The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the macroeconomic effects of active labour market programmes in a dual labour-market framework. The paper uses the Shapiro-Stiglitz efficiency-wage model. Active labour market programmes train unskilled labour and transfer them from a high-unemployment to a low-unemployment sector. Programmes have a direct labour-transfer effect which tends to reduce total unemployment. They also have effects on wages via expectations. The later effects were to a v...
This study aims to present the recent active labour market policies for encouraging labour market participation and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The achievements of the analysis point out both positive and negative features. The programs contribute for increasing labour market inclusion and employment participation in a short run and this is the main po...
This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...
Puhani, Patrick A.; Steiner, Viktor
Following the predominance of macroeconomic stabilisation policies and passive income support schemes in the first phase of transition, active labour market policies (ALMPs) have now come to play a more important role in transition economies. This paper looks at the Polish experience and provides empirical evidence on the effectiveness of ALMPs. We use the Polish Labour Force Survey of August 1994 in combination with its Supplement on the Evaluation of Labour Market Policies together with dat...
Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars
Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...
Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix
Danish active labor market policy, under the headline of flexicurity, has received international attention due to its claimed ability to curb unemployment while boosting employment. A strong belief in the positive effects of activation, in policy as well as practice, has had consequences for all...... client types, including those who are far from labor market participation due to social, mental, physical, or other problems. We analyze the application of active labor market policy measures used to support clients with substantial problems besides unemployment. This study utilizes Danish register data...
Full Text Available Active labour market policy aims at rising labour force’s competitiveness to enhance adjustment between labour demand and supply. The measures of active labour market policy comprise vocational training and requalification, professional counseling, job search assistance etc. A special attention require active measures that increase labour force flexibility, i.e. its geographic and professional mobility. Present article has the goal to appreciate the efficiency of active measures in rising labour force employment in the Republic of Moldova.
Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, Eskil
Although employment participation of older workers and their timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual-level decision, the opportunities or late career employment, and restrictions that older workers potentially face, are largely shaped by labour market contextual factors. Thes
Active labour market policies have developed significantly over the last two decades across OECD countries, with substantial cross-national differences in terms of both extent and overall orientation. The objective of this paper is to account for cross-national variation in this policy field. It starts by reviewing existing scholarship concerning political, institutional and ideational determinants of ALMPs. It then argues that ALMPs is too broad a category to be used analytically, and develo...
Philip J O'Connell
This paper presents the first findings of a new study of the labour market impact of a range of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) in Ireland. The paper combines the results of two individual-level data sets to compare the employment outcomes of participants in ALMPs with a comparison group of non-participants over the 1994-1996 period. The analysis focuses on employment probabilities two years post-programme, and shows that programmes with strong linkages to the labour market are more l...
Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
We re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non......-parametric methods to determine which of the individual policies that explains the positive effect. The use of non-parametric methods to separate sub-treatment effects is important from a methodological point of view, since the alternative, namely parametric/distributional assumptions, is in conflict...
Michael Lechner; Conny Wunsch
We investigate the effects of the most important East German active labour market programmes on the labour market outcomes of their participants. The analysis is based on a large and informative individual database coming from administrative data sources. Using matching methods, we find that over a horizon of 2.5 years after programme start the programmes fail to increase the employment chances of their participants in the regular labour market. However, the programmes may have other effects ...
on the labour market has been withering away towards a sharper focus on a work first approach, where activation is used as a stick more than a carrot, also implying that rights’ as citizens has been increasingly reduced, and, thereby increased the role of citizens as labourer on the labour market. The article......Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and integration...
Bergemann, Annette; van den Berg, Gerard J.
We survey the recent literature on the effects of active labour market policies on individual labour market outcomes like employment and income, for adult female individuals without work in European countries. We consider skill-training programs, monitoring and sanctions, job search assistance, and employment subsidies. The results are remarkably uniform across studies. We relate the results to the relevant level of female labour force participation.
Ingi Rúnar Eðvarðsson
This paper focuses upon the unique performance of the Icelandic labour market. It demonstrates, by using international statistics, that the activity rates of both sexes are very high in Iceland, the unemployment rate is low, a high proportion of the the labour force work part time, and labour legislation is unrestricted. Contrary to the competitive labour market–, and flexible models of neo– classic economic theory, the author argues for a historical and institutional explan...
Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael
). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...
Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.
This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual deci
Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah
This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street......-level bureaucrats’ stories (Foucault 1977; Maynard-Moody and Musheno 2003), we analyze caseworkers’ stories about their clients, fellow caseworkers and themselves to understand how they practice the ideology behind active labour policy. Our analysis uses Møller’s (2009) interviews with 24 Danish caseworkers who...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...
This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an ad...
The presented article deals with labour market institutions and labour market performance in the European Union. The first chapter is devoted to theoretical and methodological background of labour market performance. Theoretical literature has created a set of institutional aspects such as employment protection legislation, structure of wage bargaining, taxation of labour, active labour market policy, the system of unemployment and social benefits. All these aspects determine the institutiona...
Full Text Available A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years not merely to young people’s activity in the labour market, but also to the vocational involvement of elderly people. The traditional attitude towards the contemporary labour market results from the social and economic transformation, but also demographic changes and, the process of population ageing. It is thus a vital issue. A growing number of elderly people contributes to the increase in the number of beneficiaries, which is reflected in lower labour force participation and, consequently, may lead to a deterioration of production capacity of economy. On the one hand, higher pensions may be viewed as higher incomes of pensioners, but on the other hand, they constitute an extra burden for public expenses. Conversely, lower pensions may not merely result in increased activity in the labour market and higher incomes, but also be linked with an increase in social welfare expenditure. The article discusses the results of survey research conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a group of pensioners. The research shows that over a half of the surveyed OAPs were active in the labour market and their activity was mainly induced by their financial situation.
Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz
Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…
Buhai, Ioan Sebastian
return to seniority", with seniority the position of the worker in the tenure hierarchy of her firm, this concept establishing parsimoniously but effectively the link between the worker's fate in the labour market and her firm's fate in the product market; if network referrals are relevant for job search...
Skedinger, Per; Lundin, Martin
Decentralisation of decision-making in active labour market policy makes it possible to use local information to the fullest, but may also impinge on the fulfilment of national objectives, as suggested by principal-agent theory. The purpose of this study is to ex-amine the effects of a Swedish pilot programme in 1996, which strengthened the role of the local authorities in labour market policy in parts of the country. Survey evidence suggests a non-negligible divergence between the objectives...
Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael
). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We...
Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.
The 4th contribution to the series INT-AR papers is dedicated to the methods of assessing labour market frictions. The paper provides a (brief) international comparison of the role of labour migration in solving these frictions.
This report examines the employment structure and structural change (1986-1999) of Vietnam, discusses Vietnam's labour market regulations and examines how Vietnam's labour markets could become more efficient. Vietnam’s labour policies remain focused on control of state enterprises: who they employ, how many, and what they pay them. The Labour Code of 1995 saw a move to extend state worker privileges throughout the economy. This is a futile exercise to establish a welfare state in a country wi...
Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred
This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…
Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.
O'Connell, Philip J.; MacGinnity, Fran
The international literature on active labour market programmes has generated inconsistent and confusing, but generally pessimistic, conclusions regarding their impact on the employment prospects of participants. This paper argues that much of this confusion is due to a general lack of attention to qualitative differences between programmes. The paper develops a typology of active labour market programmes, differentiating between training and employment measures on the basis of their orientat...
Full Text Available Flexicurity reflects the current basic trend within the EU in guaranteeing high employment levels and attainability of national fiscal systems. It was introduced in Denmark in 90ties and helped to reduce the (long-term unemployment levels significantly. The Czech labour market, despite the transformation process, has still a space for further improvement, especially in the time of economic slow-down. The aim of the paper is to describe the flexicurity elements in the Czech Republic. First of all, we describe the general economical background and compare it with other Central European economies and with situation in Denmark where the concept comes from. In other parts of the paper we analyze the particular elements of the so called golden triangle of flexicurity – flexible labour market, generous welfare system and active labour market policies. We also focus on the components of the flexicurity, which the Czech labour market still lacks and would be useful to implement them. Despite the fact that the previous period (years 2005-2008 was very successful, the period was not used effectively to reform the labour market deeper. The Czech labour market faces nowadays several crucial problems such as too high employment protection of the regular workers or small incentives for the long-term unemployed to re-enter the labour market. As a result of these features we can speak without doubt about dual labour market protecting part of labour force too generously and leaving too many people outside the market. Further the construction of the social system does not motivate the long-term unemployed to enter the labour market again or to get further qualification to boost their chances to get a job again. All these facts lead to the ineffective operation with the human capital in the Czech Republic and deepen the costs on social and relating policies.
Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael
We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and......, surprisingly, even most in-programme effects are positive. The effects are largest for subsidized employment programmes, but effects are also large and significant for direct employment programmes and other programmes. Effects are larger if programmes begin after six months of unemployment. Implications of our...
Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael
While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which...... was conducted in Denmark in 2005-6, to investigate the effects of a dramatic intensification of ALMPs on reemployment stability. We investigate the nature of this impact. We estimate a duration model with lagged duration dependence to separately identify "indirect" (via shorter unemployment duration...
In this paper, we analyse the organization of the labour market in a general equilibrium model of a closed economy with two industries and two types of labour input. Workers are organized in industry- and skill-specific unions. The wage is set in cooperation either between identical labour types...... with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from...
This paper contains a description and analysis of the labour market in East Germany and an econometric evaluation of some effects of German unification on the West German labour market. At the outset, recent developments of employment and unemployment in East Germany are summarized together with an attempt at evaluation of the sources of joblessness. Moreover,'wage determination and wage dynamics are discussed at some length. It is investigated to what extent wage theories can contribute to a...
Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN
Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.
Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb
This paper focuses on the correlation of labour market outcomes of parents and children and investigates whether education is an important factor in this correlation, allowing for its potential endogeneity. Based on the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) data, the multivariate analyses show that men's labour market outcomes are affected by their fathers' labour market outcomes. The results show no significant intergenerational correlation of labour market outcomes for ...
Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland
This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the...... industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible intuitive reasons for why there may be differences in the impact of outsourcing across the three countries, based on labour market institutions. This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three...... European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible...
Full Text Available This paper analyses homelessness in France with regard to three major mutually interacting sets of factors: labour-market strains, illegal migration and institutional inadequacy. Macroeconomic challenges have resulted in the loss of jobs and subsequent labour-market hardships, and these have tended to affect those without adequate skills. As a result, labour-market problems together with a lack of social capital and adequate housing at affordable prices, accompanied by insufficient institutional support, has resulted in increased homelessness. All of this indicates that there should be active government intervention in the housing market in order to create space for the relatively weaker section of the population in the growth process, which is often unequal. Another important issue is how to create jobs with positive growth in real wages because, without adequate purchasing power, simply providing housing would mean transferring poverty from one space to another.
Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland
This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. Estimating the same specification on different data show that there are some interesting differences in the effect of outsourcing across countries. We discuss some possible reasons for these differences based on labour market institutions...
Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael
of labour market policies to a more active focus on job search and employment. The policy tightened eligibility for unemployment benefits and their duration as well as introduced workfare elements into unemployment insurance and social policies in general. Thereby policy makers attempted to strengthen...... is not automatically among them since the basic flexicurity properties were also in place during the 1970s and 1980s where high and persistent unemployment was prevalent. Labour market performance has changed due to a series of reforms during the 1990s, the main thrust of which were a shift from a passive focus...... the incentive structure without taking resort to general benefit reductions. We argue that the workfare policies have played an important role running primarily via motivation/threat and wage effects. However, active labour market policies are resource demanding, and although the workfare reforms have improved...
Boeters, Stefan; Savard, Luc
This chapter reviews options of labour market modelling in a CGE framework. On the labour supply side, two principal modelling options are distinguished and discussed: aggregated, representative households and microsimulation based on individual household data. On the labour demand side, we focus on the substitution possibilities between different types of labour in production. With respect to labour market coordination, we discuss several wage-forming mechanisms and involuntary unemployment.
Staveren, Irene; Hoeven, Rolph
textabstractThis background paper shows trends on economic inequalities, socio-economic exclusion and insecurity, and a civic dimension of democratization. Whereas most of these variables can be considered as measures of democratic performance, the last mentioned may be more suitably seen as a civic measure of legitimization of democratization. The inequalities concern income and other labour market inequality trends. The social measures, of exclusion and insecurity, assess the extent to whic...
Martin, John P.; Grubb, David
Although rather discouraging in general, the evaluation literature indicates some measures that have been successful. Job-search assistance, wage subsidies in the private sector, and labour market training do work for some groups, even if the impacts are not large. Also, the evaluation literature focuses on the impacts of one-off programs. Regular interventions, such as job-search monitoring, intensive interviews, and referrals to vacant jobs, have rarely been evaluated rigorously. Recently, ...
This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic con...
Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on labour market segmentation in Cyprus - discusses the segmentation process, labour immobility and wage differentials by sex, public sector, private sector and size of enterprise. References and statistical tables.
According to the standard economic model of crime, which assumes that individuals are rational decisions makers who consider the opportunity cost of crime and take into account the possibility of getting caught and punished; the concern that immigration can cause increases in crime is warranted, considering the fact that there is much empirical evidence that suggest the labour market does not provide as many good opportunities to immigrants than to native born. Indeed, previous studies have f...
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexic......In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research...... on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...
Examples of educational mismatch and overqualifcation in the labour market can often be found in the same office building â€“ the clerical worker with a bachelorâ€™s degree reporting to a manager with a high school education â€“ as an example. Some have argued that mismatch in general is a result of poor economic conditions; however, a paper entitled â€œLabor Market Conditions, Skill Requirements and Education Mismatchâ€ (CLSRN Working Paper no.134) by CLSRN affiliate Fraser Summerfield (Univ...
This paper discusses the costs and benefits of welfare state intervention in the labour market, and argues that many forms of intervention can be justified for efficiency reasons. The paper reviews recent evidence on income inequality and income mobility, and it discusses labour market reforms that may improve efficiency without violating European voters’ preference for equality.
Full Text Available Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in Prague. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...
The main aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between education and the labour force, now, when education is essential for any economy in order to increase and create value. This relation is reflected in an increasing supply of well-educated workers to promote economic development. Present education choices significantly affect labour market performance in the future, an assessment of the educational level of labour force being necessary in terms of changes ...
John Curtis; John FitzGerald
This paper looks at how the Irish experience of integration has affected the labour market, bringing about convergence in labour costs between Ireland and the UK. A model of this process is developed and estimated which takes account of the fact that productive capacity and output are mobile within the EC economy and that integration affects the supply of labour through the potential for migration and changing expectations. The results indicate that changes In tax in the UK can affect the Iri...
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between education and the labour force, now, when education is essential for any economy in order to increase and create value. This relation is reflected in an increasing supply of well-educated workers to promote economic development. Present education choices significantly affect labour market performance in the future, an assessment of the educational level of labour force being necessary in terms of changes in occupational structure and labour demand and supply.
Alfonso Arpaia; Gilles Mourre
This paper presents a selective survey of the recent literature on labour market institutions. It describes the different empirical approaches used to explore the nexus between labour market institutions and labour market performance. It stresses that the effect of institutions is complex in both stock and flow models and that it is also crucial to take into account the interactions they generate among themselves and with macroeconomic shocks.
Theo Sparreboom; Lubna Shahnaz
Labour market performance in Pakistan has improved markedly in recent years. This paper examines the extent to which young people have benefited from this improvement, using the labour market vulnerability framework that was recently introduced by the ILO. This framework can be used to assess the difficulties young people face on the road to decent employment, and may also serve as a basis for the development of appropriate policies and interventions. Drawing on empirical evidence from variou...
Dustmann, C.; Glitz, A.; Frattini, T.
In the first part of this paper, we present a stylised model of the labour market impact of immigration. We then discuss mechanisms through which an economy can adjust to immigration: changes in factor prices, output mix and production technology. In the second part, we explain the problems of empirically estimating how immigration affects labour market outcomes of the resident population and review some strategies to address these. We then summarise some recent empirical studies for the UK a...
During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. Perceptions do not seem to line up with the existing academic evidence. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immig...
Michelle Cunningham; Kathryn Davis
Labour market outcomes in regional areas of Australia have followed broadly similar trends to those in capital cities over the past two decades. The range of unemployment rates across the regions narrowed through the 2000s, as the benefits of economic growth were spread broadly across the country. Nonetheless, there are still some notable differences between labour market outcomes in certain regions, partly reflecting the variation in industry structure across regional areas of Australia.
Neubourg, Christiaan Rita Jan de
This study investigates how our understanding of unemployment and the utilisation of labour resources can be refined by the application of a system of labour market accounts and a new measure of labour slack. ... Zie: Summary
Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;
This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...
Cain Polidano; Ha Vu
In this paper we estimate the causal labour market impacts of disability onset up to four years after onset using longitudinal data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) survey and difference-in-difference propensity score matching techniques. We find lasting negative impacts on employment, especially full-time employment, which is linked more to reduced movement into full-time employment than to downshifting from full-time to part-time work. Longer-term, impacts on ...
Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.
Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.
This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries for b...
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…
Bigsten, Arne; Collier, Paul; Dercon, Stefan; Fafchamps, Marcel; Gunning, Jan Willem; Oduro, Abena; Oostendorp, Remco; Pattillo, Cathy; Soderbom, Mans; Teal, Francis; Zeufack, Albert
Empirical work in labour economics has focused on rent sharing as an explanation for the observed correlation in cross-sections between wages and profitability. The alternative explanation of risk sharing between workers and employers has not been tested. Using a unique panel data set for four Afric
Gaston, Noel; Rajaguru, Gulasekaran
We study the political economy of labour market policies. First, it is shown that tax and redistributive considerations lead inside workers to prefer spending on active labour market programmes to passive spending, e.g., on unemployment benefits. We also show that greater active spending may be a feature of globalising economies. In the empirical work, panel data for OECD countries are used to examine the relationship between active and passive labour market spending, various measures of glob...
Henriksen, Jonas Juul
Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states in the la......Within a frictional labour market, the unemployed workers endogenously determine their level of job search. The theoretical setting is a two-country international trade model with heterogeneous firms in line with Melitz (2003). The workers are homogeneous but can be in one of two states...
Pozzoli, Dario; Buonanno, Paolo
This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...
Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario
This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...
Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario
We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...
Madsen, Per Kongshøj
It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...... assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups...
Sørensen, Peter Birch
All modern labour market theories capable of explaining involuntary unemployment as an equilibrium phenomenon imply that increased income tax progressivity reduces unemployment, but they also imply that higher progressivity tends to reduce work effort and labour productivity. This suggests...... that there may be an optimal degree of tax progressivity where the marginal welfare gain from reduced involuntary unemployment is just offset by the marginal welfare loss from lower productivity. This paper sets up four different models of an imperfect labour market in order to identify the degree of tax...... progressivity which would maximise the welfare of the representative wage earner. Simulations with these models suggest that the optimal degree of tax progressivity could be quite large, although the results are sensitive to the generosity of unemployment benefits and to the after-tax wage elasticity of work...
This contribution focuses on evaluation of labour market flexibility in the V4 countries. These countries have similar historical destiny but the economic transition led to new labour market institutions. Labour market outcomes are thus quite different in the last decades. Using a small closed DSGE model with search and matching frictions, the main structural labour market differences among these countries are revealed. These differences are related to the changes in separation rates, matchin...
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to analize the new situation of labour different from the one of the eighties and nineties of the 20th century, that is configuring a new model of poverty within the labour market.Design/Methodology: The current research is based on a comparative analysis of governmental reports, proposals and plans aimed at reducing poverty through labour market. This analysis allows to detect the main actions developed by governmental institutions.Findings: Currently a growing number of workers (employees and self-employed is pushed towards poverty as a consequence of the deterioration of labour conditions in the framework of the economic globalisation. During the crisis of the 80s, becoming employed was a warranty to escape from poverty, but nowadays this is not enough. Unemployment it is not the only synonym of poverty and social exclusion is not solely found in marginal social groups. The new labour conditions, with low salaries, temporary contracts and long working times configure a new tipology of poverty directly linked with job market that affects more highly educated and professional groupsResearch limitations: This research collects different governmental reports and Action Plans at all levels. Even that, there can be other reports not included in this article.Originality/Value: Currently, poverty risk responds to multifactorial parameters determined by the relationship of the individual with the labour market, family structure, available social capital, level of family debt and existing social policies. The comparative study of these factors allow a better understanding and analysis of this phenomenon, increasingly global and affecting a higher number of social groups.
Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe
The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...
van Soest, A.H.O.; Fontein, P.F.; Euwals, R.W.
We analyze models for individuals' labour market state.We distinguish between full-time and part-time work, but also between various types of economic inactivity, i.e. unemployment, disability, early retirement and working in the household.We consider the impact on the state probabilities of individ
This study combines an industry level and a firm level analysis on the wage and employment effects of multinational companies. This has not been attempted in any previous work. In view of the results, important questions are raised regarding how global changes in the structure of production may affect labour markets and the organisation of work in the future.
This article reviews the methodology of 17 empirical studies in which the participation rate has been estimated with the help of regional data. After defining and pointing our the orientation of regional labour market research on participation rates, three methodological issues dominate the discussi
Damm, Anna Piil
This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new ref...
de Oliveira, Alberto; Filho, Gilberto Abrantes
The aim of this article is to compare the schooling levels of individuals with the demands of the Brazilian labour market. The results demonstrate the high probability of compatibility between occupation and schooling levels. But high propensities for under-education were identified associated with skin colour and position in family. The results…
G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)
textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction w
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Juul, Ida
Presentation of the results of 21 narrative interviews with people in middle range positions in the Danish labour market focusing on learning and support during transitions. The narratives presented bring forth many paradoxes in the Danish model and education and training system. There seems to b...
There is an ongoing discussion that centres on the German labour market reforms (2003- 2005) and the role of these reforms in boosting the German economy. Considering that one of the main objectives of the reforms was to improve the matching process on the labour market, I use rich, high-frequency, and recent administrative panel data to present new details regarding the development of job-matching performance before and after the reform years. The results show that matching productivity incr...
Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.
Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…
Palade, A.; Constantin, C
This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the st...
Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben;
This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently skil...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....
Lindquist, Gabriella Sjögren; Wadensjö, Eskil
The Swedish labour market and social policy is aimed at facilitating flexibility in the labour market. The active labour market policy and the design of the social security pension system are two frequently mentioned examples of that policy. This does not necessarily mean that all policy programs are in accordance with the goal of enhancing flexibility. In this paper we analyze one part of the social and occupational (collectively bargained) security system - the compensation at unemployment ...
Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan
In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note...... that the labourmarket reform effect of product market integration is achieved despitean increase in the wage level.JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50.Keywords: Trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfaregains....
Faia, Ester; Lechthaler, Wolfgang; Merkl, Christian
Several contributions have recently assessed the size of fiscal multipliers both in RBC models and New Keynesian models. None of the studies considers a model with frictional labour markets which is a crucial element, particularly at times in which much of the fiscal stimulus has been directed toward labour market measures. We use an open economy model (more specifically, a currency area calibrated to the European Monetary Union) with labour market frictions in the form of labour turnover cos...
McPake, Barbara; Maeda, Akiko; Araújo, Edson Correia; Lemiere, Christophe; El Maghraby, Atef; Cometto, Giorgio
Human resources for health have been recognized as essential to the development of responsive and effective health systems. Low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve universal health coverage face human resource constraints - whether in the form of health worker shortages, maldistribution of workers or poor worker performance - that seriously undermine their ability to achieve well-functioning health systems. Although much has been written about the human resource crisis in the health sector, labour economic frameworks have seldom been applied to analyse the situation and little is known or understood about the operation of labour markets in low- and middle-income countries. Traditional approaches to addressing human resource constraints have focused on workforce planning: estimating health workforce requirements based on a country's epidemiological and demographic profile and scaling up education and training capacities to narrow the gap between the "needed" number of health workers and the existing number. However, this approach neglects other important factors that influence human resource capacity, including labour market dynamics and the behavioural responses and preferences of the health workers themselves. This paper describes how labour market analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the factors behind human resource constraints in the health sector and to a more effective design of policies and interventions to address them. The premise is that a better understanding of the impact of health policies on health labour markets, and subsequently on the employment conditions of health workers, would be helpful in identifying an effective strategy towards the progressive attainment of universal health coverage.
Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia
the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby...
Pakistan’s labour market is showing its inability to continue the past trend of labour absorption. Generation of additional work opportunities commensurate with labour supplies, increasing by over 3 percent annually, has emerged as the most formidable challenge of the nineties. The labour market is presently confronted with the twin menace of unemployment and underemployment. Although, the rate of unemployment has not as yet assumed serious proportions, the worrying aspect of this 5 percent u...
The analysis of information subsystem of regulation of labor market at the level of the region is provided in article; offers on mitigation and the prevention of unemployment, taking into account information approach are proved.
Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Remery, C.; Schippers, J.
Different policies are being promoted to increase the labour supply in ageing labour markets. This article presents the results of a large-scale survey carried out among Dutch employers into their management of the constraints presented by a tight labour market. Organizations take different measures
Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU countries. The paper ends by forwarding a series of conclusions related to the labour market in Romania, identifying several measures meant to boost the labour market competitiveness in our country. The methods used in the present paper are the interpretative method, the structural-systemic approach, as well as the epistemological method.
This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined with admin......This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined...
Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and
Bijwaard, Govert; Van Dijk, Bram; Koning, Jaap de
textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction with the job and discrepancies between the actual and the desired number of hours worked. Transitions can be changes in the hours worked, changes to a different job and/or employers, or combinations...
Heitger, Bernhard; Stehn, Jürgen
The paper empirically examines three possible reasons for the high and rising unemployment of low-skilled employees in Germany: (i) an upsurge in interindustry trade, (ii) a skill-biased technical change, and (iii) a failure of labour market adjustment. The empirical analyses indicate that an exogenous wage-setting process as well as a bundle of factors, including a skill-biased technical and structural change, have contributed to the decline in relative demand for low-skilled employees in Ge...
Araújo, Tanya; Weisbuch, Gérard
Positions offered on a labour market and workers preferences are described here by bit strings representing individual traits. We study the co-evolution of workers and firms preferences modeled by such traits. Individual “size-like” properties are controlled by binary encounters whose outcomes depend upon a recognition process. Depending upon the parameter set-up, mutual selection of workers and positions results in different types of attractors, either an exclusive niches regime or a competition regime.
Rapidly changing labour markets in European countries are a challenge for young people seeking employment. While in many countries around half of all young people move into tertiary education, apprenticeship provides a recognised route to skill for some or all of those who seek to move directly into employment after school. The paper identifies two distinct models of apprenticeship in Europe, the well-established demand-driven model found in the German-speaking countries and in Denmark and th...
van Soest, A.H.O.; Fontein, P.F.; Euwals, R.W.
We analyze models for individuals' labour market state.We distinguish between full-time and part-time work, but also between various types of economic inactivity, i.e. unemployment, disability, early retirement and working in the household.We consider the impact on the state probabilities of individual attributes, with emphasis on earnings capacity.We take account of the problem that only earnings of workers are observed, and of the potential endogeneity of earnings.We generalize the multinom...
Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen;
This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing unit......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate...
Vasile Liviu; Vasile Valentina
This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates) highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, pr...
Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the performance of the Czech regional labour markets and to reveal the most influential economic factors standing behind its dynamics in the last fifteen years. Investigated labour markets are described using matching function approach. The successful matches are treated as an output of production process, where the unemployed are paired with vacancies. Efficiency of this matching process plays an important role in determining unemployment outflows. Using stochastic frontier model approach, dynamics of quantified efficiency terms is revealed and differences among regions are evaluated. The model specification includes a fixed effect term, where individual effect terms and inefficiency terms are estimated jointly. The stochastic frontier is estimated using monthly and quarterly regional panel data of 77 districts for the period 1999-2014. Matching efficiency of the Czech regional labour markets is negatively influenced people who have been unemployed for a long time and by the unemployed aged over 50 years. Although all districts were able to operate at their stochastic frontiers of matching, an upward trend in the inefficiency has been found within the investigated period. These tendencies are accompanied by rising disparities among the regions. Low levels of estimated matching inefficiency do not necessary mean the low unemployment in the corresponding districts.
The thesis deals with the issue of graduates applying for the job market. A particular attention is paid to the current structure of students and graduates, in addition the selected economic indicators and other areas of the given issue. The work interlinks the theoretical background of the society-wide phenomenon dealing with education and unemployment mainly focused on the specifics of the graduates. A part of the thesis is also a survey that describes the current situation within tertiary ...
Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan
Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...... is equivalent to increased mobility of employment acrosscountries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wagesetters. While the effects of product market integration on the trade-off between wages andemployment in general is ambiguous, it is shown that product market...... integration works like ageneral improvement in productivity via the specialization it allows through trade.Unambiguously, real wages and employment and welfare improve upon reductions in tradefrictions, and therefore workers are better off irrespective of whether the market power ofunions is enhanced or muted...
As soon as the transition to a new organization form was made, the changes from the Romanian economy (privatization, technological and organizational restructuring, the introduction of mechanisms characteristic for the market economy) have led to new coordinates of the labour market in our country. By knowing all the elements which characterize the labour market, one is able to outline the action coordinates in order to ensure an efficient management of the labour market – on regional level, ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to try to classify labour markets of the Silesian Province on the municipality level. The proposed solution of grouping labour markets is based on three criteria: the size of the labour market measured by a number of jobs, the weight of the labour market expressed with a proportion of the number of jobs to the size of the population and that scale of the impact that is a proportion of the commuters to the ones leaving for work. As a result of the assumed criteria the municipalities have been grouped according to their meaning on the labour market, at the same time identifying weaker and stronger labour markets. The first stage of the research was to divide the municipal labour markets according to the number of the employed. As a result territorial units were grouped into 4 classes (small, medium, big and huge including in total 9 subclasses. Then the municipal labour markets were sorted according to their weight and the scale of their impact, verifying their position in this way. The research pointed out that a lot of labour markets in the Katowice conurbation showed lower levels than the assumptions. Consequently, it suggests polarization of the labour market of this urban unit that is mainly focused on Katowice and Gliwice. Higher parameters than the assumed ones were reached by several municipalities that are small or medium labour markets. In many cases these are municipalities where there are huge businesses connected with coal mining. A beneficial situation was noted in the southern part of the province that has a relatively steady situation on the labour market. The presented classification of labour markets can support the management process of local and regional development.
Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the study programs’ curriculum, in order to build specific competences for students, which make them capable to obtain a better job position after graduation.
How does time off from work affect an individualâ€™s job prospects? A study by CLSRN affiliates Kory Kroft (University of Toronto), Fabian Lange (McGill University) and Matthew J. Notowidigdo (University of Chicago) entitled â€œDuration Dependence and Labor Market Conditions: Theory and Evidence from a Field Experimentâ€ (CLSRN Working Paper no. 101) examines the role of employer behavior in generating â€œnegative duration dependenceâ€ â€“ the adverse effect of a longer unemployment spell on ...
Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking
Polidano, Cain; Vu, Ha
We estimate the causal labour market impacts of disability onset by gender, age and education levels up to 4 years after onset using longitudinal data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Australia survey and difference-in-difference propensity score matching techniques. We find lasting negative impacts on employment, especially full-time employment, which is due more to reduced movement into full-time employment than downshifting from full-time to part-time work following onset. Those without post-school education qualifications are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of onset and are more likely to be out of work and on income support than those with qualifications up to 4 years after onset, due in part because they have greater difficulty adjusting.
Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.
Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.
This thesis analyzes labour market fluctuations and fiscal policy from the perspective of a small monetary union member state, namely Finland. The first essay identifies how frictions in the labour market shape the responses of the economy to government spending shocks. The nature of offsetting fiscal measures is found to be critical for the effects of fiscal stimulus, due to the different effects of different tax instruments on the labour market. Shifting the debt-stabilizing burden tow...
O'Brien, Martin; Valadkhani, Abbas; Waring, Peter; Denniss, Richard
2006 generally represented a solid year in terms of macroeconomic performance and labour market indicators, even under the threat of increasing inflation and interest rates. However, some favourable aggregate labour market indicators disguised major disparities at disaggregated regional, sectoral or demographic levels. The major development in the labour market was the implementation and operation of the WorkChoices legislation which will shape the industrial relations landscape in Australia ...
Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre
We utilise a rich set of regional labour market variables to explain regional variation in Norwegian manufacturing wages. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects. We find that average reported satisfaction with local job prospects and other survey-based indicators perform better in regional wage equations than traditional labour market variables, including the regional unemploymen...
Ana-Maria ZAMFIR; Cristina MOCANU
This paper aims to analyse characteristics of the labour market participation in Romania in order to highlight the existing inequalities in employment opportunities. Official statistics are analysed for providing an in-depth overview of the recent evolutions of the Romanian labour market. Special attention will be given to gender, rural-urban and age inequalities. The results show significant gaps in labour market participation for specific groups such as people living in rural areas, women a...
Mihaela Cristina MOSTAVI
The analysis of social policy impact over the labour market focuses on assessing the interdependence between the social protection system and the labour market, and performance of the social policies management, determinant factor in order to achieve simultaneous acceleration for social inclusion and social protection. The relationship of interdependence between the social protection system and the labour market was analysed through the main social protection, economic and social indicators a...
Christophe Rault; Anne-Gaël Vaubourg
We explore whether finance influences the impact of labour market institutions on unemployment. Using a data set of 18 OECD countries over 1980–2004, we estimate a panel Vector AutoRegressive model. We check whether causalities from labour market variables to unemployment are affected by financial factors. In Belgium, Italy, Australia, Japan and Spain, accounting for financial indicators mitigates the benefits of labour market flexibility or makes it harmful to employment. In Austria, Canada,...
As developed countries shift more toward knowledge-based economic activities, information, technology, and learning play an increasingly important role. The use and adoption of new technologies by firms and workers constitutes a critical component of the process of technological diffusion and advancement. A paper by CLSRN affiliates Craig Riddell (University of British Columbia) and Xueda Song (York University) entitled â€œThe Role of Education in Technology Use and Adoption: Evidence from th...
Clark, K; Lindley, J.
We estimate models of earnings and employment outcomes for a sample of white and non-white male immigrants drawn from the Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2002. Two hypotheses are investigated: (i) whether immigrant outcomes assimilate towards those of natives and (ii) whether labour market conditions at time of entry to the UK labour market have a permanent impact on outcomes. We find positive earnings assimilation for all immigrant groups and strong employment assimilation for those imm...
Four out of every five women in Uganda are employed in agriculture, according to the 2008 Gender and Productivity Survey (GPS) in Uganda (EPRC, 2009); and 42 percent of women in the labour force are unpaid family workers—receiving no income despite contributing the largest proportion of the agricultural labour. Gender discrimination in the labour market is a pervasive economic problem in developing countries.1 Discrimination based on sex can take many forms in the labour market—from restricte...
Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe
The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal level to…
Suedekum, Jens; Wolf, Katja; Blien, Uwe
During the last decade there have been marked changes in the composition of the non-native workforce in the German labour market. In particular there has been a notable increase in the diversity of nationalities of which the foreign workforce is composed. In this paper we investigate the effects of this diversity for native employees. Our analysis is conducted at the local level and uses a panel of 326 Western German regions over the time period 1995-2006. When considering high-skilled foreig...
Antonio Accetturo; Luigi Infante
The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between individual skills and labour market performance of immigrants residing in Lombardy during the period 2001-2005. We use a recent dataset collected by the NGO ISMU, which includes information on individual characteristics and the legal status of each immigrant. Our results show that returns on schooling are positive and range from 0.8 per cent to 0.9 per cent, a figure that is much lower than the one estimated for native Italians. This...
Waclaw Jarmolowicz; Katarzyna Szarzec
An objective of a paper is to compare views of liberal economy and interventionism to a labour market and labour market policy. It is a ground for discussing a concept of labour market in a transition economy.
Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn
Across Europe the competitiveness of urban and regional labour markets becomes an increasingly important task for regional and sector policies. Efficient matching of local demand and supply of labour at different qualification levels is considered to be an important prerequisite both for economic growth and social cohesion in every region. This study contains the main results of a research project analysing the urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway. The main purpose of the study...
This study addresses the effects of macroeconomic conditions on the labour market outcomes of immigrants. It simultaneously identifies the separate effects of macro conditions at the time of entry to the labour market and at the time of the survey, while allowing for cohort effects. Also, for the first time in literature the impacts on labour force participation along with employment outcomes are explored. The study uses 19 annual cross-sections of the Survey of Consumer Finances covering the...
Zvaigzne, Anda; Saulāja, Inese; Čerpinska, Aija
Competitiveness in the labour market is a range of various factors that assist an employee in getting or retaining a job, while an employer can attract and maintain a labour force adequate to meet the employer’s needs. The research aim is to examine the competitiveness of women in the labour market in Latvia and to develop proposals for its improvement. The present research deals with employment trends, especially focusing on statistical data on women. The research also examines statistical d...
Full Text Available In the knowledge society progress depends on innovation, on the knowledge acquired through education, on the science put in practice with the purpose of improving the natural, economic, technical and social condition of human life. Universities are in that favoured position of keeping and creating science, of training through and for science. But, universities face today a series of challenges originated in their relation with the state, with the actors from the national and international extra-university environment, in particular with those active in the labour market. The article explores a variety of education mismatches in the graduate labour market: from over-education to skill mismatches and their impact on the employability. It also focuses on the expected improvement of quality management and of the shared responsibilities for the employability of graduates in the interaction between universities and employers.
Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Nørup, Iben
Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications......Professionals under pressure in administration of labour market measures with re-organization of work and lack of appropriate qualifications...
Stephens, Simon; O'Donnell, David; McCusker, Paul
This paper explores the impact of developments in the Irish economy and labour market on computing course development in the higher education (HE) sector. Extant computing courses change, or new courses are introduced, in attempts to match labour market demands. The conclusion reached here, however, is that Irish HE is producing insufficient…
This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fi
Bednarek-Sekunda, E.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; de Haan, J.
We examine whether the EMU has led to greater labour market flexibility, differentiating between reform that enhances the capacity of an economy to adjust to economic shocks and reform that aims to increase long-run output. Based on a panel model and using OECD data on labour market reforms for 27 O
van der Meer, P; Wielers, R
Since the beginning of the 1980s students' labour market participation in the Netherlands has increased enormously. The first part of this article offers a description of the changed labour market position of students in the Netherlands. It demonstrates that this is the result both of changes in the
Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie
Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show. PMID:22315473
Regarding changes in French and British labour market as in their educational system since the Eighties, one may address the evolution of their labour market segmentation. Is the predominance of Internal Labour Market in France and Occupational Labour Market in Great Britain (Eyraud, Marsden, Silvestre,1990) still relevant ? We propose a more complex segmentation of labour market with four segments based on tenure, labour mobility and their wage return to account for nowadays situation. Empir...
Simona Valeria TOMA
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of the current global economic crisis on the labour market, including the risk that the recession will be followed by a jobless recovery that contributes to a lost generation of young people in the workforce. The crisis affects different sectors in different ways, but the impact also varies according to age, gender, skills level and type of contract. Although it had a more significant effect on the private sector of the economy, the crisis’s impact on the broader public sector is also obvious. Migrants, both legal and illegal, are particularly vulnerable during crises because they are typically not being provided the same level of employment protection as native workers and hence they are the first to lose their jobs during an economic downturn.
Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene
This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... change. And fourth, we have access to objective measures of health outcomes from register data. The results show that the effects of organisational change on health outcomes are limited and heterogeneous. Change per se does not necessarily lead to worsened employee outcomes. However, the degree...... of the change seems to matter. The smaller share an old organisation constitutes of the new organisation, the larger the effect is on health outcomes for its employees....
, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market...... doubled if unemployment benefits are meagre. This moderating effect can be explained both by a resource as well as a non-pecuniary mechanism. The positive moderating effect of active labour market policy is less robust across model specifications.......Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however...
Curtis, John; FitzGerald, John D.
This paper looks at how the Irish experience of integration has affected the labour market, bringing about convergence in labour costs between Ireland and the UK. A model of this process is developed and estimated which takes account of the fact that productive capacity and output are mobile within the EU economy and that integration affects the supply of labour through the potential for migration and changing expectations. The results indicate that changes in tax rates in the U K can affe...
Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley
Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions of...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market.......Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions...... of Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors...
Full Text Available Lack of application of the rule of law in Thailand has various negative impacts on labour market and business environment. Lax policing of minimum wage legislation and unknown numbers of migrant workers contribute to depression of wages as whole and reduced incentives to add value to production. Instead, short-term competitiveness through low labour-cost manufacturing is prioritized. Although individual transactions which may be deemed corrupt are small scale in nature, they appear to be repeated very regularly and therefore have a significant impact upon the income generating possibilities for local workers and for their future prospects, not to mention the overall competitiveness of the country. The corrupt activities also lead to lower levels of safety in the workplace and for such issues as collective bargaining and freedom of association. The paper attempts to identify the major issues involved and some possible solutions.
Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.
Based on comprehensive regression analysis, the authors find that weak wage growth and a smaller labour share of national income significantly reduce labour productivity growth. They conclude that supply-side labour market reforms have contributed to reducing labour productivity growth: this cannot
Graţiela Georgiana Carica
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.
Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.
Full Text Available sing official statistics, the paper aims to contribute to regional perspective of labour market challenges and limits and the increasing number of elderly people participating in economic activity. Regional level is considered for analysing the social productivity of labour in terms of GDP and employment. The employment is analysed from the perspective of share and structure of elderly people on the labour market. In this respect, activity rates, ageing index and economic dependency ratio are reviewed. In order to shape the determinants of employment of elderly people, poverty measures at NUTS 2 level are figured out.
Carr, Ewan; Chung, Heejung
This article tests whether the link between employment insecurity and life satisfaction is moderated by the generosity of labour market policies across Europe. Employment insecurity provokes anxieties about (a) the difficulties of finding a new job and (b) alternative sources of non-work income. These components can be related to active and passive labour market policies, respectively. Generous policy support is thus expected to buffer the negative consequences of employment insecurity by low...
MARIANA CLAUDIA MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN
Full Text Available Internal structure of the labour market has a highly complex character, which enabled the formulation of conclusions as there is no a single scale labour market economy. Inside it is identify different sections. Market segmentation are represented by all splitting techniques of a population database and follow up a groups of components that satisfy a condition of classification, according to the criteria considered. Labour market segmentation is determined both by economic considerations, also the characteristics of the workforce (level of training, qualifications, job mobility and institutional issues (regulation of employment, level of union organization. As such, there is barriers to transition from one segment to another job mobility occurs mainly within each segment and limited, between different segments, and wages are not the result of market forces free event, being the effect of social factors, institutional policies with specific expression of each labour market segment. Actual labour market segments are highlighted and analyzed by using several criteria: type of ownership, firm size, degree of organization of labour supply, etc.
Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.
This article briefly considers a few of thechanges in the labour market in the last20 years and how these adjustmentsrelate to the economy in the UK. Itacknowledges that, during 2008, thetiming of movements in output indicatorsand labour market statistics differed. Toexplore this, the economic backgroundto 2008 is discussed, by presentingaggregate economic indicators for aselection of international trade partnersand looking at other statistics producedby the Office for National Statistics.Fin...
Enrico Marelli; Dario Sciulli; Marcello Signorelli
In this paper we first review the (potential and actual) role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education) in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial) labour market in order to...
Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre; Røed, Knut
Economic theory predicts that local labour market tightness affects local wage setting as well as individuals' migration decisions. But how should we measure local labour market tightness? In this paper we show that the common practice of using the local rate of unemployment as the tightness indicator may be misplaced. Instead, we propose a human capital adjusted outflow rate from unemployment that can be computed on the basis of micro register data. This outflow rate performs better than tra...
Bastos, Amélia; Fernandes, Graça Leão; Passos, José
Gender wage discrimination is a reality in the Portuguese labour markets although no study has been until now carried on to measure its dimension. We think that economists should contribute to the knowledge of the dimension and significance of this phenomenon by giving orientation for the definition of political measures towards its reduction. In this paper we measure the size of gender wage discrimination in the Portuguese labour market. Furthermore, we evaluate this measure for the five Por...
Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; David, Peggy
Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees’ mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...
This paper discusses the performance of recent immigrants in Canada's labour market and reviews some of the literature on the causes of their poor performance. The paper concludes that, using the existing selection system, it is not possible to admit annually as many as 250,000 immigrants who are capable of doing well in the Canadian labour market, despite 16 years of economic expansion, during which the unemployment rate dropped below 6%. It also speculates that The situation can only worsen...
In this survey, we compare the history and status of immigration of a traditional immigration county (the US) with the experiences of a new immigration country (Germany). This reveals differences in the immigration policy as in the immigration population in the respective countries. We resume the theoretical model implications which the existing immigration should have had on the labour market outcome of natives. This takes into account the differing labour market institutions in both countri...
I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and both public and private sectors, in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. I discuss what is the public sector wage that achieves the social planner's solution and how it varies with different labour market parameters. Public sector wage and employment shocks have mixed effects on unemployment. A wage shock raises unemployment rate while a reduction in the sep...
During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immigrants, especially in recent years, tend to be younger and better educate...
Mark Dutz; Celine Kauffmann; Serineh Najarian; Peter Sanfey; Ruslan Yemtsov
This paper examines the different strategies adopted by individuals in transition economies to cope with labour market restructuring. Using micro-data from seven countries at different stages of transition, we focus on “active” coping strategies, in particular mobility and entrepreneurship. Our results show that there is significant mobility across labour market states in most countries, but little inflow into entrepreneurship from unemployment or inactivity. Entrepreneurship is a high-reward...
Gandhi Kingdon, Geeta
Labour market discrimination against women and parental discrimination against daughters are two of the most commonly cited explanations of the gender gap in education in developing countries. This study empirically tests the labour market explanation for India using household survey data collected in urban Uttar Pradesh in 1995. It estimates workforce participation functions and selectivity-corrected earnings fluctuations, and calculates the rates of return to education for the two sexes. Us...
Full Text Available In the last years, the integration of young people into the labour market has become more difficult, being accomplished in a gradual, complex and less uniform way comparatively to the years prior to the crises. The rate of youth employment is much lower than among other categories of population, and the insertion of young people on the labour market has become a difficult process, both in Romania and in the European Union, process that is characterised especially through raising the period of time passed from the moment of graduating from school to the moment of finding the first â€˜significantâ€™ workplace (for at least six months and with a length of at least 20 hours of work per week, preferably, from qualitative point of view, in accordance to the qualification obtained. In this context, in order to analyse the way in which the integration of young people into the labour market is done in Romania, the present paper makes, in the first part, a short theoretic incursion regarding the main theories referring to youth employment, transition from school to active life and, more specific, transition from higher education to employment, the main determinants of the transition from school to active life and the way in which the process is affected by the tendencies on the labour market, the ways of measurement and evaluation used up to the present etc. In the second part, the paper tries to propose a research methodology of the transition from higher education in the field of economics to employment, analyse that will be carried out in the project called â€žThe practice of economist students. An inter-regional partnership on the labour market between universities and the business environment" (PRACTeam in the purpose of creating policy and strategy recommendations for diminishing the difficulties felt by young people in the process of transition from school to active life.
Full Text Available The population of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina is confronted with many challenges - economic, institutional and social. The participation of young people in education drops significantly after they turn 18, while entry into the labour market happens around 20 years of age. Unemployment mostly affects people with lower education levels, such as those with a secondary school degree or qualified workers. The youth unemployment rate, the most commonly used indicator of the disadvantages faced by young people in the labour market, is very high in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The single most significant factor affecting the labour market experiences of young people is the extensive informal economy in the country. Active Labour Market Policy for young people attempts to reduce the problems faced by young people in their attempts to find decent work once they enter the labour market. They attempt to remedy failures of the educational system and to improve the efficiency of labour market matching. The percentage of unemployed youth is of great importance because the youth are in the age when the ability and motivation for work are at their peak. Any society that excludes half of its population from the sphere of work acts against public interest.
Adeokun LA; Adepoju A; Ilori FA; Adewuyi AA
Working paper on labour force participation of the women workers in Ife, Nigeria. Covers sex discrimination in employment, cultural factors, educational level and management attitudes. Discusses the time budget of the working mother. Bibliography and tables.
The key potential of Arab economies, currently rather turning into their curse, is the human capital. According to the Arab Human Development Report 2002 there are approximately 6 million entrants yearly to the Arab labour market (UNDP 2002: 10) and the labour force is expected to grow in the next 10 years to 3,4% yearly―twice as much as in other developing regions (World Bank 2003: 3). The ‘demographic gift’―the growing number of labour force and decreasing dependency ratio, might lead to ec...
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter
Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...
Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian
In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner...... income only seems to be exogenous to the participation decision for home-working housewives. We also estimate participationequations with own potential income gab from working, which in the case of recipients of social assistence are found to have signifcant positive effect. The elasticities fromchanging...
"Although all economists agree that a major precondition for employment creation is sustainable economic growth of at least 2% per annum, they disagree about the effects of the institutional framework on the labour market: Optimistic observers stress the high performance of external trade and the highly specialized small and medium-sized companies operating at high potential. These have a well-qualified workforce, which relies on the existence of a highly differentiated system of labour marke...
CASTIGLIONI, C.; Tijdens, K.
The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocational and educational training system aimed to guarantee more employability, to address labour policies and manage industrial relations. Starting from this theoretical framework, the paper aims to ...
Carlene van der Westhuizen; Sumayya Goga; Morne Oosthuizen
Recent research has found that changing policies and attitudes and improved economic performance have impacted on the labour market dynamics for women and the increased feminisation of the South African labour force since the mid-1990s has been well documented. While employment has increased more rapidly for women than for men over the period, it has been suggested that women are overrepresented in low-income, less secure employment. In addition, insufficient jobs were created to absorb the a...
Frank Kalter; Irena Kogan
While the labour market integration of immigrant youth has increasingly received attention in recent years, due to the lack of appropriate data comparative studies are scarce until now and theoretical reasons for persistence of ethnic disadvantages often remain unclear. In this paper we try to enhance the understanding of ethnic inequalities making use of a new dataset made available by Eurostat, the European Union Labour Force Survey (EULFS) 2000 ad hoc module on school-to-work transitions. ...
Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter
Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…
Full Text Available In this study, the structure of Kazakhstan's labor market and workforce development are examined in this context. Kazakhstan is rich in resources, and active because of the potential mobility of labor is a country in the world. Country gained its independence in the 90’s from the social and economic change / transformed. At the end of this process rather than the central state's economy, albeit a relatively free market economy, privatization and structural reforms are adopted and have been started. A deep recession in the global economy experienced a period of Kazakhstan, of course, it also affected the world of work. Kazakhstan is not a familiar topic in modern working life enough in our country. Although it is the analysis of operational data in this context, the current labor market, workers' wages, social security and the changing profile of the characteristics of labor migration are explained.
Castellano, Rosalia; Punzo, Gennaro; Rocca, Antonella
The aim of this paper is to explore the main determinants of women's job search propensity and the mechanism underlying the selection effect into labour markets. The analysis compares the European countries, sharing the lowest female activity rates, with the well-developed economies of North Europe, traditionally characterized by the highest levels of female labour force participation. The potential selection bias due to the overlap in some unobserved characteristics is addressed via a bivari...
Zborovska Olha M.
Full Text Available The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential by means of realisation of programmes of international education, legal regulation of migration, active participation in various inter-state projects, etc. Influence of political-legal factors of formation of the labour potential shows up in inter-state agreements on labour migration regulation, in application of the system of uniform branch tariff-qualification reference books and in establishment of the system of licensing individual types of activity. Natural-climate conditions exert significant influence upon the level of labour potential. This influence shows up: in different life expectancies, sickness rate, labour life duration, etc. for various natural-climate zones. The article classifies the factors of labour potential with respect to the enterprise also both by exogenous and endogenous groups.
During the last three decades, the Mexican economy has not generated enough jobs for the expanding labour force. Unemployment rate in Mexico is low, but almost one third of the labour force works in the informal sector. Migration flows from Mexico to the US have been significant in the last decade. Even though the number of Mexicans in the US has remained stable, Mexican immigration to the US dropped from 2006 to 2009. Emigration is a key employment channel for the enlarged working-age Mexica...
Flexible labour market can be defined as the market with capability to adapt to changing economic conditions so as to keep high employment rate, un-employment and inflation low and ensure continued growth in real incomes. Labour market flexibility has a significant influence on employment level in the economy. Some economists believe that higher level of protection in the labour market is accompanied with lower employment rates in the economy. Low labour market flexibility is a contemporary p...
Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.
Butter, den F.A.G.
A flow model of the Dutch labour market is used to calculate the efects of autonomouslabour demand and supply shocks on employment and unemployment. The model is centered around a matching function which allows for heterogeneousunemployment by taking explicitly account of POWS through various durati
Bertranou, Fabio; Casanova, Luis; Jiménez, Maribel; Jiménez, Mónica
This working paper examines employment quality and labour market segmentation in Argentina. The labour market in the country is marked by heterogeneity; the rate of informal employment is high, though it diminished significantly during the 2003-2011 period.
Dixon, Peter B.; Maureen T. Rimmer
A key question concerning labour-market programs is the extent to which they generate jobs for their target group at the expense of others. This effect is measured by displacement percentages. We describe a version of the MONASH model designed to quantify the effects of labour-market programs. Our simulation results suggests that: (1) labour-market programs can generate significant long-run increases in employment; (2) displacement percentages depend on how a labour-market program affects the...
The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series...
This contribution aims to provide a consistent methodology to evaluate the performance of the European labour markets in the last 20 years and to reveal the most important factors influencing the efficiency of these labour markets. In particular, it focuses on the Czech labour market. Labour markets and their dynamics may be described by the standard Cobb-Douglas matching functions. Successful matches are thus treated as an output of a production process where unemployed are paired with avail...
de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne
This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…
Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen
This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…
Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny
The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and…
Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana
One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…
To provide empirical evidence on differences across high school tracks in early occupational labour market outcome, I estimate how the employment probability, the time before the first job is taken up, and earnings depend on high school type, controlling for student characteristics by a propensit...
C. Castiglioni; K. Tijdens
The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocat
Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena
This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…
Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Welsh, Benjamin H.
Asserts that it is a questionable claim that a widespread knowledge and skill shortage is causing current labour market supply problems, unemployment, or increased social stratification. Adds that the percentage of new jobs requiring high levels of knowledge and skill is limited when compared to low-skilled service industry occupations. Questions…
Kruse, Marie; Sætterstrøm, Bjørn; Bønløkke, Jakob;
and modelled changes in disease incidence as an expression of exposure. The labour market affiliation and development in wages over time for exposed individuals was compared to that of a reference group of individuals matched on a number of sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and predicted smoking status...
Edzes, Arjen; Hamersma, Marije; Venhorst, Viktor; van Dijk, Jouke
It is well-known that those with lower levels of education and school drop-outs are less successful in the labour market. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the determinants to continue in education to at least the minimum level defined by the Lisbon Treaty 2000, the so-called starting qualif
De Groot, Ayolt J.; Elhorst, J. Paul
One of the main questions for politicians is how to introduce more flexibility in the labour market while still providing employees with ample social security. The concept of flexicurity has sprung to attention through its success in Denmark. This paper explores whether the Danish model can also be
Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna
This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is researching…
Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke;
This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...
textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality
Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois
This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…
Kot Paweł; Rożnowski Bohdan
This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.
Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim
Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics). As students…
Full Text Available Modern economies have a high dynamics because of the rapid fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and parameters. Moreover, globalization emphasises the interdependencies among national economies, increasing their production capacities but, at the same time, making them more vulnerable to external perturbations. Shocks resulting from this turmoil can be absorbed depending on the degree of macromarket flexibility: goods market, labour market and money market. This flexibility becomes even more important for the member states of some optimal currency areas (OCA because it considers both the mobility of production factors and the symmetry of business cycle transmission; i.e. the correlation of macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper intend to analyse the situation of the internal mobility of workers as a basis for labour market flexibility.
Full Text Available Labour Market Area is a territory in which high rate of people both live and work. It does not need to be consistent with area restricted by administrative boarders. It seems rather obvious that administrative boarders are not always a proper criterion in making certain decisions. The government should sometimes base on functional regions instead. That is the reason for which in 2013 Eurostat decided to from the Task Force responsible of creating a common methodology of defining Labour Market Areas. A couple of member states have already had certain experience in using their own definitions of Labour Market Areas. Nevertheless, due to independence of each method the results achieved in different countries were obviously incomparable. This caused a need to create a methodology, which would be universal for entire European Union. According to proposal there are two criteria deciding whether an area is a Labour Market Area or not – size (number of employed inhabitants and self-containment, which is a minimal value of the following: 1 the proportion of an area’s employed population that works within the area and 2 the proportion of jobs within an area that are filled by residents of that area. Since the results should be possibly stable, population censuses are desirable sources. As travel-to-work matrices contain relations between places of living and places of work at LAU-2 level, datasets may have large size (for Poland almost 350 000 records. The aim is to join areas into clusters so that all of them fulfill conditions to be considered as Labour Market Area. In each step only two areas are joined. Then computations for all new areas need to be performed from the beginning. There are also certain situations when once joined areas are divided, which makes the whole process more complicated. R seems to be a proper tool to carry out necessary analyses of such a big dataset.
Serghei M RGULESCU
Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level.. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.
Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.
Rauhut, Daniel; Kahila, Petri
The aim of this paper is to discuss the regional labour market policy response to demographic ageing in Sweden and its consequences on the labour supply of young adults. Regions with ageing problems already experience significant problems at the labour market. The overall conclusion is that labour market policies in Sweden addressing the consequences of ageing fail to include young adults and the policies do not address regional heterogeneity regarding e.g. ageing and youth unemployment.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw on the research and scholarly literature to explorethe changing discourses and perspectives concerning adult learning, education, and thelabour market in the employability regime. The focus of the nalysis is a Nordic context.The dominant employability regime maintains a technical-rational perspective onlearning and employability. Education is predominantly regarded as an instrumentalpreparation for the labour market. The future demands of the labour market are largelyunknown, however, and vocational and professional training may not provide sufficientpreparation for the increasing complexities of work. Theoretical discussions have beendominated by an alleged mismatch between individual competence and thequalifications that are required in the world of work. There is no consensus regardinghow the gap should be described, explained, or bridged. New demands on educationaldesign have emerged, and ideas related to liberal education and ‘bildung’ have beenreinserted into the political agenda, offering general preparation for a wider array ofchallenges.
M. D. Uys
Full Text Available Purpose of the paper: The purpose of this paper is to revisit the dual labour market theory as far as the informal sector in South Africa is concerned. The hypothesis is that the dual labour market theory must be extended in order to be applicable to the informal sector of the South African economy. It is our view that within some informal occupations a further segmentation exists. Problem investigated: Among South Africa Âs grave socio-economic problems, unemployment is one of the most serious and intractable. An increase in informal and self-employment was experienced during the last decades. Traditional dual labour market theory maintains that jobs can be roughly divided into two groups: those with low wages, bad working conditions, unstable employment and little opportunity for advancement; and those with relatively high wages, good working conditions and opportunities for advancement. The problem that confronts researchers is that even within informal employment, further segmentation is possible. Approach: To determine whether the dualism, that described by the dual labour market theory, is also present within the informal sector itself, available data on a typical informal sector activity, namely car guarding, is analysed. This provides the evidence to achieve the objective of this paper. Findings and implications: The case study of car guards confirms that the dual labour market theory can also apply within the informal sector on the condition that it is expanded to make provision for a further segmentation of the periphery sector. This finding presents several important policy implications. A basket of policies is needed to address the problem of unemployment as effectively as possible. Value of the research: The paper provides further knowledge on informal employment in South Africa. This is an area that requires a lot of attention, given the importance of the informal sector in South Africa and Africa at large. It goes further than
Fleischmann, Fenella; Höhne, Jutta
Despite substantial differences in labour market attainment according to gender and migration status, gender and ethnic differences in labour market behaviour are most often studied separately. In contrast, this study describes and analyses interactions between gender, ethnic background and immigrant generation with regard to labour market participation, part-time work, and occupational status. The double comparison aims to reveal whether gender gaps in these labour market outcomes among the majority population generalise to ethnic minorities. Moreover, we ask whether variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour follows the patterns in migrants' origin countries, and whether gender gaps show signs of intergenerational assimilation. Our heterogeneous choice and OLS regressions of 2009 German Microcensus data reveal considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment. PMID:23859734
Terms such as social policy and labor market policies seem not be very current. Instead, we speak more and more about risk management. Social Risk Management is a concept developed by the Word Bank. It is a tool to transfer management techniques from the operating or finance in the social and labor market policy, to support individuals, households and communities to better manage their risk. Due to poor incentive structures, inadequate insurance policies or control often remain un...
Full Text Available Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to have its bearing on wagedetermination. As such, future research is expected to analyse gender wage decomposition taking into considerations of different types of labour market discrimination, occupational preferences, and gender differences in employability skills.
Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, â€œflexicurityâ€, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled â€œPhD in economics at the standards
Full Text Available Terms such as social policy and labor market policies seem not be very current. Instead, we speak more and more about risk management. Social Risk Management is a concept developed by the Word Bank. It is a tool to transfer management techniques from the operating or finance in the social and labor market policy, to support individuals, households and communities to better manage their risk. Due to poor incentive structures, inadequate insurance policies or control often remain under preventive, palliative and solidarity balancing risk management measures. This paper sets out to define the term of social risk management, describing the basic features from different perspectives and the main measures and strategies used in social risk management area. The essay considers the most discussed word of risk management as a moral opportunity to redefine the balance of responsibility and solidarity in the labor market.
Janne Paulsen Breimo
Full Text Available Roma individuals are struggling to access the formal labour market in Romania. Previous research occupied with this issue has traditionally been dominated by quantitative studies of socio-economic indicators that cling to the characteristics of the ethnic group. The study presented here, however, uses institutional ethnography as a method of social inquiry to demonstrate that this issue needs to be studied from a bottom-up perspective. The article illustrates that there are factors connected to how the system of occupational integration operates that must be taken into consideration in order to explain the difficulties Roma individuals face when trying to enter the labour market in Romania. We argue that these structural barriers create and reinforce processes of minoritising that increase marginalization and discrimination and thereby hinder work inclusion for Roma individuals.
Full Text Available In this paper we first review the (potential and actual role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial labour market in order to reconstruct the characteristics of the university-to-work transitions of graduates. Our results have important policy implications, since for local development it is crucial, among other things, to make the best use of all human resources and especially those with the highest educational level.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spill-overs, inducing employment to increase in the other sector and the effect on labour market performance therefore depends on whether discrimination is present in only one sector or in both sectors. Discrimination may induce workers to train more or less than natives after having lost...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....
There is very little discussion of the structure of the teaching profession and the implications of that structure for the teacher's professional identity. A model of the teacher labor market is of importance to a theoretical understanding and to an appreciation of structural changes that face teachers in the future. (CJ)
Nicola Curci; Vincenzo Mariani
The paper evaluates gender differences in labour market transitions in Italy. Women have a lower employment rate than men, owing to their shorter periods of employment and lower probability of entering into employment. The shorter duration of periods of employment for women is related to a higher incidence of non-permanent jobs compared with men. Italian women remain inactive longer than men, especially when inactivity is for family care reasons. Unemployed women are more likely than unemploy...
Wagtmann, Maria Anne; Poulsen, René Taudal
During the past 25 years, demand for seafarers has changed a great deal, due to the creation of second registers in Western Europe as well as ship register adjustments in other flag states. Concurrently, supply patterns have shifted, with new supply centres emerging in especially Asia and Eastern......, seen in the light of the seafaring labour market situation and education issues. In the paper, distinctions between OECD, transition economy and developing countries are made, when relevant....
AMER, Mona; Fargues, Philippe
Will the radical political changes Egypt has gone through since early 2011 have an impact on emigration from the country? This all depends on young Egyptian adults, who are the potential migrants of tomorrow. In order to understand the consequences of the Egyptian revolution might for migration, a questionnaire survey was conducted amongst Egyptian youth in 2013. The objective of this paper is to analyse the Egyptian labour market together with Egyptian migration to see whether changing condi...
This dissertation shows the relevance of political agency under conditions of globalisation through a sub-national comparative study of labour market reforms. The study builds upon existing literature by highlighting ‘relative autonomy’ of political actors and dynamics in determining policy and outcome. Such an assertion contradicts the purely structuralist interpretations of reform and asserts that forces of globalisation can be negotiated by domestic political actors. Base...
Janne Paulsen Breimo; Loreni Elena Baciu
Roma individuals are struggling to access the formal labour market in Romania. Previous research occupied with this issue has traditionally been dominated by quantitative studies of socio-economic indicators that cling to the characteristics of the ethnic group. The study presented here, however, uses institutional ethnography as a method of social inquiry to demonstrate that this issue needs to be studied from a bottom-up perspective. The article illustrates that there are factors connected ...
Patrícia Silva; Betina da Silva Lopes; Ana Isabel Melo; Elisabeth Brito; Dina Seabra; Marco Costa; Gonçalo Paiva Dias
Facing unprecedented challenges to deal with the problem of graduate unemployment, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are increasingly concerned with the professional insertion of their graduates in the labour market and with the design of institutional mechanisms that facilitate students’ transition from higher education to work. This has been achieved, inter alia, through the creation of study programmes with internships, or several other forms of cooperative education between...
Tobro, Anne Marte Lunde
As many developed countries, Norway has a growing elderly population and need to administer some policy change to cover the cost of the increasing number of pension recipients. One of the solutions to this problem is to give workers incentive to stay in the workforce longer. This thesis analyse the senior workers labour market mobility by studying the probability of leaving the workforce and the probability for senior workers to conduct a job change. Understanding job-to-nonemployment and job...
Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny
This paper investigates the average effects of (firm-provided) workplace health promotion measures in form of the analysis of sickness absenteeism and health circles/courses on labour market outcomes of the firms’ employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables as well as on time-constant un...
Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Cantillon, Sara
As recently as 1993, homosexuality was illegal in Ireland. Equality legislation prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in both the private and public sectors, in work and employment. A key exception in relation to the situation of LGBT people in the labour market is the clause in the Employment Equality Act 1998, Section 37(1), which allows religious organisations, medical institutions and educational institutions an exemption on employment grounds....
This contribution reveals some structural properties and differences of the Czech and Slovak labour markets. A small search and matching model incorporated into standard DSGE model is estimated using Bayesian techniques. Two sources of rigidities were implemented: wage bargaining mechanism and "search and matching" process matching workers and firms. The results show that search and matching aspect provides satisfactory description of employment flows in both economies. Model estimates provid...
Vincent Dadam; Nicola Viegi
This paper analyses the influence of the South African labour market on the conduct of monetary policy. Because of the weak response of wages to changes in employment, the South African Reserve Bank is confronted by an unfavourable short run unemployment-inflation trade off that complicates the implementation of the inflation targeting framework. First we provide some reduced form evidence by estimating a form of the traditional wage Phillips curve, showing the weak relationship between wage ...
20844840 - Cuyvers, Ludo; Dumont, Michel; Stojanovska, Nikolina
Purpose – The paper aims to assess to what extent the general trends with regard to world inequality can be explained by rising international economic integration, technological change and (labour market) institutions. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the existing literature, the stylized facts on inequality between and within nations, globalisation and technological change are reviewed, after which the empirical evidence of the impact of international trade and poverty in developi...
Michael Landesmann; Sebastian Leitner; Robert Stehrer
This study looks at the relationship between trade integration and labour markets for a group of OECD economies (USA, Japan, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom). We examine particularly trade relationships between these OECD economies and different groups of 'Southern' economies Southern Europe, the advanced South East Asian economies, a larger group of developing and catching-up economies, and transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis uses a disaggr...
One of the principal rationales for unemployment hysteresis focuses on the characterization of the labour market as consisting of insiders who possess wage negotiating power and outsiders who do not. A measure of bargaining power of insiders is overtime and this variable was found to be a significant determinant of wage inflation by Simes and Richardson (1987). Whereas their analysis dealt with aggregate national wage and overtime data, the current paper investigates the possibility that rela...
Fakih, Ali; Ghazalian, Pascal L.
Labour market constraints constitute prominent obstacles to firm development and economic growth of countries located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper aims at examining the implications of firm characteristics, national locations, and sectoral associations for the perceptions of firms concerning two basic labour market constraints: labour regulations and labour skill shortages. The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level dataset sourced from the World B...
This paper examines the impact of the global financial crisis on the Vietnam labour market against the backdrop of economic performance and labour dynamics before the crisis. The impact on labour has been milder compared with several neighbouring countries, than might have been expected for a country with Vietnam’s degree of international exposure. This can attributed to the timely stimulus package of late 2008, the tight labour market before the crisis, the competitive nature of Vietnam’s ke...
Majlinda Mazalliu; Jeton Zogjani
In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated ...
Pension system and labor market reforms are widely debated issues in all industrialized countries and especially in Europe; any change over these two aspects of the Social Security System indeed, can affect heavily the functioning of the whole economy.A preminent role in this sense is played by employment protection regulation and by the mandatory retirement age; in this paper I focus on the political economy of such social policies jointly and consider the interaction between the choice over...
One of the prerequisites for the creation of employment opportunities is the overall conditions of a country’s economy. However, this prerequisite is not the only requirement that guarantees an increase in employment. The factors that influence the rate of employment are connected with the entrepreneurial environment of a country. The entrepreneurial environment is one of the basic factors that contribute to the creation of work opportunities in a market economy. This paper points to the fact...
Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas
People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407
"I study the recruiting behaviour of German establishments with regard to the use of foreign labour markets. Applying instrumental variable strategies, I find foreign affinity and labour market scarcity to stimulate the use of foreign markets. Regional labour market scarcity is particularly relevant to small firms, and the effect of foreign affinity is largely driven by the share of foreigners in leading positions in large establishments. The results indicate that shortages are functional and...
The main questions addressed in this paper are: First, how did labour markets in the Visegrad countries react to the breakdown of a command economy and the transformation to a market economy? Second, which way ahead is likely, or to put it differently, what should be done now to improve conditions in the labour market in these countries? A comprehensive survey of labour market developments in each country under consideration is offered at some length. Special emphasis is then put on the dynam...
Månsson, Jonas; Delander, Lennart
The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of human capital variables on the probability for young people of being included in and excluded from the labour market. Of special interest is to study the causal effects of having immigrant background, controlling for other individual characteristics such as age, sex, education, being breadwinner, parental income, and parental employment. The research questions are investigated by using data from Statistics Sweden on young people’s sources an...
Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…
The globalisation and the intensive economic and social integration incredibly activate people’s mobility. Bulgaria has been facing migration problems with the political, economical and social transformation since 1990, which completely changed the labour mobility environment. As a result, migration flows increase significantly. This fact raises new problems as well as a need for new policies.
Caroline Anne de la Porte
Full Text Available This article analyses the role of the OECD through its “Jobs Strategy” and the European Union (EU through the “European Employment Strategy” in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance accompanied by a supportive in-depth qualitative analysis, while the EU has a more contextualised analysis, which is also more politicised. However, the EU’s policy is partially supported by European structural funds, while the OECD has no comparable instrument. Despite some differences in policy model and inquisitive style, both the OECD and the EU have given the same major policy recommendations over time to the Czech Republic, although the OECD has insisted more on de-regulation, whereas the EU has also emphasised worker security and anti-discrimination. In macro-economic policy, de-regulation and increasing flexibility on the labour market, the Czech Republic conforms with OECD and EU policy models and recommendations. The PES has been developed institutionally to fit both models. However, activation, shifts in expenditure from passive to active labour market policy, training and placement of the PES have not changed substantially since the Czech Republic became member of the EU, suggesting that the real impact of the OECD and the EU has been weak.
Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny
This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes.
Full Text Available Paid work is quite common amongst young people under the age of 18 in the Western world, although most undertake flexible part-time work. Nevertheless, studies on their labour market position are rare. The aim of this article is to examine the labour market position of young people in Iceland, a high-income Nordic country. We ask about: (i young people’s general labour market rights regarding payslips and formal work contracts; (ii their special labour market rights, safeguarded by child labour laws, in relation to rest periods, working hours, the prevalence of injuries and the consequent absence from work, and; (iii the young persons’ own perceptions of their labour market position. The study is based on mixed methods: a survey (N = 952 and group interviews (N = 42 with 13-17-year-olds. The research reveals that the labour market position of young people is characterised by ambiguity. While their general rights to employment and decent pay are recognised to some extent, their work often violates child labour laws and accidents do occur. Young people commonly perceive their labour market position as weak. Their position in society, on the other hand, allows them to quit when confronted with an adverse work environment or if the work interferes with other duties. To conclude, education on occupational health and safety (OHS and additional research on their labour market position are needed.
Boussauw, Kobe; van Meeteren, Michiel; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank
A defining feature of the spatial extent of agglomeration economies is the size and mass of the urban labour market. A larger labour market logically entails a higher potential for specialization and thus we expect a more robust regional economic performance. In Western Europe, we frequently observe that formerly independent urban labour markets have coalesced in metropolitan polycentric regions. However, such a process of urban fusion is never unambiguous and therefore discussion is rampant ...
Research hypothesis - changes in the set of labour market regulating factors would promote entrepreneurship development in Latvia, however entrepreneurs are not always ready to apply such changes. The first part of the doctoral thesis is theoretical. Analysis of conceptual fundamentals on labour market flexibility and labour market regulation factors and their influence on entrepreneurship development is included, by providing more detailed analysis of minimum wage, part-time employment, a...
Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík
IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...
: Incidence of crime in India has been mounting at a fast pace , especially during the last decade. Moreover, crime on body seems to be increasing in comparison to crime on property. Economics and Sociology literature on crime attributes labour market as a transmitting institution for crime. This paper is an attempt to understand the issue of crime in India as a socio-economic problem with particular reference to the Indian labour market. I argue that the poor labour market conditions in the ...
Elish Kelly; Seamus McGuinness; Philip J O'Connell; Alberto González Pandiella; David Haugh
Much research has been undertaken to study the effects of the Great Recession on overall labour market dynamics, but less is known about the impact on immigrants and how it has evolved over the business cycle. Understanding how immigrants were affected is particularly important for Ireland given the important role migrants play in the labour market. This paper attempts to fill this gap by identifying the labour market impact of the Great Recession on immigrants compared to natives and how thi...
Duncan Watson; Steve Johnson; Robert Webb
Past research on labour-market skills shortages indicates that employers report skills shortages or hard-to-fill vacancies for a variety of different reasons. Nevertheless, there is some consensus that skills-shortages analysis needs to examine such shortages within the context of the local labour market in order to understand the labour-market dynamics and structural factors that affect the propensity for unemployed people to fill ‘skills shortage’ vacancies. The traditional approach has bee...
Semeijn, J.H.; van der Velden, R.K.W.; Heijke, J.A.M.; Van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Boshuizen, H. P. A.
In this study, the effects of several educational and non-educational indicators of (aspects of) competence on short-term labour market outcomes for university graduates are estimated. The research question we address is: To what extent do indications of specific and generic competence during the educational program predict labour market outcomes? Labour market outcomes in this study pertain to employment chances and quality of the job (having a job, academic level, matching occupational doma...
Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Roumpakis, Antonios
There has been a long-standing consensus among the employer and employee representatives to decide upon management of social risks in the coordination of labour market institutions in the Nordic countries. This consensus has been built upon the idea of parity in collective bargaining, or labour market parity, which refers to the reciprocal recognition of interests between labour market representatives and to parity-based negotiations and agreements in which a consensus can be reached. In this...
De Santis M.
This paper aims at identifying individual and family features that represent advantage or disadvantage factors in the participation of young people to labour market. In particular, the difficult condition of the Southern Italy is analysed. First, we will compare the participation of young people to labour market in Italy to the one of the main European countries. The European Union and its main countries represent a natural benchmark for the conditions of labour market in our country. Subsequ...
Population ageing will considerably influence economic and social structure of the population. The labour market will change completely. The lower number of persons in productive age and the rise of proportion of older age groups will speed up ageing after 2030. The future development of labour market will face a challenge of reduction of the negative initial demographic conditions. The main problem of the labour market in the Czech Republic is the exclusion of all groups of population due to...
This a study on the labour market. More in particular it is a study on the supply of labour, the modes of its formation and its internal structure and dynamics. The avowed goal of the study is to elucidate a concept of labour power in which its commodity-status is played down and its status of s
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
Through actions like product boycotts or imposing international labour standards, governments and consumer groups in rich countries put pressure on poor countries to discourage the use of child labour. But the child-labour problem in developing countries shows no sign of abating. Our research suggests that international activism may be partially to blame, because it can thwart regulation of child labour within developing countries.
Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
Why is international labour mobility so low in high-income regions of the European Union? To shed light on this issue, we examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended (temporary) labour migration of the Dutch is that it occur
H.P. van Dalen; K. Henkens
Why is international labour mobility so low in high-income regions of the European Union? To shed light on this issue, we examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended (temporary) labour migration of the Dutch is that it occur
Van Adams, Arvil; And Others
Labor market planning techniques must take into account the dynamic nature of economies. A better approach than labor needs forecasting is use of labor market signals developed by monitoring wage and employment changes and evaluating training programs. (SK)
A. K. Dubovik
Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe;
This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differ......This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...
Povoroznyuk Inna M.
The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of ...
Rulof Burger; Ingrid Woolard
While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched the growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This paper attempts to document and identify the key trends in labour force participation, unemployment and employment so as to better understand the factors that drive the performance of the labour ...
This paper analyses the behaviour of Australian labour market transition rates. Since the early 1980s the job finding rate has been significantly more volatile and pro-cyclical than the job loss rate and is strongly pro-cyclical. The economic downturns in the early 1980s and early 1990s were associated with an up to 10 percentage point decline in the average job finding rate. In comparison, the recent economic downturn was associated with a less significant decline in the job finding rate....
Bodnár, Katalin; Szabó, Lajos Tamás
In our analysis, we examine the effects of emigration from Hungary on the labour market and its other economic implications. Since 2008 the number of emigrants has been rising significantly faster than the previous trend, and thus it is important to assess the possible consequences of higher mobility in the Hungarian economy. We focus primarily on the effects on wages, for which it is indispensable to give an overview of the productivity effects as well. To that end, we need to gain a deeper ...
Vincent Dadam and Nicola Viegi
This paper analyses the inÂ‡fluence of the South African labour market on the conduct of monetary policy. Because of the weak response of wages to changes in employment, the South African Reserve Bank is confronted by an unfavourable short run unemployment-inÂ‡flation trade off that complicates the implementation of the inÂ‡flation targeting framework. First we provide some reduced form evidence by estimating a form of the traditional wage Phillips curve, showing the weak relationship between...
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. Within a search and matching model, we show that all natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... has positive spillovers, inducing employment increases in the other sector. Discrimination may induce immigrants to train more or less than natives, depending on the sector where it is present. Welfare tends to be most negatively affected by discrimination among highproductivity workers....
Although it is a common theoretical assumption that the chances to find a job fall with time in unemployment, this is not systematically confirmed by empirical evidence, and there is no evidence for developing countries. We develop a framework that allows us to test the four major explanations why we may observe non-negative duration dependence while genuine duration dependence is negative: financial support for the unemployed, active labour market policies, a change in the economy over time,...
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and...... explanation for the different popular images of target groups and 2) by showing - using a national Australian sample - that these general popular images influence the way the public wants ‘active' labour market policy to be conducted.......Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and 2......) as the target group gradually came to include ‘ordinary' unemployed, most countries made exceptions for the oldest unemployed. The article argues that this striking policy convergence has to do with the public perception of the target groups. The article substantiates this argument 1) by giving a theoretical...
Dr. Henriette Engelhardt
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is infl uenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs infl uence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the fi rst two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to countryspecifi c factors and can quantify the relative impact of specifi c socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper comprising a case study of unequal opportunity in the urban area labour market in Accra-Tema, Ghana, with particular reference to sex discrimination and woman worker labour market segmentation - examines the labour force participation of women, their occupational status, educational level, marital status, family size and background, child care arrangements, family planning, etc., and discusses management attitudes, employees attitudes and behaviour, and trade un...
The working of the labour market is important for the total welfare effects of tax reforms. This paper analyses, by using a computable general equilibrium model for the Norwegian economy, how different assumptions about labour mobility between industries and wage formation influence the non-environmental welfare effects of an environmental tax reform. Three different alternatives are analysed; competitive labour market, immobility and wage rigidity, and wage formation through union wage barga...
This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries ...
Dell'Aringa, C; Pagani, L.
This paper contributes to the literature on the assimilation of immigrants into the Italian labour market by using over-education as an indicator of labour market performance. The analysis is based on data taken from the Italian Labour Force Survey (LFS) for the period between 2005 and 2007. Distinguishing between the effect of human capital acquired abroad and domestically on over-education, we aim at finding indirect evidence on the increase in skill transferability over time. We find that ...
Unemployment has been rising in South Africa for the last three decades, leading to official unemployment rates of 26.4% (37% if the broad definition is used). This implies a jobless total of 7 million, with more than 40% of the rural population unemployed, and the development of a growing pool of workers who are excluded from the labour market. The South African economy is facing labour market failure, with labour supply increasingly outstripping demand. If the economy continues on its curre...
Images of an 'African Boom' have presented us with labour markets full of dynamic potential: a declining dependency ratio, low levels of unemployment, and a vibrant middle class. This buoyant view of African labour markets conceals a less encouraging reality of catastrophic youth unemployment and expanding informality, creating a 'youth bulge' that is more of a threat than an opportunity. How does the continent with the largest share of informal labour in the world become a beacon of prosperi...
Full Text Available In the past years, the population of the West Region has experienced a decline, under the mixed influence of the different level of the natural growth, domestic migration flows and intense external migration. The demographic and economic effects of the reduced young population will be felt in time and will lead to changes in subpopulations (school population, fertile age population, employable population. The effects of the demographic aging process upon the development of the economic and social life have been felt after 2005, when the generations born after 1990 joined the employable population. The transition to the market economy has had a strong impact on the characteristics of the labour market, causing significant changes in the size and structure of the main labour force indicators (activity rate, employment rate, unemployment rate.
Full Text Available Building upon the premise that the prolongation of working life presents an adequate approach to address the fast approaching challenges of population ageing, the paper presents labour market outcomes of older workers in Slovenia in order to explore the role of social system and labour market flexibility in retirement behaviour. By applying bivariate graphic analysis and series of logistic models, paper finds that decisions of older workers (aged 50 - 69 of whether to retire or to continue working up to legal retirement age is being predominately shaped by the pension system parameters. Economic activity beyond this age (or when retired on the other hand predominately correlates with flexible work arrangements and work motivation. Thus, the future policies in Slovenia aiming to prolong working careers within formal or informal sector should simultaneously do both; change pension system parameters and significantly expand the system flexibility stimulating willing and capable elderly to continue working within the formal sector.
The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…
Haasler, Simone R.
Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…
Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008
In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…
The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…
Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009
The Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development's overarching purpose is to position British Columbia to meet the competitive challenges of the twenty-first century through better aligning labour market supply and demand. In the six months since the Ministry issued its February 2009 service plan and the subsequent re-election of…
The transition into a post-industrial economy changed the nature of the Australian labour market extinguishing jobs in traditional industries and creating jobs in new industries. Workers displaced from the manufacturing sector and women seeking to re-enter the labour market after taking time out for family reasons need to retrain in order to…
Ramakers, Anke; van Wilsem, Johan; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja
This study is concerned with describing the employment history of prisoners. Past labour market performance is a major predictor of later performances. Yet, the substantial field of reentry research paid little attention to pre-prison employment patterns and the magnitudes of labour market disadvant
The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…
This article examines the way students, making the transition from higher education into the labour market, construct, understand and begin to manage their employability. It draws upon a qualitative study of 53 final-year undergraduates in a pre-1992 university in the UK. It firstly explores students' perceptions of the current labour market for…
This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014
This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…
R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)
textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor
Porte, Caroline de la
This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES...... and inquisitive style, both the OECD and the EU have given the same major policy recommendations over time to the Czech Republic, although the OECD has insisted more on de-regulation, whereas the EU has also emphasised worker security and anti-discrimination. In macro-economic policy, de-regulation and increasing...
Full Text Available Nowadays, public employment services face a number of urgent tasks as raising the employment rate and reducing the number of vacant jobs for which is difficult to find enough qualified workers. New realities on labour market and dynamic environment require adequate actions, rational and timely decision making and optimization of work. Dynamic changes in social environment impacting labour markets and activities of public employment services impose various tasks which implementation should be carefully planned, organized and controlled. To achieve that public employment services should take a more comprehensive look at the demand and supply of labour, considering the numerous transitions taking place constantly on the labour market and people's personal development. Improving processes and the quality of the administrative services in the Bulgarian employment agency is seen as a prerequisite for effective implementation of employment policies. The study presents opportunities for improving the quality of services offered in the Directorates "Labour Office" in the Republic of Bulgaria by introducing a process model and improvements in the capacity and efficiency of work in the field of labour mediation.
Full Text Available The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series of statistical data that has been collected and reviewed, while highlighting the main factors that shape the current situation of the Romanian labour market. As regards the employment rate, the gender difference in Romania falls within the limits of that recorded for most EU countries (the employment rate is higher for the male than female population. On the contrary, the unemployment rate is reversed (higher unemployment rate in male than female population.
Full Text Available Population ageing will considerably influence economic and social structure of the population. The labour market will change completely. The lower number of persons in productive age and the rise of proportion of older age groups will speed up ageing after 2030. The future development of labour market will face a challenge of reduction of the negative initial demographic conditions. The main problem of the labour market in the Czech Republic is the exclusion of all groups of population due to the lack of flexible jobs, mainly part-time jobs (for example students, mothers with children and elderly people. The analysis shows a possible way of measuring these reserves on the labour market. The comparison with labour indicators (mainly specific employment rates by gender and age of other European countries is the aim of this approach. This offers a possibility to construct the scenarios of the future development in the Czech Republic.
In these times of rising unemployment, the effects of energy-political measures on the labour market should be scrutinized thoroughly. In addition, the structural effects on the various branches of economy ought to be investigated as well. This contribution first discusses the interdependences between energy conservation measures and the national economy in general. It then proceeds to investigate the model approaches which may be employed for an empirical analysis of these mechanisms. The fourth section investigates the economic effects of energy conservaton from an aggregated point of view and presents the empirical results of a comprehensive study. This is followed by a presentation of the sectoral effects based on the same study. The contribution closes by taking stock of the political conclusion that can be drawn from these analyses for improving energy conservation concepts. (orig)
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse learning practices in labour market projects cofinanced by the European Social Fund (ESF targeting unemployed Roma in Sweden. The empirical material consists of 18 project descriptions from ESF projects, as well as national and European policy documents concerned with the inclusion of the Roma in contemporary Europe. The contemporary empirical material is analysed in relation to a government report from 1956 concerning the 'Roma issue' in Sweden. The analytical perspective of the study is governmentality, and the analysis focuses on different kinds of problematizations and the discursive positioning of the Roma subjects. One of the main findings is that unemployed Roma are situated in various discourses of misery and constructed as in need of reshaping their subjectivities in order to become educable as well as employable.
Criticizes the standard international definition of unemployment as being too restrictive to measure accurately unemployment in labour- surplus economies. Using Indonesia as a basis, proposes a definition which is based on trends in real wages which aims to reflect the real extent of labour surplus. Using this latter definition recommends incentives-oriented employment strategies which are designed to increase the demand for labour or to affect labour supply. Focuses on the period from 1976 t...
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Ústecký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Olomoucký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Jihomoravský Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Liberecký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Moravskoslezský Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Pardubický Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Karlovarský Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příleţitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Region Vysočina. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Borowczyk Martins, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Vincent
In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. We identify and measure gender wage discrimination from firm-level data using a labour index decomposition pioneered by Hellerstein and Neumark (1995), which allows us to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender labour costs differential. We take advantage of the panel structure of the...
Bhattacharyya, Chandril; Gupta, Manash Ranjan
This paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with special focus on the role of unionized labour market and on the interaction between the tax financed productive public expenditure and unemployment benefit policy of the government. We incorporate a ‘Managerial’ labour union in an otherwise identical Barro (1990) model; and use both ‘Efficient Bargaining’ model and ‘Right to Manage’ model to solve the negotiation problem between a labour union and an employers’ association. Proper...
Herzog-Stein, Alexander; Lindner, Fabian; Sturn, Simon; van Treeck, Till
Despite the biggest economic slump in Germany since the Second World War, employment did not decrease. In other European countries, which have even been hit less hard, employment started to decrease significantly. This 'employment miracle' is a result of the high internal flexibility of the German labour market, which resulted in a strong reduction of average working time in the downturn, and labour-hoarding by employers. Cyclical working time reduction saved some 1.1 million jobs, labour hoa...
Zborovska Olha M.; Halan Olena Ye.
The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the transition of youth with disabilities from education to labour market in Slovenia. The article introduces the European Social Fund project “Transition”, provided by the partnership of Racio, University Rehabilitation Institute and Auris, operated from 2010 to 2013. The Transition project was intended for two target groups: youth with disabilities in the education process, with the aim to achieve their integration from education to the labour market, and for professionals who provide the transition. Young people in Europe have been facing increasing uncertainty in the labour market. The labour market transition for youth, and especially for youth with disabilities, is a very demanding question. Policymakers and experts in the European Union have therefore developed programs for social inclusion, improved access, achievement and integration of young people with disabilities into the labour market. Youth unemployment during economic crises has increased in all parts of the world, with the impact of prolonging the duration of unemployment. The transition of young people with disabilities from school to the labour market in Slovenia is not integrally and adequately organised. A support system should be introduced to monitor young people with disabilities while they are still at school and prepare them for entering the labour market. After finishing school, a model of transition from school to work is proposed to prevent unemployment.
This article explores the critical role of labour market imperfections in climate stabilisation costs formation. To do so, we use a dynamic recursive energy-economy model that represents a second best world with market imperfections and short-run adjustments constraints along a long-term growth path. We show that the degree of rigidity of the labour markets is a central parameter and we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis of the model results to this parameter. When labour markets are represented as highly flexible, the model results are in the usual range of existing literature, i.e. less than 2% GDP losses in 2030 for a stabilisation target at 450 ppm CO2 equivalent, But when labour markets rigidities are accounted for, mitigation costs increase dramatically. In a second time, the article identifies accompanying measures, namely labour subsidies, which guarantees against the risk of large stabilisation costs in the case of high rigidities of the labour markets. That vision complements the usual view that mitigation is a long-term matter that depends on technology, innovation, investment and behavioural change. Here we add the warning that mitigation is also a shorter-term issue and a matter of transition on the labour market. (authors)
The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between immigration and labor market performance in Sabah region's oil palm plantation industry. The labour market performance refers to the wages and employment of local workers in the oil palm plantation sector. The relationship of these variables can be in short run or/ and in the long run. This study uses Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to examine the relationship between the immigration and labour market performance. In...
Full Text Available The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.
This article assesses the effectiveness of a reform of the higher education system aimed at stimulating employability and faster access to the labour market for Italian graduates. Using the Taylor formula, the evolution of the employment rates has been followed through the movements and interaction of activity and unemployment rates. The progress…
Kohlbacher, Josef; Reeger, Ursula
After the fall of the Iron Curtain Austria's position within the framework of Europe's migration league table shifted from a marginal one to that of an appealing "Gateway to the Golden West" with a strong attraction for migrants. So it is not surprising that the inflow of labour force from Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary was growing during the 1990s. This has led to the formation of a new transnational labour market which includes the eastern regions of Austria and the countr...
It has been argued that the public sector is an insurance against otherwise uninsurable risks. If that is the case, it is reasonable to expect the public sector to be larger in regions where the private labour-market is risky. Using data from Swedish municipalities, this paper reports that labour-market risk has a substantial impact on public employment. The results for aggregate spending and taxation are, however, much weaker and labor-market risk thus affects the labour intensity of the mun...
Full Text Available In this paper we address two bodies of sociological research: the effects of globalization and theories of pay. Most sociological writings on globalization emphasize its negative consequences. Most sociological writings on pay allow no role for productivity but, rather, assert the importance of power in the production of labour market outcomes. In this paper we examine the effects of threeforms of globalization — exporting, foreign ownership, and outsourcing — and include in our analysis institutional features of organizations typically associated with worker power. Using the rich data available in the Workplace and Employee Survey we find: i pay tends to be higher in workplaces that export and are foreign owned; ii employees in more productive workplaces are paid more; iii pay is higher where internal labour markets are present; and iv treating productivityand power as alternative explanations for pay differentials is a mistake.
I.S. Buhai (Sebastian)
textabstractThe main chapters of this book, “Essays on Labour Markets”, focus on analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), modelling occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social groups (chapter 4) and characterizing
The high level of graduate unemployment, even though it is acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, it has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes micro-data from the Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and…
Burger, Rulof; Woolard, Ingrid
While the political transition to democratic rule in South Africa was smooth and rapid, the economic transition has been slow and difficult. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the labour market. Job creation has not matched growing labour supply and the unemployment rate continues to rise. This article attempts to document and identify the key…
High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although the
J. De Deken
High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although the
Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle
Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…
McQuarrie, Fiona A. E.
Explores differences in labor market experiences between male and female journalism graduates (from 1976, 1982, and 1986) in Canada. Investigates occupations entered after graduation, income, time spent in various labor market activities, and job and salary satisfaction. Finds minimal gender-based differences. (SR)
Barrett, Alan; Kelly, Elish
In the mid 2000s Ireland experienced a large inflow of immigrants, partly in response to strong economic growth but also in response to its decision to allow full access to its labour market when EU expansion occurred in May 2004. Between 2004 and 2007, the proportion of non-nationals living in Ireland almost doubled, increasing from 7.7 to 13.1 percent. Between 2008 and 2009, Ireland experienced one of the most acute downturns in economic activity in the industrialised world, with a cumulati...
SULTANOV JASUR AMINBAYEVICH; CHUPONOV SANAT OTANAZAROVICH
In this issue there were analyzed the features and directions of controlling local labour market in Khorezm region of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the role of employment support centers at this process.
DIMIAN, Gina Cristina
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of youth labour market performances and their influence on the future economic and social development of a country. The objectives refer to the assessment of demographic and labour market trends for young people, the analysis of the factors responsible for increasing youth unemployment and for the differences between skilled and unskilled young people concerning unemployment rates. To achieve the paper’s objectives several statistical and econometric models (descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis have been used. The main interest was to look for the key driver of youth labour market sustainable performances. The degree of originality is given by our choice to analyse youth labour market dynamics from an interconnected perspective (demographic trends, youth unemployment, education and to apply the model for 10 CEE countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia in order to compare their performances.
Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr;
and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born...... expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 16.1% (parents' divorce) for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 4.......9% for witnessing a violent event. CONCLUSIONS: Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for young adults. Knowledge of negative life events in childhood should be taken into account when considering determinants of labour market participation...
Adina Popovici (Bărbulescu)
The objective of our paper is to highlight and analyse certain aspects related to the education system, labour market and education system graduates employment in Romania. It starts by pointing out the importance of education and some of the transformations the Romanian education system has undertaken after 1989 and during the process of passage to the Bologna system. It then focuses on the Romanian labour market and education system graduates employment. We conclude that the education system...
Behaghel, Luc; Caroli, Eve; Walkowiak, Emmanuelle
Following the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT), firms are likely to face increasing skill requirements. They may react either by training or hiring the new skills, or by a combination of both. We first show that ICT are indeed skill biased and we then assess the relative importance of external and internal labour market strategies. We show that skill upgrading following ICT adoption takes place mostly through internal labour markets adjustments. The introduction of...
38th Congress of the European Regional Science Association 28 August ? 1 September 1998 in Vienna Europe quo vadis? ? Regional question at the Turn of the Century Topic: E: Poverty, Labour Markets and Migrations The emergence of new uses for rural spaces and interrelations of rural and urban labour markets (Abstract) by Thomas Dax, Bundesanstalt fur Bergbauernfragen The former rural-urban dichotomy has been rejected be recent analyses of economic performance of rural areas. Much of this new r...
Strielkowski Wadim; Hněvkovský Jan
This paper examines whether there has been a significant change in the performance of the Czech labour market after the Czech Republic’s EU Accession in May 2004. We analyse methodological changes of measuring unemployment caused by inevitable legislative adjustments and follow the development of the Czech labour market and the inflows of foreign workers to the Czech Republic over the past two decades. Our results show that the EU Accession resulted in simplifying foreigners’ access to ...
Chevalier, Arnaud; Viitanen, Tarja K.
Common wisdom states that teenage childbearing reduces schooling, labour market experience and adult wages. However, the decisions to be a teenage mother, to quit school, and be less attached to the labour market might all stem from some personal or family characteristics. Using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), we find that in Britain teenage childbearing decreases the probability of post-16 schooling by 12% to 24%. Employment experience is reduced by up to three years, and the ad...
Michaelowa, Katharina; Waller, Marie
Based on recent data collected by the UNESCO Institute of Statistics and the OECD in the context of their joint World Education Indicators project, labour market outcomes of education can be reassessed for selected non-OECD countries (Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, Malaysia, Peru, Thailand and Uruguay) integrating particularly interesting characteristics of developing country labour markets such as high underemployment and informal sector employment. These specific data, available by level of educ...
Deviations from heteronormativity affect labour market dynamics. Hierarchies of sexual orientation can result in job dismissals, wage discrimination, and the failure to promote gay and lesbian individuals to top ranks. In this paper, I report on a field experiment (144 job-seekers and their correspondence with 5,549 firms) that tested the extent to which sexual orientation affects the labour market outcomes of gay and lesbian job-seekers in the United Kingdom. Their minority sexual orientatio...
Leibfritz, Willi; O'Brien, Paul; Dumont, Jean-Christophe
The paper provides an overview on recent trends of immigration in OECD countries and on the possible effects of immigration on labour markets and government budgets. It also discusses migration policies from an economic point of view. By bringing together a bulk of international literature on labour market and fiscal effects of migration in a systematic way it provides a framework for assessing the economic effects of migration and improving the knowledge base for migration policies.
Marques, Ana Paula
In the transition from higher education to the labour market, the critical correspondence between qualification and first job, as well as precariousness and/ or unemployment experiences has been a crucial topic of understanding of labour market as one of the main facets of social and socio-economic insecurity and risks in contemporary European societies. In this paper we intend to contribute to the debate on unpredictable itineraries of professional integration of graduates from Higher Educat...
Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre
A rich set of regional labour market variables is utilised to explain interregional migration in Norway. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects in their resident municipality and the surroundings. Mean satisfaction with local job prospects reported by respondents in a region and related survey-based indicators have a positive and significant impact on net inmigration to the regio...
Ricardo Azevedo Araujo
Full Text Available In this paper the existence and stability of equilibriums in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market is studied by using the Lyapunov method. The model displays multiple equilibriums and it is shown that the Nash equilibriums of the static game are evolutionary stable equilibrium in the game theory evolutionary set up. A complete characterization of the dynamics of an evolutionary model of the labour market is provided.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the diferences that immigrants have in the Spanish labour market. Immigrants in Spain come from a diversity of continents (Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, Asia, etc.), and there are substantial diferences in characteristics not only among continents but also among countries in each continent. Using a quantile regression method of decomposition we estimate these diferences that are reflected in the labour market and in particular are mirrored in t...
Rulof Burger; Rachel Jafta
This paper empirically assesses the impact of post-1994 policy making on racial discrimination in the South African labour market. The post-apartheid government has implemented a series of remedial measures, including an ambitious set of black empowerment and affirmative action policies. The first part of the paper gives an overview of the South African labour market post-1994 and the most important legislation, regulations and other measures aimed at redressing the inequalities of the past. ...
Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers...
The article reports the findings of four UK organizational case studies of the structure of internal labour markets: in the financial sector, banking and insurance, and in process industries, coal mining and chemicals. It builds on the work of Doeringer and Piore (1971). The internal labour markets are found to comprise different subsystems with contrasted internal mobility patterns. In the financial sector, it identifies different career streams which lead to senior positions at different sp...
Gomes, Pedro Maia
I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and two sectors in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. Public sector wages plays an important role in achieving the efficient allocation. High wages induce too many unemployed to queue for public sector jobs, while if they are low, the government faces recruitment problems. The optimal steady-state wage premium depends mainly on the labour market friction param...
I build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with search and matching frictions and two sectors in order to study the labour market effects of public sector employment and wages. Public sector wages plays an important role in achieving the efficient allocation. High wages induce too many unemployed to queue for public sector jobs, while if they are low, the government faces recruitment problems. The optimal steady-state wage premium depends mainly on the labour market friction param...
Inwood, Kris; Minns, Chris; Summerfield, Fraser
This paper uses Canadian Census data from 1911 to 1931 to trace the labour market assimilation of immigrants up to the onset of the Great Depression. We find that substantial earnings convergence between 1911 and 1921 was reversed between 1921 and 1931, with immigrants from Continental Europe experiencing a sharp decline in earnings relative to the native-born. The effect of Depression labour market conditions were particularly pronounced among older immigrants with long tenures in Canada.
Daniela , PAŞNICU
To achieve the employment target set in the Europe 2020 Strategy is necessary that women's potential and talent to be used optimally. Increasing employment for both men and women is the main way to achieve autonomy, financial independence and poverty reduction. This paper presents a comparative statistical analysis of gender equality on the labour markets of Romania and EU28 based on official statistics records and specific key labour market indicators. The aim was to highlight the gender gap...
Research suggests that immigrants’ inability to obtain mainstream jobs and lack of economic mobility in the labour market is attributed to the lack of human and social capital. In additional, they face institutional barriers such as the devaluation of foreign credentials and discrimination. In this paper, I address the implication of impression management techniques for immigrant integration in the labour market. This paper offers insight on how immigrants can minimize misguided perceptions a...
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Geiger, Tinne
In the Nordic countries a large proportion of immigrants and descendants are excluded from the labour market and the group is overrepresented among the unemployed. International experience shows that adult education and training can be useful tools in providing immigrant groups a foothold in the labour market. To facilitate that process we need to know what factors motivate immigrants to participate in adult education and training and what the results and effects of different approaches are. ...
Existing agent-based labour-market models include a very simplistic mechanism of choosing vacancies. This paper proposes to use job satisfaction as a unified mechanism for deciding on both starting to work on a particular job and quitting the current job. An enhanced job satisfaction mechanism consisting of monetary, social, content, and career components is proposed. As an illustrative context, a labour-market model with referral hiring and informal job search through own social networks is ...
Heikkilä, Elli; Korhonen, Sirpa
The paper deals with performance of local labour markets in Finland. The gross-stream labour statistics provide useful tool for this analysis. The subject of the research is the working-aged population. The local labour markets are divided into three classes: major cities, regional centres and smaller centres. The periods of observation are years 1990-91 and 1996-97 in the stream data. During the former period Finland was sliding into depression, whilst in the latter period it was rising out ...
Falavigna Greta; Ragazzi Elena; Sella Lisa
In the field of public policies there is a lot of interest in vocational training issues, because of spillovers in the labour market as well as on quality of life. Reports by the European Commission show that women are disadvantaged subjects in the labour market but, at the same time, they are more ambitious and achieve best results from an educational point of view. This paper aims to analyse Piedmont Region data on vocational training policies, focusing on the role of women in the labour ma...
Labour market flexibility continues to be one of the key issues in the reform of labour markets in welfare states. The way in which various countries adapt to this need differs according to their institutions and prevailing strategies. Despite the vast numbers of studies addressing this issue, labour market flexibility has been examined predominantly by concentrating on the arrangements that firms adopt to adjust to market fluctuations. Thus flexibility arrangements are perceived to exist onl...
Povoroznyuk Inna M.
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of production and hired labour, although, to a big extent, this institute is adapted, on the one hand, to the existing in the society forms of resolution of contradictions, inherent in means of production ownership relations, and, on the other hand, to the situation in a relevant labour market segment. However, the labour reimbursement institute itself significantly influences realisation of interests of employees and employers. The article states that wages in the modern economy should be understood as an incomplete labour reimbursement – the entrepreneur spends on an employee not only the sum of wages, but also uses other forms of resource provision of the processes of acquisition of certain benefits by the enterprise employees.
agreements especially for low-skilled labour in sectors like agriculture and cleaning, that have high inflows. A large number of Eastern Europeans are working significantly below the de facto minimum wages negotiated between the social partners. This paper provides case study research from the agricultural...... though EU8/2 workers still only accounts for around three per cent of total Danish employment there may be more significant regulatory and institutional effects since employers use the labour inflow to put pressure on wage levels, working conditions and the general scope and range of the collective...... sector and cleaning, where large cohorts of workers now are Eastern European, on how e.g. collective bargaining and wage levels experiences high pressure. The outcome might be increasing dualisation between EU 8/2 workers and native workers and low-skilled Danish workers may be pushed out of the labour...
Godwin E. Bassey
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to appraise the existing gap between the demand for and supply of university graduates in the Nigerian labour market. The study emphasizes that serious distortions exist in the market for university graduates in Nigeria, giving rise to unacceptable high level of graduate unemployment. The phenomenon of rising graduate unemployment is bound to have serious adverse social and economic consequences on the Nigerian economy. The study traces the problem to the declining quality of education, resulting from inadequate funding, insufficient and outmoded learning materials, poorly trained staff, irrelevant curricula and inadequate information on job vacancies for job seekers in the market. The study recommends, among others, the establishment of labour market information system, a legal framework for labour market information management and improved funding of university education to effectively harness the products of the Nigerian universities for sustainable economic development.
Iconomescu Teodora Mihaela
Full Text Available During the 90’s, graduates benefited of a high social status and living standards, currently the quality and value of a university degree is uncertain. Since the labour market has diversified significantly, an imbalance occurred between the labour market supply and demand. Therefore universities and faculties should establish a dialogue with the main beneficiaries on the labour market. Over the last years, this field of Physical Education and Sport has diversified considerably, at the same time the labour market demand has needed various other sport-related jobs whereas the Physical Education teacher job is no longer sought-after on the labour market. Consequently the degree programmes offered by faculties should be based on the demand from the labour market.
Bauer, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
The paper evaluates the potential gains from labour immigration for the European Union. After a review of the East-West migration problem and recent western migration policies, governmentally controlled labour immigration is studied in a framework with unions, unemployment and heterogenous workers. The model predicts a decline in wages with unskilled and skilled immigration if both types of workers are complements. Only skilled migration reduces unemployment, however. This disequilibrium fram...
Richard Blundell; Alan Duncan; Julian McCrae; Costas Meghir
In October 1999, the working families’ tax credit (WFTC) replaced family credit as the main package of in-work support for families with children. Among a range of stated aims, the WFTC is intended to ‘... improve work incentives, encouraging people without work to move into employment’. In this paper, we consider the impact of WFTC on hours and participation. To simulate labour supply responses, we use a discrete behavioural model of household labour supply with controls for fixed and childc...
Gabriella Berloffa; Francesca Modena; Paola Villa
This paper considers the increased incidence of insecure job conditions for young individuals entering the Italian labour market and their chances of moving to a more secure job-condition after a reasonable period of time. In particular, we investigate empirically whether and how long-term changes in labour market institutions and conditions have modified the role of the family of origin for both labour market entry and subsequent transitions. We use the Italian Households Longitudinal Study ...
Cling, Jean-Pierre; Razafindrakoto, Mireille; Roubaud, François
Labour market segmentation is usually defined as the division of the labour markets into separate sub-markets or segments, distinguished by different characteristics and behavioural rules (incomes, contracts, etc.). The economic debate on the segmentation issue has been focusing in developed countries, and especially in Europe, on contractual segmentation and dualism.
This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment. PMID:27499601
This PhD thesis – made up of five empirical essays – looks into the role of structural rigidities in recent labour market performance in Europe from complementary angles and yields several results. First, the effect of institutions is complex owing to numerous interactions and their endogenous nature. Second, the level of labour utilisation in the EU15 is clearly lower than in the US, explaining two thirds of the EU15 gap in GDP per capita vis-à-vis the US. Labour underutilisation particularl...
Prieto-Rodríguez, Juan; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, César
In this paper, we estimate labour participation equations for married women for eleven European countries, using data from the European Community Household Panel corresponding to the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The main objective of our study is to test whether the 'added worker effect' holds. From our results it can be concluded that the labour market participation of the married woman basically depends on her personal and family characteristics, her non-wage income and her potential earnings...
Giovanni Castiglioni; Kea Tijdens
The development of forecasting systems for occupational needs represents, for different actors, such as enterprises, employers’ associations, trade unions, an opportunity to receive information and to anticipate labour market trends. Also, this information could be used to develop an effective vocational and educational training system aimed to guarantee more employability, to address labour policies and manage industrial relations. Starting from this theoretical framework, the paper aims to ...
Maria Karamessini; Franciscos Koutentakis
Although, during the current Greek crisis, male employment retreated much more than female employment, the gender unemployment gap remained remarkably stable. To explain this outcome we have analysed labour market flows by sex using descriptive statistics and counterfactual techniques. Empirical findings suggest that while men experienced more dramatically the labour demand shock of the crisis because its impact was harder on male-dominated sectors, their falling participation rate mitigated ...
FLISI SARA; GOGLIO VALENTINA
The systematic inclusion of information on orientation of study (vocational vs. general) in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) starting from 2014 will give the possibility to analyse the features and the labour market outcomes of individuals depending on the programme orientation of their qualification. One of the main purposes of this technical briefing is to investigate the possible impact of the addition of this information in the context of the Joint Assessment Framework (JAF) approach, in par...
Sabia, Joseph J.; Wooden, Mark
Using newly collected data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, this study presents new estimates of the earnings effects of sexual orientation in Australia and offers the first empirical investigation of the labour market trajectories of lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. Our results show that gay males are: (i) less likely to be continuously employed than their heterosexual counterparts, and (ii) face an earnings penalty of approximately 20 percent, dri...
Engelbert Stockhammer; Alexander Guschanski; Karsten Kohler
This paper restates the post-Keynesian view of unemployment within a NAIRU framework. In the short run, the private effective labour demand need not be downward sloping because of debt deflation and wage-led demand regimes. In the medium run, the NAIRU will be endogenous because of the social norm character of wage setting and the supply-side effects of capital accumulation. Capital investment rather than labour market institutions is the crucial variable that explains changes in unemployment...
Blundell, R.; Brewer, M.; A. Shephard
A difference-in-differences methodology cannot identify the labour market impact of WFTC alone because other taxes and benefits changed at the same time as its introduction. However, a comparison of the change in employment rates for parents against adults without children should underestimate any positive labour supply impact of WFTC for lone parents. Using two different household surveys, we find WFTC and associated reforms increased lone parents' employment by around 3.6 percentage points ...
Mercedes González de la Rocha
With the notion that educational achievement is related with a wider spectrum of labour market opportunities as its guiding premise, the objective of the Oportunidades Programme is to prolong educational trajectories and thus help break the intergenerational transmission of poverty. González de la Rocha (2012) assesses the validity of this poverty reduction strategy by analyzing the Programme?s impact on the labour performance of rural Mexican indigenous and mestizo peoples, comparing those w...
Wage and employment differences between male and female agricultural labourers in the under developed countries including India is not new. With the help of a simple theoretical model it is here proved that public policy like implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in the rural areas can reduce wage discrimination but fails to reduce employment discrimination in the agricultural labour market. It is also proved that implementation of NREGS not only reduces profita...
This paper seeks to investigate how the demography of households relates to individual labour market outcomes. We comprehensively examine household size and structures in the October Household Surveys 1995, 1997, 1999 and the Labour Force Surveys September 2001 and 2002. Over the 1995-2002 period, the number of households has increased in the face of rising unemployment and the average household size has decreased signifi cantly. A rising proportion of single households mostly drives this res...
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the implications of demographic developments on the labour market in terms of potential labour from structural and professional perspectives. The aspects of the youth demographic and educational potential for labour market, of the national policies potential for new job creation and of the opportunities of alternative free movement of workers are presented. The paper emphasizes positive and negative labour market pressures as derived from the demographic structure (including ethnicity, skills and competences, and educational attainment. The influences factors on qualitative youth employability in Romania are also highlighted. Some empirical analyses of the working age population in terms of demographic factors, as well as its demographic forecast are presented. Statistical software used for this analysis is the R Project, along with specific packages forecasting analysis. Final part of the paper is focused on some specific recommendations for policy instruments and measures to support youth employability on the national labor market based on the changed typology of the youth supply on labour market.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. Methods A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. Results The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%; unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population’s health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. Conclusions The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship and its determinants between 2010 and 2012, although in order to show certain trends in changes data from the beginning of the 21st century are also used as a basis whereas from the more forward-looking perspective, projections up until 2020 were used. This market is very important from the nationwide perspective, and this is due to its complexity, size (it concentrates 2 million employed people, that is 14.4% of the whole workforce of Poland and specificity (industry still plays a crucial role. In order to achieve the objective indicated above, a set of measures relating to the number of employed people, business entities or GDP were used for the purpose of the analysis. The presented material shows the high volatility of the situation on the labour market both at the voivodeship level and individual communities – this is particularly true of the number of employed people and the rate of unemployment. An advantage of the newly created jobs over those that are shed which has been continuously recorded since 2008 and a decrease in the unemployment rate are positive symptoms. Katowice being the largest market and, moreover, characterised by the highest rank range of its impact and lowest unemployment rate have gained a dominant position in the regional labour market. Bielsko-Biała, Tychy, Gliwice and Bieruń-Lędziny County also clearly stand out against the background of other communities. The most difficult situation can be observed in Bytom, Świętochłowice, Piekary Śląskie and in the counties located in the northern part of the voivodeship, that is Częstochowa, Myszków and Zawiercie. Not only today but also in the coming decade, in terms of demand the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship will be strongly affected by its demographic situation; population decline, ageing population, migration, including, in particular, foreign migration will
admitted to a psychiatric hospital within the past year are at increased suicide risk. Patients who are unemployed, social benefits recipients, disability pensioners, or otherwise marginalised on the labour market have a suicide risk of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.46 to 0.78), 0.41 (0.23 to 0.74), 0.70 (0.45 to 1......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between labour market status and death by suicide with focus on admission with a psychiatric disorder. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Data from routine registers. SETTING: Entire Danish population. PARTICIPANTS: 9011 people aged 25-60 years who...... structural model is applied. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results show an increased suicide mortality associated with unemployment and labour market marginalisation in the general population, the results suggest little or an inverse association between unemployment and suicide in people with psychiatric illness...
Full Text Available This paper examines whether there has been a significant change in the performance of the Czech labour market after the Czech Republic’s EU Accession in May 2004. We analyse methodological changes of measuring unemployment caused by inevitable legislative adjustments and follow the development of the Czech labour market and the inflows of foreign workers to the Czech Republic over the past two decades. Our results show that the EU Accession resulted in simplifying foreigners’ access to the Czech labour market and did not cause a significant change in its performance. Our findings might be of some relevance for the countries seeking EU Membership in the near future (e.g., Serbia or Montenegro.
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo;
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of disability pension and changes in labour market income in patients with hyperthyroidism. METHODS: From a 5% random sample of the Danish population and twins from the Danish Twin Registry we identified 1942 hyperthyroid singletons and 7768 non-hyperthyroid (matched...... in labour market income. RESULTS: Hyperthyroid individuals had an increased risk of receiving disability pension: hazard ratio (HR) was 1.88, (95% CI: 1.57-2.24). Subdividing as to the cause of hyperthyroidism did not change this finding: Graves' disease (GD) HR was 1.51 (95% CI: 0.87-2.63) and toxic...... nodular goitre (TNG) HR was 2.10 (95% CI: 1.02-4.36). With respect to labour market income, the income of hyperthyroid individuals increased on average 1189 € less than their controls (Pincome was more pronounced in GD (2539 €) than in TNG (132 €). Essentially similar results...
Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Pohl Nielsen, Chantal
Joint Paper: Shahamak Rezaei, Chantal Pohl Nielsen & Marco Goli: The presentation will consist of three parts: (1) We will begin by providing a overall description of immigrants'participation in the Danish labour market (i.e. the shares of wage-employed, self-employed and non-employed) as well...... of self-employment as a last resort in response to barriers to entry into the formal labour market. A description of the self-employed based on register data will be provided, including level of education and indications as to whether or not this level of education is commensurate with the line...... information. (3) Wage-employment is the focus of the third part, where we will discuss the extent to which immigrants make use of their skills / education on the formal labour market. Characteristics of over-employed immigrants (i.e. those who are formally overqualified for their job) will be given, including...
Gina Cristina DIMIAN
Full Text Available The paper aims to examine how existing imbalances in the labour market influence regions’ future development and to formulate a series of recommendations that will allow that catching up process to be done in an sustainable manner.Basically, the objective refers to the integration of the development and restructuring strategy of the labour market policy to strengthen regional competitive advantage.Our intentions is to stress the fact that between labour market imbalances and regional disparities exists a bi-univocal relationship, both manifested in a complex external environment, dominated by variable factors and uncertainty.To achieve paper’ objectives scientific methods like: descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and aggregate indexes are applied.The main results are focused on formulating a set of scientifically based recommendations that can be used to conceive strategies whose overall objective is the reduction of economic disparities existing in certain regions through training and proper human resources development.
Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau; Jensen, Carsten Strøby
(RR), which enable us to identify clusters of inter-mobile categories. We apply the method to data of the labour market mobility in Denmark 2000-2007 and demonstrate how this new method can overcome some long standing obstacles to the advance of labour market segmentation theory: Instead...... of the typical theory driven definition of the labour market segments, the use of social network analysis enable a data driven definition of the segments based on the direct observation of mobility between job-positions, which reveals a number of new findings.......The aim of this paper is to present a new network analytical method for analysis of social mobility between categories like occupations or industries. The method consists of two core components; the algorithm MONECA (Mobility Network Clustering Algorithm), and the intensity measure of Relative Risk...
This paper analyses whether developments on the labour market and in the welfare system during the economic crisis can be seen as perpetuating the trend towards labour market segmentation or whether the crisis may actually have contributed to containing some of the divisions forged in recent...... decades. The emphasis is placed on (involuntary) part-time and temporary employment. With regard to labour market developments, the author demonstrates a further segmentation during the crisis, in particular for youth and people with low educational levels who have been disproportionately affected...... by unemployment. Due to data deficiencies, it is difficult to judge conclusively whether the crisis has contributed to more or to less segmentation in welfare coverage. In fact, there seems to be a division between countries in this regard and the deliberate opening up of unemployment schemes in several countries...
Full Text Available The rigidity of labour market has several important negative economic consequences: it stifles job creation, increases discrimination of those that it is actually aimed at protecting (young, women and the low-skilled, hurts the unemployed, slows down economic restructuring and damages its global competitiveness. But reforms are slow and often marked with disputes among partners in the collective bargaining process. Afraid of social security loss, unions usually oppose the reform, while governments usually give in to the union pressures and negative image of reform consequences created by unions and assisted by media. The characteristics of the labour market and labour market reform with respect to bargaining among power groups are examined both theoretically and empirically in the case of Slovenia.
Full Text Available This paper compares indicators of the Croatian labor market and implemented policies with indicators and policies in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Although unemployment and long-term unemployment (which latter is particularly correlated with poverty in the transition countries do not in Croatia depart from the range in which other transition countries are positioned, still they are above their average, which is connected with the somewhat less flexible nature of the Croatian labor market. New findings on the effects of labor market policies in the transition countries indicate that the process of the reform of the institutional framework through which in the last few years the restrictiveness of Croatian employment protection legislation has been reduced might work in the direction of reducing overall and long-term unemployment. The paper suggests that it is possible to improve the effectiveness of the application of active policy measures. Furthermore, a better compensation for a reduction in the restrictiveness of the regulations would probably be an increase in average unemployment benefits rather than an extension of their duration, while greater labor market flexibility, resulting from the reforms, should contribute to a greater coverage of unemployed persons. The expected reduction of overall and long-term unemployment under the influence of the new institutional framework, in spite of the possible emergence of low-paid and insecure jobs, might alleviate the problem of poverty, because unemployment and, especially, long-term unemployment are among the prime causes of poverty in the transition countries.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Fertility has fallen to extremely low levels in Europe, prompting some to argue that we are on the brink of a ‘demographic crisis’ that will have serious societal consequences. There is also a parallel need to strengthen the labour force and increase productivity, materialized in t
Liu, An; Noback, Inge
The paper analyses the determinants of female labour participation. Structural equation modelling is used to handle theoretical concepts and to solve the typical problem of multicollinearity. The proposed methodology is applied to a dataset for the year 2002 made up of a sample of 278 municipalities
Grasmane, Daina; Grasmane, Sanita
To confront rising unemployment, skills of the labour force must be improved. With the aim to find out how foreign language skills impact employability, a study was carried out, in which 61 undergraduates, 33 master's students and 33 doctoral students from the Latvian University of Agriculture participated. The findings testify that 38% of the…
Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Faber, M.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Braat, D.D.M.; Raas, G.P.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.
OBJECTIVES: A labour shortage in the dementia care sector is to be expected in the near future in the Netherlands and in many other European states. The objective of this study is to analyse why people quit or avoid jobs in dementia care. METHOD: An integrative analysis was used to study reports, ar
Vivas, Amparo Jimenez
The aim of the research behind this article is to identify the relationships that must exist between university training and the social and occupational environment. One of the many functions that derive from the university-society relationship is to train students to carry out certain professions. as a result, the analysis of the labour market…
Full Text Available Abstract Economic downturns and recession lead to budget cuts and service reductions in the healthcare sector which often precipitate layoffs and hiring freezes. Nurses, being the largest professional group in healthcare, are strongly affected by cost reductions. Economic downturns destabilize the nursing labour market with potential negative outcomes, including serious shortages, extending beyond the recessionary period. The objectives of this manuscript are to provide an overview of the potential short- and long-run impact of economic downturns on the supply and demand of nurses, and present healthcare decision makers with a framework to enhance their ability to strategically manage their human resources through economic cycles. A narrative review of the literature on the effects of economic downturns on the nursing labour market in developed countries was carried out with a special focus on studies offering a longitudinal examination of labour force trends. Analysis indicates that economic downturns limit the ability of public payers and institutions to finance their existing health workforce. As salaried healthcare workers, nurses are especially susceptible to institutional budget cuts. In the short run, economic downturns may temporarily reduce the demand for and increase the supply of nurses, thereby influencing nursing wages and turnover rates. These effects may destabilise the nursing labour market in the long run. After economic downturns, the market would quickly display the pre-recessionary trends and there may be serious demand–supply imbalances resulting in severe shortages. Potential long-term effects of recession on the nursing labour market may include a downsized active workforce, difficulty in retaining younger nurses, a decreased supply of nurses and workforce casualisation. Lack of understanding of labour market dynamics and trends might mislead policy makers into making misinformed workforce downsizing decisions that are
Full Text Available Despite low levels of youth unemployment in Norway, concerns have been raised about the high numbers of youth in inactivity, receiving health related social security benefits. It is argued that parts of the system of social security may work as welfare traps. OECD recommends welfare policies with the overall aim of fostering youth employability, not benefit dependency. In this article we use a unique combination of register data and survey data from the panel survey “work, lifestyle and health”. This survey follows a representative sample of the cohorts born between 1965 and 1968 from 1985 through follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2003. This allows us to follow individual life trajectories from ages 17-20 to 35-39. The aim of the article is first to study the impact of substance abuse upon risk of receiving social assistance, since previous research has found that receiving social assistance increases the probability of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Second, we analyse the impact of receiving social assistance, to have mental health problems and substance abuse in youth and consequences for labour market integration in adulthood. Analyses reveal that neither cannabis use nor alcohol consumption in youth have a direct effect on the risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. However, cannabis use increases the probability of receiving social assistance, which in turn increases risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Mental health problems in youth increase risk for later labour market exclusion, but these effects are mediated through factors like problem behaviour related to alcohol abuse and the use of illegal drugs other than cannabis. Receiving social assistance in youth has long time effects on the risk of labour market exclusion, especially for individuals from the lower socioeconomic groups.
Albadir, Anfal F A y r
ABSTRACTInvestigating the Skills-Gap in the Kuwaiti Labour Market: Perspectives from Policy Makers, Employers, Graduates, and Higher Educational InstitutionsImmediately after the discovery of oil, the State of Kuwait put in place a plan for massive economic and social development for its people. This proposed plan required sophisticated labour skills to implement development requirements. However, over the years the country has continued to witness a labour market imbalance due to an inadequa...
Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.
Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....
During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about the consequences of rising immigration have been exaggerated. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immigrants, especially in recent years, tend to be younger and better educated than the UK-born and are less likely to be unemployed. They certa...
Full Text Available On today's labour markets, the basic characteristics of the quality of the labour force is knowledge, qualifications, skills and experience possessed by it. Today, employers are looking for employees with high interpersonal competences, manners, responsible, hard-working, independent, honest and having the ability to learn quickly. For this, as an asset, they add the higher education, preferably directional, creativity and experience. The taken research area is characterized by economic lag in comparison with Gdańsk agglomeration area, as well as with other regions. In the article the reference was made to the declared needs of employers towards future employees, based on interviews conducted in 101 entities of the city of Słupsk and Słupsk county. The main aim of the research was to determine the usefulness of geographic knowledge for the local labour market. And thus indicating the possibility of increasing the attractiveness of geographical graduates in the labour market. Among the needs of employers of Słupsk labour market in accordance with the overall national trend, there is a large deficit of soft competencies, but also, among others, the gap typically professional related to information technology and engineering skills have been diagnosed. There has been a large gap identified in the ability to apply the knowledge (academic in practical activities, which is called by the employers 'the professional experience'. In contrast, the studies on the usefulness of (the attractiveness of the labour market competencies that are possible to learn while studying geography, showed the particular importance, valuable for the modern labour market skills of searching, collecting and processing of information. Currently in Poland, even in conditions of high unemployment existing mismatch between qualification and professional structure of supply and demand for labour can be observed. In the labour market, the presence is noted at the same time, the
Movahedi, Reza; Saadi, Heshmatollah; Farani, Ahmad Yaghoubi
Employment of agriculture graduates in Iran is a major problem that needs to be addressed. There are three main issues: lack of robust strategies for linking agricultural higher education and the labour market, the lack of relevance of agricultural curricula to the real needs of the labour market, and diminishing levels of government services for…
Luciano Fanti; Luca Gori
We examine how fertility reacts to the public provision of child allowances in a small open economy with overlapping generations. When the labour market is competitive, we find that a child allowance policy acts as a fertility-enhancing device. In contrast, when the labour market is unionised the child policy may be ineffective.
Storen, Liv Anne; Opheim, Vibeke; Helland, Havard
The paper analyses the labour market situation among youth with low or medium levels of formal education. The analyses focus on studying the effects of level of competence, grades and immigrant background. Which factors contribute to labour market success among this group of youth? And which factors may increase the risk of not getting into the…
Stam, K.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de
This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women's labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind tha
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
A strong VET system is increasingly seen as essential to overcoming the current economic crisis in Europe. VET is seen as a powerful tool to assist in balancing labour market inefficiencies, increasing youth employment possibilities, and reducing skills mismatch. Its inherent flexibility and closeness to the labour market place VET in a good…
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries which did not restrict the access of new member immigrants to their labour markets. The analysis was realized for the period of 2004 to 2008 when the migration inflow was the largest. The empirical literature suggests that the migration effects on unemployment and employment probabilities of natives are very small. The young and low skilled native workers are more affected by migration flows than other groups of workers. Also, most empirical studies show small negative wage effects of immigration. Although the results of public researches and econometric studies have shown the modest potential labour migration flows from new member states and the small potential effects on EU-15 labour market, twelve out of fifteen old member states decided to apply transitional arrangements. The evidence presented in the report of the European Commission pointed out positive EU labour market impact of modest inflow of immigrants from new member states. Sectoral and skill composition of immigrants from new member states suggests their complementary role on EU labour market. The majority of immigrants from new member states are men, aged between 18 and 34, mediumlevel of education. Most immigrants have been employed in service sector, manufacturing and construction. The high employment rate of immigrants from new member states (78% and low unemployment rate (6% in the post-enlargement period have confirmed positive migration impact on EU labour market performances. The unemployment
This Productivity Commission staff working paper (by Anthony Shomos) was released in October 2010. Literacy and numeracy skills are key components of human capital, which is an important driver of economic growth. This paper utilises data from a 2006 survey on the literacy and numeracy skills of the Australian adult population. Models were used to estimate the effect of improved literacy and numeracy skills on the probability of labour force participation and on wages. Results confirm previou...
Atkinson, A. B.
This paper consists of two parts. Part I (“The economics of achieving social inclusion in changing labour and capital markets”) provides an economic analysis of the challenge of meeting the Europe 2020 objectives with regard to employment and social inclusion. Part II (“Putting people first and macro-economic policy”) is concerned with the objectives of macro-economic policy and their communication to the citizens of the EU.
Full Text Available In Serbia the inactivity rate of the working-age population is close to 40%, among the highest in Europe. The country also faces a high informal employment rate of 24%. Previous research has argued that high levels of informality and inactivity are mostly due to a high effective tax wedge at low wage levels caused by a minimum base for calculation of social security contributions (SSC, sudden withdrawal of means-tested benefits once formal income is earned, and low progressivity of income tax. This paper evaluates the impact of the minimum SSC base reform scenarios on labour supply and employment formalization using tax and benefit micro-simulation models together with the structural discrete choice labour supply model based on the Survey on Income and Living Conditions Data. Although we do not find positive employment effects of the reform, it would be premature to deduce that abolishment of the minimum SSC base is not needed. At this stage in our research, until alternative labour-supply modelling is applied, with both sector and hours of work choice alternatives, it is only safe to conclude that the proposed reform will not significantly contribute to the transformation of informal full-time to formal full-time jobs.
Full Text Available Labour market development is an important macro-economic indicator of every national economy. Labour supply in particular fields should reflect on demands of employers on newly recruited employees. These demands can be analysed by studying published job offers. This analysis of Czech labour market is conducted based on the aggregated statistical data collected by an on-demand application. The studied data sample covers more than 60% of all the job offers published in the Czech Republic. The situation in respective occupational fields is compared with aggregate nation-wide average as well as with data from other fields. Results show distinct differences in absolute quantity of offers, compensations to employees offered as well as qualification requirements.
Full Text Available Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between
Full Text Available In this article we will focus on identifying the policies and strategies of employment for the graduates with a higher education in both the European Union and Romania, trying to create a framework of laws of the EU and Romania that should coexist in a perfect integration, in order to facilitate the insertion on the national and international labour market of qualified personnel. Considering that the labour market is seen as the contact area between graduates of higher education and the employing companies, we considered important to (reanalyze the labour market with all the elements that characterize its functions, including the theories, the relations between the offer and the demand on the labour market, but also the elements that determine the possible changes occurring in the process of integration and employment. Without any doubt, any critical situation that appears on the labour market shall entail the defining elements of unemployment seen as a distortion of the labour market. Unemployment represents a dramatic situation if we take into consideration the psychosocial aspects of a person that is in such a situation. Job loss is felt in different ways and in varying intensities by individuals who are affected on either short or long terms, according to their life experiences and conflicting trends that are specific to their personalities. We also wanted find out how well the modern economy functions in the development of the relationship between the society and the individual, thinking that it has become more and more difficult for higher educated graduates with expertise only at a theoretical level to be absorbed on the labour market without having in their portfolios years and years of practical experience. All of these analyses have led to the completion of a particular case study conducted on a group of subjects who are undergraduate students at the "Oil and Gas" University, in Ploiesti, concerning the integration of higher educated
Shan, Hongxia; Guo, Shibao
The last few decades have witnessed both an expansion and a transformation of immigration flows, which pose significant challenges with respect to how people work with differences across culture and space. Against this background, this paper explores how some Chinese immigrant engineers respond to differences in the Canadian labour market. It not…
Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta
This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…
Laczik, Andrea; Mayhew, Ken
This chapter discusses the relationship between the labour market and vocational education and training in England. For decades British governments have emphasised the need for more people to stay longer in the formal education system and at the same time have attempted to improve work-based training. They have also emphasised the centrality of…
I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…
This revised report was prepared for the Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN) and the thirteen-member provincial and territorial literacy coalitions. The purpose of the report is: (1) To provide background information on the labour market transfers from the Federal Government to the provincial and territorial governments; (2) To outline…
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This is the final report in the three-year program of research "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market," which investigated the educational and occupational paths people take and how their study relates to their work. This report synthesises the findings of the three different strands: pathways from…
Lewis, Phil; Corliss, Michael
As Australia's economy recovers from the economic downturn, attention is turning once again to skills shortages. To gain insights into the labour market for tradespeople, this report investigates changes in supply, demand and how adjustment occurred through the varied economic conditions of the past 20 years. It concludes that there was no overall…
Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
Li, Ian W.; Miller, Paul W.
This study explores the effects on earnings of overeducation, required education, and undereducation (ORU) in the Australian graduate labour market, using data from the 1999-2009 Graduate Destination Surveys. The Vahey [2000. "The Great Canadian Training Robbery: Evidence on the Returns to Educational Mismatch." "Economics of…
This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…
Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen
To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…
OECD Publishing, 2016
Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…
The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of ci
Bockerman, Petri; Hamalainen, Ulla; Uusitalo, Roope
This paper evaluates the labour market effects of the introduction of the polytechnic education system in Finland. The polytechnic reform gradually transformed former vocational colleges into polytechnics. Since the timing of the reform differed across schools, we can compare the performance of polytechnic graduates to the performance of…
R. Andersen; H.G. van de Werfhorst
This article explores the role of national institutional factors - more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination - in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with p
Lieshout, H.A.M. van
This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to
Higgins, Jane; Nairn, Karen; Sligo, Judith
This paper explores the concepts of vocational imagination and labour market literacy, arguing that these are important elements in the crafting of effective education-employment linkages. Evidence of truncated understandings of both is found in the talk of 93 young New Zealanders in transition from secondary school to their post-school lives. We…
In this article, we investigate the determinants of job mismatches with regard to the field of education among school-leavers in Europe. We also examine the effects of job mismatches on the labour-market position of school-leavers. Special attention is paid to cross-national differences in this resp
Andersen, Robert; van de Werfhorst, Herman G
This article explores the role of national institutional factors--more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination--in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that skill transparency is the primary moderator. Countries with a highly transparent educational system (i.e., extensive tracking, strong vocational orientation, limited tertiary enrolment) tend to be characterized by a strong relationship between education and occupational status. These findings hold even after controlling for the level of labour market coordination. Nevertheless, we also find that labour market coordination plays an independent role by dampening the effect of education on occupational status. Taken together, these results suggest two quite different policy implications: (1) strengthening the skill transparency of the education system by increasing secondary and tertiary-level differentiation may strengthen the relationship between education and occupation, regardless of the level of coordination, and (2) increasing labour market coordination could lead to improved social inclusion and a reduction in inequalities related to educational attainment. PMID:20579057
Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.
This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective i
Using data from the Norwegian Graduate Survey from 1985 to 1999, the study investigates Norwegian graduate students' entry into the labour market. The study finds that more than half of the employed graduates enter the work force via a flexible job, that is either a temporary or a part-time job, and the proportion has increased during the period.…
We present a model allowing the measurement of the returns to plurilingual competences in a small open economy, considered as a reduced model of an open European labour market where different nationalities work together and therefore need to communicate either in one or in multiple languages. Our results suggest that high plurilingual competences…
In terms of basic labour market developments and outcomes Germany is faring comparatively well. Indeed, against the European trend, Germany saw employment rates increasing and unemployment decreasing during the economic crisis. But since the deregulatory Hartz reforms of the early and mid-2000s...
To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income an
This article focuses on adult learning in labour-market projects targeting unemployed migrants in Sweden. Drawing on a Foucauldian analysis of governmentality, the results of the study problematize the ways that such projects produce individualizing discourses--targeting individuals, constructing them as responsible for their position as…
Storen, Liv Anne; Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke
This article compares the labour market situation of graduates with different types of international background. The authors look at four groups of graduates: immigrants and ethnic Norwegians graduated in Norway and immigrants and ethnic Norwegians graduated abroad. By employing multinomial logistic regression analyses the authors find that ethnic…
Fernandes, Pedro Afonso
The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…
Gorter, Cees; Poot, Jacques
Unemployment remains a major economic and social problem in many developedeconomies. This paper provides theoretical and empirical perspectives on the impact of labour market deregulation as a means of combatting unemployment and of enhancing competitive wage determination. The paper focusses specif
Full Text Available In this study, we show the effects which the measures to implement welfare state have to labour market. All knows that the employment represents the most important component of the welfare state, as it supports the fulfillment of the objectives for the economic and social policies. The argument of the previous statement is very simple: the expenses for social protection are made on the basis of the returns from taxes and social contributions paid by the employed persons. The higher their number, the bigger the tax basis, and the budget for the social policy will become sustainable, even though measures for decreasing taxation would be applied to companies and to the employed population. The entire virtuous mechanism may disintegrate if a low rate of employment persists. In case of a high unemployment on a long-term, of an early exit from the labour market, of a lower integration on the labour market of women, of young persons, of aged persons and of poorly qualified persons, the social expenses will increase and the budget revenues will decrease, the result being the increase in the state’s debt.The crisis will prove whether the increase in employment recorded since 2000 was conjunctural (determined by the favorable macroeconomical evolutions or structural (induced by the reforms implemented on the labour markets and in the social protection systems.
Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.
This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…
Using the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel, this note reports direct empirical evidence for significant correlations between risk aversion and labour market outcomes (full-time employment, temporary agency work, fixed-term contracts, employer change, quits, training, wages, and job satisfaction).
Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Davidsen, Michael;
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse to what extent individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) leave the labour market earlier than individuals without CHD and to discuss the implications for rehabilitation. DATA AND METHODS: Individuals with CHD were identified from the Danish...
Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.
Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional fa
The labour market in Sweden today does not offer a rosy picture for young people. Among them are youth with a migrant background that have the lowest chance of becoming employed. The table below shows the unemployment rates of young people with a migrant background. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure and 11 notes.)
Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt
a steady decline in membership, while at the same time non-standard employment arrangements increased considerably and more so than the European average. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data, the authors construct a labour market attachment variable capturing different degrees of attachment...
Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar; Vignoles, Anna; De Coulon, Augustin
In this paper we evaluate the labour market value of basic skills in the UK, focusing on the wage and employment returns to having better literacy and numeracy skills. We draw on literacy and numeracy assessments undertaken by all cohort members of the UK 1970 British Cohort Study. The data used are very rich and allow us to account for potential…
Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide a…
A new series of Election Analyses is launched today by the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP). The series will discuss the research evidence on some of the key policy battlegrounds of the 2010 General Election, including macroeconomic policy, immigration, health, education, crime, poverty and inequality, labour market policy, regional policy, energy and the environment, financial regulation and bankers' bonuses, and foreign aid.
EL-Sakran, Tharwat M.; Awad, Asmaa
This study reports on engineering graduates' labour market requisite communication competences and skills in the work environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its main purpose was to investigate whether internationally required engineering graduates' communication competences were the same in third world countries or different. It used a…
Andersen, Robert; van de Werfhorst, Herman G
This article explores the role of national institutional factors--more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination--in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that skill transparency is the primary moderator. Countries with a highly transparent educational system (i.e., extensive tracking, strong vocational orientation, limited tertiary enrolment) tend to be characterized by a strong relationship between education and occupational status. These findings hold even after controlling for the level of labour market coordination. Nevertheless, we also find that labour market coordination plays an independent role by dampening the effect of education on occupational status. Taken together, these results suggest two quite different policy implications: (1) strengthening the skill transparency of the education system by increasing secondary and tertiary-level differentiation may strengthen the relationship between education and occupation, regardless of the level of coordination, and (2) increasing labour market coordination could lead to improved social inclusion and a reduction in inequalities related to educational attainment.
van Alphen, Stan
Previous research suggests that the ongoing educational expansion is a negative development for early school leavers (ESLrs) in the European labour market, since it increases the level and educational attainment of their competition, and in the worst case creates credential inflation. Findings from the 2005 cross-sectional EU-SILC data show,…
Educational expansion has had important effects on society. However, it has not yet been acknowledged that expansion might have changed the way in which education operates in labour markets. We argue that, as a result of educational expansion, a positional model of education becomes more important w
Korupp, SE; Sanders, K; Ganzeboom, HBG
To what extent do the mother's and father's jobs and occupational sex-typing influence the status and sex-typing of their children's occupation at first entry into the labour market? Referring to a database containing 5027 respondents of two merged Dutch surveys held between 1992 and 1995, this stud
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…
McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.
There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…
Mason, Geoff; Williams, Gareth; Cranmer, Sue
The present paper makes use of detailed information gathered at university department level, combined with graduate survey data, to assess the impact of different kinds of employability skills initiative on graduate labour market performance. We find that structured work experience and employer involvement in degree course design and delivery have…
Pukelis, Kestutis; Pileicikiene, Nora
Higher education provides graduates with both monetary and non-monetary benefits. Globalization and technological developments foster utilitarian approach, therefore the transmission of competences that are relevant in labour market is an important target for higher education institutions. The paper presents findings of research on the match of…
Full Text Available The economic crisis had profound effects on labour markets of the EU member states in terms of a decline in employment and a rise in unemployment. This paper investigates how the states limited the impact of the change in economic output on the employment and the unemployment. The analysis suggests that there are different labour market institutions influencing the impact of the fall in GDP on the employment decline and unemployment increase. The first part of the paper explores and compares the extent to which the labour market institutions cushioned the impact of the economic crisis on the EU countries. The second part of this paper provides an in-depth comparative analysis of the labour market institutions and the adjustment mechanisms in Central Eastern European countries: Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia. In the end this paper suggests that the specific institutional setting of a country, according to the Varieties of Capitalism, might shape the form of the government response to the crisis and the effect of particular institutions on the adjustment channels. The study shows that adjustment in Slovenia took place mostly within the firms, while in Latvia the most efficient adjustment channels actuated outside the firms, mostly within the government sponsored training programmes and international migration. In Slovakia, government sponsored adjustment, which focused on maintaining the existing positions, prevailed together with the promotion of self-employment.
S. Dex; Lindley, J
The paper devises a new method of calculating whether individuals are over educated using a parametric model. This new method is applied to men and women from different ethnic groups using data drawn from 4 pooled cross-sections of the UK Labour Force Survey. Calibrated against existing mean-mode methods, the new approach leads to lower levels of over education, more so for men than women. The model is then extended to include non-qualification elements of human capital such as employment exp...
Dobre Mihaela Hrisanta
Full Text Available The insertion of young people into the labor market represents an important issue amongst all the countries within the European Union and this process is studied differently from one country to another. At present the European Union counts about 75 million young people with the age between 15 and 24 years old. This article main objective is to study insertion rate of young people the labour market as well as it deals with their problems.
DIMIAN Gina Cristina
Full Text Available Our choice was justified by the fact that between the two countries exist some features that make them interesting to study from the employment point of view. Thus, both countries are Latin and this is why we consider they are comparable, because employment means people, more precisely mentalities and attitudes to work. We considered that it is interesting to see how the labour market from the east Latin Europe has evolved, in a comparable, crucial period, with its counterpart from west Latin Europe. First of all, we would like to point out the fact that our intention is to analyse the periods which from the economic history point of view have influenced in a decisive manner the present evolution of the two countries. The Portugal labour market is a subject of real scientific interest (we would like to mention that even Michael Porter was interested by this topic. Our paper tries to emphasize the common and different features of the two labour markets, in order to facilitate an experience sharing process on this topic. To achieve the paper’s objectives statistical and cluster analysis have been used. This is one of the best ways to capture the influence of determinant factors on labour market performance. The degree of originality is given by the assumed objectives, namely studying some very up-to-date problems from an interconnected perspective (historical similarities, structural changes, labour market performance and analyzing the Romanian situation compared to other EU countries, i.e. Portugal. The main impact of the paper will be on the practical level through the model outcomes and conclusions. One of the objectives is to look for solutions to the problems identified and to persuade policy makers to give them a greater importance. Our main contribution is represented by the fact that we have approached this topic from an economic and historical perspective, trying to find explanations for the present situation in the modern past of the
Full Text Available The reform of labour market and the modification of the human capital management model evolved unsteadily, much behind the demand from the economic and social environment. Labour market was pushed to a secondary plane, considering that the adjustment of the other markets would cause necessary changes for ensuring the functioning of the labour market. Now, Romania is involved in consolidating the market economy, which requires integrated procedures of dealing with the policies able to respond efficiently to challenges. Similarly to the economic reform, the chances in the labour market were gradual but there were no coherence and no correlation of the measures taken, which caused non-typical behaviours, often contrary to reforms.
Thielen, Karsten; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Andersen, Ingelise;
Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between...... employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income. CONCLUSION: The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated...
Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of job performance, job satisfaction and humancapital. It shows that together with monetary factors, such factors as theperception of the social importance of the job, the ability to meet good friendsin the team, and the atmosphere within which the respondents work, may alsohave a high level of impact on labour supply through human capital. The paperdemonstrates the power of non-monetary factors in achieving improvementsin the context of the ‘job performance-job satisfaction-human capital’ chain,thus bringing about positive changes in labour market supply in Bosnia.
Full Text Available This paper looks at the influence of financial factors on the labour market transitions of Canadian older workers. Also, in contrast to previous studies, the analysis focuses on transitions between full-time work, part-time work, and retirement. Sequential annual observations of employment and retirement choices are examined for samples of full-time and part-time workers, drawn from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID, 2001–2006. Measures of potential pension wealth and one-year and peak pension accruals are imputed using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, 1973–1997, and the SLID, 1997–2006. Regression results indicate that financial factors influence workers to move from full-time to part-time jobs and support the evidence found in previous studies that retirement is usually a process, not a single event. Also, an increase in pension accruals increases the probability of working full-time for lower-income earners only. Among nonfinancial factors, a negative health shock increases the probability of working part-time or retiring for full-time workers but has little effect on the labour market transitions of part-time workers. Finally, these results suggest that policies to encourage phased retirement are unlikely to have a significant labour market effect since bridge employment is already a common transition process among older workers.
The Spanish labour market is infamously rigid. In response to Spain’s economic crisis, the recently elected right-wing Popular Party, has undertaken major labour market reforms. Vicente Cuñat argues that the government’s attempts at reform are a missed opportunity because they will fail to resolve Spain’s job market duality of temporary and permanent contracts and they will not reduce the red tape associated with employment law.
This diploma thesis studies the situation of the Russian labor market; in particular, it examines the problems of the unemployment in the country. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the society had to accept new behavioral rules of the market economy. Those changes had a great influence on the labor market specifics. In order to assist to the unemployed people, government of the country created Federal Employment Agencies and started to develop employment policies. Furthermore, the...
Full Text Available In the last two decades it has growing the scientific interest in the socio-economic impacts of immigration on labour conditions of native workers. The studies show that these impacts are generally very weak and they are relatively concentrated in certain economic sectors. In the Spanish case, the studies concur with this assessment but found some differences when analyzing the increase occurred in the last ten years, due in part to the sectorial composition and the different initial share of immigrant workers. With this framework, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of immigration on the employment in Castilla-La Mancha. Specifically, we study the general features of the incorporation of immigrant workers, their sectorial concentration and if there is a "replacement" effect over the native workers.
Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.
Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem
To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...
Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the potential development of the German labour market. For this purpose, wedeveloped a forecasting system that considers both supply and demand by occupational fi elds and qualifi cationsand that relies on consistent datasets, exogenous assumptions and systematic correlations. We presentthe key impacts for our forecasting system and highlight the eff ects of diff erent assumptions (scenariosexemplifi ed on our demand model. On the supply side, we point out how diff erent behaviours on the individuallevel infl uence the structure of development of the supply of skilled labour. Keeping the possibility of thosevarious potential futures in mind, we conclude with an outlook on potential skilled labour shortages inthe future.
Full Text Available This paper outlines how regional labour market adjustments to macroeconomic and policy shocks are modelled in RHOMOLO through participation, employment and migration decisions of workers. RHOMOLO, being a multisectoral, inter-regional general equilibrium model, is complex both in terms of its dimensionality and the modelling of spatial interactions through trade flows and factor mobility. The modelling of the labour market is therefore constrained by the tractability and computational solvability of the model. The labour market module consists of individual labour participation decisions, including the extensive margin (to participate or not and the intensive margin (hours of work. Unemployment is determined through a wage curve and inter-regional labour migration decisions are modelled in a discrete-choice framework, with backward-looking expectations.
Horvath, Reka; Abraham, Arpad; Horvath, Tibor; Kopeczi-Bocz, Tamas
Most deficiencies of the Hungarian labor market emerge from a combination of the transition crisis and special features of the economy or transition process. The most crucial labor market problem is low employment. Negative impacts are high taxation and social security contributions; reduced investment, job creation, and economic growth; and…
Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben
extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest in...
Kingdon, Geeta; Söderbom,Måns
This paper investigates the education-earnings relationship in Pakistan, drawing on the Pakistan Integrated Household Surveys 1998/99 and 2001/02. The analysis has three main goals: to examine the labor market returns to education amongst wage-employed, self-employed and agricultural workers; to examine the labor market returns to literacy and numeracy skills for these categories of workers; and to analyze the pattern of returns to education along the earnings distribution. We also investigat...
Full Text Available In the life of any young person, entering the labour market is one of the most important events. It can be an easy process or, on the contrary, it may be marked by many constraints and opportunities. The labour market for young graduates is different depending on the country in which he lives. Young labour market insertion can occur both after and during school graduation. He or she becomes, in the latter situation, an insider in the labour market. Many countries are reforming their education systems to provide their citizens with knowledge and skills that enable them to meet social and economic challenges of the society. Countries vary significantly from each other in their economic, socio-demographic and institutional characteristics. Our study focuses on the analysis of the University of Oradea graduates in the last four years. The sample includes 529 respondents from different academic specializations both BA and MA level. In this context, in our analysis we have 38% MA graduates and 62% BA graduates, of which 39% married and the remaining 61% unmarried. Of the total sample 78% have a job. More than half of the subjects (53,5% considered as good or very good the professional training provided by the UO. Validating our hypotheses, the correlation of field of study with the domain of the current job is higher in the case of MA level graduates and, moreover, it predicts the level of satisfaction of our subjects with the development opportunities (personal and professional provided by the educational programs of the University. It is clear, therefore, that MA graduates are more grateful to the University performance than BA degrees holders. It is proven, that the assessment of the academic programs on behalf of graduates depends heavily on their successful integration in the labor market. The limits of the study are
The electricity sector has entered into a phase of both challenges and opportunities. Challenges include workforce retirement, labour shortages, and increased competition from other employers to attract and retain the skilled people required to deliver on the increasing demand for electricity in Canada. The electricity sector in Canada is also moving into a new phase, whereby much of the existing infrastructure is either due for significant upgrades, or complete replacement. The increasing demand for electricity means that increased investment and capital expenditure will need to be put toward building new infrastructure altogether. The opportunities for the electricity industry will lie in its ability to effectively and efficiently react to these challenges. The purpose of this report was to provide employers and stakeholders in the sector with relevant and current trend data to help them make appropriate policy and human resource decisions. The report presented a comparative analysis of a 2004 Canadian Electricity Association employer survey with a 2008 Electricity Sector Council employer survey. The comparative analysis highlighted trends and changes that emerged between the 2004 and 2008 studies. Specific topics that were addressed included overall employment trends; employment diversity in the sector; age of non-support staff; recruitment; and retirements and pension eligibility. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that the electricity sector could benefit greatly from implementing on-going recruitment campaigns. refs., tabs., figs
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to empirical analysis of the differentials, dynamics and determinants of labour market performance in EU-15. One innovation of the paper reflects our decision not to use a single indicator of labour market performance, but to adopt three variables: employment rate, unemployment rate, and long-term unemployment rate. In addition to national data (1997-2006, the use of data at regional NUTS-2 level (1999-2005 is a key characteristic of this study. Empirical analyses are carried out by means of various comparative statistics and econometric approaches. In the latter, a large set of explicative variables is applied to examine the potential determinants of regional (unemployment levels and dynamics.
Lind, Jens; Rasmussen, Erling Juel
Since the 1950s, Denmark has developed an economy, a social welfare system and an inclusive labour market which have been admired by overseas commentators (Smith, 2011, Auer 2000, Ganssmann 2000). In the process, it has transformed itself from a relatively low wage country to a high-wage, high...... policy ‘soul-searching’ and adverse economic and social changes. The so-called ‘Danish Model’ of employment relations and its ‘flexicurity’ approach has been heralded by many commentators for its ability to being adaptive and creating win-win economic, social and labour market outcomes (Auer, 2000; Due......-invent and adjust the ‘Danish Model’, we are not going to predict any firm outcomes. Instead we focus on three major ‘threats’ to the ‘Danish Model’: the shift in economic thinking and public policy, the undermining of flexicurity (in particular the equality and equity dimensions), and changes in key employment...
Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)
Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational
P.D. Koellinger; J.N. Mell; I. Pohl; C. Roessler; T. Treffers
We examine whether having previously been self-employed is a negative signal on the job market. In a UK field experiment where two applications of otherwise equally qualified individuals were sent out in response to the same vacancies in human resource management, we find that entrepreneurs systemat
Seccombe, I.; Smith, G.
The labor market participation, pay, job satisfaction, employment patterns, and turnover of registered nurses in the United Kingdom were examined through an analysis of data from the 1997 Royal College of Nursing (RCN) Survey. Of the random sample of 5,984 nurses from the RCN membership records surveyed, 4,288 (72%) returned usable questionnaires.…
Elder, Sara; Johnson, Lawrence Jeffrey
Data indicate that women's experience in the labor market is substantially different from men's. Women work in different sectors for fewer hours; women have lower rates of education and literacy; and women are more likely to be unemployed, underemployed, or outside the labor force. (JOW)
The German labour market performance is falling behind that of other European countries. Portugal, for instance, has decreasing unemployment rates, leading to a share of only 4.6% unemployed persons in 1998 (Germany: 9.5%). This paper sheds some light on the divergent development from a matching point of view. I present matching functions based on comparable panel data on hires, vacancies and unemployment at the occupational level for Portugal and Germany. Both countries reveal low matching e...
Brennan, John; Little, Brenda
The paper compares the early employment experiences of graduates from the shorter UK bachelors degree with those from the somewhat longer masters programmes to be found in continental Europe. The UK graduates appear to be less prepared for entry to employment and to find their degrees to be less appropriate to that employment. However, many of the differences between UK and other European graduates in the labour market have largely disappeared five years after graduation. And there are many s...
This paper adds a moral angle to a pluralist approach to development economics. Normative assumptions can be found in all the five main schools of thought that have analysed India's rural labour markets (neoclassical, new institutionalist, Marxist political economy, formalised political economy, and feminist). The theorisations that are used by each have normative overtones. I define overtones and distinguish them from normative undertones (i.e. elements of meaning that have an...
This study explores the Australian immigrants' job-life relationship by simultaneously estimating a bivariate ordered probit random effects panel model. We found that discrepancy between career goal and employment reality plays a central role. The study also explores the characteristics related to immigrants who are likely to have stronger job concerns. Non-western male immigrants are among them. They are more disadvantaged in the labour market and have lower life satisfaction compared to the...
Cipollone, Angela; Patacchini, Eleonora; Vallanti, Giovanna
We investigate the changes in women's participation patterns across 15 EU countries over the last 20 years using individual data from ECHP and EUSILC databases. Our findings show that the observed trends in female participation differ substantially both across countries and across different groups of women. We explore such heterogeneity in trends by looking at the effects of policies and labour market institutional factors on the participation of women with different family and individual cha...
This study uses data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study to investigate differences by ethnicity in early labour market experiences of a birth cohort born in Christchurch in 1977. The study finds that Maori youth acquire fewer school and post-school qualifications, and accumulate less work experience by age 21, than other youth. There is also more heterogeneity among Maori than other youth – a substantially larger proportion of Maori youth, compared to others, accumulate very l...
Roland Verwiebe; Laura Wiesböck; Roland Teitzer
This article deals with new forms of Intra-European migration, processes of integration and inequality, and dynamics of emerging transnational labour markets in Europe. We discuss these issues against the background of fundamental changes which have been taking place on the European continent over the past two decades. Drawing on available comparative European data, we examine, in a first step, whether the changes in intra-European migration patterns have been accompanied by a differentiation...
Heining, Jörg; Jerger, Jürgen; Lingens, Jörg
Based on CV information of tenured professors and post-doc researchers in the field of economics at German universities we construct a unique data set. This data set contains detailed information on the career path and on personal characteristics of individuals. Using this data we analyse the determinants of success in the academic labour market. Our notion of success is the (conditional) probability of becoming tenured, i.e. the hazard rate. Estimating a Cox (1972) regressi...