competences and skills in the work environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its main purpose was to investigate whether internationally required engineering graduates' communication competences were the same in third world countries or different. It used a…

  1. Higher Education, the Graduate and the Labour Market: From Robbins to Dearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide a…

  2. Employability Skills Initiatives in Higher Education: What Effects Do They Have on Graduate Labour Market Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Geoff; Williams, Gareth; Cranmer, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The present paper makes use of detailed information gathered at university department level, combined with graduate survey data, to assess the impact of different kinds of employability skills initiative on graduate labour market performance. We find that structured work experience and employer involvement in degree course design and delivery have…

  3. Labour Market Effects of the Polytechnic Education Reform: The Finnish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockerman, Petri; Hamalainen, Ulla; Uusitalo, Roope

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the labour market effects of the introduction of the polytechnic education system in Finland. The polytechnic reform gradually transformed former vocational colleges into polytechnics. Since the timing of the reform differed across schools, we can compare the performance of polytechnic graduates to the performance of…

  4. Recognising and Certifying Lifelong Skills: Impact on Labour Market Integration of the Unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Pedro Afonso

    2009-01-01

    The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…

  5. Markets, citizenship and rights: state regulation of labour migration in Malaysia and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2010-01-01

    The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of

  6. Immigrant performance in the labour market: bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.

    2012-01-01

    To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income

  7. The Impact of Labour Market Deregulation: Lessons from the "Kiwi"and "Polder" Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Cees; Poot, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Unemployment remains a major economic and social problem in many developedeconomies. This paper provides theoretical and empirical perspectives on the impact of labour market deregulation as a means of combatting unemployment and of enhancing competitive wage determination. The paper focusses specif

  8. Immigrant performance in the labour market: bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.

    2012-01-01

    To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income an

  9. Competition in online job marketplaces: towards a global labour market for outsourcing services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.; Lambregts, B.

    2015-01-01

    A new form of service outsourcing has emerged, namely the global online job marketplace for freelance contractors. Such platforms are currently the closest proxy to the idea of a global labour market where everyone competes for jobs regardless of location. In this article, we examine how competition

  10. Markets, citizenship and rights: state regulation of labour migration in Malaysia and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2010-01-01

    The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of ci

  11. Employability Skills Initiatives in Higher Education: What Effects Do They Have on Graduate Labour Market Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Geoff; Williams, Gareth; Cranmer, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The present paper makes use of detailed information gathered at university department level, combined with graduate survey data, to assess the impact of different kinds of employability skills initiative on graduate labour market performance. We find that structured work experience and employer involvement in degree course design and delivery have…

  12. The intergenerational transmission of occupational status and sex-typing at children's labour market entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, SE; Sanders, K; Ganzeboom, HBG

    To what extent do the mother's and father's jobs and occupational sex-typing influence the status and sex-typing of their children's occupation at first entry into the labour market? Referring to a database containing 5027 respondents of two merged Dutch surveys held between 1992 and 1995, this

  13. The Intergenerational Relationship of Occupational Status and Sex-Typing at Children's Labour Market Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, S.E.; Sanders, K.; Ganzeboom, H.B.G.

    2002-01-01

    To what extent do the mother's and father's jobs and occupational sex-typing influence the status and sex-typing of their children's occupation at first entry into the labour market? Referring to a database containing 5027 respondents of two merged Dutch surveys held between 1992 and 1995, this

  14. Comparing the labour market position of Poles and Bulgarians before and after migration to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Gijsberts, M.I.L.

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the pre- and post-migration labour market position of recent migrants to the Netherlands from Poland and Bulgaria. Previously it has been hypothesized that migrants loose job-status due to migration when the pre- and post-migration jobs are compared, foremost supported with

  15. ADJUSTMENT DURING THE CRISIS: INSTITUTIONAL BUFFERS ON THE EASTERN EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Babos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis had profound effects on labour markets of the EU member states in terms of a decline in employment and a rise in unemployment. This paper investigates how the states limited the impact of the change in economic output on the employment and the unemployment. The analysis suggests that there are different labour market institutions influencing the impact of the fall in GDP on the employment decline and unemployment increase. The first part of the paper explores and compares the extent to which the labour market institutions cushioned the impact of the economic crisis on the EU countries. The second part of this paper provides an in-depth comparative analysis of the labour market institutions and the adjustment mechanisms in Central Eastern European countries: Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia. In the end this paper suggests that the specific institutional setting of a country, according to the Varieties of Capitalism, might shape the form of the government response to the crisis and the effect of particular institutions on the adjustment channels. The study shows that adjustment in Slovenia took place mostly within the firms, while in Latvia the most efficient adjustment channels actuated outside the firms, mostly within the government sponsored training programmes and international migration. In Slovakia, government sponsored adjustment, which focused on maintaining the existing positions, prevailed together with the promotion of self-employment.

  16. Patterns of Changing Knowledge Orders: Insights from German and British Labour Market Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Max-Christopher; Pannowitsch, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Following an interpretative approach this paper investigates the role of knowledge orders, understood as settings which attribute relevance to specific expertise. The changing patterns of incorporation of expertise in policy formulation as well as public justification are analysed for German and British labour market policy. From a comparative…

  17. Labour Market Mismatch among UK Graduates: An Analysis Using REFLEX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…

  18. Does a Management Degree Do the Business for Women in the Graduate Labour Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The increasing dominance of an economic ideology of higher education, that its principal role is to contribute to national competitiveness, has increased focus on the employability of graduates and their transition into the labour market. Drawing on a major study of the early career paths of 1995 graduates from 38 UK higher education institutions,…

  19. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  20. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  1. The Impact of Welfare State to Labour Market. European Submodels Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show the effects which the measures to implement welfare state have to labour market. All knows that the employment represents the most important component of the welfare state, as it supports the fulfillment of the objectives for the economic and social policies. The argument of the previous statement is very simple: the expenses for social protection are made on the basis of the returns from taxes and social contributions paid by the employed persons. The higher their number, the bigger the tax basis, and the budget for the social policy will become sustainable, even though measures for decreasing taxation would be applied to companies and to the employed population. The entire virtuous mechanism may disintegrate if a low rate of employment persists. In case of a high unemployment on a long-term, of an early exit from the labour market, of a lower integration on the labour market of women, of young persons, of aged persons and of poorly qualified persons, the social expenses will increase and the budget revenues will decrease, the result being the increase in the state’s debt.The crisis will prove whether the increase in employment recorded since 2000 was conjunctural (determined by the favorable macroeconomical evolutions or structural (induced by the reforms implemented on the labour markets and in the social protection systems.

  2. Gender Equality in the Labour Market: Women and Men Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Grybaitė, Virginija

    2006-01-01

    Earnings are the fundamental determinant of economic welfare for employed individuals, as well as of the potential gain to market employment for those not currently employed. Earnings are important as a social indicator specifically in relation to gender equality. Ten years after the Beijing conference the gender wage gap still exists in the EU labour market. This paper gives a brief review of economic theories and different approaches to explain the wage gap problem and importance of legisla...

  3. ROMANIA – PORTUGAL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TWO COUNTRIES’ LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMIAN Gina Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our choice was justified by the fact that between the two countries exist some features that make them interesting to study from the employment point of view. Thus, both countries are Latin and this is why we consider they are comparable, because employment means people, more precisely mentalities and attitudes to work. We considered that it is interesting to see how the labour market from the east Latin Europe has evolved, in a comparable, crucial period, with its counterpart from west Latin Europe. First of all, we would like to point out the fact that our intention is to analyse the periods which from the economic history point of view have influenced in a decisive manner the present evolution of the two countries. The Portugal labour market is a subject of real scientific interest (we would like to mention that even Michael Porter was interested by this topic. Our paper tries to emphasize the common and different features of the two labour markets, in order to facilitate an experience sharing process on this topic. To achieve the paper’s objectives statistical and cluster analysis have been used. This is one of the best ways to capture the influence of determinant factors on labour market performance. The degree of originality is given by the assumed objectives, namely studying some very up-to-date problems from an interconnected perspective (historical similarities, structural changes, labour market performance and analyzing the Romanian situation compared to other EU countries, i.e. Portugal. The main impact of the paper will be on the practical level through the model outcomes and conclusions. One of the objectives is to look for solutions to the problems identified and to persuade policy makers to give them a greater importance. Our main contribution is represented by the fact that we have approached this topic from an economic and historical perspective, trying to find explanations for the present situation in the modern past of the

  4. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. LABOUR MARKET CHANGES IN ROMANIA. FACTORS, CAUSES, ADJUSTMENT MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reform of labour market and the modification of the human capital management model evolved unsteadily, much behind the demand from the economic and social environment. Labour market was pushed to a secondary plane, considering that the adjustment of the other markets would cause necessary changes for ensuring the functioning of the labour market. Now, Romania is involved in consolidating the market economy, which requires integrated procedures of dealing with the policies able to respond efficiently to challenges. Similarly to the economic reform, the chances in the labour market were gradual but there were no coherence and no correlation of the measures taken, which caused non-typical behaviours, often contrary to reforms.

  5. Migration, employment and the urban labour market: a study in the Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberai, A S; Manmohan Singh, H K

    1984-01-01

    "Fears are often expressed that migration to the towns is a cause of surplus labour, increased unemployment, and the general decline in the quality of life in urban areas. In a detailed study of the interaction between migration and the urban labour market in an Indian city, the authors investigate these questions and show how the migrants fare as compared with the urban natives. They find no evidence that migrants are confined to marginal employment or contribute disproportionately to urban underemployment. Policy-makers are cautioned against adopting measures to curb migration, which is part of the process of economic growth and social advance, without first making a detailed assessment of its effects."

  6. Immigration and integration policy and labour market attainment among Scandinavian immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Korpi, Tomas; Lorentzen, Thomas

    with individual level register information allowing us to account for immigrant labour force composition and to examine sub-groups of immigrants. The results indicate that the Danish reforms increased employment among groups of non-Western immigrants while simultaneously decreasing relative earnings. However......Comparing immigrant labour market integration, the OECD ranked the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden at the bottom. Integration depends on immigration and integration policy, and the countries’ policies have traditionally here been very similar. However, in the early 2000s Denmark...

  7. Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Human Capital in the Labour Market in Bosnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ilgün

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of job performance, job satisfaction and humancapital. It shows that together with monetary factors, such factors as theperception of the social importance of the job, the ability to meet good friendsin the team, and the atmosphere within which the respondents work, may alsohave a high level of impact on labour supply through human capital. The paperdemonstrates the power of non-monetary factors in achieving improvementsin the context of the ‘job performance-job satisfaction-human capital’ chain,thus bringing about positive changes in labour market supply in Bosnia.

  8. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Reka; Abraham, Arpad; Horvath, Tibor; Kopeczi-Bocz, Tamas

    Most deficiencies of the Hungarian labor market emerge from a combination of the transition crisis and special features of the economy or transition process. The most crucial labor market problem is low employment. Negative impacts are high taxation and social security contributions; reduced investment, job creation, and economic growth; and…

  9. Labour Market Theories and Distance Education: A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville

    1996-01-01

    Responds to comments on a previous series of three articles on labor market theories and distance education. Highlights include conceptual frameworks of Fordism, neo-Fordism, and post-Fordism; industrialization and its impact on education; work and academic work; mass production; and specialist markets and small-scale distance education systems.…

  10. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  11. A perfect match? A postcolonial perspective on well educated refugees at the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Jensen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    A perfect match? A post colonial perspective on well educated refugees on the Danish labour market In general, integration is hampered if refugees do not have a sufficient educational background to enter the labor market. However, it is estimated by Danish authorities that around 13......% of the refugees have a professional background in medicine, technical domains or engineering (The ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing). In Denmark efforts of integrating refugees can be accommodated by the fact that there is a shortage of highly skilled labor – mainly in the area of engineering...... and it-experts. This seems to be a perfect match, as the refugees hold the education and are eager to work. However, based on former studies on integration on labour market in Europe (Ahmed 2010, Jensen 2014) and the everyday discourses on refugees in Denmark we foresee that despite the refugees hold...

  12. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2013-01-01

    market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females) received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market...... participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational...... expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 16.1% (parents' divorce) for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 4...

  13. Immigration And The Labour Market In Castilla-La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vargas-Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades it has growing the scientific interest in the socio-economic impacts of immigration on labour conditions of native workers. The studies show that these impacts are generally very weak and they are relatively concentrated in certain economic sectors. In the Spanish case, the studies concur with this assessment but found some differences when analyzing the increase occurred in the last ten years, due in part to the sectorial composition and the different initial share of immigrant workers. With this framework, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of immigration on the employment in Castilla-La Mancha. Specifically, we study the general features of the incorporation of immigrant workers, their sectorial concentration and if there is a "replacement" effect over the native workers.

  14. Future Skilled-Labour Markets in Germany: from Model-Based Calculations to Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Maier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the potential development of the German labour market. For this purpose, wedeveloped a forecasting system that considers both supply and demand by occupational fi elds and qualifi cationsand that relies on consistent datasets, exogenous assumptions and systematic correlations. We presentthe key impacts for our forecasting system and highlight the eff ects of diff erent assumptions (scenariosexemplifi ed on our demand model. On the supply side, we point out how diff erent behaviours on the individuallevel infl uence the structure of development of the supply of skilled labour. Keeping the possibility of thosevarious potential futures in mind, we conclude with an outlook on potential skilled labour shortages inthe future.

  15. Globalization of labour markets challenges, adjustment and policy response in the EU and LDCS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem

    1997-01-01

    To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...

  16. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  17. Modelling regional labour market dynamics: Participation, employment and migration decisions in a spatial CGE model for the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiaan Persyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how regional labour market adjustments to macroeconomic and policy shocks are modelled in RHOMOLO through participation, employment and migration decisions of workers. RHOMOLO, being a multisectoral, inter-regional general equilibrium model, is complex both in terms of its dimensionality and the modelling of spatial interactions through trade flows and factor mobility. The modelling of the labour market is therefore constrained by the tractability and computational solvability of the model. The labour market module consists of individual labour participation decisions, including the extensive margin (to participate or not and the intensive margin (hours of work. Unemployment is determined through a wage curve and inter-regional labour migration decisions are modelled in a discrete-choice framework, with backward-looking expectations.

  18. Stabilität und Wandel von Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen aus wettbewerbsökonomischer Sicht (Stability and change of labour market institutions from an industrial organisation perspective)

    OpenAIRE

    Göddeke, Anna; Haucap, Justus; Herr, Annika; Wey, Christian

    2011-01-01

    "This contribution gives an overview of the main results of our theoretical research on the stability and change of labour market institutions. We use so-called models of unionised oligopolies which are borrowed from the theory of industrial organization in order to analyse the effects of simultaneous market power in both labour and product markets. The focus of our research is on the interaction between various organisational structures of labour markets and different forms of product market...

  19. European Globalisation Adjustment Fund-Assistance in the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of globalization and through intense manifestation of the effects on recent economic and financial crisis, employment market has been affected, and at European Union level was considered increasingly necessary granting support for counter of the negative effects of the two phenomena on this market. European Globalisation Adjustment Fund is designed for a rapid reintegration of fired workers and increase of the employment potential of the workforce, after mass dismissals linked to the two phenomena mentioned above.

  20. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    in extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  1. Labour-market marginalisation after mental disorders among young natives and immigrants living in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Magnus; Tinghög, Petter; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Saboonchi, Fredrik; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2017-06-23

    The aim was to investigate the associations between mental disorders and three different measures of labour-market marginalisation, and differences between native Swedes and immigrants. The study comprised 1,753,544 individuals, aged 20-35 years, and resident in Sweden 2004. They were followed 2005-2011 with regard to disability pension, sickness absence (≥90 days) and unemployment (≥180 days). Immigrants were born in Western countries (Nordic countries, EU, Europe outside EU or North-America/Oceania), or in non-Western countries (Africa, Asia or South-America). Mental disorders were grouped into seven subgroups based on a record of in- or specialised outpatient health care 2001-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by Cox regression models with both fixed and time-dependent covariates and competing risks. We also performed stratified analyses with regard to labour-market attachment. Individuals with mental disorders had a seven times higher risk of disability pension, a two times higher risk of sickness absence, and a 20% higher risk of unemployment than individuals without mental disorders. Individuals with personality disorders and schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses had highest risk estimates for having disability pension and long-term sickness absence, while the risk estimates of long-term unemployment were similar among all subgroups of mental disorders. Among persons with mental disorders, native Swedes had higher risk estimates for disability pension (HR:6.6; 95%CI:6.4-6.8) than Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.2) and non-Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.1), slightly higher risk estimates for sickness absence (2.1;2.1-2.2) than Western (1.9;1.8-2.1), and non-Western (1.9;1.7-2.0) immigrants but lower risk estimates for unemployment (1.4;1.3-1.4) than Western (1.8;1.7-1.9) and non-Western immigrants (2.0;1.9-2.1). There were similar risk estimates among sub-regions within both Western and non-Western countries

  2. LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ORADEA STUDENTS. EXPLORATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatos Roxana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the life of any young person, entering the labour market is one of the most important events. It can be an easy process or, on the contrary, it may be marked by many constraints and opportunities. The labour market for young graduates is different depending on the country in which he lives. Young labour market insertion can occur both after and during school graduation. He or she becomes, in the latter situation, an insider in the labour market. Many countries are reforming their education systems to provide their citizens with knowledge and skills that enable them to meet social and economic challenges of the society. Countries vary significantly from each other in their economic, socio-demographic and institutional characteristics. Our study focuses on the analysis of the University of Oradea graduates in the last four years. The sample includes 529 respondents from different academic specializations both BA and MA level. In this context, in our analysis we have 38% MA graduates and 62% BA graduates, of which 39% married and the remaining 61% unmarried. Of the total sample 78% have a job. More than half of the subjects (53,5% considered as good or very good the professional training provided by the UO. Validating our hypotheses, the correlation of field of study with the domain of the current job is higher in the case of MA level graduates and, moreover, it predicts the level of satisfaction of our subjects with the development opportunities (personal and professional provided by the educational programs of the University. It is clear, therefore, that MA graduates are more grateful to the University performance than BA degrees holders. It is proven, that the assessment of the academic programs on behalf of graduates depends heavily on their successful integration in the labor market. The limits of the study are

  3. Sex-Specific Labour Market Indicators: What They Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sara; Johnson, Lawrence Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Data indicate that women's experience in the labor market is substantially different from men's. Women work in different sectors for fewer hours; women have lower rates of education and literacy; and women are more likely to be unemployed, underemployed, or outside the labor force. (JOW)

  4. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  5. Self-employed but looking: a labour market experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koellinger, P.D.; Mell, J.N.; Pohl, I.; Roessler, C.; Treffers, T.

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether having previously been self-employed is a negative signal on the job market. In a UK field experiment where two applications of otherwise equally qualified individuals were sent out in response to the same vacancies in human resource management, we find that entrepreneurs systemat

  6. Labour Market Signals & Indicators. Education Research. Serial No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, L.; And Others

    A research project examined ways in which labor market signals and indicators were being used and might be used to identify needs that could be met through national Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems. Three case studies were undertaken in Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, and Costa Rica. The studies used a matrix that identified on…

  7. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  8. Kenyan Women, Higher Education and the Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rees; Mwiria, Kilemi

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the experiences of Kenya's female university graduates in the labor market. Examines sex differences in university participation rates, student socioeconomic background, academic performance, sector and level of first and current employment, earnings, promotion, and postgraduate education. Contains 51 references. (SV)

  9. Taking Part: Registered Nurses and the Labour Market in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, I.; Smith, G.

    The labor market participation, pay, job satisfaction, employment patterns, and turnover of registered nurses in the United Kingdom were examined through an analysis of data from the 1997 Royal College of Nursing (RCN) Survey. Of the random sample of 5,984 nurses from the RCN membership records surveyed, 4,288 (72%) returned usable questionnaires.…

  10. [Multilevel analyses of labour market and return to work after vocational retraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C

    2015-02-01

    is to test individual level and regional labour market hypotheses about return to work (RTW) after vocational retraining derived from matching theory. In multilevel analyses individual data of graduates in 2006 (n=3620) by the association of German "Berufsförderungswerke" and for contextual level the regional unemployment rates in 2007 (n=159 Federal Employment Agency of Germany districts) are used. Probability of RTW rises with decreasing regional unemployment. There's an age effect only in context of high unemployment. In context of low unemployment partnership promotes RTW - but in context of high unemployment only for men and not for women. It's compatible with matching theory because family obligations lead to high individual reservation wages and entry wages are to low. Direct and indirect effects of labour market should be taken into account in research on effectiveness and in comparative evaluation on intervention quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Gender segregation in the labour market and education Denmark, 29-30 September 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    programme was, as it was phrased, dominated by women. Parallel with this observation, the policy objective of breaking down the gender-segregated labour market was established in the Danish national plans of action and as a result of analysis and observations of the effect of “the shortage of men” within...... the field of care; the establishment of a number of discourses was started. These discourses still serve as a tool of explanation for and legitimisation of efforts, the purpose of which is to attract male pedagogues to childcare and kindergartens; for the sake of the boys and the quality of care......, for the benefit of work environment and labour market structure and for the sake of gender equality. The newest action has been a series of five projects (described in chapter 2.2.) that aim to promote more diversity and aim to attract, recruit and retain male pedagogues to childcare and kindergartens2, i.e. day...

  12. Hyperthyroidism is associated with work disability and loss of labour market income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    in labour market income. RESULTS: Hyperthyroid individuals had an increased risk of receiving disability pension: hazard ratio (HR) was 1.88, (95% CI: 1.57-2.24). Subdividing as to the cause of hyperthyroidism did not change this finding: Graves' disease (GD) HR was 1.51 (95% CI: 0.87-2.63) and toxic......OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of disability pension and changes in labour market income in patients with hyperthyroidism. METHODS: From a 5% random sample of the Danish population and twins from the Danish Twin Registry we identified 1942 hyperthyroid singletons and 7768 non-hyperthyroid (matched...... 1:4) controls as well as 584 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Singletons and twins were followed for a mean of 9 years (range 1-20). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risk of disability pension and a difference-in-differences model was used to evaluate changes...

  13. Vulnerability and Resilience at the Edge of the Danish Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the working life experiences of a group of men posed at the edges of the Danish labour market, this article analyses the attitudes and practices these men embrace to cope with various challenges encountered in their locality. The men whose working life histories are discussed...... of an emergent offshore sector in the region, namely the upgrading and overhauling of the two jack-up rigs ‘Mærsk Guardian’ and ‘Mærsk Giant’ which took place in the town of Hirtshals in 2011 and 2012. Picking out two working life trajectories for closer analysis, the paper discusses how labour market...... in the article have two things in common: they live at the northern shore of Denmark in an area marked by high levels of unemployment, low levels of education and gradual depopulation. And they have found (temporary) work in connection with the (at the time) two most spectacular symbols of the success...

  14. Citizens of Serbia in focus of the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuković Danilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mutual dependence of the labor market and the population, since the supply of the labor force depends on population size and its structure. The demographic aspects of the labor market are especially analyzed and it is shown that the supply of the labor force does not depend only on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the population but that the mutual dependence of the labor market and demographic factors are much more complex and multiply expressive. An analysis of the key trends on the labor market presented in this paper indicates that the global economy requires an increasingly flexible labor force. In that sense, the forecasts of numerous economists and sociologists are based on the conviction that more and more people in future will become workers with a portfolio. They will posses a certain number of skills and qualifications which they will use to transfer from one job on to another during their working life. A continuous profession, namely a steady career, in today's sense of the word, will only a relatively small number of people have. It all goes in favor of the theory that having a 'job for your whole working life' is becoming a thing of the past. In this paper it is further concluded that for tracing the path for an efficient labor market, it should be considered that, during the nineties of the last century, there has been an increase in poverty and a change in population structure, not only because of a large inflow of refugees and internally displaced persons, but due to emigration of the younger population and an increase of the old, ill and dependant persons. All these changes greatly influenced the supply of the labor force, in a quantitative and qualitative way, and thus the strategy for increasing employment should be adjusted. The rapid expansion of the underground-informal economy must be added to all this, which grew rapidly in the nineties of the last century, naturally to the

  15. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  16. Wage premia and wage differentials in the South African labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to highlight wage trends and patterns in the South African labour market through examining wage premia and wage differentials. The analysis utilises data from the October Household Survey of 1995. Findings show that the regular race, gender and educational differentials arise when looking at median wages, with the racial wage gap being more severe than the gender wage gap. One of the key reasons for the racial wage differential, specifically between that of ...

  17. Gains from trade: Implications for labour market adjustment and poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi; Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper reassesses the gains from trade for sub-Saharan Africa, and draws their implications for labour market adjustment and poverty reduction. It reviews previous studies on multilateral liberalization, focusing on the findings from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models with relevance to African economies. The implications of these findings for poverty reduction are discussed. Our own CGE exercise supports the hypothesis that African countries cannot expect substantial gains from f...

  18. The impacts of education and training on the labour market experiences of young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Kevin; Harmon, Colm

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses pooled cross-section data on recent school leavers in Ireland to model the determinants of labour market status and wages for young adults. Firstly we use a multinomial logit model to analyze whether individuals exit school to employment, unemployment or higher education. Family background is an important predictor for participation in higher education reflecting the degree of rationing in the system. The level of educational attainment influences the probability of entering h...

  19. Studying abroad and the effect on international labour market mobility: evidence from the introduction of ERASMUS

    OpenAIRE

    Parey, Matthias; Waldinger, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of studying abroad on international labour market mobility later in life for university graduates. We exploit the introduction and expansion of the European ERASMUS student exchange programme as an instrument for studying abroad. We find that studying abroad increases an individual's probability of working in a foreign country by about 15 percentage points. We investigate heterogeneity in returns according to parental education and the student's financial situation. ...

  20. Social protection sustainability, prolongation of working life and greater participation of women in the labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, M; Cesana, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest problems of European societies is the financial sustainability of social protection systems in Europe. Together with Japan, Europe has the highest levels of ageing population in the world. This concern explains the reiterated insistence of the European Commission and the OECD regarding the reforms that governments should undertake. In this paper, reference is made to two of these reforms: prolonging of working life and a greater participation of women in the labour market.

  1. Examining the relationships between labour market mismatches, earnings and job satisfaction among immigrant graduates in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, Seamus; Byrne, Delma

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses graduate survey data and econometric methods to estimate the incidence and wage/job satisfaction effects of over-education and overskilling among immigrants graduating from EU 15 based universities in 2005. Female immigrants with shorter durations of domicile were found to have a higher likelihood of overskilling. Newly arrived immigrants incurred wage penalties' which were exacerbated by additional penalties resulting from overskilling in the male labour market and overeducat...

  2. The relative importance of local labour market conditions and pupil attainment on post-compulsory schooling decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Meschi, Elena; Swaffield, Joanna; Vignoles, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative importance of local labour market conditions and pupil educational attainment as primary determinants of the post-compulsory schooling decision. Using a nested logit model we formally incorporate the structured and sequential decision process pupils engage with. Our findings show that, on average, the key drivers of the schooling decision are pupil educational attainment and parental aspirations rather than local labour market conditions. However, there is som...

  3. PREDICTED IMPACTS OF PENSION REFORM ON THE LABOUR MARKET IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Urbaniak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension system reforms increasing retirement age and accentuating citizens’ individual responsibility for the amounts of their future pensions have effects on labour markets. This article provides an analysis of factors determining the interest of employees over 50, and even those over 45, in continued employment, as well as of relevant compulsion and risk factors. Some of the discussion deals with the assumptions underlying the Polish pension system reform and its likely effect on longer working lives. A hypothesis is formulated that for older employees to continue employment, working conditions must improve, as the responses of both older employees and their employers reveal insufficient sensitivity to the need to adapt the conditions to the capabilities of an ageing workforce. Yet, even if the necessary measures are taken, occupational stratification leading to the emergence of age-segmented labour market with low-skilled, precarious, and part-time jobs is unavoidable. The article is partly based on the results of a survey that a University of Łódź team conducted for the project Diagnosis of the current situation of women and men aged 50+ on the labour market in Poland, funded by the European Social Fund.

  4. Does obesity influence labour market outcomes among working-age adults? Evidence from Canadian longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira

    2016-03-01

    Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.

  5. Maternity Leave Policies: Trade-Offs Between Labour Market Demands and Health Benefits for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society.

  6. Prospective Analysis of the Current Demand of the Local Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinina Viktoriya V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in forecasting tendencies of the current demand of the local labour market on the basis of the method of statistical equations of dependencies and correlation and regression analysis for prolongation of relevant processes at the meso-level. The article considers a forecast model for co-ordination of dynamics of vacancies depending on socio-economic indicators of city development, which is formed on the basis of the method of statistical equations. This method requires identification of parameters of equations of single-factor dependencies and ratios of communication stability. On the basis of calculated values of these parameters and on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling of certain macro-economic indicators, the article builds equations of multiple regression, use of which would allow forecasting the current demand in the local labour market in the middle-term perspective. The prospect of further studies is forecasting the level of current balance of the local labour market, using the provided methods for forecasting the current supply.

  7. The relationship between immigration and labour market performance in Sabah’s oil palm plantation sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Mansur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between immigration and labor market performance in Sabah region's oil palm plantation industry. The labour market performance refers to the wages and employment of local workers in the oil palm plantation sector. The relationship of these variables can be in short run or/ and in the long run. This study uses Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to examine the relationship between the immigration and labour market performance. In fulfilling this study, Johansen cointegration test is used to determine the relationship among the variables - immigration, employment and wages. The data are collected from the Department of Statistics Malaysia, Labour Department, Farmers’ Organization Authority Malaysia, National Archives of Malaysia and Sabah Agricultural Department over the past 31 years. The result shows that there is a relationship between immigration and employment of local workers in short run and long run. While, there is no relationship between immigration and wages either in short or long run.

  8. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to Access the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Marumoagae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers need to consider employing persons with disabilities and also reasonably to accommodate them within South African workplaces. I further illustrate efforts by the legislature to eradicate forms of unjustified discrimination against persons with disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. I argue that all of us need to understand how cultural, social, physical and other barriers continue to prevent persons with disabilities in South Africa from enjoying their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it is desirable that society at large and government work together towards eradicating barriers which prevent persons with disabilities from accessing the labour market.

  9. Romanian Labour Market – Vulnerable persons and vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela TODOSE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Romanian economy’s transition process began suddenly and was accompanied by disintegration of former political and economic system. In terms of GDP per capita, Romania has been one of the poorest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Also, the Romanian economy was one of the most agrarian economies in Europe. Completely isolated from the informational point of view, Romania had a fully centralized economic system. Beginning of transition was completely chaotic, especially because of the complexity of integrating the fundamentals of democracy and market economy. Internal problems, instability, political corruption or lack of appropriate reforms have led to a difficult restructuring and privatization process.In this paper we present and analyze the tendencies and vulnerabilities on Romanian labor market between 19991 and 2009 versus EU member states. There were identified three shocks with major social impact on Romanian economy: the revolution in December 1989; the EU accession in January 2007 and the world economic crisis began in 2007. These three structural shocks have deeply influenced and still do the evolution of Romanian labor market.

  10. Mercado de trabajo, salud laboral e inmigración Labour market, occupational health and immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de cambio económico y social que está experimentando Navarra en las últimas décadas está asociado con la llegada de un flujo de inmigrantes creciente a partir del nuevo siglo. Su influencia ha sido decisiva como factor de cambio económico en términos de crecimiento de producción y demanda interna. Se está construyendo una Navarra diferente gracias al fenómeno migratorio. Analizaremos en primer lugar su impacto en el crecimiento demográfico. Se valora su influencia en el mercado de trabajo con sus luces y sus sombras. El colectivo de extranjeros supone ya el 10% de la población activa y su presencia en algunos sectores productivos es decisiva para la viabilidad de los mismos. Se revisan las disfunciones y los problemas del mercado de trabajo, especialmente el tema de la siniestralidad. Para finalizar se expone el comportamiento de los indicadores de incapacidad temporal en dicho colectivo. Aunque este fenómeno ha supuesto un desequilibrio en algunos ámbitos de la política social (educación, vivienda, sanidad se puede afirmar que el modelo de integración en Navarra se basa en un sistema de bienestar generoso, un clima social en general tolerante y un crecimiento económico sostenido.The process of economic and social change that Navarra has undergone in recent decades has been associated with the arrival of a growing flow of immigrants since the start of the new century. They have had a decisive influence as a factor of economic change in terms of production increase and internal demand. A new Navarra is being built thanks to the phenomenon of migration. In the first place, we analyse their impact on demographic growth. Their influence on the labour market, with its highlights and shadows, is evaluated. Foreigners already are about 10% of the active population and their presence in some productive sectors is decisive for their viability. The dysfunctions and problems of the labour market are reviewed, especially the

  11. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  12. IMPACT OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE AUSTRIAN TRADE, FDI AND LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.

  13. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE CHILD LABOUR PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY IN A POPULATION WORKING IN THE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT MARKETS OF HYDERABAD, A.P. DURING 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamala Koteswaramma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every child is a supremely important asset of the nation because future welfare of nation and society is entirely determined on how its children grow and develop. But child labour is the one which deprives the children all means. The markets are those who employ the children without any facilities. So far study was conducted to know the problems of these child labourers. METHODS & MATERIALS The present study was an analytical study done during 2012-2013, among the working children at vegetable and fruit markets of Greater Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh with sample size of 200 from such major markets of 12. Selection of markets and study subjects were done by simple random sampling method. And data was gathered with pre-designed and pilot tested tool by conducting a medical camp in a weekday, in the market premises after taking the permission from the market yard chairman and consent of the child or parent to participate in the study. We gave medical treatment and also made suitable referrals if required. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Present study shows the child labour prevalence rate as 22.79%. And it was high among male children. Gender discrimination was seen in school dropout rate and never attending school rate, which are the significant causes in female child to become a labourer. Scheduled caste, Scheduled tribes and Muslim children are more prone to child labour. Poverty was the leading cause of child labour in both the age groups (96.1% followed by illiteracy, ignorance and bad habits of the parent(s. RECOMMENDATIONS Strict implementation of the child trafficking and child labour prevention act by labour department along with external agencies’ supervision in urgent need. Along child welfare, family and female education and empowerment activities, below poverty line families’ income generation schemes can reduce child labour.

  14. THE INTEGRATION OF POST-INSTITUTIONALIZED YOUTH ON THE LABOUR MARKET – 15 YEARS’ EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Ghica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 1. Type of experience: The experience that this article is referring to is the socioprofessional integration of the youth who leave the child protection system.2. Characteristics of the organization/of the activity presented: COTE Foundation – established in 1996, develops social and professional integration programmes and services for children and youth coming from the child protection system. COTE Foundation has a 15 years’ experience in working with children and youth coming from the protection system, and has supported over 700 youth who havebeen offered services for social and professional integration.3. New/positive aspects from this experience: The positive aspects highlighted by the experience described are: a holistic approach of the professional integration process, mentoring at the work place, dependence-independence dynamics, solving ethical dilemmas and the importance of learning through experience.4. Potential questions: to what extent can the principles validated by this experience be successfully applied in the context of the integration on the labour market of other vulnerable groups?

  15. The Improvement of HR-management as a Factor of Increasing of Companies’ Competitiveness in the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyar Kateryna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my article were researched market economy mechanisms for increasing the competitiveness of companies in the labour market. The paper target was to prove the need to use economic and administrative mechanisms to improve a level of competitiveness of the company in the labour market. Such researches become more important today, because after my empirical analyse of literature I can only conclude that not a lot of researchers studied in this field of science and the most theories suggest that only employees must be competitive on the labour market. But as a result of my research I can deny this one-sided view and can confirm that nowadays not just employees, but also employers compete with each other in the labour market. So, successful organizations must pay big attention to the processes of HR-management, which must be improved. But not enough attention is paid to the system of management and its impact on workers. It is important to form close links between existing system management with inherent for company effective economic management mechanisms in the companies with the level of competitiveness of the company in the labour market. So the results of my research showed that companies must develop economic and administrative mechanisms to improve their competitiveness in the labour market. These mechanisms are a set of applied styles and methods of management that have a direct impact on the loyalty of workers and consequently, enhance its competitiveness both inside the company and in external labour markets. So I can conclude that the paper target was achieved.

  16. Competitiveness, Trade with the EU and Labour Markets: Challenges for the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrić Valerija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between exporting and the labour markets of the Western Balkan economies within a macroeconomic and microeconomic framework. Within the macroeconomic framework we investigate the Western Balkan countries’ evolution of the bilateral intra-industry trade share with European Monetary Union members and compare this with the differences in bilateral unit labour cost dynamics. The microeconomic analysis rests on enterprise-level cross section data collected during the crisis period and investigates whether exporters help to create additional jobs in the region in comparison to entrepreneurs oriented towards national market. The results show that trade patterns between Western Balkan economies and EMU trading partners did not exhibit any significant changes in trend. On the other hand, it seems that during the recession period most Western Balkan economies adjusted their unit labour costs, probably in order to boost competitiveness. Microeconomic analysis revealed that, although there are some positive differences between exporters and non-exporters, exporters do not create additional employment.

  17. Positive and Disputable Consequences of Connecting Science and Education with Labour Market Within New Polish Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiatrowski Zygmunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of positive and disputable consequences of connecting science and education with labour market within new Polish reality has been analyzed. The dominant determinants of contemporary civilization development namely science, education and labour have been stressed. Tasks of pedagogical sciences have been outlined among which are accumulation of knowledge on the educational reality, a reliable description in form of reporting, determining how educational processes should proceed, summarizing the collected results of observation, detection of relationships and interdependencies between educational phenomena and formulating conclusions in the form of general statements, presenting appropriate courses of educational processes, providing knowledge necessary for transforming the educational reality. The theoretical analysis of the literature references and documental sources gave grounds to state that it is high time for carrying out a far reaching reconstruction of science exercised in vast structures of higher education, education, often implemented “by force”, for the social and political applause, without sufficient concern about the effects and the quality of education, including the context of the possibility of full employment and natural strive for a career, almost pathologically functioning labour market, failing to solve and continually worsening and widening the difficulties increasingly experienced by employees.

  18. A perfect match? A postcolonial perspective on well educated refugees at the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Jensen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    % of the refugees have a professional background in medicine, technical domains or engineering (The ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing). In Denmark efforts of integrating refugees can be accommodated by the fact that there is a shortage of highly skilled labor – mainly in the area of engineering...... and it-experts. This seems to be a perfect match, as the refugees hold the education and are eager to work. However, based on former studies on integration on labour market in Europe (Ahmed 2010, Jensen 2014) and the everyday discourses on refugees in Denmark we foresee that despite the refugees hold...... and static, which has constructed West as rational, democratic and dynamic (Said 2004) will be discussed in relation to the position refugees in the Danish labour marked is supposedly offered. The work of Gayatri Spivak, “Can the subaltern speak? will also be included. Based upon former studies of immigrants...

  19. Cancer stage, comorbidity, and socioeconomic differences in the effect of cancer on labour market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Andersen, Ingelise

    2015-01-01

    Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between...... employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income. CONCLUSION: The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated...... educational attainment and disease on employment. RESULTS: There is significant interaction between education and breast cancer, but it is only marginally affected by including stage and comorbidity in the regression models. Education, breast cancer stage, and comorbidity all have strong effects on later...

  20. Gender Segregated Labour Markets in the Baltics: What are Prevailing – Similarities or Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Vöörmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on men and women and the gender segregation of jobs in the Baltic countries. Based on the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian labour force survey data, a look is taken at the employment structure of men and women by industries and occupations, as well as at the question whether or not gender segregation in the labour market has been increased after the collapse of the communist systems in the region under consideration. Empirical data demonstrate that in respect to industrial gender segregation there is some increase in Estonia and Latvia, but not in Lithuania. Occupational gender segregation demonstrates more stability in all three Baltic States. Compared to the Western European countries, the main trend is towards bigger similarities.

  1. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr; Biering, Karin; Labriola, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83%) completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females) received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 16.1% (parents' divorce) for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for young adults. Knowledge of negative life events in childhood

  2. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83% completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 16.1% (parents' divorce for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. CONCLUSIONS: Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for

  3. Entrepreneurial Competencies as a Competitive Advantage in the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Sedlan König

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available European Union Member States as well as candidate countries have defined the development of entrepreneurial competencies of their citizens as a priority task and as a result this area has been gaining a growing interest among education professionals. In the context of the impending accession of the Republic of Croatia to the EU, Croatia has also made efforts to encourage the development of entrepreneurial competencies as a key factor in supporting economic growth and competitiveness. In addition to promoting the growth of new businesses, entrepreneurial competencies affect the development of an entrepreneurial mindset and more efficient use of the creative potential of existing knowledge and skills. As a result, there is an increasing interest in educational programs that encourage and develop entrepreneurial competences. In order to determine the importance of entrepreneurial competencies and identify the factors that affect their acquisition, an empirical study was conducted using a structured questionnaire and a sample of 324 students of the University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek. Besides univariate descriptive statistical analysis, we have used a bivariate analysis and multivariate statistical analysis of the data. The results have confirmed that the more developed the entrepreneurial competencies, the greater the tendency towards entrepreneurial behavior and the likelihood of setting up a business. Study results show that students who participate in extracurricular activities, as well as those who come from entrepreneurial families show higher entrepreneurial skill levels. The study has also confirmed that teaching per se does not significantly contribute to the development of entrepreneurial competencies and that extra-curricular activities have a much more important role. Entrepreneurial competence is the key to increasing the competitiveness of an individual and enhancing personal development, and consequently a sustainable

  4. [Impact of the labour market on vocational retraining centre participants' return to work: a study on employment agencies level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Schmidt, C

    2012-08-01

    This paper is aimed at identifying labour market factors impacting vocational retraining centre participants' return to work on Employment Agencies level and at comparing results to unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). Databases are regional return to work rates of 2006 graduates, selected labour market indicators 2007, and the 2007 labour market classification of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The n = 75 Employment Agency districts where 74.5 % of the participants followed-up lived were analyzed using analyses of variance and multiple loglinear regression. Compared to the unemployment context (Social Code Book III), the impact of the labour market is much lower and less complex. In the multiple model, the regional unemployment rate and the regional tertiarization rate (size of the service sector) are found to be significant and superior to the IAB-classification. Hence, participants' return to work is less dependent on labour market conditions than unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Masculinities, femininities and work – the horizontal gender segregation in the Danish Labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Most job functions, tasks and professions are gendered as either ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’. On the basis of two empirical studies of women in ‘men’s jobs’ and men in ‘women’s jobs’ the article shows how societal ideas about and relations between gender and work affect the way in which individual ...... women and men develop their identities and hereby influence women’s and men’s work orientations and working life. Thus, the article provides a greater understanding of the gendering processes which contribute to the creation of gender segregation in the Danish labour market....

  6. Labour Market Developments, Non-standard Employment and Low Wages in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2014-01-01

    In terms of basic labour market developments and outcomes Germany is faring comparatively well. Indeed, against the European trend, Germany saw employment rates increasing and unemployment decreasing during the economic crisis. But since the deregulatory Hartz reforms of the early and mid-2000s......, the last decade saw non-standard forms of employment increasing substantially and the low wage sector surging. One of the aims of the Hartz reforms was to increase employment opportunities, among other in the low wage sector, especially in services. Non-standard workers and among them fixed-term, temporary...

  7. A network analytical approach to the study of labour market mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    The aim of this paper is to present a new network analytical method for analysis of social mobility between categories like occupations or industries. The method consists of two core components; the algorithm MONECA (Mobility Network Clustering Algorithm), and the intensity measure of Relative Risk...... of the typical theory driven definition of the labour market segments, the use of social network analysis enable a data driven definition of the segments based on the direct observation of mobility between job-positions, which reveals a number of new findings....

  8. The role of workfare in striking a balance between incentives and insurance in the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    Workfare policies are often introduced in labour market policies to improve the trade-off between incentives and insurance as an alternative to benefit reductions. Most of the debate on such policies has focussed on the direct effect of those participating in the scheme, and in particular....... This implies that unemployed not yet in workfare may search more for regular jobs, and employed may accept lower wages since the outside option becomes less attractive. Introduction of workfare policies into an unemployment insurance scheme is shown to contribute to a reduction in both open and total...

  9. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  10. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  11. Labour market regulation in Denmark during and beyond the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jens; Rasmussen, Erling Juel

    policy ‘soul-searching’ and adverse economic and social changes. The so-called ‘Danish Model’ of employment relations and its ‘flexicurity’ approach has been heralded by many commentators for its ability to being adaptive and creating win-win economic, social and labour market outcomes (Auer, 2000; Due......-invent and adjust the ‘Danish Model’, we are not going to predict any firm outcomes. Instead we focus on three major ‘threats’ to the ‘Danish Model’: the shift in economic thinking and public policy, the undermining of flexicurity (in particular the equality and equity dimensions), and changes in key employment...

  12. FEATURES OF A LABOUR MARKET ANALYSIS IN KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of a formation of demand for labour and labour supply in the science-intensive economy are presented in the article. Problems of a labour mobility of Persian Gulf countries are investigated.

  13. MEASURING OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE ON THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE CZECH CONSTRUCTION SECTOR BY THE MEANS OF NAIRU

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    Božena Kadeřábková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the economic cycle on the labour market in the whole national economy and in the construction sector of the Czech Republic, working with NAIRU. This variable is estimated with the use of the consumer price index and the construction work price index. By comparing the obtained NAIRU values with the real unemployment rates we determine the phase of the economic cycle. We verify the localised phases of the cycle on the labour market in the national economy and in the construction sector with the development of the real unemployment rate and the added value. Thanks to this approach we get the insight into the development of unstable periods on the labour market.

  14. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    :That is, along with a second wave of East-West movements around 2001 net flows out of East Germany were much higher than expected after controlling for its weak labour market and macroeconomic performance. Since this second wave is also accompanied by a gradual fading out of economic distortions......This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West...

  15. Poland: Fertility decline as a response to profound societal and labour market changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baranowska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article opens with a review of the main trends in family-related behaviour, i.e. fertility decline and changes in fertility patterns, a decreasing propensity to marry, postponement of marriage, and a slowly increasing frequency of divorces and separations. The analysis takes into account urban and rural differences. We then aim to identify the main determinants of family changes within the general conceptual framework of the Second Democratic Transition (SDT in Poland. However, contrary to mainstream interpretations of the SDT, the main emphasis of this study is on the structural components of change, which need to be reformulated to account for processes specific to the transition to a market economy. The focus is, therefore, on labour market developments and family policy, and to a lesser extent on ideational change.

  16. Herausforderungen des demografischen Wandels für den Arbeitsmarkt und die Betriebe (Challanges faced by the labour market and companies due to the demographic change)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellmann, Lutz; Hilpert, Markus; Kistler, Ernst; Wahse, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    "Discussions about the consequences of the demographic change for the labour market and the economy have always been influenced by the idea that the unavoidable ageing and shrinking of the population relatively soon results in a lack of labour, a 'demographic change on the labour market', and in a threat to the innovative and growth potential due to the ageing workforce. In the first part, this study analyses the course of the demographic changes, which do not occur linearly, and challenges a...

  17. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West......, this supports the view of “repressed” migration flows for that period....

  18. Effects of Tertiary Expansion: Crowding-Out Effects and Labour Market Matches for the Higher Educated. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines crowding-out effects and the labour market match for the tertiary educated in 26 OECD countries, using attainment data and data on labour market outcomes from Education at a Glance 2006. A first-difference approach is applied on a three-period, pooled country-panel to examine the effects of changes in tertiary attainment levels…

  19. Misalignment between Post-Secondary Education Demand and Labour Market Supply: Preliminary Insight from Young Adults on the Evolving School to Work Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…

  20. Do Grades in Higher Education Matter for Labour Market Rewards? A Multilevel Analysis of All Norwegian Graduates in the Period 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelsen Røberg, Karl Ingar; Helland, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of grades from higher education on labour market outcomes. Economic theory predicts that grades are rewarded in the labour market because employers regard them as an expression of valuable skills or a signal of other sought after attributes. Social closure, however, may give reason to expect no effects. Whether good…

  1. Labour-Market Orientation and Approaches to Studying--A Study of the First "Bologna Students" at a Swedish Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anders; Sandberg, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated labour-market orientations of students at a Swedish University with a dual/diverse focus on vocational/academic objectives. The aim was to investigate whether and how levels of students' labour-market orientation vary with social background, change during the study period, and are related to approaches to studying and…

  2. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  3. BRIEF DEPICTION OF THE LOCAL RECREATION LABOUR MARKET. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH BETWEEN FRANCE AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVA ANA-MARIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreation fulfils two functions in terms of labour economics: (1 as a commodity, it participates in the formation of national wealth by creating jobs, and (2 through its purpose, it boosts the workforce “re-creation” in all economic sectors by having a major contribution to people’s recovery, therefore reducing the psychosocial risks and creating premises for improvement of labour productivity. The present paper focuses on the first topic regarding the labour economics of recreation, namely the workforce operating within the sector and puts into comparative perspective two European Union member states: France and Romania. While in France the enterprises specialised in providing artistic, cultural, sports, entertainment or gambling and betting activities form a well-established and efficient economic sector, in Romania they make for an emerging and fast growing industry. Results will show that the local recreation sectors in the two countries have rather different development orientations at macroeconomic level - while in France the tendency seems to be increasing the number of workers per business, Romania rather shows an orientation towards creating numerous scattered micro businesses. With respect to employment, the local recreation sector reveals to be highly unusual in terms of working hours, heterogeneity and variety of professions, and lack of formalised job offer. However, these abnormalities are overridden by the superior intrinsic working conditions and the prolonged work sustainability.

  4. The effect of labour market regulation on domestic workers in Orchards and Soshanguve, Pretoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Matjeke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Domestic work provides employment to many women. The wages or salaries and employment conditions of domestic workers have raised worldwide concern. Domestic work is an unstable, lowly paid, insecure and unprotected form of employment. Abuse and exploitation are common. The regulation of this sector is the result.Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to analyse and compare the effects of, and level of compliance with, the regulation of the domestic worker sector in two very different residential areas in Pretoria.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted all previous micro-study investigations of the topic in Langenhoven Park, Bloemfontein. We need more micro-level studies to investigate the effects of regulating this labour market because areas with different socioeconomic conditions may yield different results.Research design, approach and method: The researchers followed a quantitative micro- research design using structured questionnaires. They used the research methodology applied in similar micro-studies as the basis of the survey to make the results comparable. They used the criterion sampling technique. Respondents completed 87 questionnaires in Orchards and 89 in Soshanguve.Main findings: Evidence suggests that areas in close proximity to one another in the same metropolis yield significant differences in the wages or salaries and non-wage working conditions of domestic workers. A blanket approach to identifying and monitoring the effects of the legislation for this sector is not an appropriate one.Practical/managerial implications: The sector needs micro-studies over an extended period and in different areas to form a more nuanced picture of this multifaceted labour market. This study emphasised the necessity for improved monitoring of the existing legislation.Contribution/value-add: This is the first micro-study to compare the effects of regulating the domestic workers sector of two residential areas

  5. Beyond School Inclusion: Secondary School and Preparing for Labour Market Inclusion for Young People with Disabilities in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallisera, Maria; Vila, Montserrat; Fullana, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Research analysing good practices in the area of labour market inclusion for people with disabilities shows that the role of the secondary school is fundamental in improving employment opportunities. The aim of this article is to analyse to what extent secondary education in Spain prepares young people with learning difficulties for later…

  6. Patterns of Labour Market Entry : A Comparative Perspective on School-to-Work Transitions in 11 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, Maarten H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Youth labour market integration differs considerably across European countries. There are marked cross-national differences not only in terms of youth unemployment, but also in terms of the quality of the jobs in which young people are employed. This article explains cross-national patterns of labou

  7. University Student Perceptions of the Relationship between University Education and the Labour Market in Egypt and Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Hamood K.

    2011-01-01

    How do university students perceive the key relationship between their university education and the labour market? This article describes the perceptions that 827 Egyptian and Omani seniors--both males and females, studying commerce, education, and engineering--hold about that relationship. For these students, a major motivation for attending…

  8. Those who are in the gutter look at the stars? Explaining perceptions of labour market opportunities among European young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, youth unemployment has risen worldwide. In cross-national perspective, research on youth employment has thus far paid attention to the transition from school to work, but underemphasized the importance of the social psychology of labour market

  9. Annual Transitions between Labour Market States for Young Australians. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Marks, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Much analysis of youth transitions focuses on the first year after education, or outcomes at a specific age. Such work looks, for example, at the effect of education on the likelihood of being employed or unemployed. This study takes a different angle by considering the effect of education on the persistence of labour market outcomes. For example,…

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  11. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  12. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  13. Work Integration of People with Disabilities in the Regular Labour Market: What Can We Do to Improve These Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Montserrat; Pallisera, Maria; Fullana, Judit

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is important to ensure that regular processes of labour market integration are available for all citizens. Method: Thematic content analysis techniques, using semi-structured group interviews, were used to identify the principal elements contributing to the processes of integrating people with disabilities into the regular labour…

  14. Labour, land, and capital markets in early modern Southeast Asia from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomgaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    Factor markets of sorts did exist in the more highly developed areas of early modern Southeast Asia, and they became more efficient in the course of time (although not in a linear process). However, in other more remote areas land was hardly ever sold, labour could not be hired and money was rare. N

  15. Degrees of Closure and Economic Success in the Norwegian Labour Market: Field of Study and Non-Western Immigrant Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drange, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This article compares outcomes in the Norwegian labour market for non-Western immigrants and majority colleagues with professional or master's degrees within three different fields of study: health science, social science and natural science. Professions have a higher degree of occupational closure, which may entail that non-Western immigrants…

  16. Trends in labour market flexibilization among Dutch school-leavers: The impact of economic globalization on educational differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines to what extent there is a trend towards increasing labour market flexibility among Dutch school-leavers between 1992 and 2007, particularly among less educated ones. In addition, the article aims to explain this trend and increasing educational differences by economic globalizati

  17. Strong Vocational Education--A Safe Way to the Labour Market? A Case Study of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: In its communications, the European Commission stresses the importance of vocational education and endorses apprenticeship training. Educational systems that have dual tracks of academic alongside vocational learning routes have been shown to generate better labour market outcomes for school leavers and smooth the school-to-work…

  18. Friends and foes in the occupational career : the influence of sweet and sour social capital on the labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerbeek, Hester Hagar Susan

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary studies on the influence of social capital on the labour market have mainly focused on the positive side of social relationships - how people can help each other in their careers. This study adopts a different approach by also including the negative side of social relationships - how

  19. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  20. Labour market in Albania. Identifing the shortages of skills in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmonda Beluli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The labor market is a relationship between the demand (persons who seek work and supply (job vacancies. The labor market is very complex, to study it we have to know better the characteristics of its variables, ie demand and supply. The Good compatibility between demand and supply is the golden key to well-functioning of labor market. Using the data obtained from questionnaires issued to study the labor market, many shortages are revealed in some sectors, especially in some professions, in terms of labor power, Identification of the skills and training needs of companies is the essence of consultation, orientation to career and training services. The survey through questionnaires  is used as a means of research. The Information obtained from the research on needed skills ought to become an integral part of the Information System on Labor Market (ISLM. The Information on Labor Market that was usually collected through employment services, education and vocational training departments and national training agencies, facilitates the analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of the training system and estimation of training demand, and enables the employment services and training providers to make possible the adjustment of both, demand and supply. as well. Concerning Albania, it is important to develop effective institutions and policies on labor market in order to reduce the inefficiencies and to create more job vacancies. In this aspect, we need to understand better what is happening with the economy. The results of the study suggest the existence of strong national divisions and regional labor market in terms of age and gender, which are so strong that even if you have in mind the caution that is dictated by the given samlpe it is felt that further investigation will be justified. Key Words: labor market, population, skills, vacancies, gender