Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, LIsbeth
Under the heading of flexicurity, Danish labour market activation policies are receiving international attention because of their perceived ability both to curb unemployment and to boost employment. Indeed, the objectives, target groups and design of activation policy have undergone a remarkable...... not only active labour market policies but also social and integration policies. Despite widespread popularity and belief in the positive effects of activation, little is actually known about its overall impact on the Danish economy....
Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane
The main objective of this paper is to provide relevant information about existing active labour market policies for the disabled people in Denmark. The paper presents an over-view of active labour market schemes in Denmark. The description suggests that the policy emphasises active labour market...... market policy towards disabled people but no vital reforms. Incentives to strengthen (re-)integration of disabled people at the labour market and increasing responsibilities of non-public actors (e.g. employers) are some of the main characteristics of the Danish employment policy. Available evaluative...... studies on active labour market policy in Denmark, is set out in the final section of this paper. In general these studies suggest that active labour market policies facilitate the employment of disabled people but that some of the policies also have negative side effects such as stigmatisation and dead...
Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...
Caswell, Dorte; Kleif, Helle Bendix
client types, including those who are far from labor market participation due to social, mental, physical, or other problems. We analyze the application of active labor market policy measures used to support clients with substantial problems besides unemployment. This study utilizes Danish register data...
This microeconometric study analyzes the effects of individual leisure sports participation on long-term labour market variables, on socio-demographic as well as on health and subjective well-being indicators for West Germany based on individual data from the German Socio- Economic Panel study (GSOEP) 1984 to 2006. Econometric problems due to individuals choosing their own level of sports activities are tackled by combining informative data and flexible semiparametric estimation methods with ...
Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars
Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...... by propensity score matching. For the years 1995 - 2005 it is found that private job training programmes have substantial positive employment and earnings effects, but also public job training ends up with positive earnings effects. Classroom training does not significantly improve employment or earnings...... prospects in the long run. When the cost side is taken into account, private and public job training still come out with surplusses, while classroom training leads to a deficit....
Denmark has been portrayed as a country with a focus on full employment, gender equality and high level of participation on the labour market. It has historically further been built upon consensus and class-compromises and known for flexi-curity. The active labour market policy has focused on how...... to ensure not only a work-first approach, but that a constant upgrading of qualifications would guarantee that the individual citizen could have the qualification to enter and to stay on the labour market. A core question is whether the focus on flexi-curity including upgrading of skills and integration...... on the labour market has been withering away towards a sharper focus on a work first approach, where activation is used as a stick more than a carrot, also implying that rights’ as citizens has been increasingly reduced, and, thereby increased the role of citizens as labourer on the labour market. The article...
Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah
This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... caseworkers make sense of active labour policy and internalize the pressures of managerial reforms to discipline both citizens and each other.......-level bureaucrats’ stories (Foucault 1977; Maynard-Moody and Musheno 2003), we analyze caseworkers’ stories about their clients, fellow caseworkers and themselves to understand how they practice the ideology behind active labour policy. Our analysis uses Møller’s (2009) interviews with 24 Danish caseworkers who...
Overlapping labour markets arise when some types of workers do not meet employers with some types of jobs. For example, skilled workers could seek high-skill or low-skill jobs, but low skill workers could be limited to low-skill jobs. The paper derives conditions for equilibrium and efficiency, distinguishes reducible from irreducible overlapping labour markets, and describes distributional impacts of proportional demand shifts and technological change. Many labour models incorporate the stru...
Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.
This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual
Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael
). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...
This article discusses some of the key characteristics of China's labour market, including the role of the changing demographic structure, the nature and composition of employment, as well as the important role of the country's rural migrant workforce.
The presented article deals with labour market institutions and labour market performance in the European Union. The first chapter is devoted to theoretical and methodological background of labour market performance. Theoretical literature has created a set of institutional aspects such as employment protection legislation, structure of wage bargaining, taxation of labour, active labour market policy, the system of unemployment and social benefits. All these aspects determine the institutiona...
Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz
Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…
Full Text Available A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years not merely to young people’s activity in the labour market, but also to the vocational involvement of elderly people. The traditional attitude towards the contemporary labour market results from the social and economic transformation, but also demographic changes and, the process of population ageing. It is thus a vital issue. A growing number of elderly people contributes to the increase in the number of beneficiaries, which is reflected in lower labour force participation and, consequently, may lead to a deterioration of production capacity of economy. On the one hand, higher pensions may be viewed as higher incomes of pensioners, but on the other hand, they constitute an extra burden for public expenses. Conversely, lower pensions may not merely result in increased activity in the labour market and higher incomes, but also be linked with an increase in social welfare expenditure. The article discusses the results of survey research conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a group of pensioners. The research shows that over a half of the surveyed OAPs were active in the labour market and their activity was mainly induced by their financial situation.
The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilit...
Kok, L.; Berden, C.; de Graaf-Zijl, M.
This paper analyses the integration of active labour market policies for two groups of unemployed from a theoretical perspective. In general a model with only one type of agent performs better than a model with two types of agents. If there are two types of agents part of the effort of one agent
Heinesen, Eskil; Leif, Husted,; Rosholm, Michael
We estimate the effect of active labour-market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. We use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. We find large positive post-programme effects, and...
Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael
optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...
Martin, John P
Activation policies aimed at getting working-age people off benefits and into work have become a buzzword in labour market policies. Yet they are defined and implemented differently across OECD countries and their success rates vary too. The Great Recession has posed a severe stress test for these policies with some commentators arguing that they are at best 'fair weather' policies. This paper sheds light on these issues mainly via the lens of recent OECD research. It presents the sty...
Defence date: 18 March 2010 Examining Board: Prof. Sara de la Rica, University of the Basque Country Prof. Salvador Ortigueira, EUI, Supervisor Prof. Xavier Raurich, University of Barcelona and EUI Prof. Rick van der Ploeg, University of Oxford In this thesis how labour markets are affected by globalisation is examined. The thesis takes the form of three chapters. The first chapter looks at the state of trade unions in Europe and how they have been affected by globalisation;...
Buhai, Ioan Sebastian
This book represents an eclectic combination of four independent, self-contained essays on various dimensions of the labour market. The main chapters focus on theoretically and empirically analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), on model......This book represents an eclectic combination of four independent, self-contained essays on various dimensions of the labour market. The main chapters focus on theoretically and empirically analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3......), on modelling the arousal and persistence of occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social subgroups (chapter 4), and respectively on characterizing the link between the firms' health and safety work environment and their financial performance (chapter 5). Each of the essays contributes...... to its research topic with original and innovative theoretical and/or empirical insights, often building on techniques borrowed from other economic fields or disciplines. Such uncommon approaches are real options methodology applied to wage-tenure profile analysis; social network modelling...
KOSTER, F; McQuinn, J.; Siedschlag, I.; van Vliet, O.
In the European Union, the most important labour market models that have been proposed for labour market reform are flexicurity and the transitional labour market. In this position paper, we conceptualise the models of flexicurity and the transitional labour market, and we outline potentially relevant research questions. These research questions focus on explaining the variations in labour market policies across EU countries and the impact of labour market institutions on labour market outcom...
Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred
This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…
Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael
While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which......, the positive impact of the treatment becomes smaller but remains significant. 80% of the global impact of intensification acts through the direct channel for men....
In this paper, we analyse the organization of the labour market in a general equilibrium model of a closed economy with two industries and two types of labour input. Workers are organized in industry- and skill-specific unions. The wage is set in cooperation either between identical labour types...
Full Text Available This paper examines lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes in Germany. Since the 2005 Hartz IV employment and welfare policy reforms, expectations that non-em- ployed parents receiving means-tested benefits should be ready for employment or labour market programme participation have grown stronger. However, discretion for programme assignments is left to individual caseworkers. As a consequence, it is not clear to what extent the formal policy orientation towards an adult worker model of the family is reflected in practical policy implemen- tations. Thus, lone mothers’ participation in active labour market programmes is studied empiri- cally here on the basis of large-scale administrative data, using event-history analysis. Findings are that lone mothers are treated as adult workers with respect to workfare and training pro- grammes even when their children are still quite young. As soon as their youngest child is 3 - 5 years old, lone mothers’ transition rates into these programmes are as high as for childless single women. In the case of programmes that provide more direct pathways into regular employment, like job subsidies and in-firm training programmes, however, participation rates for lone mothers of young children are substantially lower than for childless single women.
Pico Geerdsen, Lars
In the Ph.D Thesis, the author examines whether there is a tendency that unemployed individuals choose to leave the unemployment insurance system when they are faced with the threat of active labour market policy. The results presented in the thesis do indicate that unemployed individuals...... and an analysis of unemployed indiduals with a marginal connection to the labour market. The Ph.D. Thesis by Lars Pico Geerdsen was defended in January 2003 at the University of Copenhagen, Institute of Economics.......' probability of obtaining work increase when they enter compulsory labour market period. That is, before they actually participate in labour market training. This incentive effect decreases about 10 months into the perod, during which almost all unemployed individuals participate in labour market training...
Active labour market policies (ALMPs) continue to be a hot topic in Danish politics, as well as in many other countries. Despite a substantial amount of resources spent on ALMPs there is still a lack of results, especially when it comes to the disadvantaged unemployed. The disadvantaged unemployed...... have problems besides being without a job (e.g. health, economic or social problems) and are often long-term unemployed. This blog examines the results of ALMPs and discusses the challenges of evaluating ALMPs. I also present my PhD research design, which sets out how I will evaluate ALMPs by using...
Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor
This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.
Gorter, C.; de Larquier, G.
This paper develops a flow model in a dual labour market with heterogeneous workers and heterogeneous jobs that allows for upward mobility or promotion flows via the internal market and demotion or deskilling flows through the state of unemployment. Dynamic impulse-responses analyses are used to examine the effects of labour market policies that aim to generate institutional changes in the wage bargaining process, make job creation less costly or job matching more efficiently to reduce unempl...
Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN
Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.
McNamara, Courtney; Labonté, Ronald
Previous analyses indicate that there are a number of potentially serious health risks associated with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The objective of this work is to provide further insight into the potential health impacts of the TPP by investigating labour market pathways. The impact of the TPP on employment and working conditions is a major point of contention in broader public debates. In public health literature, these factors are considered fundamental determinants of health, yet they are rarely addressed in analyses of trade and investment agreements. We therefore undertake a prospective policy analysis of the TPP through a content analysis of the agreement's Labour Chapter. Provisions of the Chapter are analyzed with reference to the health policy triangle and four main areas through which labour markets influence health: power relations, social policies, employment conditions and working conditions. Findings indicate that implementation of the TPP can have important impacts on health through labour market pathways. While the Labour Chapter is being presented by proponents of the agreement as a vehicle for improvement in labour standards, we find little evidence to support this view. Instead, we find several ways the TPP may weaken employment relations to the detriment of health.
Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland
This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible intuitive reasons for why there may be differences in the impact of outsourcing across the three countries, based on labour market institutions. This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three...... European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible...
Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland
This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. Estimating the same specification on different data show that there are some interesting differences in the effect of outsourcing across countries. We discuss some possible reasons for these differences based on labour market institutions...
Waddington, Lisa; Pedersen, Mads; Ventegodt Liisberg, Maria
Increasing the overall level of employment is a goal of the Europe 2020 strategy and Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) have become a key tool used by the European Union and its Member States with a view to increasing employment. This article examines the use of ALMPs, with a special focus on
Full Text Available This paper analyses homelessness in France with regard to three major mutually interacting sets of factors: labour-market strains, illegal migration and institutional inadequacy. Macroeconomic challenges have resulted in the loss of jobs and subsequent labour-market hardships, and these have tended to affect those without adequate skills. As a result, labour-market problems together with a lack of social capital and adequate housing at affordable prices, accompanied by insufficient institutional support, has resulted in increased homelessness. All of this indicates that there should be active government intervention in the housing market in order to create space for the relatively weaker section of the population in the growth process, which is often unequal. Another important issue is how to create jobs with positive growth in real wages because, without adequate purchasing power, simply providing housing would mean transferring poverty from one space to another.
disciplines of both sociology and commerce. The paper attempts to fill this gap by investigating a much neglected occupational sector. Very little empirical work is being done by South African researchers on global labour markets outside South Africa. This paper is therefore primarily addressed to a South African audience. Conclusion: The paper demonstrates that the state has to be a willing and active partner in ensuring employment security of its worker-citizens in global labour markets. The private sector and organised labour by themselves are unable or unwilling to prevent massive job losses without state intervention. As increasing numbers of workers join global labour markets, states need to become more involved rather than less involved in ensuring the stability of employment for their citizens.
Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael
the incentive structure without taking resort to general benefit reductions. We argue that the workfare policies have played an important role running primarily via motivation/threat and wage effects. However, active labour market policies are resource demanding, and although the workfare reforms have improved...... is not automatically among them since the basic flexicurity properties were also in place during the 1970s and 1980s where high and persistent unemployment was prevalent. Labour market performance has changed due to a series of reforms during the 1990s, the main thrust of which were a shift from a passive focus...... of labour market policies to a more active focus on job search and employment. The policy tightened eligibility for unemployment benefits and their duration as well as introduced workfare elements into unemployment insurance and social policies in general. Thereby policy makers attempted to strengthen...
This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic con...
Full Text Available This paper analyses the labour immigration trends in Romania in the context of an evolving institutional, social and economic environment. It investigates the access and participation of the immigrant workforce into the Romanian labour market through the main labour market indicators and it provides an overall view on the immigrants’ labour market integration by using different migrant specific data and descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the advantages and possible socio-economic consequences related to filling labour shortages by means of immigration and the how the labour immigration in Romania is taking shape as a result of employment policies and immigration regime. Furthermore, it reflects on the relevant legislative, institutional and policy developments that impact on the immigrants’ labour market integration in Romania. This research highlights how Romania makes use of the immigrant human capital and whether the characteristics and skills of the immigrant workforce represent a competitive resource on the national labour market.
According to the standard economic model of crime, which assumes that individuals are rational decisions makers who consider the opportunity cost of crime and take into account the possibility of getting caught and punished; the concern that immigration can cause increases in crime is warranted, considering the fact that there is much empirical evidence that suggest the labour market does not provide as many good opportunities to immigrants than to native born. Indeed, previous studies have f...
We consider a Rothschild-Stiglitz-Spence labour market screening model and employ a centralised mechanism to coordinate the efficient matching of workers to firms. This mechanism can be thought of as operated by a recruitment agency, an employment office or head hunter. In a centralised descending-bid, multi-item procurement auction, workers submitwage-bids for each job and are assigned stable jobs as equilibrium outcome. We compare this outcome to independent, sequential hiring by firms and ...
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexic......In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research...... on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...
Full Text Available The informal sector is omnipresent, existing in the market economies and centrally planned economies in both the developing and developed ones. The sector achieved results that run the economy and engage workers who work, earn income and consume. Knowledge of this segment and its measurement is of particular importance in terms of economic science. This requires first drawing a conceptual framework that provides a historical approach and theoretical point of view of the economy and informal employment, and a discussion on the latest concepts designed to capture the “informality” in the economy.Two concepts were adopted: the employment in informal sector and the informal employment - that complement each other (Concepts adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians in 1993 and 2003. According to first concept the definitions was done in terms of characteristics of the production units in which the activities take place, while according to the second concept, in terms of the characteristics of the persons involved or of their jobs.
van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.
Increasing labour market flexibility is at the top of the European agenda. A new and challenging view is a lack of mobility in the labour market may arise from rigidities in the housing market. The research in this book has been inspired by the intriguing hypothesis put forward by Andrew Oswald that
Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due
. They can consist of job search assistance, training, education, subsidized work and similar programmes. Some of the programmes (such as subsidized work, training and education) demand full-time participation over a long time period (e.g. several months), while other programmes (such as job search...... assistance and education) are part-time and have a short duration (e.g. few days/weeks). It is possible to classify these programmes into a set of four core categories: A: (labour market) training, B: Private sector programmes, C: direct employment programmes in the public sector and D: Job search assistance...... that the effect of ALMP participation differs by type of programme. Other reviews by for example Kluve, 2010 and Card et al., 2010 conclude job search assistance programmes are relatively better, and direct employment programmes in the public sector relatively worse, than other programmes in terms...
Full Text Available Many positive changes have been implemented in Serbia since the beginning of the transition period, and while these improve the position of women in the labour market the main indicators still show significant gender differences. Women are the majority of the unemployed and there are significant differences between regions and districts, in fields of work, experience, and the length of time taken to find work. An analysis of trends in the labour market over the past decade shows a worsening of the position of women, with a lower participation in economic activity and employment, rising unemployment rates, and an increase in the average time to find work and the proportion of women in traditionally female occupations. Problems of gender inequality demand more attention in order to improve existing legislation and the implementation of economic policies in the labour market which will ensure higher participation of women with lower education, with special emphasis on increasing the motivation of these women to undergo continuing education and training.
Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan
Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...
The South African labour market is characterised by sharp segmentation, high unemployment and apparently limited informal sector employment. Recent work has focussed on the importance of the quality of education while others have argued that the rigidity of the labour market constrains employment growth. This paper considers the spatial aspects of the day labour market and argues that the size and proximity of economic activity found in agglomerations ensure a thick labour market that allows for better matching between workers and jobs. The results indicate that the day labourers who were hired by the same employer more often received higher earnings. Once workers have a matric qualification they receive earnings above the average, as do workers who have completed vocational training. Skills, as well as factors associated with a thicker labour market are positively associated with wages. The thicker metropolitan labour market allows workers to become more specialised and receive higher earnings. This has important policy implications and calls for the development of people and places.
The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...
Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-Larivière, Mathilde
CEPS Working Document No. 330/June 2010, http://www.ceps.eu/book/job-quality-and-labour-market-performance; Job quality is a multidimensional concept, but the empirical analysis of job quality in Europe leads to three main types of result. First, it reveals important differences across countries, with four main regimes prevalent in Europe. Second, it supports the hypothesis that a higher level of job quality is associated with better labour market and economic performance. Finally, it emphasi...
Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas
This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...
Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan
In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note...
Neubourg, Christiaan Rita Jan de
This study investigates how our understanding of unemployment and the utilisation of labour resources can be refined by the application of a system of labour market accounts and a new measure of labour slack. ... Zie: Summary
Zhu, Tracy Y; Tam, Lai-Shan; Li, Edmund K
A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the self-reported loss of labour and non-labour market productivity, as well as to characterize the risk factors of loss of productivity in patients with SLE. A consecutive sample of 125 Chinese patients with a diagnosis of SLE and within working age was recruited. Work disability, daily activity limitations and receipt of social help, along with demographic information and health status, were collected from a self-reported questionnaire. Disease characteristics were collected by clinical examination and chart review. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were used to describe the relationships between labour/non-labour productivity and demographic/clinical variables. Twenty (16%) patients reported complete work disability as a result of SLE after a median duration of 9 years since disease onset. A total of 46 (36.8%) patients reported difficulty in performing their daily activities, including household work, studying and leisure activities, among which 28% received social help from families or friends. Risk of work disability was strongly predicted by low education level, long disease duration and history of having pleurisy. Patients' global well-being, physical health status and functional status were factors independently associated with impaired non-labour market productivity. SLE has a profound impact on individuals' labour and non-labour market productivity. Vocational education programmes may be useful in lowering the work disability rate in SLE. Preserving patients' physical and mental functioning or improving patients' quality of life may help in restoring both labour and non-labour productivity.
Bhattacharyya, Chandril; Gupta, Manash Ranjan
In this paper, a model of endogenous economic growth is developed with special focus on the interaction between unionized labour market and environmental pollution. We introduce a trade union; and use both ‘Efficient Bargaining’ model and ‘Right to Manage’ model to solve the negotiation problem. Environmental pollution is the result of production; and the labour union bargains not only for wage and employment but also for the protection of environment. We derive properties of optimum income t...
Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…
Tanase Diana; Frant Florin,; Manciu Venera; Tanase Adrian
The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore...
Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario
This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...
Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario
We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...
This paper deals whit the dynamics of the Catalan textile labour market (the Spanish region that concentrated most of the industrial and factory activity during the 19 Century) and offers hypotheses and results on the impact it had on living standards and fertility levels. We observe the formation of an uneven labour market in which male supply for labour (excluding women and children) grew much faster than the demand. We stress the fact that labour supply is very dependant on institutional f...
Sørensen, Peter Birch
progressivity which would maximise the welfare of the representative wage earner. Simulations with these models suggest that the optimal degree of tax progressivity could be quite large, although the results are sensitive to the generosity of unemployment benefits and to the after-tax wage elasticity of work......All modern labour market theories capable of explaining involuntary unemployment as an equilibrium phenomenon imply that increased income tax progressivity reduces unemployment, but they also imply that higher progressivity tends to reduce work effort and labour productivity. This suggests...... that there may be an optimal degree of tax progressivity where the marginal welfare gain from reduced involuntary unemployment is just offset by the marginal welfare loss from lower productivity. This paper sets up four different models of an imperfect labour market in order to identify the degree of tax...
Madsen, Per Kongshøj
It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...
Yermolenko Oleksii A.
Full Text Available The article considers modern tendencies of the Ukrainian labour market and the most critical contradictions connected with the methods of their regulation. Urgency of study of problems of appearance of inconsistencies is caused by strengthening of social tension, which covered the Ukrainian labour market recently. The goal of the study is identification of modern contradictions of the labour market, which cause the biggest response in the society, and search for such regulation instruments, which would reduce negative manifestation of these contradictions. The following contradictions are quite frequent nowadays: considerable dependence of the whole economy on political solutions, when decisions made by the power are inconsistent; small volume of financing of the production sphere, due to which production assets deteriorate fast; critical demographic situation and asymmetric allocation of production facilities; rather big number of disengaged workers of the production sphere; low wages in the majority of spheres of economic activity and many other contradictions. In order to solve existing inconsistencies in general, state bodies apply adjustments only, but a more effective method is combination of state instruments of regulation and market instruments. Since there is a big number of contradictions in the market of labour, each of them should have relevant individual instruments, but with consideration of other problem issues in order not to aggravate the existing situation. Drawing the conclusion it should be noted that regulation of the labour market requires search for compromises between the market principles of regulation and state measures on avoiding the existing contradictions or minimisation of their negative impact on formation, functioning and development of the modern labour market.
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie; Juul, Ida
Presentation of the results of 21 narrative interviews with people in middle range positions in the Danish labour market focusing on learning and support during transitions. The narratives presented bring forth many paradoxes in the Danish model and education and training system. There seems...
The objective of the study is to assess the effect of Nigerian Universities' curricula on the performance of Computer Science graduates. This paper looks into the strength and weaknesses of Computer Science graduates in Nigeria with a view to assess if they meet the labour market expectation. It also x-rays the women ...
Ans Merens; Freek Bucx; Christoph Meng
Original titel: Eerste treden op de arbeidsmarkt. Women in the Netherlands have been outperforming men in education for many years now. However, this superior educational achievement does not translate into a better position on the labour market. More women work today than in the past, but still
Pico Geerdsen, Lars
In the Paper it is argued that the improved performance of the Danish Labour Market may in part be due to the Danish Unemployment Insurance System (UI), which was reformed in 1994. - Denmark has experienced a remarkable constant fall in unemployment from more than 10 per cent in 1993 to a little...
to labour markets, and whether there might be in the future, including arguments pro and con the possible impact thereof. The article thus provides a review of knowledge within the field, with a focus especially on how this can or might have an impact on welfare states, given the often strong connection...
This study combines an industry level and a firm level analysis on the wage and employment effects of multinational companies. This has not been attempted in any previous work. In view of the results, important questions are raised regarding how global changes in the structure of production may affect labour markets and the organisation of work in the future.
Inequality and the labour market : what can we learn from comparing India and Brazil?; project paper H (f). Rapports. Report on Policy Dialogue on Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India : project paper G.2. Rapports. Vocational education and training (VET), inequality and the labour market in Brazil and India : a policy ...
This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined with admin......This paper analyzes the relationship between three body weight measures and employment status and wages, thereby broadening the perspective of the literature on obesity and labor market outcomes. The analysis uses a unique dataset from a Danish panel survey from 1995 and 2000, combined...
Thomsen, Rie; Cort, Pia
the 1990s focus in the employment policy has shifted gradually and introduced the ideas of activation and the duty of the unemployed to pursue employment. Unemployment has been individualized as a problem and focus has moved from upskilling to rapid re-integration into the labour market, hereby...
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...... conditioned on the individual being unemployed (for a period) – the typical Active Labour Market Programme – creates a favourable trade-off between equity and efficiency and this encourages high spending on training...
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...... conditioned on the individual being unemployed (for a period) – the typical Active Labour Market Programme – creates a favourable trade-off between equity and efficiency and this encourages high spending on training....
Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben
This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....
Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen
This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing unit......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate......This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...
Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Remery, C.; Schippers, J.
Different policies are being promoted to increase the labour supply in ageing labour markets. This article presents the results of a large-scale survey carried out among Dutch employers into their management of the constraints presented by a tight labour market. Organizations take different measures
Ramos, Raul; Sanromá, Esteban
One aspect that has not been widely considered by the literature on the topic is differential overeducation, the existence of differences among men and women in terms of overeducation as a result of the geographical restrictions of married woman when searching for job. In this context, Büchel y Van Ham (2002) have highlighted the relevance of spatial mobility in regional labour markets (basically commuting) as an explanatory factor of women differential overeducation, but also of global overe...
Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the main aspects related to the labour market. It starts by several theoretical aspects in relation with the human capital and labour market, and continues by the investigation of labour productiveness and of unemployment rate, revealing at the same time the correlation between the education level and the insertion to the labour market. Furthermore, a comparative survey is conducted regarding the efficiency of the labour market in Romania and in the other EU countries. The paper ends by forwarding a series of conclusions related to the labour market in Romania, identifying several measures meant to boost the labour market competitiveness in our country. The methods used in the present paper are the interpretative method, the structural-systemic approach, as well as the epistemological method.
Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the integration of 1st cycle graduates on the labour market. Marketing research was carried out among university graduates, emphasising their career path after graduating, taking into account that graduates’ job placement has acquired great importance in higher education. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that career counselling and orientation should be fostered for students, while more weight should be given to practical placements in the study programs’ curriculum, in order to build specific competences for students, which make them capable to obtain a better job position after graduation.
... is a critical source of future labour. Shauna MacKinnon's Decolonizing Employment: Aboriginal Inclusion in Canada's Labour Market is a case study with lessons applicable to communities throughout North America...
Vasile Liviu; Vasile Valentina
This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates) highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, pr...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to try to classify labour markets of the Silesian Province on the municipality level. The proposed solution of grouping labour markets is based on three criteria: the size of the labour market measured by a number of jobs, the weight of the labour market expressed with a proportion of the number of jobs to the size of the population and that scale of the impact that is a proportion of the commuters to the ones leaving for work. As a result of the assumed criteria the municipalities have been grouped according to their meaning on the labour market, at the same time identifying weaker and stronger labour markets. The first stage of the research was to divide the municipal labour markets according to the number of the employed. As a result territorial units were grouped into 4 classes (small, medium, big and huge including in total 9 subclasses. Then the municipal labour markets were sorted according to their weight and the scale of their impact, verifying their position in this way. The research pointed out that a lot of labour markets in the Katowice conurbation showed lower levels than the assumptions. Consequently, it suggests polarization of the labour market of this urban unit that is mainly focused on Katowice and Gliwice. Higher parameters than the assumed ones were reached by several municipalities that are small or medium labour markets. In many cases these are municipalities where there are huge businesses connected with coal mining. A beneficial situation was noted in the southern part of the province that has a relatively steady situation on the labour market. The presented classification of labour markets can support the management process of local and regional development.
Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking
Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.
Tomaž Kofalt; Žiga Čepar
In this paper we investigate the influence and importance of population ageing for labour market. Particularly we focus on unemployment, salaries and population education level. After reviewing some of the previous research on the influence of demographic ageing on labour market, we set three hypotheses, referring to the three above mentioned specific aspects of labour market, which were tested using multivariate regression analysis. Based on demographic and socio-economic panel data on Slove...
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse characteristics of the labour market participation in Romania in order to highlight the existing inequalities in employment opportunities. Official statistics are analysed for providing an in-depth overview of the recent evolutions of the Romanian labour market. Special attention will be given to gender, rural-urban and age inequalities. The results show significant gaps in labour market participation for specific groups such as people living in rural areas, women and youth and high level of regional heterogeneity regarding the existing employment opportunities. The findings of the article are useful for policy makers and institutions with responsibilities in labour market and education fields.
Dimeglio, Isabelle; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mehaut, Philippe
The aim of this paper is to test the connections between the indicators used in the literature on social cohesion, which usually reflect "general" values or behaviours, and indicators specific to a particular space, namely the labour market. A key question is the stability of the social cohesion's indicators when moving from a societal…
Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.
This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... for both the overall performance of the monetary union and the country-specific situation are analysed. It is shown that asymmetries are not only critical for countryspecific performance but also for the overall performance of the monetary union. A striking finding is that aggregate output volatility...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....
Full Text Available The Italian labour market is characterized by deep gender differences and regional variability. The data show that the crisis lead to an increase in the gap of female employment rates and women's inactivity rates with respect to Europe. The North of Italy experienced a higher increase in unemployment than the South, where many people withdrew from the labour market because of poor employment prospects. Moreover, in Italy, the increase in unemployment has been mitigated by the increase in the number of workers having access to the wage supplementation fund who are not computed within the unemployed. Using a micro simulation technique, we estimate the effect of the crisis on income distribution and poverty and find that at the national level, the population showed a reduction in equivalized household income by about 1 percent. The use of wage supplementation fund, together with a higher involvement of youth living in their birth family, brought about the observed limited increase in the poverty rates. The heterogeneity in the system of unemployment benefits increased inequalities amongst the unemployed. This calls for a reform of the system of unemployment benefit and safety net in Italy that has been long postponed.
Full Text Available In the article the author has presented the comparative analysis of both digital and traditional segments of the global labour market. The main functions of the digital labour market are social, economic and stimulant ones. The features of the digital labour market are digital employment, globality, high level of flexibility, large competition, dynamic changes of labour force and working places. The main kinds of digital employment are electronic free lance and electronic outsourcing. In the article the advantages and the risks of digital employment using have been determined.
Full Text Available Research purpose - to define the features of functioning of labour-market in modern tennis. Primary information is got by the analysis of scientific and methodical literature, documentary sources, these official sites of organizational structures of tennis (more than 450 sources. It is marked that development of world professional tennis takes place in accordance with conformities to the law, inherent the difficult systems. Commercial organizations are formed by the markets of finances and labour, production and sale sporting-spectacle services and consumer goods. It is shown that belong of the system of professional tennis to the sphere of business stipulates the atmosphere of hard competition in all of its structural educations. It is marked that regulation of activity from the side of federations requires the observance of positions normatively-legal documents, obligatory participating in the educational and antistimulant programs, observance of code of honour.
John A. Rigg
Considerable cross-sectional evidence has highlighted the lower employment rates and earnings amongst disabled people in Britain. But very little is known about the progression of disabled people in employment. This study uses data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) to examine the labour market progression of disabled people in Britain along several dimensions: earnings growth, low-pay transition probabilities, changes in labour market participation, the rate of training and the rate of upwar...
MARTIN, Iván; Venturini, Alessandra
Opening up new legal migration channels' to respond to economic needs for labour is one of the four priorities of the European Commission for its upcoming European Agenda on Migration. The EU approach to legal labour migration has, to date, been very fragmented and limited. It has focused, indeed, on specific categories of potential legal migrants: highly-qualified, intra-corporate transferees, seasonal workers or students and non-remunerated trainees and researchers. The approach is clearly ...
Rác, Ivan; Lehoczká, Lýdia
The article provides information about barriers of Roma women in the labour market. It analyses the partial results of the project VEGA – Intimate Partner Violence against Roma Women. Most often interpret the entry limits of Roma women in the labour market. Labor et Educatio
van der Meer, P; Wielers, R
Since the beginning of the 1980s students' labour market participation in the Netherlands has increased enormously. The first part of this article offers a description of the changed labour market position of students in the Netherlands. It demonstrates that this is the result both of changes in the
Labour Markets for Inclusive Growth in Latin America. In a recent public opinion survey carried out in 17 Latin American countries, respondents ranked labour market problems first on a list of 10 problems, including violence, poverty, corruption and low level of education (Latinobarómetro 2009). Most of the population in the ...
This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the
Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia and Chile ... This project will examine the evolution of the Colombian and Chilean labour markets since 1980 in terms of employment, unemployment, formality, informality and earnings by age, gender, level of education and other characteristics.
Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene
This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... to the employees. This study contributes to the literature on four main dimensions. First, we extend the analysis of organisational change to a public sector setting. Second, while previous findings remain inconclusive regarding causal effects due to problems of endogeneity, our analysis contributes to research...... of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...
Damm, Anna Piil
This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new...... refugees across locations conditional on six individual-specific characteristics. The results show that refugees with unfavourable unobserved characteristics are found to self-select into ethnic enclaves. Furthermore, taking account of negative self-selection, a relative standard deviation increase...... in ethnic group size on average increases the employment probability of refugees by 4 percentage points and earnings by 21 percent. I argue that in case of heterogeneous treatment effects, the estimated effects are local average treatment effects....
Full Text Available Educational mismatch in labour markets is a phenomenon that has been widely analysed, mainly with respect to rising concerns about a possible oversupply of graduates. Like most European countries, the Czech Republic has experienced a boom in tertiary education in the last decade. The incidence and determinants of over- and undereducation vary substantially depending both on the mismatch measurement approach and the data source applied. Educational mismatch is also reflected in wage levels: overeducated workers have lower wages and undereducated workers have higher wages than workers with the same education whose jobs match their education level. Second, overeducated workers earn more and undereducated workers earn less than their co-workers with exactly the required level of education. The effects are qualitatively the same regardless of the data source and measurement approach applied, but their sizes differ slightly.
Simona Valeria TOMA
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of the current global economic crisis on the labour market, including the risk that the recession will be followed by a jobless recovery that contributes to a lost generation of young people in the workforce. The crisis affects different sectors in different ways, but the impact also varies according to age, gender, skills level and type of contract. Although it had a more significant effect on the private sector of the economy, the crisis’s impact on the broader public sector is also obvious. Migrants, both legal and illegal, are particularly vulnerable during crises because they are typically not being provided the same level of employment protection as native workers and hence they are the first to lose their jobs during an economic downturn.
The study uses cross sectional data from randomly selected oil palm famers to describe the struc-ture of the labour market and estimate the factors which influence oil palm farmers' demand for hired labour in the Western Region. Descriptive statistics and the ordinary least square regres-sion techniques have been applied ...
van Huizen, T.M.
The aim of this dissertation is to test behavioural assumptions in labour economics models and thereby improve our understanding of labour market behaviour. The assumptions under scrutiny in this study are derived from an analysis of recent influential policy proposals: the introduction of savings
This paper examines the implications of the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community (AEC) in 2015 on Malaysia’s labour market. The discussion centres on the nature of the structural change that Malaysia has experienced, especially since the 1980s, and how that has impacted on its labour market. Integration into ASEAN markets has obviously helped Malaysia enjoy the synergies of regional coordination. Although Malaysia’s economic growth has been steady...
Full Text Available Youth unemployment has become a priority for the European Union. The globalisation, the cyclical economic changes and the fast evolution of the labour market require new public policy and new approaches in order to stimulate integration of the young people into the labour market. This paper intends to highlight the effects and efficiency of the public policy that supports the labour market in the European Union and Romania. The conclusion is that Romania is adopting important measures for facilitating the employment of young people and decreasing unemployment, but the implemented measures and strategies have registered limited progress and more innovative solutions are needed.
Labour market outcomes in Botswana, like elsewhere, have a great impact on the well-being of females and most ... productive work outside home while the domestic labour is undervalued and in most cases unpaid. .... being the employer of last resort because of the working conditions that prevailed in the sector, but today.
By examining recent panel data from Ghana, Madagascar, South Africa and Uganda, plus cross-sectional data from Kenya, researchers will track how the labour trajectories for men and women change over time, and the links between firm outcomes and labour markets. It is hoped that the findings will help policymakers ...
, can subjective well-being differences of European unemployed be traced back to the national design and generosity of labour market policy? This article applies multilevel and panel estimation techniques to identify the moderating effect of unemployment benefit generosity and active labour market......Public policy shapes the lives of individuals, and even more so if they depend on state support. In the case of unemployment, the financial situation is largely determined by cash transfers and daily routines depend on the involvement in active labour market policy measures. To what extent, however...... policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...
Full Text Available sing official statistics, the paper aims to contribute to regional perspective of labour market challenges and limits and the increasing number of elderly people participating in economic activity. Regional level is considered for analysing the social productivity of labour in terms of GDP and employment. The employment is analysed from the perspective of share and structure of elderly people on the labour market. In this respect, activity rates, ageing index and economic dependency ratio are reviewed. In order to shape the determinants of employment of elderly people, poverty measures at NUTS 2 level are figured out.
Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas
This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....
Refslund, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Stine; Sørensen, Ole H.
In the face of the economic and financial crisis, several European countries have implemented a number of structural reforms to increase employment and the flexibility of the labour market, in particular by reducing employment protection in an effort to deregulate labour markets. Reform proponents...... employment. Conversely, reform opponents claim that this view builds on a misguided view of labour market dynamics. They do not believe that such reforms will lead to job growth, asserting that such reforms are as likely to reduce as to increase employment and that they will lead to growing inequality...... and labour market segmentation. In Denmark, employee protection in terms of notice periods and dismissal compensation, which is mainly regulated by collective agreement, is among the lowest in the EU. Unemployment was, before the crisis, among the lowest in the EU but the crisis also negatively affected...
This bachelor thesis consists of theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part deals with issues of gender equality in the labour market. Especially the labour market situations, which are regulated by Czech legislation and legislation of OSN and EU. These situations include recruitment, remuneration and approaches to decision making. The bachelor thesis also describes gendered organizations and gender-integrated organizations. The practical part evaluates the respondents views on gen...
Enrico Marelli; Dario Sciulli; Marcello Signorelli
In this paper we first review the (potential and actual) role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education) in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial) labour market in order to...
This thesis looks at the effects of flexible working arrangements on workers' labour market outcomes. The particular type of flexible working arrangement analysed in this thesis is called "flexitime". This is an arrangement which gives workers the freedom to choose when to start and end their work. Flexitime provides workers with a new way to cater to their domestic responsibilities and in turn may reduce the costs of participating in the labour market. Therefore, it is closely...
To provide empirical evidence on differences across high school tracks in early occupational labour market outcome, I estimate how the employment probability, the time before the first job is taken up, and earnings depend on high school type, controlling for student characteristics by a propensity...... immediately after high school, technical education is better than other educational tracks in terms of early labour market outcomes three years after graduation. ...
In the sociology of education the relation between education and work is analysed in many ways and, since the rise of neoliberalism, increasingly in market terms. Skills are the dominant labour market currency, described in terms of competence profiles that seek to link educational qualifications directly to work. Contrary to the widespread appeal…
Porte, Caroline de la
This article analyses the role of the OECD through its "Jobs Strategy" and the European Union (EU) through the "European Employment Strategy" in the development of macro-economic, employment and labour market policy in the Czech Republic. As a full member of the two organisations, the Czech...... Republic has been subject to their soft non-binding policy advice in the area of labour market reform. The OECD and EU policy models are similar, both insisting on growth-oriented macro-economic policy, supported by active labour market policies, an active and effective public employment service (PES......) and the de-regulation of labour markets. However, the OECD actively advocates private actor involvement in labour markets, while the EU insists on the role of the public sector. The inquisitive styles of the two organisations differ: the OECD has a decontextualised and quantified analysis of performance...
The research instrument used was a questionnaire consisting of scales on attitude towards child labour, coping, stressful life events, general health and perceived social support available to market women as well as information on demographic variables. Results indicated that market women in polygamous settings, those ...
Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley
Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions...... of Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....
Full Text Available This review presents a summary of evidence on outcomes from active labour market programs. Active labour market programs aim to increase the likelihood of employment for individuals who are unemployed or at risk of unemployment. The focus of this review is on studies of active labour market programs in Australia, supplemented with international evidence. An overview and historical background on active labour market programs is provided, as well as an introduction to the empirical methods used to estimate the effect of the programs. Evidence on the effects of the main types of programs – case management, work experience programs and formal education and training – is reviewed, and the main findings are distilled into a set of lessons for policy makers. The review concludes that active labour market programs cannot by themselves have a major impact on the rate of unemployment, but some spending on these programs is justified by outcomes such as increasing the pool of unemployed who are job ready and sharing the burden of unemployment. Job search and wage subsidy programs are suggested to be good ways to assist unemployed who are less disadvantaged. For unemployed with higher levels of disadvantage, priority should be given to programs that create jobs with opportunities for linked training, and that provide a pathway to a permanent job.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the proportion of dual-income households in the Netherlands increased rapidly. Dutch society lagged a little behind other Western societies in terms of the emancipation of women in the labour market, but women began to enter the labour market more often and continue
Le Maire, Daniel; Scheuer, Christian
In this paper we evaluate the eects of economic incentives on the labour market participation for selected groups with weak labour market attachment. We argue that the people most likely to be affected by economic incentives are recipients of socialassistance and home-working housewives. Partner...... income only seems to be exogenous to the participation decision for home-working housewives. We also estimate participationequations with own potential income gab from working, which in the case of recipients of social assistence are found to have signifcant positive effect. The elasticities fromchanging...
Somewhat unexpectedly from the experience of integrating new Southern European members, the enlargement of the European Union with the Central and Eastern European countries has quite far-reaching effects on the Danish labour market by facilitating labour migration. Since the Danish transitional...... though EU8/2 workers still only accounts for around three per cent of total Danish employment there may be more significant regulatory and institutional effects since employers use the labour inflow to put pressure on wage levels, working conditions and the general scope and range of the collective...... agreements especially for low-skilled labour in sectors like agriculture and cleaning, that have high inflows. A large number of Eastern Europeans are working significantly below the de facto minimum wages negotiated between the social partners. This paper provides case study research from the agricultural...
Increasing employment in key sectors One of the Burmese government's main goals is economic growth through private sector development and increased foreign direct investment. Creating jobs requires private sector expansion, especially in labour-intensive sectors where the country has a comparative advantage, such ...
... policy review and recommendations, and dissemination of research findings through policy briefs, seminars with policymakers, labour organizations, universities, non-governmental organizations, and engagement with local media. The project will also enhance research capacity among researchers in Paraguay through ...
This project will examine how non-contributory social protection affects labour supply and entrepreneurship, and what complementary policies are needed to enhance the impact of social protection programs. The project ... Au-delà de la protection sociale : les marchés du travail, l'entrepreneuriat et l'égalité entre les sexes.
Full Text Available Main purpose of this research paper is to show the recent trends of labour market issues regarding gender inequality in the countries that are still in the transition to the market oriented economy. Transition to competition has effected in increasing the level of unemployment to economically active population, with the higher consequence for females than for males, from which some females have left labour market and they became inactive in job searching. In this paper we analyze and compare gender gaps through the main components of labour market trends as level of education, active participation in labour market, occupational segregation, employment and unemployment for both genders of the countries that are still in transition like Albania, FYR of Macedonia and Kosovo in comparison with EU countries. Given that closer are these countries in joining the EU; higher are the requirements for increasing the level of employment targets and in approving and implementing social policies on gender equality in labour market according to the EU legislations. Methodology used in this paper is through case studies by using secondary data from the most recent labour force surveys (LFS of transition countries in South East Europe and comparing them with the EU targets. Also regarding occupational segregation by gender the Duncan & Duncan Index is calculated. The study shows that depending on the stages that countries are in transition earlier or latter, the labour market components regarding gender are more comparable and closer with the targets of the EU countries, and that occupational segregation is higher in the transition countries where the unemployment level of females is in the higher range.
tradition for ethnic minority workers. It is therefore presumed, that an identification of challenges and of ways to address them might be helpful in order to ensure a higher degree of labour market integration. This of cause raises new questions about whether labour market integration in certain industries...... actually leads to integration or just to a more stratified and ethnic segregated labour market. However, that kind of issues will not be addressed explicitly in the paper. The study is based on a national (Danish) literature review and an empirical study examining the experienced challenges within...... the formal training program in two different schools as well as in the everyday work in two different bus-companies. The empirical data is 18 constructed through observations, interviews and a workshop and the current paper will present the empirical findings. The results will be compared to the tentative...
Bengtsson, Mattias; de la Porte, Caroline; Jacobsson, Kerstin
to the financial and Eurozone crises, this article investigates whether reforms and expenditure patterns in labour market policy (LMP) have moved more towards or away from SI following the 2008 financial crisis. We use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the degree to which there have been shifts...... in the SI aspects of LMPs in eight countries across four welfare state regimes. We also investigate which aspects of LMPs have been strengthened and which have been weakened, enabling us to make a nuanced assessment of labour market SIs across the EU in a period of permanent austerity. We find that although...... the eight countries under examination have different starting points, there is little evidence of increased SI-orientation of LMPs. Upskilling, which is at the heart of SI, did not increase from 2004-08 to 2009-13, while incentive reinforcement and employment assistance - more about labour market entry...
Butter, den F.A.G.
A flow model of the Dutch labour market is used to calculate the efects of autonomouslabour demand and supply shocks on employment and unemployment. The model is centered around a matching function which allows for heterogeneousunemployment by taking explicitly account of POWS through various
Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.
Lehmann, Hartmut; Wadsworth, Jonathan
Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Ha Trong; Duncan, Alan S
... immigrants' labour market outcomes. We present new and robust evidence that, unlike immigrants in the US, those in Australia as a whole do not reduce their yearly labour market outcomes when the local currency appreciates...
"Despite the potential for government employment policies both to encourage and preclude migration among the Aboriginal workforce, little is known about the impacts of such policies. This paper seeks to construct a base line for identifying these impacts by establishing the spatial structure of labour migration among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. It makes use of 1986 Census data to describe the volume and pattern of net and gross flows of working-age Aborigines and Islanders through the national settlement system, distinguishing between movements in remote and closely settled parts of the country. Full determination of the links between policy and migration flows awaits comparison with 1991 Census results." excerpt
Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.
Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana
One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…
Full Text Available This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.
Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) Study. Think tanks in Brazil and India ... to climate change. IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.
-investigate the extent to which working as a child affects the school-to-work transition; -clarify how early labour market and early fertility experiences affect women's employment later in life; and -build a strong relationship with national and international stakeholders to ensure uptake of the results. The University of Sussex ...
Edzes, Arjen; Hamersma, Marije; Venhorst, Viktor; van Dijk, Jouke
It is well-known that those with lower levels of education and school drop-outs are less successful in the labour market. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the determinants to continue in education to at least the minimum level defined by the Lisbon Treaty 2000, the so-called starting
This project will examine the factors that affect young women's transitions from school to work, how they choose their first job, what drives the timing of when they ... how early labour market and early fertility experiences affect women's employment later in life; and -build a strong relationship with national and international ...
The primary objective of this paper is to test the hypothesis of efficiency wage in the context of Tanzania labour market. The test is facilitated via estimating the correlation between firm level productivity and firm level weighted average wage in Tanzania manufacturing enterprises. The study uses panel dimension of the data ...
de Hoyos, Maria; Green, Anne
This paper aims to provide insights into the recruitment and retention issues faced by employers in rural areas. To this end, information gathered through interviews with employers and labour market intermediaries in the predominantly rural county of Lincolnshire, UK was used as a source of data and focal point to discuss the demand side of the…
The Ministry of Labour also implemented a program to promote self-employment and to provide technical and marketing skills to potential women entrepreneurs. In El Salvador, the government passed the Law of Equality, Fairness, and Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Despite these efforts, little evidence exists ...
textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during the experience of unemployment. Within a search and matching model, we show that all natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...
Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois
This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…
This paper examines the role of higher institutions of learning, especially university, in preparing youth for the labour market. Human capital formation has been described as a pre-condition for the success of any nation. One important institution that entrepreneurs in both public and private sectors of the economy rely on for ...
16 mars 2015 ... This was just one of the interventions captured in a meta-study undertaken by the Center for Distributive, Labor and Social Studies of Argentina's Universidad Nacional de la Plata. It analyzed 65 different youth labour market policies and interventions in 18 Latin American countries. An interactive map that ...
This article presents the major findings of an international study that attempted to investigate the labour market outcomes of qualifications frameworks in six countries--Belize, France, Ireland, Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Tunisia, as well as the regional framework in the Caribbean. It finds limited evidence of success, but fairly strong support for…
Institute for Human Development ... Wage inequality in Brazil and India and its impact on labour market inequality : project paper E.2 ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...
Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) Study ... and the Institute for Human Development in Delhi who will develop comparable measures of inequality in wage income and examine contributing factors such as ... Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento.
The study showed that the absence of change in aggregate measure of poverty and inequality hides an enormous change that occurred across different income categories. This shows the importance of understanding the labour market to understand the policy propagation mechanism through which macro policy is ...
Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through a fa...
This paper examines the impact of economic reforms on poverty and unemployment situation in the country. The formal labour market was considered by using advertised vacancies. The result shows that the advertised vacancies are skewed towards high skill and that computer and analytical skill are highly required.
Social Protection and Labour Market Outcomes of Youth in South Africa. South Africa has one of the largest unconditional cash transfer systems in the developing world. The effectiveness of the program in providing immediate relief to recipient families is generally recognized. However, some have speculated that the ...
Agrawal, Tushar; Agrawal, Ankush
Skill development has been a major policy agenda in several countries and there is a lot of emphasis on the promotion of vocational education and training (VET) programmes. This paper investigates the labour market outcomes of the vocationally trained population in India using the data from a nationally representative survey on employment and…
Papakitsos, Evangelos C.
The present study introduces a systemic model that demonstrates a description of the relationship between the labour-market and vocational education from the perspective of systemic theory. Based on the application of the relevant methodology, the two open social systems are identified and analyzed. Their key-features are presented and the points…
Think tanks in Brazil and India are joining forces to examine the factors behind wage inequality in their countries and propose policy options to reduce inequality in labour markets. While these two economies have succeeded in reducing poverty and gaining influence in global affairs, both still experience high inequality, ...
Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen
This study examines the relevance of doctoral training (thesis, coursework and generic skills) for a career in three types of labour market: academia, applied research institutes and industrial laboratories, and non-research workplaces. Data are drawn from a mail survey among PhD holders in Norway. In total, more than 40% of the respondents had…
Yu, Serena; Bretherton, Tanya; Schutz, Hanna
This is a report of the first year of a three-year project entitled "Vocations: the link between post-compulsory education and the labour market." The project's aim is to research how pathways can be improved within education, within work, and between education and work. There are three strands in the project; the first strand is…
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse critically the youth labour market (YLM) and the YLM policies in Portugal. The analysis covers essentially the period after 1986, when Portugal entered the European Union. Design/methodology/approach: The paper consists of three main sections. In the first the main players dealt with (government,…
Research is also thin on whether and how early labour market and fertility experiences can have substantial lifelong consequences for their economic prospects. This project seeks to fill this evidence gap. This research is supported under the Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) program. GrOW is a ...
This study was carried out to examine the influence of parental and social environment factors on the attitude of market women towards child labour. The parental factors looked at included income, family structure, marital status, educational qualification, place of residence, while the social environment factors included ...
Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena
This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…
Reggiani, A.; Bucci, P; Russo, G.; de Haas, A.; Nijkamp, P.
Spatial labour markets are subjected to the forces of regional economic activity and competing network effects. Commuting is, therefore, an important equilibrating vehicle in a City Network constellation. Cities act as attractors of commuters, as most economic activity occurs in cities, thus
Büchel, F.; van Ham, M.
For most workers, access to suitable employment is severely restricted by the fact that they look for jobs in the regional labor market rather than the global one. In this paper we analyze how macrolevel opportunities (regional market characteristics) and microlevel restrictions (the extent to which
This paper explores challenges higher education institutions face while ensuring one of the quality assurance criteria--meeting the demands of labour market. The relationship between labour market and higher education institutions becomes even more complicated during the periods of rapid changes in labour market caused by economic collisions. In…
Dobbins, Tony; Plows, Alexandra
The orthodox supply-side human capital theory (HCT) paradigm is inadequate for understanding and adjusting to labour market volatility in UK regional economies like Wales. This article explores the role of regional labour market intermediaries (LMIs) in matching supply (skills) and demand (job opportunities) in regional labour markets. Some LMIs…
Chung-Khain Wye; Rahmah Ismail
Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to...
Vuori, Jukka; Vesalainen, Janne
Finnish job seekers (n=559) were followed up after 1 year (n=401) after 84.3% participated in guidance courses, subsidized employment, vocational training, or some combination. Guidance courses enhanced reemployment. None of the interventions increased job-seeking activity. Training temporarily decreased psychological distress. Deteriorating…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw on the research and scholarly literature to explorethe changing discourses and perspectives concerning adult learning, education, and thelabour market in the employability regime. The focus of the nalysis is a Nordic context.The dominant employability regime maintains a technical-rational perspective onlearning and employability. Education is predominantly regarded as an instrumentalpreparation for the labour market. The future demands of the labour market are largelyunknown, however, and vocational and professional training may not provide sufficientpreparation for the increasing complexities of work. Theoretical discussions have beendominated by an alleged mismatch between individual competence and thequalifications that are required in the world of work. There is no consensus regardinghow the gap should be described, explained, or bridged. New demands on educationaldesign have emerged, and ideas related to liberal education and ‘bildung’ have beenreinserted into the political agenda, offering general preparation for a wider array ofchallenges.
Full Text Available Terms such as social policy and labor market policies seem not be very current. Instead, we speak more and more about risk management. Social Risk Management is a concept developed by the Word Bank. It is a tool to transfer management techniques from the operating or finance in the social and labor market policy, to support individuals, households and communities to better manage their risk. Due to poor incentive structures, inadequate insurance policies or control often remain under preventive, palliative and solidarity balancing risk management measures. This paper sets out to define the term of social risk management, describing the basic features from different perspectives and the main measures and strategies used in social risk management area. The essay considers the most discussed word of risk management as a moral opportunity to redefine the balance of responsibility and solidarity in the labor market.
The paper deals with the idea of the European Union labour market homogeneity from the perspective of employment, unemployment, earnings and gender pay gap. Due to integration procedures within Europe, important mutual trade, capital and labour force mobility; it can be expected that labour market phenomena are gradually transmitted from western European countries to new member states. The paper proves a certain rate of labour market mimicking within Europe. Tendencies in unemployment, employ...
Broersma, Lourens; van Dijk, J.
This article analyzes the response of regional labor markets in the Netherlands to region-specific labor demand shocks. Previous studies show remarkable differences in response between regions in European countries and regions in the United States. The analysis shows that, in Dutch regions, the
The purpose of presented study was to verify a hypothesis of convergence on local labor markets in Poland. Convergence phenomenon, understood as economic development levels balancing (falling differentiation) has been known since the mid- 1950s. In Poland the convergence problems have been a specific subject of research since the accession to the European Union and the implementation of cohesion policy whose financing is largely related to co...
Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, â€œflexicurityâ€, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled â€œPhD in economics at the standards
Dahl, Malte Rokkjær; Krog, Niels
, there is limited evidence on the way gender and ethnicity interact across different occupations. By randomly assigning gender and ethnicity, this study suggests that ethnic discrimination is strongly moderated by gender: minority males are consistently subject to a much larger degree of discrimination than......This paper presents evidence of ethnic discrimination in the recruitment process from a field experiment conducted in the Danish labour market. In a correspondence experiment, fictitious job applications were randomly assigned either a Danish or Middle Eastern-sounding name and sent to real job...... openings. In addition to providing evidence on the extent of ethnic discrimination in the Danish labour market, the study offers two novel contributions to the literature more generally. First, because a majority of European correspondence experiments have relied solely on applications with male aliases...
Full Text Available In this paper we first review the (potential and actual role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial labour market in order to reconstruct the characteristics of the university-to-work transitions of graduates. Our results have important policy implications, since for local development it is crucial, among other things, to make the best use of all human resources and especially those with the highest educational level.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
We examine the impact of discrimination on labour market performance when workers are subject to a risk of losing skills during an unemployment experience. Within a search and matching framework, we show that both natives and immigrants are affected by discrimination. Discrimination in one sector...... their skills, dependent upon which sector there is discrimination. Net output tends to the be most negatively affected by discrimination among high-skilled workers....
Full Text Available Abstract Technological progress and the internet brought about new possibilities of creating, storing, exchanging, replicating, and using various kinds of data for research. This paper discusses some of the dangers embedded into the reuse of data produced by some institutions by other institutions through the combination and aggregation of initial data into various data products. To this end, we use an example of labour market regulations’ indicators developed by the World Economic Forum, the International Institute for Management Development (IMD, and the Fraser Institute, which are all partly based on the World Bank Employing Workers Indicator. We document how these three indicators compare and identify both their common and specific limitations. For each of these indicators, the choice of subcomponents and of aggregate techniques results in different pictures of labour market regulations, despite the use of the overlapping initial sources of data. Our comparative exercise calls for continuous efforts to improve the indicators of labour market regulations, as well as for cautious use of such indicators for research and policy advice. JEL codes: J00, J8, Y1
study focuses on gatekeeping mechanisms for refugees trying to access the Danish job market, specifically during the process of transitioning from the job-training programme to a real job in the same organisation. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with refugees, their Danish colleagues......, and the organisational gatekeepers (managers and HR representatives), the project investigates the following research question: How do discourses about Danish language competences and Danish cultural competences influence the refugees’ opportunities for gaining employment? The analysis focuses on how different...... discourses are linked with the social and hierarchical positions of the participants, e.g. as managers and gatekeepers or as refugees and job seekers. In line with the theme of the panel, the paper also draws attention to the variety of roles and identities constructed for and by the researcher in critical...
Margrét Einarsdóttir; Jónína Einarsdóttir; Guðbjörg Linda Rafnsdóttir
...; (ii) their special labour market rights, safeguarded by child labour laws, in relation to rest periods, working hours, the prevalence of injuries and the consequent absence from work, and; (iii...
This paper examines the impact of the global financial crisis on the Vietnam labour market against the backdrop of economic performance and labour dynamics before the crisis. The impact on labour has been milder compared with several neighbouring countries, than might have been expected for a country with Vietnam’s degree of international exposure. This can attributed to the timely stimulus package of late 2008, the tight labour market before the crisis, the competitive nature of Vietnam’s ke...
Full Text Available The growing role of institutions and their influence on the labour market outcomes, i.e., wage rates and labour allocation, has been among the most significant characteristic features of labour markets in recent decades. The labour market economics built its paradigm on the principles of marginalism, which brought suitable instruments for the analysis of market agents’ individual decisions capable of achieving effective solutions. Smith’s “invisible hand” has gradually been limited by institutional interventions – by governments, corporations and trade unions with government legislation, corporate personnel policies and collective bargaining. The expanding regulatory interventions in the labour market and the effort to explain the reality leads inevitably to the fact that the modern labour market economics incorporates more and more institutional theories. The contribution outlines the gradual invasion of neoinstitutional topics and theories into the neoclassical labour market paradigm and it analyses the differences between the neoclassical and institutional interpretation of labour market functioning. It presents the recent discussion on the consequences for the labour market economic theory and formulates a conclusion about the modified labour market economic paradigm.
Larsen, Mona; Pedersen, Peder J.
in Denmark is rather small in this age group. While the increase in Germany mainly seems to be a result of policy reforms, the increase in Sweden appear to be a result of a combination of policy changes and an increasing educational level. Financial incentives seem most important in Germany and only of minor...... group and cohort relevant changes in education and health is examined and discussed. Further, country differences in the impact from education and health is examined. Results show that the largest increase in labour force participation has taken place in Sweden following by Germany, while the increase...
This paper studies the effect of social interaction on employment status and employment quality by using longitudinal data from BHPS (British Household Panel Survey). Active community membership is employed as the measurement of social Interaction. Various identification strategies provide robust evidence that a higher level of social interaction results in increased probability of being full-time employed. The effect of social interaction on employment status is also investigated among diffe...
Spreckelsen, Thees; Leschke, Janine; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin
German Microcensus and UK Quarterly Labour Force survey data. The analysis is novel in: its comparative perspective; focus on youth and differentiation between specific regions-of-origin. Germany and the UK are two major destination countries of intra-EU migration. Past research mainly assessed labour...... market outcomes of all migrants, ignoring a potential double-labour market disadvantage of migrant youth. Routinely, EU migrants’ labour market outcomes are compared for EU-15 and CEE countries, rather than separately and against third country nationals. This paper finds two things: a high labour force...
Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Wunsch, Conny
This paper investigates the average effects of firm-provided workplace health promotion measures on labour market outcomes of the firms' employees. Exploiting linked employer-employee panel data that consist of rich survey-based and administrative information on firms, workers and regions, we apply a flexible propensity score matching approach that controls for selection on observables and time-constant unobserved factors. While the effects of analysing sickness absenteeism appear to be rather limited, our results suggest that health circles/courses increase tenure and job stability across various age groups. A key finding is that health circles/courses strengthen the labour force attachment of elderly employees (51-60), implying potential cost savings for public transfer schemes such as unemployment insurance or early retirement schemes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sabina Jelenc Krašovec
Full Text Available Forecasts show that demographic changes will greatly affect changes in the structure of work force. Due to the coming mass retiring of the “baby-boom” generation, a fall in the active population share is to be expected and, consequently, changes in the social and health insurance amenities of the population. The European politicians press on the member countries with the demand to raise the retirement age, which raises the questions of what changes will employment of older people entail, what employment needs exist for older workers, and what measures are required to actually implement the new employment patterns. This article also deals with the question of education and training, an important factor for employment of older workers.
Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries
Baruffini, Moreno; Maggi, Rico
The thesis focuses on labour market flexibility, security and complexity. The research is divided into three chapters: two of the chapters specifically relate to perceived security, flexibility and job satisfaction, using data from the longitudinal Swiss Household Panel (SHP), while the last investigates labour market programs and their impact on a regional labour market. The first essay analyses perceptions of economic insecurity in Switzerland, during the business cycle between 2008 an...
Full Text Available We propose and construct an indicator of labour market well-being in Poland for the year 2013. The indicator is positively related to the degree of civilizational welfare, social welfare, material welfare and psychological well-being in Poland. We conclude that ameliorating the labour market situation improves the quality of the public’s life. The link between our labour market indicator and the total fertility rate turned out to be statistically insignificant.
Newman, Jacquetta (Jacquie)
This paper examines how labour market restructuring in Canada has positioned middle class educated young women as significant actors and beneficiaries in the new economy. The first section discusses the changing policy context that while reducing discrimination and enabling women to more fully compete in the labour market, has tended to benefit certain classes of women more than others. Section two looks at the growth and stability of women’s labour market participation in the recessionary an...
Brekke, Jan-Paul; Borchgrevink, Tordis
In Sweden those born outside the country participate less in the labour market than the majority population. Why is this so? What can be done to better the situation? In this report we take a closer look at how labour market integration is discussed in Sweden. Opinions are strongly divided on the issue of integration. Four discourses on labour market integration are identified. We label them the social liberal discourse, the social democratic discourse, the structural discrimination discourse...
Sullivan, A.; Joshi, H.; Leonard, D.
One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact of single-sex schooling on the chances of being employed in 2000, nor on the horizontal or social class segregation of mid-life occupations. But we d...
This Master thesis looks into the usage of the social network LinkedIn in the labour market by university students and graduates. In the theory, there is aim at explanation of the relationship between human and work, and also how the recruitment process looks like. In the practical part, there is explained how LinkedIn works and then analyzed the process of using it by university students and graduates when searching for a job. At the end, based on the analysis, there is a suggestion how to u...
Contini, Bruno; Grand, Elisa
Italy's labour market suffers from a serious pathology, in addition to the increasing precariousness of the young workforce common to all EU member countries: flows from regular employment to non-employment are very often dead-ends. A vast number of young individuals who lose their job only a few months or years after their first hire enter the ranks of the long-term unemployed or leave the workforce altogether, never to regain regular employment even after as long as twenty years. Many join ...
Refslund, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Stine; Sørensen, Ole H.
and labour market segmentation. In Denmark, employee protection in terms of notice periods and dismissal compensation, which is mainly regulated by collective agreement, is among the lowest in the EU. Unemployment was, before the crisis, among the lowest in the EU but the crisis also negatively affected...... employment in Denmark. However, there have been no major moves to deregulate employment protection; probably because flexibility is already high in the so-called Danish flexicurity model and because much of employment protection is settled in the collective agreements....
This paper uses an econometric analysis of the 1987 Economic and Social Research Institute household survey data to assess the sources of the growth which has occurred in parttime employment in the last decade. The models used allow both for the possibility that the hours of work choice is a discrete one, and for the influence of the demand side of the labour market on a woman's choice between part-time and full-time work. The results confirm the impression gained from descript...
A. K. Dubovik
Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.
This a study on the labour market. More in particular it is a study on the supply of labour, the modes of its formation and its internal structure and dynamics. The avowed goal of the study is to elucidate a concept of labour power in which its commodity-status is played down and its
The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…
Dahl, Malte Rokkjær; Krog, Niels
market, the study offers two novel contributions to the literature more generally. First, previous studies on discrimination have largely neglected the intersection between gender and ethnicity by relying solely on applications with male aliases. By randomly assigning gender and ethnicity, this study...... suggests that discrimination is strongly moderated by gender: minority males are subject to a substantially larger degree of discrimination than minority females. Second, this study addresses a key critique of previous correspondence experiments by examining the potential confounding effect......This paper presents evidence of ethnic discrimination in the recruitment process from a field experiment conducted in the Danish labour market. In a correspondence experiment, fictitious job applications were randomly assigned either a Danish or a Middle Eastern-sounding name and sent to real job...
Baranauskienė, Ingrida; Dobrovolskytė, Ilona
Low activity level of disabled persons is closely related to the lack of their vocational skills, qualification, experience and motivation. All of the above mentioned elements are interrelated and can be the cause of each other. The aim of the research – to create the grounded theory for the successful integration of disabled persons into the labour market after their vocational rehabilitation. The given paper presents a model for the successful integration of disabled persons into the la...
Benavente, J.M.; Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.
This article jointly estimates price-cost mark-ups and union bargaining power of manufacturing firms in France, Belgium and Chile. Our GMM results provide strong evidence of price-cost mark-ups being underestimated when labour market imperfections are ignored, corresponding to the omission of the
Mitze, Timo; Schmidt, Torben Dall; Rauhut, Daniel
in the share of elderly in regional population due to exogenous changes in the institutional context, such as pension reforms. The regional labour market implications of an ageing shock are then tested with regard to the effects on employment growth, unemployment and labour participation rate. Our results......Using a flexible spatial panel VAR model for a small-scale labour market system, we investigate the dynamic interdependences between changes in the demographic structure and the labour market performance of a regional economy. With a particular focus on ageing shocks, we describe an increase...... based on a sample of 71 Scandinavian regions point to negative regional labour market effects of an ageing shock implying a reduction in employment growth and a temporarily declining labour participation rate, while the unemployment rate increases. Importantly, spatial spillovers amplify these negative...
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is influenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs influence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the first two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to country-specific factors and can quantify the relative impact of specific socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long
Drawing on an employee labour survey, this article explores job-finding channels in the Spanish labour market and points out that social networks are the most important way of finding a job. It focuses on a comparison between an informal channel (relatives and close personal relationships) and a formal one (job advertisements), and demonstrates that these channels serve two specific segments in the labour market. The most important results concern workers' profiles: advertisements are highly ...
R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)
textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014
This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…
OECD Publishing, 2016
More and more adults are earning a tertiary qualification, but not all tertiary degrees have the same value on the labour market. In general, postgraduate degrees such as master's and doctoral degrees are associated with higher employment rates and earnings than bachelor's degrees. Labour market outcomes also vary by field of education. Some…
Butter, den F.A.G.; Gautier, P.A.
This paper analyzes the impact of supply shocks, demand shocks and policy shocks on labour market dynamics, using a consistent macroeconomic flow model of the Dutch labour market. The long run properties of the model mimic those of the theoretical equilibrium search models, with endogenous vacancy
The German labour market has seen substantial structural changes, especially over the past decades: there has been a major shift in labour market policy, the service industry is booming and skills requirements have changed dramatically. This article discusses these trends, offering an empirical analysis of the extent to which the German dual VET…
Vliet, Olaf Peter van
Social convergence has been an objective since the Treaty of Rome in 1957, but it was only in 1997 and 2000 that social and labour market policies were formulated at the European Union level. To what extent have national social and labour market policies in EU member states converged over time? What
The transition into a post-industrial economy changed the nature of the Australian labour market extinguishing jobs in traditional industries and creating jobs in new industries. Workers displaced from the manufacturing sector and women seeking to re-enter the labour market after taking time out for family reasons need to retrain in order to…
Ramakers, Anke; van Wilsem, Johan; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja
This study is concerned with describing the employment history of prisoners. Past labour market performance is a major predictor of later performances. Yet, the substantial field of reentry research paid little attention to pre-prison employment patterns and the magnitudes of labour market
Full Text Available The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series of statistical data that has been collected and reviewed, while highlighting the main factors that shape the current situation of the Romanian labour market. As regards the employment rate, the gender difference in Romania falls within the limits of that recorded for most EU countries (the employment rate is higher for the male than female population. On the contrary, the unemployment rate is reversed (higher unemployment rate in male than female population.
Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking
after hospital treatment is about 35% lower for cases than for controls and varies somewhat depending on diagnosis. On average, those who keep their jobs have 20% lower earnings compared to a control group. We use longitudinal data from labour market registers covering a 5% sample of the Danish adult......This paper investigates the effect of severe mental illness on the capacity to hold a job and to earn an income. We find that the employment rate is reduced with about 1/3 during the development of the disease. Hospital admission seems to stabilize employment for all diagnoses. The employment rate...... population followed from 1976 to 1993 merged with data from the Central Psychiatric Case Register which covers all cases of hospitalizations with psychiatric disorders and their diagnoses since 1969. At the time of admission, we match all patients with people from the same cohort and gender. Both groups...
Full Text Available A large body of studies has documented the changing wage structure and increasing inequalities that in the last decades have characterised many OECD countries. The importance of these topics has been addressed by the workshop on "Comparing Inequalities" organised by the Italian Association for Comparative Economic Studies (AISSEC, and held in Assisi in June 2010. One session of the workshop was devoted to "Labour Market Institutions and Wage Inequalities: a Comparative Perspective". This special issue, which includes a selection of papers that were originally presented at the workshop, offers contributions which can be helpful to obtain an enriched view of ongoing changes and a broader spectrum of plausible explanations. In this paper a short appraisal of the large economic literature on wage inequality and institutions is offered with the main aim to clarify how the papers collected in this symposium contribute to related literature and in which directions they move
The question of how societies allocate occupational positions and subsequent rewards has long been of interest to sociologists. According to one influential theory, the needs of modern industrial societies and economies demand that high-level and functionally important occupational positions are allocated according to meritocratic principles. I argue that, ultimately, employers get the final say about which characteristics are rewarded in the labour market. In order to examine which skills and attributes are required by employers for particular occupations I analyse data drawn from a content analysis of c.5000 British newspaper job advertisements. The results show that both merit and non-merit characteristics are requested by employers in job advertisements, even for occupations falling within the higher classes. I also find evidence that employers have similar requirements for similar occupations, cross-cutting class boundaries.
Full Text Available Abstract Based on a case study of the recent migration flow of Haitians to Brazil, from 2010-2015, this paper aims to shed light on the entry of Haitian immigrants into the Brazilian labour market. Indeed, Haitians went from being a few dozen immigrants in Brazil in 2010, to become the main immigrant group in the formal labour market in the country in 2013, overtaking the classic migrations to Brazil, such as the Portuguese. In this context, the paper will outline the profile of Haitians in the Brazilian labour market, particularly analysing the employment of these immigrants at the start of the decade, concentrating on 2015. Keywords: Brazil, Haitians, labour market. Novos Fluxos Migratórios para o Brasil: meia década de intensa imigração haitiana Resumo A partir do caso do recente, mas intenso fluxo imigratório haitiano para o Brasil, de 2010 a 2015, este trabalho analisa a inserção dos imigrantes haitianos no mercado de trabalho brasileiro. De fato, os haitianos passaram de algumas dúzias de imigrantes no Brasil em 2010, para ser o principal grupo de imigrantes no mercado de trabalho formal no país em 2013, superando as migrações clássicas no país, como os portugueses, por exemplo. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do texto é mostrar o perfil dos haitianos no mercado de trabalho brasileiro. Especificamente, o texto apresenta uma análise da empregabilidade desses imigrantes nos primeiros anos da presente década, com foco no ano 2015. Palavras-chave: Brasil, haitianos, mercado de trabalho. Nuevos Flujos Migratórios para Brasil: media década de intensa inmigración haitiana Resumen A partir del reciente, pero intenso flujo migratorio de haitianos para Brasil, de 2010 a 2015, este texto pretende arrojar luz sobre la inserción de los inmigrantes haitianos en el mercado de trabajo brasileño. De hecho, los haitianos han pasado de unas pocas docenas de inmigrantes en Brasil en 2010, para ser el principal grupo de inmigrantes en el
Full Text Available Population ageing will considerably influence economic and social structure of the population. The labour market will change completely. The lower number of persons in productive age and the rise of proportion of older age groups will speed up ageing after 2030. The future development of labour market will face a challenge of reduction of the negative initial demographic conditions. The main problem of the labour market in the Czech Republic is the exclusion of all groups of population due to the lack of flexible jobs, mainly part-time jobs (for example students, mothers with children and elderly people. The analysis shows a possible way of measuring these reserves on the labour market. The comparison with labour indicators (mainly specific employment rates by gender and age of other European countries is the aim of this approach. This offers a possibility to construct the scenarios of the future development in the Czech Republic.
Full Text Available The paper provides comparative evidence on attitudes towards immigrants, their labour market outcomes and policies in Croatia and two neighbouring countries – Slovenia and Hungary. Three different data sources have been used: the European Social Survey, an ad-hoc Labour Force Survey module for the year 2014, and the MIPEX index. Although immigrants have a disadvantaged position on the Croatian labour market, most analysed indicators do not imply that they are in a worse position than in other European economies. Migrant integration policies related to the labour market are assessed as being relatively favourable for Croatia. Judging by the comparable indicators for the native population in Croatia, immigrants’ adverse labour market outcomes seem to be more related to the unfavourable general economic situation, and particularly by the deep and long recession.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Pardubický Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
Odbor statistiky trhu práce a rovných příležitostí; Český statistický úřad
Statistical data from the Labour Force Sample Survey in the Olomoucký Region. Providing information on the amount and structure of employment, unemployment and economically inactive population, rated in compliance with international definitions and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, fully respecting definitions and content of individual Labour Force Survey indicators, as required by Eurostat.
In the present paperwork I tried to achieve a SWOT analysis of Romanian higher education through the perspective of national and international trends which outline it, highlighting the interconnections between the higher education supply and the labour market demand. Like any SWOT analysis is focused on an objective, so, I seek the answer to the question: The educational supply is able to respond and to anticipate the labor market demand? In the New Economy context, on labour market began to ...
The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between immigration and labor market performance in Sabah region's oil palm plantation industry. The labour market performance refers to the wages and employment of local workers in the oil palm plantation sector. The relationship of these variables can be in short run or/ and in the long run. This study uses Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to examine the relationship between the immigration and labour market performance. In...
Human society is dependent on women who ensure their sustainability in the role of mothers. At the same time women participate in the economic prosperity of the family and society. The combination of these two roles puts them at a disadvantage in the labour market. This thesis aims at analyzing the current situation of women from the point of view of motherhood and position on the labour market. The theoretical part deals with two primary areas including social policy and the labour market. S...
Purcell, Kate; Wilton, Nick; Elias, Peter
The expansion of the higher education system and widening access to undergraduate study has led to growing diversity within the graduate labour supply, including increasing numbers who studied for their degrees as mature students. Analysis of graduates entering the labour market prior to the major expansion in the early 1990s indicated that those…
Van Mol, C.; Gerhards, J.; Hans, S.; Carlson, S.
One of the main rationales of the Erasmus programme, initiated in 1987, is the promotion of the European labour market. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on the links between student mobility, international labour mobility and employability remains relatively limited. In this chapter, I investigate
Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Davidsen, Michael
with their matched counterparts. This means that the individuals with CHD were on the labour market, on average, for 0.8 years less than the individuals without CHD. Stratified analyses showed that, in particular, individuals with CHD aged below 60 years and individuals employed as manual labour may benefit from...
Bijwaard, G.E.; Schluter, C.; Wahba, J.
Using administrative panel data on the entire population of new labour immigrants to The Netherlands, we estimate the causal effects of individual labour market spells on immigration durations using the “timing-of-events” method. The model allows for correlated unobserved heterogeneity across
In this paper the author investigates the extent to which regional Europe exceeds its minimum level of nonemployment by estimating a stochastic frontier model. This surplus is called the 'inefficiency of regional labour markets'-the degree to which potential labour-force resources among the
I.S. Buhai (Sebastian)
textabstractThe main chapters of this book, “Essays on Labour Markets”, focus on analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), modelling occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social groups (chapter 4) and characterizing
De Deken, J.
High levels of unemployment, or high levels of social expenditures as well as the growing demand for a flexible labour force have given new impetus to the world-wide discussion on what model to use for an efficiently operating labour market and in particular on the role of institutions. Although
DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
tions such as the structure of labour of the farmers, farm size, village wage rate and cost of other productive .... is the average age (years) of oil palm trees on .... The average SSS or higher level of education of a household is ex- pected to exert a positive effect on the farmer's demand for hired labour as more educated peo-.
González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo
Here, the educational and labour market characteristics of Mexican dentists are revised. Dentistry is a health profession that has been scarcely studied in developing countries. This analysis attempts to understand the relationships and gaps between the supply and demand of dentists in the country. Around 5000 new dentists graduate every year looking for a place in the labour market. A cross-sectional study with exploratory, descriptive and correlational scope was carried out between 2006 and 2008. Analyses of quantitative data on dentists from national surveys and occupational statistics were complemented with qualitative information provided by 43 key informants in five Mexican states. The 2008 dentist labour market can be characterized as follows: 75% worked in the private sector, most of them independently; more than two-thirds were women; the proportion of specialists was low (slightly more than 10%); unemployment was more than 20% and labour wastage was nearly 40%, with most wastage corresponding with female dentists. The increase in the number of dentists entering the labour market during the last two decades is more related to the educational market than to the population's health needs and the number of dentists actually required to meet them. The problems identified in the Mexican dentist labour market necessitate urgent intervention on behalf of regulatory bodies in order to balance the tendencies of supply and demand in the number of trained professionals as well as in their incorporation into different market areas. Adequate policies are required to increase the likelihood of achieving this objective.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the productivity cost savings associated with mitigation of particulate emissions, as an input to a cost-benefit analysis. Reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 may reduce the incidence of diseases related to air pollution and potentially increase productivity as a result of better health. Based on data from epidemiological studies, we modelled the impact of air pollution on four different diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We identified individuals with these diseases and modelled changes in disease incidence as an expression of exposure. The labour market affiliation and development in wages over time for exposed individuals was compared to that of a reference group of individuals matched on a number of sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and predicted smoking status. We identified a productivity cost of about 1.8 million EURO per 100,000 population aged 50–70 in the first year, following an increase in PM2.5 emissions. We have illustrated how the potential impact of air pollution may influence social production by application of a matched study design that renders a study population similar to that of a trial. The result suggests that there may be a productivity gain associated with mitigation efforts.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the choice of the bargaining agenda in a public/private unionised monopoly, and investigates whether the traditional higher efficiency of the state ownership of a monopoly holds when the labour market is unionised. First, we find that both a private and public monopoly always adopts a Right-to-Manage agenda. Second, a public firm pays a higher wage. Third, we show that privatisation could ensure a higher social welfare. This rather unexpected result may emerge provided that the Government has a high evaluation of the workers’ welfare, and the union is strong and/or wage aggressive. Therefore, our results suggest that privatisation 1 should be socially preferred depending only on the strength and wage aggressiveness of unions, and 2 rather paradoxically, is preferred when the Government is more careful about workers’ welfare. Our results may have policy implications especially in the post-communist countries, where the debate on privatisation is ubiquitously high and, differently between various countries, Government and unions may oscillate between left- or right-wing, and strength or weakness, respectively.
Heyma, A.O.J.; de Graaf, D.
The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and the Family of the Slovak Republic (MoLSAF) requires reliable information for policy making. An important way to strengthen the institutional capacities of MoLSAF in the field of labour market policies is to acquire a number of reliable labour market
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
Even though the shift from ‘passive' to ‘active' labour market policy exhibit large cross-national variations, they all seem to share two common characteristics; 1) the first group exposed to the new policies and the group exposed to the harshest policies was young people on social assistance and 2......) as the target group gradually came to include ‘ordinary' unemployed, most countries made exceptions for the oldest unemployed. The article argues that this striking policy convergence has to do with the public perception of the target groups. The article substantiates this argument 1) by giving a theoretical...
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the effects of the global crisis on employment and unemployment in the EU countries and indicate factors which may explain the differentiated response of labour markets to this crisis.
Gorter, Cees; Poot, Jacques
Unemployment remains a major economic and social problem in many developedeconomies. This paper provides theoretical and empirical perspectives on the impact of labour market deregulation as a means of combatting unemployment and of enhancing competitive wage determination. The paper focusses
Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.
Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional
Full Text Available This article compares the occupational positions of immigrant workers from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia and their children in Germany and Austria. In both host countries these two immigrant groups constitute the majority of the foreign labour force, and the two states are comparable with regard to their social and economic structure and to their labour market structure. The differing degree of integration of foreign workers in the German and Austrian employment systems can therefore not be attributed to general factors, but requires explanations specific to the particular country. The analyses show that labour migrants in Austria are concentrated to a far greater extent in subordinate positions in the labour market hierarchy than this is the case in Germany. This remains true when education, training and length of stay are taken into account. In 1994, for example, 51% of the foreign nationals in Germany who came from former Yugoslavia are employed as unskilled or semiskilled workers, whereas it was 75% in Austria. Germany's labour market structure shows, in comparison with that in Austria, a lower degree of segregation and somewhat more permeability. The far lower occupational and spatial mobility of foreign labour in Austria as compared to Germany results from the high share of the public sector (national administration, schools and institutions of higher education, almost all health services as well as of state owned or state controlled industries (railways, postal services, telecommunications, national airlines, local transport companies, electronic media, food production, banks and insurance companies, mineral oil production, the gas and electricity industry and the tobacco industry which constitute a “protected” segment of the labour market in which job security is high and employment opportunities are overwhelmingly set aside for Austrian nationals. In addition, Austria's foreign workers are less often employed in large enterprises
Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan; Ng, Edwin
An important contribution of the social determinants of health perspective has been to inquire about non-medical determinants of population health. Among these, labour market regulations are of vital significance. In this study, we investigate the labour market regulations among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and propose a labour market taxonomy to further understand population health in a global context. Using Gross National Product per capita, we classify 113 countries into either low-income (n = 71) or middle-income (n = 42) strata. Principal component analysis of three standardized indicators of labour market inequality and poverty is used to construct 2 factor scores. Factor score reliability is evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Using these scores, we conduct a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a labour market taxonomy, conduct zero-order correlations, and create box plots to test their associations with adult mortality, healthy life expectancy, infant mortality, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and years of life lost to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Labour market and health data are retrieved from the International Labour Organization's Key Indicators of Labour Markets and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. Six labour market clusters emerged: Residual (n = 16), Emerging (n = 16), Informal (n = 10), Post-Communist (n = 18), Less Successful Informal (n = 22), and Insecure (n = 31). Primary findings indicate: (i) labour market poverty and population health is correlated in both LMICs; (ii) association between labour market inequality and health indicators is significant only in low-income countries; (iii) Emerging (e.g., East Asian and Eastern European countries) and Insecure (e.g., sub-Saharan African nations) clusters are the most advantaged and disadvantaged, respectively, with the remaining clusters experiencing levels of population health consistent with their labour market
Görlich, Dennis; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Trebesch, Christoph
This article presents a new perspective on the impact of migration and remittances on labour market participation and time allocation in migrant-sending families. Departing from the common finding that labour market participation is lower in migrant households, we investigate whether the reasons for inactivity, i.e. leisure consumption, home production and higher education are affected by migration. Based on household survey data from Moldova, our results challenge the assertion that those wh...
Ronald W McQuaid; Colin Lindsay
We analyse the main barriers limiting the employability of long-term unemployed job seekers within a local labour market characterised by generally high levels of demand. We use four key elements of employability (employability assets, the deployment of assets, the presentation of assets, and context) as an analytical framework in order to analyse the manner in which job seekers' personal characteristics, social and family circumstances, and perceptions of the labour market affect their abili...
Ricardo Azevedo Araujo
Full Text Available In this paper the existence and stability of equilibriums in an evolutionary game theory model of the labour market is studied by using the Lyapunov method. The model displays multiple equilibriums and it is shown that the Nash equilibriums of the static game are evolutionary stable equilibrium in the game theory evolutionary set up. A complete characterization of the dynamics of an evolutionary model of the labour market is provided.
Baas, Timo; Belke, Ansgar
Member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) initiated wide-ranging labour market reforms in the last decade. This process is ongoing as countries that are faced with serious labour market imbalances perceive reforms as the fastest way to restore competitiveness within a currency union. This fosters fears among observers about a beggar-thy-neighbour policy that leaves non-reforming countries with a loss in competitiveness and an increase in foreign debt. Using a two-country, two-...
Mirela Ionela ACELEANU
Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has led to imbalances in the labour market, imbalances manifested worse in some economies. The paper aims to analyse the causes of these imbalances, especially the case of Spain, the country with the highest level of unemployment in the European Union. Thus, the characteristics of the labour market in Spain will be highlighted in order to identify the factors responsible for the worsening of the crisis.
John Adams; Malcolm Greig; McQuaid, Ronald W
Much of the theoretical and policy debate on local labour markets has focused upon improving the educational, training, and other 'supply-side' characteristics of job seekers. However, complementary employer 'demand-side' factors, in particular the characteristics of employers, job openings, and recruitment practices, are also important in local labour markets but have been relatively neglected in the literature. The authors investigate such factors and argue that job vacancies in an environm...
Immigrants are more likely to be unemployed, have temporary jobs and low income, which makes labour market integration an important political challenge. Access to paid work is central for the economic situation and social position in society, but knowledge of factors and policies that improve labour market integration for newly arrived immigrants still remains limited. Prior research point out that integration is a process involving both micro and macro dimension, where individuals gradually ...
some characteristics self-select into payment schemes that have efficiency wage aspects. Keywords: Efficiency Wage ... productivity. This is because labour is one of the factors of production, and once in a Cobb. Douglas that assumes constant returns to scale, it is not possible to increase labour without change in capital.
Nguyen, Anh Dung
Most of the European countries are now facing the common challenge from aging population. This affects the labour market and consecutively the economic engine. As a matter of course the Czech Republic has to welcome workers from outside sources to supplement its labour shortage. I've found that the majority of the migrant workers going to the Czech Republic are low skill ones and they concentrate in the lower tier of the labour market. The efforts of the Government to attract high skill worke...
Khoudja, Yassine; Platt, Lucinda
Labour force participation rates of women differ strongly by ethnic origin. Even though existing research using cross-sectional studies has demonstrated that part of these differences can be attributed to compositional differences in human capital, household conditions and gender attitudes, residual 'ethnic effects' typically remain. To further our understanding of women's labour market behaviour across ethnic groups, we use a large-scale longitudinal study and apply a dynamic perspective to examine how far relevant life-course events in addition to individual characteristics, gender attitudes and religiosity contribute to the explanation of ethnic differences in women's labour force entries and exits in the UK. Our findings show that, adjusting for all these factors, Indian and Caribbean women do not differ from White majority women in their labour force entry and exit probabilities but that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are less likely to enter and more likely to exit the labour market, whereas Black African women have higher entry rates. We also find that relations between life-course events and labour market transitions differ by ethnic group. Most notably, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women's labour market transitions are less sensitive to child-bearing and Caribbean women's transitions less sensitive to partnership changes than other women's. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Povoroznyuk Inna M.
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of production and hired labour, although, to a big extent, this institute is adapted, on the one hand, to the existing in the society forms of resolution of contradictions, inherent in means of production ownership relations, and, on the other hand, to the situation in a relevant labour market segment. However, the labour reimbursement institute itself significantly influences realisation of interests of employees and employers. The article states that wages in the modern economy should be understood as an incomplete labour reimbursement – the entrepreneur spends on an employee not only the sum of wages, but also uses other forms of resource provision of the processes of acquisition of certain benefits by the enterprise employees.
Full Text Available This article refers to the challenge of demographic changes gaining attention in many developed countries. The European Union recognized the need to activate older knowledge workers, who are underrepresented and pushed out of the labour market or are inadequately motivated to continue their employment for various reasons, despite their accumulated knowledge and experiences. EU member states respond differently to their ageing, with more or less successful national policies. This article is based on research of the labour market development for older knowledge workers in Slovenia compared to the Finnish age management policy at the end of the 1990s that successfully increased Finnish older knowledge workers’ employment through focused and holistic measures. Slovenia stagnated in the same period due to a lack of holistic solutions-a situation that continues today. The results and deficiencies of past bad and good practices in these two compared EU member states might offer some further reflections on possible steps to follow or avoid regarding active ageing solutions in the EU.
Full Text Available Croatia has reached demographic maturity, with ever lower cohorts of youngers (and younger labour force numbers, longer life expectations, and rapidly growing share of older population. In such situation, working population older than 50 becomes more and more significant, not only by number, but also as an important pool of knowledge and experiences. 28,36% of total employed in Croatia in 2014 were 50+ years old. That same year (2014 27,7% of total unemployed in Croatia were 50+ years old. The share of persons 50+ in total number of unemployed grew to 29,6% in 2015, and 31,7% in 2016. Long duration of unemployment is especially accentuated among persons older than 50: in 2016 older persons made 41,91% among those with unemployment duration between 2 and 3 years, 44,00% among those with unemployment duration between 4 and 5 years, 53,23% among those with unemployment duration between 6 and 8 years, and even 70,04% among those with unemployment duration over 8 years. Although Croatian governments for almost quarter of century were devising different “active labour market policies” directed to older persons, their results are questionable. With growing problems to acquire and retain necessary workforce in Croatian enterprises, there is obviously strong need to develop new approach (es towards people older than 50. This paper is trying to shed new light on this problem and offer new ideas in the field of labour market policies, and human resources management oriented towards older employees in Croatia. The Croatian example (changes, problems, and experiences may be of interest to other, particularly European, countries in a similar situation.
... value of commodities on the world market. A leading idea is that religious outlooks, in the way they were conceptualized by Karl Marx, have a strong bearing upon the difference in labour intensities in countries contributing to the world market, and thereby upon the differences in international values and prices. These differences are...
Allen, Rebecca; Burgess, Simon; Mayo, Jennifer
We study the market for teachers in England, in particular teacher turnover. We show that there is a positive raw association between the level of school disadvantage and the turnover rate of its teachers. This association diminishes as we control for school, pupil and local teacher labour market characteristics, but is not eliminated. The…
This article focuses on the under-researched temporary agency employment in Greece. It shows that the development of the temporary employment agency sector has gone hand in hand with the flow of undocumented and exploitable migrant labour in Greece over the past 25 years, reflecting the segmentation of the Greek labour market along ethnic lines. Using empirical research evidence on the operation of temporary employment agencies in the Greek hospitality and health care sectors, the article highlights the precarious or even illicit nature of agency employment in a context in which labour outsourcing and flexible employment are promoted by policy-makers. Last but not least, it suggests that the segmented landscape of the Greek labour market has become more complex during the economic crisis, with more and more Greeks drawn to agency-mediated precarious employment.
Full Text Available This paper compares indicators of the Croatian labor market and implemented policies with indicators and policies in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Although unemployment and long-term unemployment (which latter is particularly correlated with poverty in the transition countries do not in Croatia depart from the range in which other transition countries are positioned, still they are above their average, which is connected with the somewhat less flexible nature of the Croatian labor market. New findings on the effects of labor market policies in the transition countries indicate that the process of the reform of the institutional framework through which in the last few years the restrictiveness of Croatian employment protection legislation has been reduced might work in the direction of reducing overall and long-term unemployment. The paper suggests that it is possible to improve the effectiveness of the application of active policy measures. Furthermore, a better compensation for a reduction in the restrictiveness of the regulations would probably be an increase in average unemployment benefits rather than an extension of their duration, while greater labor market flexibility, resulting from the reforms, should contribute to a greater coverage of unemployed persons. The expected reduction of overall and long-term unemployment under the influence of the new institutional framework, in spite of the possible emergence of low-paid and insecure jobs, might alleviate the problem of poverty, because unemployment and, especially, long-term unemployment are among the prime causes of poverty in the transition countries.
Full Text Available The paper intends to analyze the main labour market characteristics and factors for Romanian youth in the current market position. The analysis and forecast of the educational process and of graduates’ employment according to their differing educational levels on the Romanian labour market is realised based on Markovian techniques. By making use of the developed scenarios, the crisis effects can be quantified with respect to economic growth, labour market perspectives, as well as the employability and mobility of young labour force participants in the various economic sectors.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the implications of demographic developments on the labour market in terms of potential labour from structural and professional perspectives. The aspects of the youth demographic and educational potential for labour market, of the national policies potential for new job creation and of the opportunities of alternative free movement of workers are presented. The paper emphasizes positive and negative labour market pressures as derived from the demographic structure (including ethnicity, skills and competences, and educational attainment. The influences factors on qualitative youth employability in Romania are also highlighted. Some empirical analyses of the working age population in terms of demographic factors, as well as its demographic forecast are presented. Statistical software used for this analysis is the R Project, along with specific packages forecasting analysis. Final part of the paper is focused on some specific recommendations for policy instruments and measures to support youth employability on the national labor market based on the changed typology of the youth supply on labour market.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Fertility has fallen to extremely low levels in Europe, prompting some to argue that we are on the brink of a ‘demographic crisis’ that will have serious societal consequences. There is also a parallel need to strengthen the labour force and increase productivity, materialized in
The project will also help develop technical skills through on-the-job mentoring for young researchers and short training workshops on labour issues for ... A new project funded by IDRC and led by the International Network for Government Science Advice (INGSA) seeks to facilitate the flow of information between academia ...
admitted to a psychiatric hospital within the past year are at increased suicide risk. Patients who are unemployed, social benefits recipients, disability pensioners, or otherwise marginalised on the labour market have a suicide risk of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.46 to 0.78), 0.41 (0.23 to 0.74), 0.70 (0.45 to 1......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between labour market status and death by suicide with focus on admission with a psychiatric disorder. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Data from routine registers. SETTING: Entire Danish population. PARTICIPANTS: 9011 people aged 25-60 years who...... structural model is applied. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results show an increased suicide mortality associated with unemployment and labour market marginalisation in the general population, the results suggest little or an inverse association between unemployment and suicide in people with psychiatric illness...
Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Pohl Nielsen, Chantal
Joint Paper: Shahamak Rezaei, Chantal Pohl Nielsen & Marco Goli: The presentation will consist of three parts: (1) We will begin by providing a overall description of immigrants'participation in the Danish labour market (i.e. the shares of wage-employed, self-employed and non-employed) as well...... of self-employment as a last resort in response to barriers to entry into the formal labour market. A description of the self-employed based on register data will be provided, including level of education and indications as to whether or not this level of education is commensurate with the line...... information. (3) Wage-employment is the focus of the third part, where we will discuss the extent to which immigrants make use of their skills / education on the formal labour market. Characteristics of over-employed immigrants (i.e. those who are formally overqualified for their job) will be given, including...
Gina Cristina DIMIAN
Full Text Available The paper aims to examine how existing imbalances in the labour market influence regions’ future development and to formulate a series of recommendations that will allow that catching up process to be done in an sustainable manner.Basically, the objective refers to the integration of the development and restructuring strategy of the labour market policy to strengthen regional competitive advantage.Our intentions is to stress the fact that between labour market imbalances and regional disparities exists a bi-univocal relationship, both manifested in a complex external environment, dominated by variable factors and uncertainty.To achieve paper’ objectives scientific methods like: descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and aggregate indexes are applied.The main results are focused on formulating a set of scientifically based recommendations that can be used to conceive strategies whose overall objective is the reduction of economic disparities existing in certain regions through training and proper human resources development.
Linguistic barriers are often among the first and most evident obstacles that professionals encounter when they move to another Member State. The difficulties of learning and mastering a foreign language can impair the prospects of insertion into the labour market of a host country. In Denmark......, language is also supposed to be an instrument for accessing the local culture and national values. The legislation sustains the political assumption that the best place to learn Danish is in the workplace. However, what happens if access to the labour market is precluded until a very high Danish...... proficiency is achieved? Is it always the responsibility of the individual, or is there perhaps also an underlying cultural picket fence that keeps foreign professionals out of the labour market? By exploring formal (legal) and informal (‘de-facto’) barriers in Denmark, this chapter approaches the broader...
Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau; Jensen, Carsten Strøby
The aim of this paper is to present a new network analytical method for analysis of social mobility between categories like occupations or industries. The method consists of two core components; the algorithm MONECA (Mobility Network Clustering Algorithm), and the intensity measure of Relative Ri...... of the typical theory driven definition of the labour market segments, the use of social network analysis enable a data driven definition of the segments based on the direct observation of mobility between job-positions, which reveals a number of new findings....... (RR), which enable us to identify clusters of inter-mobile categories. We apply the method to data of the labour market mobility in Denmark 2000-2007 and demonstrate how this new method can overcome some long standing obstacles to the advance of labour market segmentation theory: Instead...
Full Text Available The rigidity of labour market has several important negative economic consequences: it stifles job creation, increases discrimination of those that it is actually aimed at protecting (young, women and the low-skilled, hurts the unemployed, slows down economic restructuring and damages its global competitiveness. But reforms are slow and often marked with disputes among partners in the collective bargaining process. Afraid of social security loss, unions usually oppose the reform, while governments usually give in to the union pressures and negative image of reform consequences created by unions and assisted by media. The characteristics of the labour market and labour market reform with respect to bargaining among power groups are examined both theoretically and empirically in the case of Slovenia.
Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt
By particularly stressing the weaker labour market attachment of workers with non-standard contracts, this article contributes to the rather unexplored issue of mainly non-union-related reasons for leaving trade unions. Germany has been selected as a case study because German unions experienced....... Their analysis shows the impact of labour market attachment and firm-level characteristics on union leaving and points especially to important differences across gender....... a steady decline in membership, while at the same time non-standard employment arrangements increased considerably and more so than the European average. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data, the authors construct a labour market attachment variable capturing different degrees of attachment...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship and its determinants between 2010 and 2012, although in order to show certain trends in changes data from the beginning of the 21st century are also used as a basis whereas from the more forward-looking perspective, projections up until 2020 were used. This market is very important from the nationwide perspective, and this is due to its complexity, size (it concentrates 2 million employed people, that is 14.4% of the whole workforce of Poland and specificity (industry still plays a crucial role. In order to achieve the objective indicated above, a set of measures relating to the number of employed people, business entities or GDP were used for the purpose of the analysis. The presented material shows the high volatility of the situation on the labour market both at the voivodeship level and individual communities – this is particularly true of the number of employed people and the rate of unemployment. An advantage of the newly created jobs over those that are shed which has been continuously recorded since 2008 and a decrease in the unemployment rate are positive symptoms. Katowice being the largest market and, moreover, characterised by the highest rank range of its impact and lowest unemployment rate have gained a dominant position in the regional labour market. Bielsko-Biała, Tychy, Gliwice and Bieruń-Lędziny County also clearly stand out against the background of other communities. The most difficult situation can be observed in Bytom, Świętochłowice, Piekary Śląskie and in the counties located in the northern part of the voivodeship, that is Częstochowa, Myszków and Zawiercie. Not only today but also in the coming decade, in terms of demand the labour market of the Silesian voivodeship will be strongly affected by its demographic situation; population decline, ageing population, migration, including, in particular, foreign migration will
Full Text Available Despite low levels of youth unemployment in Norway, concerns have been raised about the high numbers of youth in inactivity, receiving health related social security benefits. It is argued that parts of the system of social security may work as welfare traps. OECD recommends welfare policies with the overall aim of fostering youth employability, not benefit dependency. In this article we use a unique combination of register data and survey data from the panel survey “work, lifestyle and health”. This survey follows a representative sample of the cohorts born between 1965 and 1968 from 1985 through follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2003. This allows us to follow individual life trajectories from ages 17-20 to 35-39. The aim of the article is first to study the impact of substance abuse upon risk of receiving social assistance, since previous research has found that receiving social assistance increases the probability of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Second, we analyse the impact of receiving social assistance, to have mental health problems and substance abuse in youth and consequences for labour market integration in adulthood. Analyses reveal that neither cannabis use nor alcohol consumption in youth have a direct effect on the risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. However, cannabis use increases the probability of receiving social assistance, which in turn increases risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Mental health problems in youth increase risk for later labour market exclusion, but these effects are mediated through factors like problem behaviour related to alcohol abuse and the use of illegal drugs other than cannabis. Receiving social assistance in youth has long time effects on the risk of labour market exclusion, especially for individuals from the lower socioeconomic groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Economic downturns and recession lead to budget cuts and service reductions in the healthcare sector which often precipitate layoffs and hiring freezes. Nurses, being the largest professional group in healthcare, are strongly affected by cost reductions. Economic downturns destabilize the nursing labour market with potential negative outcomes, including serious shortages, extending beyond the recessionary period. The objectives of this manuscript are to provide an overview of the potential short- and long-run impact of economic downturns on the supply and demand of nurses, and present healthcare decision makers with a framework to enhance their ability to strategically manage their human resources through economic cycles. A narrative review of the literature on the effects of economic downturns on the nursing labour market in developed countries was carried out with a special focus on studies offering a longitudinal examination of labour force trends. Analysis indicates that economic downturns limit the ability of public payers and institutions to finance their existing health workforce. As salaried healthcare workers, nurses are especially susceptible to institutional budget cuts. In the short run, economic downturns may temporarily reduce the demand for and increase the supply of nurses, thereby influencing nursing wages and turnover rates. These effects may destabilise the nursing labour market in the long run. After economic downturns, the market would quickly display the pre-recessionary trends and there may be serious demand–supply imbalances resulting in severe shortages. Potential long-term effects of recession on the nursing labour market may include a downsized active workforce, difficulty in retaining younger nurses, a decreased supply of nurses and workforce casualisation. Lack of understanding of labour market dynamics and trends might mislead policy makers into making misinformed workforce downsizing decisions that are
Jensen, Carsten Strøby
This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... is based on a statistical analysis of registry data from Denmark and contains almost 2 million employees employed in 111 different industries (NACE-coded). The analysis shows that trade union density especially in the private sector industries is significantly influenced by level of segmentation and level...
This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...
Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre
Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This study examines the differential impact of major bilateral trade flows on labour market inequality for the period 1983 to 2000. The focus is on the key trading partners of Malaysia, which are the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the United States of America and Japan. The paper finds that the direction of trade or rather the â€œwhomâ€ aspects of trade matter for inequality trends. There are striking differences on the labour market when export destinations are considere...
Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20–21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. Methods A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register of social benefits for 12 months in 2011–2012 and was categorized into active and passive labour market participation. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between perceived stress and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by gender. Results The effects of perceived stress on future labour market participation differed significantly among young women and young men (p = 0.029. For young men, higher levels of perceived stress reduced the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for socioeconomic factors, self-rated health and copings strategies (p = 0.045. For young women, higher levels of perceived stress increased the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for the same potential confounding factors, although unlike the men, this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.335. Conclusion The observed gender difference has important implications from a public health point of view. Healthcare professionals might need to differentiate between the genders in terms of health communication, research and when developing preventive strategies.
Trolle, Nanna; Lund, Thomas; Winding, Trine Nohr; Labriola, Merete
Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register of social benefits for 12 months in 2011-2012 and was categorized into active and passive labour market participation. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between perceived stress and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by gender. The effects of perceived stress on future labour market participation differed significantly among young women and young men (p = 0.029). For young men, higher levels of perceived stress reduced the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for socioeconomic factors, self-rated health and copings strategies (p = 0.045). For young women, higher levels of perceived stress increased the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for the same potential confounding factors, although unlike the men, this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.335). The observed gender difference has important implications from a public health point of view. Healthcare professionals might need to differentiate between the genders in terms of health communication, research and when developing preventive strategies.
Full Text Available In Serbia the inactivity rate of the working-age population is close to 40%, among the highest in Europe. The country also faces a high informal employment rate of 24%. Previous research has argued that high levels of informality and inactivity are mostly due to a high effective tax wedge at low wage levels caused by a minimum base for calculation of social security contributions (SSC, sudden withdrawal of means-tested benefits once formal income is earned, and low progressivity of income tax. This paper evaluates the impact of the minimum SSC base reform scenarios on labour supply and employment formalization using tax and benefit micro-simulation models together with the structural discrete choice labour supply model based on the Survey on Income and Living Conditions Data. Although we do not find positive employment effects of the reform, it would be premature to deduce that abolishment of the minimum SSC base is not needed. At this stage in our research, until alternative labour-supply modelling is applied, with both sector and hours of work choice alternatives, it is only safe to conclude that the proposed reform will not significantly contribute to the transformation of informal full-time to formal full-time jobs.
Bevelander, P.; Groeneveld, S.M.
This study analyses female native Dutch and ethnic minority employment patterns in the Dutch labour market. Focusing on life-course employment patterns, it aims to find out if native Dutch and ethnic minority women in the Netherlands have undergone a transition towards more labour market
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
A strong VET system is increasingly seen as essential to overcoming the current economic crisis in Europe. VET is seen as a powerful tool to assist in balancing labour market inefficiencies, increasing youth employment possibilities, and reducing skills mismatch. Its inherent flexibility and closeness to the labour market place VET in a good…
The result of the huge increase in working women is that the socio-economic position of the family is no longer determined by the labour market position of the husband alone, but by husband and wife together. The extent to which the labour market positions of partners are related has consequences
Stam, K.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de
This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women's labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind
Stam, Kirsten; Verbakel, Ellen; de Graaf, Paul M.
This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women’s labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries which did not restrict the access of new member immigrants to their labour markets. The analysis was realized for the period of 2004 to 2008 when the migration inflow was the largest. The empirical literature suggests that the migration effects on unemployment and employment probabilities of natives are very small. The young and low skilled native workers are more affected by migration flows than other groups of workers. Also, most empirical studies show small negative wage effects of immigration. Although the results of public researches and econometric studies have shown the modest potential labour migration flows from new member states and the small potential effects on EU-15 labour market, twelve out of fifteen old member states decided to apply transitional arrangements. The evidence presented in the report of the European Commission pointed out positive EU labour market impact of modest inflow of immigrants from new member states. Sectoral and skill composition of immigrants from new member states suggests their complementary role on EU labour market. The majority of immigrants from new member states are men, aged between 18 and 34, mediumlevel of education. Most immigrants have been employed in service sector, manufacturing and construction. The high employment rate of immigrants from new member states (78% and low unemployment rate (6% in the post-enlargement period have confirmed positive migration impact on EU labour market performances. The unemployment
Full Text Available On today's labour markets, the basic characteristics of the quality of the labour force is knowledge, qualifications, skills and experience possessed by it. Today, employers are looking for employees with high interpersonal competences, manners, responsible, hard-working, independent, honest and having the ability to learn quickly. For this, as an asset, they add the higher education, preferably directional, creativity and experience. The taken research area is characterized by economic lag in comparison with Gdańsk agglomeration area, as well as with other regions. In the article the reference was made to the declared needs of employers towards future employees, based on interviews conducted in 101 entities of the city of Słupsk and Słupsk county. The main aim of the research was to determine the usefulness of geographic knowledge for the local labour market. And thus indicating the possibility of increasing the attractiveness of geographical graduates in the labour market. Among the needs of employers of Słupsk labour market in accordance with the overall national trend, there is a large deficit of soft competencies, but also, among others, the gap typically professional related to information technology and engineering skills have been diagnosed. There has been a large gap identified in the ability to apply the knowledge (academic in practical activities, which is called by the employers 'the professional experience'. In contrast, the studies on the usefulness of (the attractiveness of the labour market competencies that are possible to learn while studying geography, showed the particular importance, valuable for the modern labour market skills of searching, collecting and processing of information. Currently in Poland, even in conditions of high unemployment existing mismatch between qualification and professional structure of supply and demand for labour can be observed. In the labour market, the presence is noted at the same time, the
Full Text Available Labour market development is an important macro-economic indicator of every national economy. Labour supply in particular fields should reflect on demands of employers on newly recruited employees. These demands can be analysed by studying published job offers. This analysis of Czech labour market is conducted based on the aggregated statistical data collected by an on-demand application. The studied data sample covers more than 60% of all the job offers published in the Czech Republic. The situation in respective occupational fields is compared with aggregate nation-wide average as well as with data from other fields. Results show distinct differences in absolute quantity of offers, compensations to employees offered as well as qualification requirements.
Full Text Available In this article we will focus on identifying the policies and strategies of employment for the graduates with a higher education in both the European Union and Romania, trying to create a framework of laws of the EU and Romania that should coexist in a perfect integration, in order to facilitate the insertion on the national and international labour market of qualified personnel. Considering that the labour market is seen as the contact area between graduates of higher education and the employing companies, we considered important to (reanalyze the labour market with all the elements that characterize its functions, including the theories, the relations between the offer and the demand on the labour market, but also the elements that determine the possible changes occurring in the process of integration and employment. Without any doubt, any critical situation that appears on the labour market shall entail the defining elements of unemployment seen as a distortion of the labour market. Unemployment represents a dramatic situation if we take into consideration the psychosocial aspects of a person that is in such a situation. Job loss is felt in different ways and in varying intensities by individuals who are affected on either short or long terms, according to their life experiences and conflicting trends that are specific to their personalities. We also wanted find out how well the modern economy functions in the development of the relationship between the society and the individual, thinking that it has become more and more difficult for higher educated graduates with expertise only at a theoretical level to be absorbed on the labour market without having in their portfolios years and years of practical experience. All of these analyses have led to the completion of a particular case study conducted on a group of subjects who are undergraduate students at the "Oil and Gas" University, in Ploiesti, concerning the integration of higher educated
Full Text Available Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between
Fernandes, Pedro Afonso
The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…
Full Text Available The economic crisis had profound effects on labour markets of the EU member states in terms of a decline in employment and a rise in unemployment. This paper investigates how the states limited the impact of the change in economic output on the employment and the unemployment. The analysis suggests that there are different labour market institutions influencing the impact of the fall in GDP on the employment decline and unemployment increase. The first part of the paper explores and compares the extent to which the labour market institutions cushioned the impact of the economic crisis on the EU countries. The second part of this paper provides an in-depth comparative analysis of the labour market institutions and the adjustment mechanisms in Central Eastern European countries: Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia. In the end this paper suggests that the specific institutional setting of a country, according to the Varieties of Capitalism, might shape the form of the government response to the crisis and the effect of particular institutions on the adjustment channels. The study shows that adjustment in Slovenia took place mostly within the firms, while in Latvia the most efficient adjustment channels actuated outside the firms, mostly within the government sponsored training programmes and international migration. In Slovakia, government sponsored adjustment, which focused on maintaining the existing positions, prevailed together with the promotion of self-employment.
To what extent can different forms of social capital help immigrants make headway on the labour market? An answer to this pressing question begins here. Taking the Netherlands and Germany as case studies, the book identifies two forms of social capital that may work to increase employment, income
In terms of basic labour market developments and outcomes Germany is faring comparatively well. Indeed, against the European trend, Germany saw employment rates increasing and unemployment decreasing during the economic crisis. But since the deregulatory Hartz reforms of the early and mid-2000s, ...
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the contrast between stable and dynamic labour markets in academe in light of career theories that were originally developed for business environments. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual design, offering the eco-system as a framework. Findings: It evaluates their relevance and applicability to dynamic and…
Beerepoot, N.; Lambregts, B.
A new form of service outsourcing has emerged, namely the global online job marketplace for freelance contractors. Such platforms are currently the closest proxy to the idea of a global labour market where everyone competes for jobs regardless of location. In this article, we examine how competition
Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta
This paper investigates some of the economic outcomes of education in Pakistan with a view to understanding if education can act as a vehicle for labour market success. Data from a purpose-designed survey of more than 1000 households in Pakistan are utilised. Earnings functions are estimated for agricultural workers, the self-employed and wage…
Andersen, R.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.
This article explores the role of national institutional factors - more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination - in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with
Andersen, Robert; van de Werfhorst, Herman G
This article explores the role of national institutional factors--more specifically, the level of skill transparency of the education system and labour market coordination--in accounting for cross-national differences in the relationship between education and occupational status. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that skill transparency is the primary moderator. Countries with a highly transparent educational system (i.e., extensive tracking, strong vocational orientation, limited tertiary enrolment) tend to be characterized by a strong relationship between education and occupational status. These findings hold even after controlling for the level of labour market coordination. Nevertheless, we also find that labour market coordination plays an independent role by dampening the effect of education on occupational status. Taken together, these results suggest two quite different policy implications: (1) strengthening the skill transparency of the education system by increasing secondary and tertiary-level differentiation may strengthen the relationship between education and occupation, regardless of the level of coordination, and (2) increasing labour market coordination could lead to improved social inclusion and a reduction in inequalities related to educational attainment.
Lubbers, M.; Gijsberts, M.I.L.
This article compares the pre- and post-migration labour market position of recent migrants to the Netherlands from Poland and Bulgaria. Previously it has been hypothesized that migrants loose job-status due to migration when the pre- and post-migration jobs are compared, foremost supported with
In this article, we investigate the determinants of job mismatches with regard to the field of education among school-leavers in Europe. We also examine the effects of job mismatches on the labour-market position of school-leavers. Special attention is paid to cross-national differences in this
OECD Publishing, 2016
Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…
Educational expansion has had important effects on society. However, it has not yet been acknowledged that expansion might have changed the way in which education operates in labour markets. We argue that, as a result of educational expansion, a positional model of education becomes more important
Bockerman, Petri; Hamalainen, Ulla; Uusitalo, Roope
This paper evaluates the labour market effects of the introduction of the polytechnic education system in Finland. The polytechnic reform gradually transformed former vocational colleges into polytechnics. Since the timing of the reform differed across schools, we can compare the performance of polytechnic graduates to the performance of…
Nilsson, Staffan; Ekberg, Kerstin
The aim of this study was to analyse how people who return to the labour market after long-term sickness absenteeism and subsequent job loss differ in employability, work ability, health, educational level, age, and gender, compared to those who do not. The cohort consisted of 191 individuals, 20 men and 171 women, whose employment was terminated because they had not been able to return to their regular work after taking a long-term sick leave and rehabilitation measures. This study is based on a postal questionnaire sent out to a cohort of previous employees in a Swedish municipality in 2008. At the time of the survey, 39% of the respondents had returned to the labour market and the remaining 61% had not. Return to the labour market after a long-term sick leave was positively associated with male gender, young age, and work ability, i.e. the ability to work with respect to health and work-related demands. Employability, educational level, and health were not significantly associated with a return to the labour market. In the discourse on employability, work ability is often neglected even though it is a central aspect of an individual's ability to obtain new employment.
Mason, Geoff; Williams, Gareth; Cranmer, Sue
The present paper makes use of detailed information gathered at university department level, combined with graduate survey data, to assess the impact of different kinds of employability skills initiative on graduate labour market performance. We find that structured work experience and employer involvement in degree course design and delivery have…
Li, Ian W.; Mahuteau, Stephane; Dockery, Alfred M.; Junankar, P. N.
The rate of higher education participation in Australia has increased over the past decade for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. This study contributes to the knowledge on the outcomes of disadvantaged individuals who complete higher education by looking at the labour market outcomes of university graduates from equity groups. The number…
Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke
Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap, Regional Studies. This paper analyses gender-specific employment rates and the gender employment gap in Dutch municipalities for 2002. The novelty of this analysis is that it takes into account the
Nielsen, Helene Pristed
vulnerabilities are perceived and constructed, and how corresponding resilience practices are developed. Theoretically, the paper argues that spatial categories enrich the analysis, and that including geographical distances, local and personal histories and material/physical aspects of ‘place’ in analyses of work...... mobility, enhances the understanding of how labour market vulnerability and resilience is experienced and met....
Pavlopoulos, Dimitris; Fouarge, Didier
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and the human-capital determinants of low-wage mobility for labour market entrants in the UK and Germany. Design/methodology/approach – Using panel data for the UK (BHPS) and Germany (GSOEP), a competing-risks duration model is applied
Pavlopoulos, D.; Fouarge, D.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and the human-capital determinants of low-wage mobility for labour market entrants in the UK and Germany. Design/methodology/approach – Using panel data for the UK (BHPS) and Germany (GSOEP), a competing-risks duration model is applied
Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.
This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective
The economic aspects of the lives of artists already puzzled classical economists such as Adam Smith and Alfred Marshall. Their theories provide the background for this book, which presents a number of empirical studies into careers and the labour market in the cultural sector. Leitmotivs are two
R. Kurian (Rachel)
textabstractGender mainstreaming and flexicurity have been adopted as separate labour market objectives in the European Union since the mid-1990s. It is remarkable that there has been a virtual absence of gender concerns in the deliberations on flexicurity for over a decade. When gender concerns
Nowadays holding a degree is required for access to nearly all types of occupations, yet employers constantly seem to complain that schools do not teach the right type of skills. This interaction between education and the labour market is not a novelty, and goes back to at least the period of
Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides
An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On the other hand, these programmes tend to put less emphasis on developing general knowledge, skills and competencies, including numeracy and literacy, which are foundational to lifelong learning. Hence, when the needs of the labour market change, employees who opted for a vocational track when they were at secondary school risk being less flexible in adapting to such changes later in their career. The authors of this article examine whether this results in a trade-off between short-term gains and long-term losses by considering differences in the labour market careers of vocationally and generally educated respondents in the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Their results suggest that early labour market benefits of vocational specialisation decrease over time; the authors relate this to its lower ability to equip secondary school students - future employees - with skills for lifelong learning.
dr. H.A.M. van Lieshout
This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to
Li, Ian W.; Miller, Paul W.
This study explores the effects on earnings of overeducation, required education, and undereducation (ORU) in the Australian graduate labour market, using data from the 1999-2009 Graduate Destination Surveys. The Vahey [2000. "The Great Canadian Training Robbery: Evidence on the Returns to Educational Mismatch." "Economics of…
Impact of Minimum Wage on the Labour Market in Central America : Comparative Analysis of Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The countries of Central America exhibit a great deal of heterogeneity in their economies. Moreover, a period of intense economic reform during the 1990s followed by the resumption of ...
The labour market in Sweden today does not offer a rosy picture for young people. Among them are youth with a migrant background that have the lowest chance of becoming employed. The table below shows the unemployment rates of young people with a migrant background. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure and 11 notes.)
Kiselova, Rita; Gravite, Aija
This paper explores the results of implementing the state education policy aimed at satisfying the labour market demand for engineering and medicine specialists via strengthening STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education both in schools and higher education. [For the complete Volume 15 proceedings, see ED574185.
This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour…
Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Tønder, Anna Hagen
This chapter examines how the different systems of initial vocational education and training (VET-systems) in four Nordic countries connect to the labour market and how they provide access to employment for the students. The aim is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the four VET...
Remery, Chantal; Doorne-Huiskes, Anneke van; Schippers, Joop
Almost two decades have passed since Dutch employers, unions and the government, in their struggle against unemployment, agreed on a policy to increase labour market flexibility. Over the years the share of flexible jobs in the Netherlands has gradually increased to around ten percent. According to
Čižinský, Pavel; Čech Valentová, Eva; Hradečná, Pavla; Holíková, Klára; Jelínková, Marie; Rozumek, Martin; Rozumková, Pavla
The publication we have prepared for you concerns a relatively narrow issue: the position of foreign workers in the labour market in the Czech Republic and in several other selected countries of the European Union. Our original intention was to address mainly the question of job safety for these persons, as well as work accidents and occupational diseases.
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This is the final report in the three-year program of research "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market," which investigated the educational and occupational paths people take and how their study relates to their work. This report synthesises the findings of the three different strands: pathways from…
Guetto, R.; Luijkx, R.; Scherer, S.
The Second Demographic Transition (SDT) theory underlines the importance of changing values and attitudes to explain the trend toward low fertility and raising female labour market participation. We contribute to this debate comparing religiosity and gender attitudes over several European countries
Dlugosz, Stephan; Mammen, Enno; Wilke, Ralf
or contain missing values. Given the size of the data, a flexible semiparametric misclassification model would be good choice but their use in practise is scarce. To close this gap a semiparametric model for the probability of observing labour market transitions is estimated using a sample of 20 m...
Purpose: This article aims to offer a perspective on issues pertaining to higher education, the graduate and the labour market. It is one of several similar perspectives on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal "Education + Training." Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted has been to provide…
Mok, Ka Ho; Wu, Alfred M.
This article attempts to investigate the relationship between the massification of higher education, labour market and social mobility in contemporary China. Though only a short period of time has elapsed from elite to mass education, China's higher education has been characterised as a wide, pervasive massification process. Similar to other East…
In South Africa, for example, the post-apartheid labour market features one of the highest unemployment rates in the world together with a severe shortage of skilled workers. This grant will support the production of 12 country-specific and cross-country studies aimed at understanding how recent transformations in each and ...
EL-Sakran, Tharwat M.; Awad, Asmaa
This study reports on engineering graduates' labour market requisite communication competences and skills in the work environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its main purpose was to investigate whether internationally required engineering graduates' communication competences were the same in third world countries or different. It used a…
The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of
This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…
The State regulation of labour migration seems to be confronted with a double dilemma. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to provide as many migrant workers as demanded, citizenship seems to require some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusive character of citizenship demands closed membership, civil and human rights seem to undermine the State capacity to exclude foreigners once in the country. The present thesis analyses this trilemma between markets...
Earnings are the fundamental determinant of economic welfare for employed individuals, as well as of the potential gain to market employment for those not currently employed. Earnings are important as a social indicator specifically in relation to gender equality. Ten years after the Beijing conference the gender wage gap still exists in the EU labour market. This paper gives a brief review of economic theories and different approaches to explain the wage gap problem and importance of legisla...
Thornton, J. G.; Lilford, R. J.
OBJECTIVES--To review the evidence that the package of labour interventions collectively called "active management"--namely, strict diagnostic criteria for labour, early amniotomy, early use of oxytocin, and continuous professional support--reduce rates of caesarean sections and operative vaginal delivery in first labours. DESIGN--Review of observational data, supplemented by evidence from four separate overviews of relevant randomised trials previously published as part of the Cochrane Collaboration pregnancy and childbirth database. RESULTS--Observational data do not permit a clear conclusion. There have been no randomised trials of the total package of active management or of the use of strict diagnostic criteria alone, but trials of early amniotomy, early oxytocin, and these interventions combined do not suggest that these interventions are effective in reducing rates of caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries. In contrast, the provision of continuous professional support in labour seems to reduce both types of operative delivery, although the effect on caesarean sections is confined to those settings where non-professional companions are not normally present in labour. CONCLUSIONS--Delivery units should endeavour to provide continuous professional support in labour, but routine use of amniotomy and early oxytocin is not recommended. PMID:8081133
Responds to comments on a previous series of three articles on labor market theories and distance education. Highlights include conceptual frameworks of Fordism, neo-Fordism, and post-Fordism; industrialization and its impact on education; work and academic work; mass production; and specialist markets and small-scale distance education systems.…
DIMIAN Gina Cristina
Full Text Available Our choice was justified by the fact that between the two countries exist some features that make them interesting to study from the employment point of view. Thus, both countries are Latin and this is why we consider they are comparable, because employment means people, more precisely mentalities and attitudes to work. We considered that it is interesting to see how the labour market from the east Latin Europe has evolved, in a comparable, crucial period, with its counterpart from west Latin Europe. First of all, we would like to point out the fact that our intention is to analyse the periods which from the economic history point of view have influenced in a decisive manner the present evolution of the two countries. The Portugal labour market is a subject of real scientific interest (we would like to mention that even Michael Porter was interested by this topic. Our paper tries to emphasize the common and different features of the two labour markets, in order to facilitate an experience sharing process on this topic. To achieve the paper’s objectives statistical and cluster analysis have been used. This is one of the best ways to capture the influence of determinant factors on labour market performance. The degree of originality is given by the assumed objectives, namely studying some very up-to-date problems from an interconnected perspective (historical similarities, structural changes, labour market performance and analyzing the Romanian situation compared to other EU countries, i.e. Portugal. The main impact of the paper will be on the practical level through the model outcomes and conclusions. One of the objectives is to look for solutions to the problems identified and to persuade policy makers to give them a greater importance. Our main contribution is represented by the fact that we have approached this topic from an economic and historical perspective, trying to find explanations for the present situation in the modern past of the
Full Text Available The reform of labour market and the modification of the human capital management model evolved unsteadily, much behind the demand from the economic and social environment. Labour market was pushed to a secondary plane, considering that the adjustment of the other markets would cause necessary changes for ensuring the functioning of the labour market. Now, Romania is involved in consolidating the market economy, which requires integrated procedures of dealing with the policies able to respond efficiently to challenges. Similarly to the economic reform, the chances in the labour market were gradual but there were no coherence and no correlation of the measures taken, which caused non-typical behaviours, often contrary to reforms.
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Hegedüs, Laszlo
1:4) controls as well as 584 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. Singletons and twins were followed for a mean of 9 years (range 1-20). Cox regression analysis was used to examine the risk of disability pension and a difference-in-differences model was used to evaluate changes......, with respect to disability pension and labour market income, were seen within monozygotic twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism. CONCLUSION: Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe work disability as reflected by an 88% increased risk of receiving disability pension and a significant loss of labour...
Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of job performance, job satisfaction and humancapital. It shows that together with monetary factors, such factors as theperception of the social importance of the job, the ability to meet good friendsin the team, and the atmosphere within which the respondents work, may alsohave a high level of impact on labour supply through human capital. The paperdemonstrates the power of non-monetary factors in achieving improvementsin the context of the ‘job performance-job satisfaction-human capital’ chain,thus bringing about positive changes in labour market supply in Bosnia.
T-L Lui; S Chiu
This paper is an attempt to probe the interactions of economic restructuring and labour-market development in the process of industrial development in contemporary Hong Kong. The discussion is mainly divided into two parts. First is an examination of the development of the Hong Kong economy in the context of the changing world economy and, in particular, the effects of the structuring of the global division of labour on changes in the economic structure of Hong Kong in the 1980s. The growth o...
Examines the restructuring of urban employment regimes through the lens of low-wage, temporary employment and its attendant social division of labor at the urban scale. Focuses on the ways in which a "regime of precarious employment" has been embedded within a regional growth model and describes emerging forms of labor market regulation associated…
Full Text Available This paper looks at the influence of financial factors on the labour market transitions of Canadian older workers. Also, in contrast to previous studies, the analysis focuses on transitions between full-time work, part-time work, and retirement. Sequential annual observations of employment and retirement choices are examined for samples of full-time and part-time workers, drawn from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID, 2001–2006. Measures of potential pension wealth and one-year and peak pension accruals are imputed using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, 1973–1997, and the SLID, 1997–2006. Regression results indicate that financial factors influence workers to move from full-time to part-time jobs and support the evidence found in previous studies that retirement is usually a process, not a single event. Also, an increase in pension accruals increases the probability of working full-time for lower-income earners only. Among nonfinancial factors, a negative health shock increases the probability of working part-time or retiring for full-time workers but has little effect on the labour market transitions of part-time workers. Finally, these results suggest that policies to encourage phased retirement are unlikely to have a significant labour market effect since bridge employment is already a common transition process among older workers.
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter
. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...
In the middle of the turmoil caused by the new reforms in the UK higher education system it seems necessary to consider the success of graduates in the job market as an important indicator of university sector performance. The questions which this paper tries to answer are as follows: Is there any difference between universities in the success of their graduates in the job market? Do these differences reflect efficiency and good resource management or it is just the institution name that work...
Ramona Mariana CALINICA
Full Text Available The intensification of globalization and through intense manifestation of the effects on recent economic and financial crisis, employment market has been affected, and at European Union level was considered increasingly necessary granting support for counter of the negative effects of the two phenomena on this market. European Globalisation Adjustment Fund is designed for a rapid reintegration of fired workers and increase of the employment potential of the workforce, after mass dismissals linked to the two phenomena mentioned above.
Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr
expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 16.1% (parents' divorce) for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 4...... market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females) received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market...... participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational...
Full Text Available Discussions about the reconciliation of work and family are often considered to be focussing on women and middle class people with safe employments. By identifying the differences among men in their capacities to engage in involved fatherhood that stem from their positions in the labour market, this article introduces the perspective of a deprivileged marginalised group in the labour market and critically reflects on the impact of labour flexibilisation on caring masculinity and gender equality. Men as employees have heterogeneous positions in the labour market, which impacts their access to social – including parental – rights and possibilities for balancing work and care. Given that the precarisation of the labour market is a salient problem in Slovenia, this qualitative study based on explorative in-depth semi-structured interviews with fathers in diverse forms of precarious employments analysed how insecure and flexible work arrangements shape fatherhood practices, impact the chances for involved fatherhood and structure gender relations. The fathers’ experiences showed that precarious working conditions enable fathers to be intensely involved in children’s care mainly when their employment approaches standard employment in terms of stability and predictability of working hours and guaranteed workload. When work is entirely flexible and unpredictable and the employee is faced with either taking such a job or losing it, the reconciliation of work and fatherhood is aggravated as the organisation of everyday life is fully subordinated to paid work. In conclusion, precarious working relations were indicated to foster the strengthening of the breadwinner model and retraditionalisation of gender relations.
Kuyvenhoven, Arie; Molle, Willem
To the classical driving forces of migration such as poverty, oppression and war, yet another is being added: globalization. The trend toward globalization has created new opportunities for trade and investment. These have had positive implications for economic growth and living standards. However, they also confront developed and less developed countries (LCDs) with difficult policy choices. Developed Countries (DCs) have to find a compromise between competitiveness and high labour costs, and between trade liberalization and immigration controls. LCDs have to decide whether to export labour or goods, and to accept foreign resources for development rather than migration. While, in the literature, the impact of globalization has been largely studied from specialist perspectives, this volume offers a comprehensive view of the issue. In Globalization of Labour Markets: Challenges, Adjustment and Policy Response in the European Union and Less Developed Countries international experts: Explain the welfare implicat...
Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the potential development of the German labour market. For this purpose, wedeveloped a forecasting system that considers both supply and demand by occupational fi elds and qualifi cationsand that relies on consistent datasets, exogenous assumptions and systematic correlations. We presentthe key impacts for our forecasting system and highlight the eff ects of diff erent assumptions (scenariosexemplifi ed on our demand model. On the supply side, we point out how diff erent behaviours on the individuallevel infl uence the structure of development of the supply of skilled labour. Keeping the possibility of thosevarious potential futures in mind, we conclude with an outlook on potential skilled labour shortages inthe future.
Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben
in extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...
Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben
This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...... in extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage...
Full Text Available This paper outlines how regional labour market adjustments to macroeconomic and policy shocks are modelled in RHOMOLO through participation, employment and migration decisions of workers. RHOMOLO, being a multisectoral, inter-regional general equilibrium model, is complex both in terms of its dimensionality and the modelling of spatial interactions through trade flows and factor mobility. The modelling of the labour market is therefore constrained by the tractability and computational solvability of the model. The labour market module consists of individual labour participation decisions, including the extensive margin (to participate or not and the intensive margin (hours of work. Unemployment is determined through a wage curve and inter-regional labour migration decisions are modelled in a discrete-choice framework, with backward-looking expectations.
Helgesson, Magnus; Tinghög, Petter; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Saboonchi, Fredrik; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
The aim was to investigate the associations between mental disorders and three different measures of labour-market marginalisation, and differences between native Swedes and immigrants. The study comprised 1,753,544 individuals, aged 20-35 years, and resident in Sweden 2004. They were followed 2005-2011 with regard to disability pension, sickness absence (≥90 days) and unemployment (≥180 days). Immigrants were born in Western countries (Nordic countries, EU, Europe outside EU or North-America/Oceania), or in non-Western countries (Africa, Asia or South-America). Mental disorders were grouped into seven subgroups based on a record of in- or specialised outpatient health care 2001-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by Cox regression models with both fixed and time-dependent covariates and competing risks. We also performed stratified analyses with regard to labour-market attachment. Individuals with mental disorders had a seven times higher risk of disability pension, a two times higher risk of sickness absence, and a 20% higher risk of unemployment than individuals without mental disorders. Individuals with personality disorders and schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses had highest risk estimates for having disability pension and long-term sickness absence, while the risk estimates of long-term unemployment were similar among all subgroups of mental disorders. Among persons with mental disorders, native Swedes had higher risk estimates for disability pension (HR:6.6; 95%CI:6.4-6.8) than Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.2) and non-Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4-5.1), slightly higher risk estimates for sickness absence (2.1;2.1-2.2) than Western (1.9;1.8-2.1), and non-Western (1.9;1.7-2.0) immigrants but lower risk estimates for unemployment (1.4;1.3-1.4) than Western (1.8;1.7-1.9) and non-Western immigrants (2.0;1.9-2.1). There were similar risk estimates among sub-regions within both Western and non-Western countries
Gray, L.; And Others
A research project examined ways in which labor market signals and indicators were being used and might be used to identify needs that could be met through national Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems. Three case studies were undertaken in Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, and Costa Rica. The studies used a matrix that identified on…
Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational
This article investigates the phenomenon of long-term unemployed graduates of Norwegian higher education institutions over the period 1973-1999. The phenomenon was unexpected. One explanation for it is that the market for graduates was and remains in disequilibrium because wages are not sufficiently flexible downward. Thus unemployment would be…
Lange, Thomas; Maguire, Keith
Although unemployment is a serious problem in Europe, deregulating labor markets is not the solution. Deregulation could lead to decline in quality and competitiveness. The example of Japan shows the interaction of education, training, human resource management, and quality control. (SK)
Full Text Available In the life of any young person, entering the labour market is one of the most important events. It can be an easy process or, on the contrary, it may be marked by many constraints and opportunities. The labour market for young graduates is different depending on the country in which he lives. Young labour market insertion can occur both after and during school graduation. He or she becomes, in the latter situation, an insider in the labour market. Many countries are reforming their education systems to provide their citizens with knowledge and skills that enable them to meet social and economic challenges of the society. Countries vary significantly from each other in their economic, socio-demographic and institutional characteristics. Our study focuses on the analysis of the University of Oradea graduates in the last four years. The sample includes 529 respondents from different academic specializations both BA and MA level. In this context, in our analysis we have 38% MA graduates and 62% BA graduates, of which 39% married and the remaining 61% unmarried. Of the total sample 78% have a job. More than half of the subjects (53,5% considered as good or very good the professional training provided by the UO. Validating our hypotheses, the correlation of field of study with the domain of the current job is higher in the case of MA level graduates and, moreover, it predicts the level of satisfaction of our subjects with the development opportunities (personal and professional provided by the educational programs of the University. It is clear, therefore, that MA graduates are more grateful to the University performance than BA degrees holders. It is proven, that the assessment of the academic programs on behalf of graduates depends heavily on their successful integration in the labor market. The limits of the study are
Nordman, Christophe J.; Pasquier-Doumer, Laure
Young people in Africa encounter many difficulties in entering the labour market and in searching for decent and productive jobs. Research on the links between formal education and vocational training and their economic returns are especially crucial in understanding the inadequate demand for their labour. This article presents evidence based on…
N. V. Yakovenko
Full Text Available In this article the generalized characteristic of a labour market of the Ivanovo area is given. Basic problems of an employment of youth are considered. The analysis of monitoring of an employment of graduates of 2005 is carried out. Basic actions on a development of labour potential of the region are opened.
Adserà, Alícia; Ferrer, Ana
We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the current labour market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit this profile, as previous studies found, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by married native women elsewhere, with rising participation and wage progression. At best, only relatively uneducated immigrant women in unskilled occupations may fit the profile of secondary workers, with slow skill mobility and low-status job-traps. Educated immigrant women, on the other hand, experience skill assimilation over time: a reduction in physical strength and an increase in analytical skills required in their jobs relative to those of natives.
Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael
Workfare policies are often introduced in labour market policies to improve the trade-off between incentives and insurance as an alternative to benefit reductions. Most of the debate on such policies has focussed on the direct effect of those participating in the scheme, and in particular...... the possible locking-in effect reducing job search. In a general equilibrium search framework, we show that the effects of workfare policies critically depend on the response of those not in the programme when they take into account that workfare is a condition for remaining eligible for unemployment benefits...... unemployment. It is also shown that the direct search effects of workfare policies are a poor indicator of the overall effect workfare policies have on labour market policies....
Full Text Available Abstract Along with the advancement of the Internet in the last decade, researchers have increasingly identified the web as a research platform and a data source, pointing out its value for labour market analysis. This article presents a review of online data sources for this field. Specifically, the article introduces web-based research, focusing on the potential of relatively new data sources such as Google Trends, social networks (LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter and Glassdoor (surveys. For these data sources, a review is done and recent empirical applications are listed. Web-based data can further our understanding of the dynamics of the labour market. JEL codes: E4, J2
Lind, Jens; Rasmussen, Erling Juel
Since the 1950s, Denmark has developed an economy, a social welfare system and an inclusive labour market which have been admired by overseas commentators (Smith, 2011, Auer 2000, Ganssmann 2000). In the process, it has transformed itself from a relatively low wage country to a high-wage, high...... policy ‘soul-searching’ and adverse economic and social changes. The so-called ‘Danish Model’ of employment relations and its ‘flexicurity’ approach has been heralded by many commentators for its ability to being adaptive and creating win-win economic, social and labour market outcomes (Auer, 2000; Due...... relations structures and behaviours. The latter ‘threat’ is the major focus of this article and four main areas of changing structures and behaviour will be reviewed: the weakening of trade unions, the decentralisation of collective bargaining, the influence of the EU and migrant workers, and employment...
Siegmann, Karin Astrid
This study assesses the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on gendered labour markets in rural Indonesia. It focuses on the gender composition of the workforce, female and male workers? employment conditions and gender wage inequality. Th e research strategy of ?between-methods triangulation? is chosen, denoting the combination of quantitative and qualitative types of data generation and analysis. Two underlying mechanisms have been identified. A ?cost eff ect? associated with transnat...
Doubell Chamberlain; Servaas van der Berg
Education is a key determinant of earnings, as several South African studies have confirmed. Years of schooling completed, however, provides an imperfect approximation of the effective level of education achieved, mainly due to variations in the quality of education received. This study addresses this issue by, for the first time in South Africa, incorporating quality of education in the modelling of earnings. Differences in quality of education are viewed as a form of pre-labour market discr...
This article investigates the impact of continuing education and training for adults on labour market performance in Germany, Denmark and the UK. The central hypothesis is that training outcomes differ across countries, and that this heterogeneity in outcomes is due to institutional differences, ...... unemployment, and (3) whether training fosters upward occupational mobility. The results suggest that the impact of training varies across the three countries....
Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.
Full Text Available Background: In Egypt, the 'social problem' of delayed marriage is typically attributed to the difficult labour market conditions and high marriage costs faced by young people, particularly men. However, emerging evidence indicates that Egyptian women's employment experiences may also influence marriage timing. Objective: This paper investigates gender differences in the determinants of marriage timing, including employment history, job characteristics, education, and urban residence. It tests a number of hypotheses based on existing claims in the literature on marriage timing. Methods: Data from two waves of the nationally representative Egypt Labour Market Panel Survey are used to carry out proportional hazard analyses. Characteristics of never-married respondents at wave one in 1998 are used to predict the risk of marriage by wave two in 2006. Results: The results indicate that, to some extent, never-married men who have favourable labour market experiences marry earlier. The same experiences bear no association with women's marriage timing. For men, being employed and having a public sector job are important economic prerequisites for marriage. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that Egyptian men with favourable labour market experiences attract a spouse and establish an independent household faster than others. The male breadwinner ideal is therefore a powerful force in dictating who marries when in Egypt today. I also contend that previous studies may have overstated the delaying effects of education and urban residence on marriage, particularly for women. Finally, I offer four contextual factors that must be taken into account when predicting whether existing theories will hold in a given setting.
Cok, Mitja; Domadenik, Polona; Redek, Tjasa; Verbic, Miroslav
The rigidity of labour market has several important negative economic consequences: it stifles job creation, increases discrimination of those that it is actually aimed at protecting (young, women and the low-skilled), hurts the unemployed, slows down economic restructuring and damages its global competitiveness. But reforms are slow and often marked with disputes among partners in the collective bargaining process. Afraid of social security loss, unions usually oppose the re- form, while gov...
Hou, Xiaohui; Witter, Sophie; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hafidz, Firdaus; Julia, Fernanda; Lemiere, Christophe; Sullivan, Eileen B; Saldanha, Estanislau; Palu, Toomas; Lievens, Tomas
Background The objectives of this study were to understand the labour market dynamics among health workers, including their preferences and concerns, and to assess the skills, competence and performance (i.e. the 'know-do gap...
Full Text Available Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers need to consider employing persons with disabilities and also reasonably to accommodate them within South African workplaces. I further illustrate efforts by the legislature to eradicate forms of unjustified discrimination against persons with disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. I argue that all of us need to understand how cultural, social, physical and other barriers continue to prevent persons with disabilities in South Africa from enjoying their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it is desirable that society at large and government work together towards eradicating barriers which prevent persons with disabilities from accessing the labour market.
Full Text Available Pension system reforms increasing retirement age and accentuating citizens’ individual responsibility for the amounts of their future pensions have effects on labour markets. This article provides an analysis of factors determining the interest of employees over 50, and even those over 45, in continued employment, as well as of relevant compulsion and risk factors. Some of the discussion deals with the assumptions underlying the Polish pension system reform and its likely effect on longer working lives. A hypothesis is formulated that for older employees to continue employment, working conditions must improve, as the responses of both older employees and their employers reveal insufficient sensitivity to the need to adapt the conditions to the capabilities of an ageing workforce. Yet, even if the necessary measures are taken, occupational stratification leading to the emergence of age-segmented labour market with low-skilled, precarious, and part-time jobs is unavoidable. The article is partly based on the results of a survey that a University of Łódź team conducted for the project Diagnosis of the current situation of women and men aged 50+ on the labour market in Poland, funded by the European Social Fund.
Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam
Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society.
Lissau, I; Rasmussen, N K; Hesse, N M
employed and non-employed people, indicating a health-related exclusion from the labour market. This may explain why, in 1994, smaller occupational class differences were found in the prevalence of long-standing illness among employed people compared with the findings in 1987, whereas the health...... differences remained in the different educational groups. Women above 54 years of age with basic education only and long-standing illness have the highest odds ratio of permanent exclusion from the labour market....
Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett
This paper reviews the recent research on labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants in Canada and the United States (i.e., the 2nd generation), and its determinants. The paper focuses on outcome gaps between the 2nd and third-and-higher generations, as well as the intergenerational transmission of earnings between immigrants (the first generation) and their children. Overall, in both Canada and the United States the labour market outcomes of the children of immigrants are positive....
Butter, den F.A.G.; Koppes, S.Y.
Strikes as a consequence of labour conflicts occur about 28 times as much in France as in the Netherlands. This paper examines the institutional differences underlying these differences in strike activity. Our empirical analysis shows that strike activity is high in France if workers were successful
Full Text Available This paper explores the potential impact of Romania’s accession to the European Union on Austria in three major fields: foreign trade, FDI and labour market. While conditions of doing business in Romania have improved in recent years, they are still more complicated than in old and new EU member states. Romania remains a rapidly growing market for investment goods, consumer goods and services alike providing good opportunities for Austrian companies. While the effect of Eastern European labour immigration to Austria can be expected to be marginal on total employment and wages, it may affect specific segments of the labour market. Overall, labour immigration from Romania will remain relatively unproblematic.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between exporting and the labour markets of the Western Balkan economies within a macroeconomic and microeconomic framework. Within the macroeconomic framework we investigate the Western Balkan countries’ evolution of the bilateral intra-industry trade share with European Monetary Union members and compare this with the differences in bilateral unit labour cost dynamics. The microeconomic analysis rests on enterprise-level cross section data collected during the crisis period and investigates whether exporters help to create additional jobs in the region in comparison to entrepreneurs oriented towards national market. The results show that trade patterns between Western Balkan economies and EMU trading partners did not exhibit any significant changes in trend. On the other hand, it seems that during the recession period most Western Balkan economies adjusted their unit labour costs, probably in order to boost competitiveness. Microeconomic analysis revealed that, although there are some positive differences between exporters and non-exporters, exporters do not create additional employment.
Full Text Available In my article were researched market economy mechanisms for increasing the competitiveness of companies in the labour market. The paper target was to prove the need to use economic and administrative mechanisms to improve a level of competitiveness of the company in the labour market. Such researches become more important today, because after my empirical analyse of literature I can only conclude that not a lot of researchers studied in this field of science and the most theories suggest that only employees must be competitive on the labour market. But as a result of my research I can deny this one-sided view and can confirm that nowadays not just employees, but also employers compete with each other in the labour market. So, successful organizations must pay big attention to the processes of HR-management, which must be improved. But not enough attention is paid to the system of management and its impact on workers. It is important to form close links between existing system management with inherent for company effective economic management mechanisms in the companies with the level of competitiveness of the company in the labour market. So the results of my research showed that companies must develop economic and administrative mechanisms to improve their competitiveness in the labour market. These mechanisms are a set of applied styles and methods of management that have a direct impact on the loyalty of workers and consequently, enhance its competitiveness both inside the company and in external labour markets. So I can conclude that the paper target was achieved.
Full Text Available Every child is a supremely important asset of the nation because future welfare of nation and society is entirely determined on how its children grow and develop. But child labour is the one which deprives the children all means. The markets are those who employ the children without any facilities. So far study was conducted to know the problems of these child labourers. METHODS & MATERIALS The present study was an analytical study done during 2012-2013, among the working children at vegetable and fruit markets of Greater Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh with sample size of 200 from such major markets of 12. Selection of markets and study subjects were done by simple random sampling method. And data was gathered with pre-designed and pilot tested tool by conducting a medical camp in a weekday, in the market premises after taking the permission from the market yard chairman and consent of the child or parent to participate in the study. We gave medical treatment and also made suitable referrals if required. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Present study shows the child labour prevalence rate as 22.79%. And it was high among male children. Gender discrimination was seen in school dropout rate and never attending school rate, which are the significant causes in female child to become a labourer. Scheduled caste, Scheduled tribes and Muslim children are more prone to child labour. Poverty was the leading cause of child labour in both the age groups (96.1% followed by illiteracy, ignorance and bad habits of the parent(s. RECOMMENDATIONS Strict implementation of the child trafficking and child labour prevention act by labour department along with external agencies’ supervision in urgent need. Along child welfare, family and female education and empowerment activities, below poverty line families’ income generation schemes can reduce child labour.
Ljerka Sedlan König
Full Text Available European Union Member States as well as candidate countries have defined the development of entrepreneurial competencies of their citizens as a priority task and as a result this area has been gaining a growing interest among education professionals. In the context of the impending accession of the Republic of Croatia to the EU, Croatia has also made efforts to encourage the development of entrepreneurial competencies as a key factor in supporting economic growth and competitiveness. In addition to promoting the growth of new businesses, entrepreneurial competencies affect the development of an entrepreneurial mindset and more efficient use of the creative potential of existing knowledge and skills. As a result, there is an increasing interest in educational programs that encourage and develop entrepreneurial competences. In order to determine the importance of entrepreneurial competencies and identify the factors that affect their acquisition, an empirical study was conducted using a structured questionnaire and a sample of 324 students of the University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek. Besides univariate descriptive statistical analysis, we have used a bivariate analysis and multivariate statistical analysis of the data. The results have confirmed that the more developed the entrepreneurial competencies, the greater the tendency towards entrepreneurial behavior and the likelihood of setting up a business. Study results show that students who participate in extracurricular activities, as well as those who come from entrepreneurial families show higher entrepreneurial skill levels. The study has also confirmed that teaching per se does not significantly contribute to the development of entrepreneurial competencies and that extra-curricular activities have a much more important role. Entrepreneurial competence is the key to increasing the competitiveness of an individual and enhancing personal development, and consequently a sustainable
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83% completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 16.1% (parents' divorce for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. CONCLUSIONS: Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for
Full Text Available Globalization has important effects on world trade and economy through liberalization. The first one, is about the increase in substitution options, another one is the revitalization of competition, and the last effect is about the flexibility of labour market. The flexible labour market effects especially the unskilled labour market. The curve of unskilled labour demand in getting more flexible due to the foreign trade with countries where labour supply in higher. This kind of flexibility results in the decrease of the wages and increase of the unemployment. On the other hand, the flexibility of the labour market, while stimulating economic growth, strengthens the economies against external randoms. Therefore, while globalization causes advantages for labour in direct ratio with economic growth, it causes disadvantages for unskilled workers’ employment
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to investigate the associations between mental disorders and three different measures of labour-market marginalisation, and differences between native Swedes and immigrants. Methods The study comprised 1,753,544 individuals, aged 20–35 years, and resident in Sweden 2004. They were followed 2005–2011 with regard to disability pension, sickness absence (≥90 days and unemployment (≥180 days. Immigrants were born in Western countries (Nordic countries, EU, Europe outside EU or North-America/Oceania, or in non-Western countries (Africa, Asia or South-America. Mental disorders were grouped into seven subgroups based on a record of in- or specialised outpatient health care 2001–2004. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were computed by Cox regression models with both fixed and time-dependent covariates and competing risks. We also performed stratified analyses with regard to labour-market attachment. Results Individuals with mental disorders had a seven times higher risk of disability pension, a two times higher risk of sickness absence, and a 20% higher risk of unemployment than individuals without mental disorders. Individuals with personality disorders and schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses had highest risk estimates for having disability pension and long-term sickness absence, while the risk estimates of long-term unemployment were similar among all subgroups of mental disorders. Among persons with mental disorders, native Swedes had higher risk estimates for disability pension (HR:6.6; 95%CI:6.4–6.8 than Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4–5.2 and non-Western immigrants (4.8; 4.4–5.1, slightly higher risk estimates for sickness absence (2.1;2.1–2.2 than Western (1.9;1.8–2.1, and non-Western (1.9;1.7–2.0 immigrants but lower risk estimates for unemployment (1.4;1.3–1.4 than Western (1.8;1.7–1.9 and non-Western immigrants (2.0;1.9–2.1. There were similar risk estimates
The view that an institutional structure causes rigidities of the labour market is broadly accepted by policy makers. This assessment is conventionally based on unemployment theories that establish a linkage between labour market institutions and unemployment in the long run. Empirical research engages in investigation if the theoretical link between unemployment and labour market institutions could be proved to prevail. This paper provides an econometric analysis of determinants of unemploym...
Filgueiras, Ernesto; Vilar, Elisângela; Rebelo, Francisco
Successful cases of professional reintegration were achieved when adequate conditions were created for the adaptation of the worker with disability to the working environment and to the professional activity, allowing them to carry out all their functions without any restriction. In this sense, this paper presents a methodology for professional integration of people with disability in service companies and industry. It has as results a matrix of analysis of a set of observables for the reintegration of people with disability into the labour market, as well as an auxiliary tool for those who work in recruitment of personnel. The main objective was to develop a tool (i.e., a software) based on the crossing of data obtained from the analysis of the individual capacities and the requirements of the job to optimise the relationship between worker and the workplace. There was also considered a series of strategies which can be adopted by the individuals and the possible adaptations in the workplace, as a way to reduce the handicap in the accomplishment of different activities. The methodology for the development of this study is divided in two phases: Phase I, destined to the assessment criteria and classification of the indispensable functional characteristics of the individuals; Phase II, related to the assessment criteria of the jobs and the functions that have to be performed. As a result it was developed an evaluation tool to match the individuals' capabilities and the job requirements. A software was created to support the evaluation and to help professionals during the assessment. This methodology together with the support tool demonstrated to be a quite inclusive tool, as it considers, as a matter of priority, the capacities of the individuals and the real necessities of the workplaces.
Niederkrotenthaler, T; Helgesson, M; Rahman, S; Wang, M; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E
Suicide attempt in young age is associated with subsequent labour market marginalisation, but little is known about how marginalisation is affected by changes in suicide attempt rates and social insurance legislation and by age differences. Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of > 2.4 million Swedish residents per birth cohort, aged 19-40 years in 1999; 2004 and 2009, respectively, and followed up for 4 years. Suicide attempters treated in inpatient care in the three years preceding study entry (n > 7000 per cohort) were compared with the general population of the same age without attempt (1987 to end of follow-up). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days) and disability pension were calculated with Cox regression, adjusted for several risk markers. Additional analyses were stratified by age (below/above 30 years). Across all cohorts, suicide attempt was associated with subsequent labour market marginalisation. Estimates were generally highest for disability pension [e.g. 2009 cohort: adjusted (a) HR = 2.7], followed by sickness absence (2009 cohort: aHR = 2.3) and unemployment (2009 cohort: aHR = 1.5). aHRs were higher in the 2004 and 2009 cohorts compared with the 1999 cohort. For disability pension, for example, aHRs were 2.39, 3.90 and 2.68 for the 1999, 2004 and 2009 cohorts, respectively. Stratification revealed marginal age differences. It seems to have become more difficult for suicide attempters to establish themselves on the labour market in later cohorts, which might result from changes in social insurance regulations. There were no considerable age differences.
Leschke, Janine; Weiss, Silvana
for recent migrants from Central and Eastern Europe as previous research on EU cross border labour mobility has shown that they are comparatively high qualified and young. The latter might put them at a double disadvantage given that youth have particular problems in entering (quality) employment......This paper examines the use of social networks and its impact on the qualitative labour market integration of young recent EU migrants from Central and Eastern European member states to EU15 countries as well as Switzerland and Norway. The literature points to both positive and negative impacts...... of social networks on migrant workers’ outcomes. Social networks can facilitate access to employers and information on labour regulation and rights and thereby improve the quantitative and qualitative labour market outcomes of migrant workers. On the other hand, social networks can also contribute...
women and men develop their identities and hereby influence women’s and men’s work orientations and working life. Thus, the article provides a greater understanding of the gendering processes which contribute to the creation of gender segregation in the Danish labour market.......Most job functions, tasks and professions are gendered as either ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine’. On the basis of two empirical studies of women in ‘men’s jobs’ and men in ‘women’s jobs’ the article shows how societal ideas about and relations between gender and work affect the way in which individual...
Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner
the field of care; the establishment of a number of discourses was started. These discourses still serve as a tool of explanation for and legitimisation of efforts, the purpose of which is to attract male pedagogues to childcare and kindergartens; for the sake of the boys and the quality of care......, for the benefit of work environment and labour market structure and for the sake of gender equality. The newest action has been a series of five projects (described in chapter 2.2.) that aim to promote more diversity and aim to attract, recruit and retain male pedagogues to childcare and kindergartens2, i.e. day...
In this paper, we investigate the determinants of job mismatches with respect to field of education among school-leavers in Europe. In addition, the effects of having a job mismatch on the labour market position of school-leavers are examined. Special attention is paid to cross-country variation in this respect. The data that are used come from the EU LFS 2000 ad hoc module on school-to-work transitions. The results of the empirical analysis show that several individual, job, and structural c...
José María Casado Izquierdo
Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.
decades. The emphasis is placed on (involuntary) part-time and temporary employment. With regard to labour market developments, the author demonstrates a further segmentation during the crisis, in particular for youth and people with low educational levels who have been disproportionately affected...... by unemployment. Due to data deficiencies, it is difficult to judge conclusively whether the crisis has contributed to more or to less segmentation in welfare coverage. In fact, there seems to be a division between countries in this regard and the deliberate opening up of unemployment schemes in several countries...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the most recent trends in labour mobility after the two waves of Eastern enlargement, within the context of labour market developments mainly in the newly joined Central and Eastern European Member States. The article focuses on the question of how the current economic and financial crisis impacted on these trends, whether a slowdown of labour outflow from the Central and Eastern European Member States could be detected as a consequence. From a policy point of view, it is important to assess the consequences of the new mobility trends not only in the receiving countries, but also in the sending ones, as well as the individuals and families affected. Due to the short time which passed since the enlargement, there is limited empirical evidence, but the paper makes an attempt to highlight those issues in this regard, which could have important policy implications in the future. The analysis is based partly on previous research, partly on the most recent empirical data
Alina Georgeta Ailincă
Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis has generated a series of adjustments both in terms ofmacroeconomic policies and especially in terms of real economies developments. One field with majorimpact on the economies development, especially in this period, is the labour market. Referring to the labourmarket, the results at the global, regional and local levels appear extremely negative. Thus, only in theEuropean Union (EU27 approximately 23.248 million men and women were unemployed in November2010, of which 15.924 million people in the euro area, according to Eurostat. At the end of 2010, the EU27unemployment rate was 9.6% and in the euro area it reached no less than 10%. Lately, in the labour market,although one can observe some temporary improvements, from month to month, the situation remains criticaldue to the delay in creating new jobs. In this context, the paper aims to capture, through a case study, thedevelopments of EU New Member States (NMS labour market, before and after the emergence of the crisis.The obvious and immediate implications of the crisis on the labour market are the increase of unemployment,especially the long-term unemployment, and the more difficult recovery of the NMS labour market,compared with euro area countries.
Mohamed Al Hassan
Full Text Available Peculiarities of a formation of demand for labour and labour supply in the science-intensive economy are presented in the article. Problems of a labour mobility of Persian Gulf countries are investigated.
Full Text Available This article opens with a review of the main trends in family-related behaviour, i.e. fertility decline and changes in fertility patterns, a decreasing propensity to marry, postponement of marriage, and a slowly increasing frequency of divorces and separations. The analysis takes into account urban and rural differences. We then aim to identify the main determinants of family changes within the general conceptual framework of the Second Democratic Transition (SDT in Poland. However, contrary to mainstream interpretations of the SDT, the main emphasis of this study is on the structural components of change, which need to be reformulated to account for processes specific to the transition to a market economy. The focus is, therefore, on labour market developments and family policy, and to a lesser extent on ideational change.
Full Text Available Our paper is aimed at examining what principal business competencies (can enhance the success and competitiveness of employees according to the employers and we also wish to explore what personality traits have a decisive effect on the decision-making mechanism in taking on new staff. At present employers can make selection from a lot of fresh graduates in economics so for them it is essential to know the competencies by which they are classified and ranked by the employers. However, it is also important to bear in mind from which aspects their opinion meet the employers′ expectations. Based on surveying the employers′ expectations, the required competencies play a vital role in the hiring process and they are mainly acquired in practical trainings. An answer is also sought to the question of how the rank order of competencies have been changed, how their role was appreciated and reevaluated and what skills and abilities are no longer or only to a slight extent necessary for success in the labour market vs. the ones that were not required previously but have become indispensable these days. One of our further objectives was to create and test a competency structure tailored to the current Hungarian labour market situation and specialities on the basis of the professional literature.
Zoya Sh. Matchanova
Full Text Available Article is devoted to the basic principles on which activities of one of UN specialized agencies – the International Labour Organization are based. The principles formulated in the Charter of the ILO, the Declaration on the purposes and tasks of the ILO, the Declaration of the ILO on the fundamental principles and the rights in the sphere of work are stated. Special attention is paid to the principles according to which activities of the ILO are directly performed: universality, ripartism, control of observance of conventions.
Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard
This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West......, this supports the view of “repressed” migration flows for that period....
Full Text Available The notion of â€œflexicurityâ€ promises to overcome the tensions between the labour market flexibility on the one hand and social security on the other hand, by offering â€œthe best of both worldsâ€. In this review the development of the concept will be set against the background of changed economic circumstances in the last two decades. Flexicurity is seen as a way to preserve the European Social Model while maintaining and improving the competitiveness of the European Union. It is argued that, in the context of globalisation and technological change which place greater demands on business to adapt continuously, high levels of employment security will not depend only on protection of workersâ€™ specific job, but mainly on the means for workers to stay on the job market, manage smooth transitions between jobs and make progress in their careers. At the end of the day, the aim of flexicurity policies should be to ensure the welfare and well-being of our societies and all their members, now and in the future. It can therefore be argued that flexicurity is ultimately about security and sustainability. At the same time, the European ideas and principles on flexicurity first and foremost need to be seen as a framework which may offer inspiration and guidance to Member States to review and improve their labour markets in terms of establishing a sound balance between flexibility and security. Member States can and should come up with their tailor-made policies and regulations that are geared towards their specific history, starting-position and political, institutional and cultural context. As quasi prototypes of flexicurity, policies pursued particularly in Denmark and the Netherlands have been portrayed as having successfully achieved new combinations between (greater labour market flexibility without compromising social protection. At this point in time, it remains to be seen whether flexicurity will be more than a buzzword
Marusca De Castris
Full Text Available Extensive and persistent geographic variability of the unemployment rate within the same region has been attributed to various causes. Some theories identify the “thickness” of markets as the source of positive externalities affecting labour market by improving the ability to match the skills requested by firms with those offered by workers. A recent paper by Gan and Zhang (2006 empirically confirms this hypothesis for the US labour markets. Agglomeration can be defined as aggregation of people, basically measured by city size, or as aggregation of firms, measured by cluster size (employment or number of plants. However, the population location and the industrial location are by far more similar in United States than in Europe and in Italy. Our paper aims to evaluate the effects of agglomeration on the local unemployment rate. The new methodological contribution of the study is the identification of both urban and industrial cluster agglomeration effects, using a wide set of control variables. Adjusting the system for the effects of sectorial and size shocks, as well as those relating to geographic structure and policy interventions, the results of our analysis differ from that for the United States. The study stresses the presence of negative and significant urbanisation externalities. We obtain, instead, positive effects concerning the geographic agglomeration of firms, and their thickness, in a specific area. Furthermore, positive and significant effects can be found in local systems with features of a district. Finally, the model distinguishes the negative effects of urban agglomerations (in terms of population density from positive firm’s agglomerations (in terms of density of local units.
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…
Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn
Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…
Kittelsen Røberg, Karl Ingar; Helland, Håvard
This paper examines the effects of grades from higher education on labour market outcomes. Economic theory predicts that grades are rewarded in the labour market because employers regard them as an expression of valuable skills or a signal of other sought after attributes. Social closure, however, may give reason to expect no effects. Whether good…
Nelson, Anders; Sandberg, Mikael
This study investigated labour-market orientations of students at a Swedish University with a dual/diverse focus on vocational/academic objectives. The aim was to investigate whether and how levels of students' labour-market orientation vary with social background, change during the study period, and are related to approaches to studying and…
Rugulies, R.; Aust, B.; Burr, H.; Bultmann, U.
Objective: To investigate if job insecurity and poor labour market chances predict a decline in self-rated health in the Danish workforce. Design: Job insecurity, labour market chances, self-rated health and numerous covariates were measured in 1809 women and 1918 men who responded to a
In this article research on stratification and mobility is combined with research on the choice women make to stay on the labour market after they have become mothers. The article focuses on the careers of the mothers: what are the influences of the educational attainment and the labour market
Full Text Available Orientation: Domestic work provides employment to many women. The wages or salaries and employment conditions of domestic workers have raised worldwide concern. Domestic work is an unstable, lowly paid, insecure and unprotected form of employment. Abuse and exploitation are common. The regulation of this sector is the result.Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to analyse and compare the effects of, and level of compliance with, the regulation of the domestic worker sector in two very different residential areas in Pretoria.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted all previous micro-study investigations of the topic in Langenhoven Park, Bloemfontein. We need more micro-level studies to investigate the effects of regulating this labour market because areas with different socioeconomic conditions may yield different results.Research design, approach and method: The researchers followed a quantitative micro- research design using structured questionnaires. They used the research methodology applied in similar micro-studies as the basis of the survey to make the results comparable. They used the criterion sampling technique. Respondents completed 87 questionnaires in Orchards and 89 in Soshanguve.Main findings: Evidence suggests that areas in close proximity to one another in the same metropolis yield significant differences in the wages or salaries and non-wage working conditions of domestic workers. A blanket approach to identifying and monitoring the effects of the legislation for this sector is not an appropriate one.Practical/managerial implications: The sector needs micro-studies over an extended period and in different areas to form a more nuanced picture of this multifaceted labour market. This study emphasised the necessity for improved monitoring of the existing legislation.Contribution/value-add: This is the first micro-study to compare the effects of regulating the domestic workers sector of two residential areas
Full Text Available Recreation fulfils two functions in terms of labour economics: (1 as a commodity, it participates in the formation of national wealth by creating jobs, and (2 through its purpose, it boosts the workforce “re-creation” in all economic sectors by having a major contribution to people’s recovery, therefore reducing the psychosocial risks and creating premises for improvement of labour productivity. The present paper focuses on the first topic regarding the labour economics of recreation, namely the workforce operating within the sector and puts into comparative perspective two European Union member states: France and Romania. While in France the enterprises specialised in providing artistic, cultural, sports, entertainment or gambling and betting activities form a well-established and efficient economic sector, in Romania they make for an emerging and fast growing industry. Results will show that the local recreation sectors in the two countries have rather different development orientations at macroeconomic level - while in France the tendency seems to be increasing the number of workers per business, Romania rather shows an orientation towards creating numerous scattered micro businesses. With respect to employment, the local recreation sector reveals to be highly unusual in terms of working hours, heterogeneity and variety of professions, and lack of formalised job offer. However, these abnormalities are overridden by the superior intrinsic working conditions and the prolonged work sustainability.
Full Text Available This paper presents the key findings of an extensive research into the role of university-level visual art education in the preparation of visual artists for the successful transition from the academic environment to the art ‘labour market’. Starting from an assumption that higher visual arts education may be a significant factor in redefining the career paths of the visual arts graduates in Serbia, it reviews the recent changes in concepts and programs of university-level visual arts education in Europe and in Serbia. Education policies increasingly foresee the necessity of conscious compliance of education with society as a whole, bearing in mind the wide range of social roles that visual art and professionals from this field may assume. This is especially important for Serbia, since culture is considered one of the country’s most important assets in re-positioning itself on a mental map of Europe. In this paper I will map the main issues, briefly present the historical development of art school programs in Europe and in Serbia, and I will present the concept of the Management in Fine Arts course designed for the BA level at the Fine Art Schools which was designed to endow students with the opportunity to attain basic ‘labour market skills’, and provide them with knowledge and skills necessary to direct their professional development in such manner to enable them to easily find their place in various areas of contemporary society.
The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...
Full Text Available The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refugees were allowed to receive work permits and they became more dispersed geographically. This paper investigates the impact of Syrian refugees on regional labour markets. Panel data for the years 2004 through 2016 is utilized for 26 regions in Turkey. Syrian refugees are found to increase unemployment and decrease informal and formal employment.
van de Werfhorst, H.G.
A theoretical approach is formulated that connects various theories of why education has an effect on labour market outcomes with institutional settings in which such theories provide the most likely mechanism. Three groups of mechanisms are distinguished: education as an indicator of productive
The article uses a multi-layered approach to analyse the situation of women in vocational and education training, embedding it systematically in the development of general education, the labour market and the family in Germany. It reconstructs the development in these four sectors of society with a special emphasis on the past 30 years. The…
Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin
This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…
Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena
This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…
In the current economic order, the basic duty of citizens is to find placements in the internationalising labour market. Internationalism has been a common educational objective throughout Europe. Previously associated as a feature of middle-class subjectivities and academic education, it is implemented in the agenda of vocational education as…
This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…
Magdas, Ioana; Brad, Alexandru; Cristea, Daniela; Pop, Otilia Alexandra; Radu, Adina; Sicoe, Nicoleta
The European Union is deeply concerned with how education responds to the needs of society. The purpose of this article is to analyze the transition from the University education to the labour market for the IT specialists in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In order to achieve this, a survey was conducted among the recent graduates in the IT…
MmaB Modise, Oitshepile
Discussions surrounding the mismatch between labour market needs and graduate competences are timeworn but to date nothing much has been achieved. Solutions such as tracer studies, conferences, attachments and internships have been tried and have not yet brought satisfactory results. This paper contributes yet another strategy, career workshops.…
Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Tinghög, Petter; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Wilcox, Holly C; Gould, Madelyn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization. Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16-30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992-1994. Hazard ratios (HRs) for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days), sickness absence (>90 days), or disability pension in 1995-2010 were calculated with Cox regression. Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0), personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9), repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8) and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8). Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7), and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9). As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account.
Full Text Available Individuals with a history of suicide attempt have a high risk for subsequent labour market marginalization. This study aimed at assessing the effect of individual and parental factors on different measures of marginalization.Prospective cohort study based on register linkage of 5 649 individuals who in 1994 were 16-30 years old, lived in Sweden and were treated in inpatient care for suicide attempt during 1992-1994. Hazard ratios (HRs for labour market marginalization defined as long-term unemployment (>180 days, sickness absence (>90 days, or disability pension in 1995-2010 were calculated with Cox regression.Medical risk factors, particularly any earlier diagnosed specific mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia: HR 5.4 (95% CI: 4.2, 7.0, personality disorders: HR 3.9, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.9, repetitive suicide attempts (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.9 were associated with a higher relative risk of disability pension. Individual medical factors were of smaller importance for long-term sickness absence, and of only marginal relevance to long-term unemployment. Country of birth outside Europe had an opposite effect on disability pension (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.8 and long-term unemployment (HR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8. Female sex was positively correlated with long-term sickness absence (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7, and negatively associated with long-term unemployment (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9.As compared to disability pension, long-term sickness absence and unemployment was more strongly related to socio-economic variables. Marginalization pathways seemed to vary with migration status and sex. These findings may contribute to the development of intervention strategies which take the individual risk for marginalization into account.
Basso, Gaetano; Dolls, Matthias; Eichhorst, Werner; Leoni, Thomas; Peichl, Andreas
The Great Recession did not only affect European countries to a varying extent, its impact on national labour markets and on specific socio-economic groups in those markets also varied greatly. Institutional arrangements such as employment protection, unemployment insurance benefits and minimum income support, working time flexibility and wage setting played a crucial role in determining to what extent the economic crisis led to higher unemployment, wage cuts or income losses and rising pover...
Full Text Available In recent years, the Czech labour sector has encountered a number of specific problems, particularly in relation to the impact of the recent economic crisis. In 2007, there was an enormous gap between demand and supply in the labour market in the manufacturing sector, especially the manufacturing of machinery and equipment and machinery of vehicles, which are the most important constituent of the Czech economy. The deficit for qualified labour force caused a situation where all enterprises required new staff from the secondary schools and universities, especially graduates with technical qualification. The economic crisis in 2008 curtailed the demand for labour, currently, most enterprises have overcome the crisis and the demand for qualified technical and research staff is growing again. This research was conducted by Faculty of Management and Economics of the Thomas Bata University in Zlin (FaME TBU. From the 854 students selected from Czech secondary schools and 171 university students, it was revealed that students do not follow the employment demand of companies. The Czech economy also faces a problematic demographical trends and structural problems in the labour market. This problem is further compounded with the trends in students’ professional focus. This research paper uses Roe’s classification of occupations and theoretical conclusions. According to Roe’s theory, people usually focus their career choice in one of eight groups of occupations. The research confirmed that only 9 percent of students have some career focus. Furthermore, the average Czech student chooses professions from 5 groups and there are huge gaps between the student’s choice and the demands of the labour market, especially in the fourth group of occupations - technologies, which is still the most important economic output for the Czech Republic.
Leschke, Janine; Weiss, Silvana
of social networks on migrant workers’ outcomes. Social networks can facilitate access to employers and information on labour regulation and rights and thereby improve the quantitative and qualitative labour market outcomes of migrant workers. On the other hand, social networks can also contribute...... to locking migrant workers into sectors and occupations with high shares of migrant workers, so-called niche employment. The latter can lead to suboptimal working conditions including a mismatch of skills and occupation (over-qualification) and lower wages. The impact might be particularly negative...... for recent migrants from Central and Eastern Europe as previous research on EU cross border labour mobility has shown that they are comparatively high qualified and young. The latter might put them at a double disadvantage given that youth have particular problems in entering (quality) employment...
Larisa Loredana DRAGOLEA
Full Text Available In a period when the labour market in any field is more and more vulnerable, inconstant and permanently changing, the field of economics follows the same trend, with much turbulence and multiple changes of directions and tendencies, both as regards the labour demand and the supply.Graduates in the fields of economics are affected to a large extent by the lack of secure job offers, and many times they choose retraining or migration, thus becoming a workforce qualified in a country and carrying out its activity in a different country. This article presents the results of a research performed in 2015, among graduates with specialisations in economics at the `1 Decembrie 1918` University of Alba Iulia, which will illustrate their perception of employment oportunities in a field that is related to the one they have studied at the university.
Context: Currently, slow labour is treated with oxytocin augmentation after delay of either 4 hours or 2 hours but there is debate as to whether the 2 hours or 4 hours delay is better to adopt especially for tertiary centre labour ward. Randomized controlled studies which have been conducted to resolve this issue have yielded ...
Full Text Available Growing interest in the labour market outcomes of sexual minorities presents novel methodological and theoretical challenges. In this note, we outline important challenges in the study of wage inequality between sexual minorities and heterosexuals in Canada. We discuss the current state of available data on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada, and further evaluate how estimates of sexual orientation wage gaps differ across earnings definition and sample composition. Our analysis of the 2006 Census shows considerable heterogeneity in point estimates of wage disadvantage across definitions of earnings and sample selections; however, all estimates show that gay men suffer labour market penalties and lesbians experience wage premiums. L’intérêt grandissant pour la situation des minorités sexuelles sur marché du travail soulève de nouveaux enjeux méthodologiques et théoriques. Dans ce commentaire, nous soulignons les enjeux importants que présente l’étude des inégalités salariales entre minorités sexuelles et hétérosexuels au Canada. Nous discutons de la disponibilité actuelle de données sur l’orientation sexuelle et le revenu au Canada et évaluons la manière selon laquelle les écarts salariaux varient en fonction de la définition de revenu et la composition de l’échantillon. Notre analyse du recensement de 2006 indique une hétérogénéité considérable des estimations ponctuelles de l’écart salarial à travers différentes définitions de revenu et différentes sélections d’échantillon. Cependant, toutes les estimations indiquent que les hommes gays sont désavantagés sur le marché du travail et que les lesbiennes obtiennent des salaires supérieurs.
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. METHODS: Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year...... and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit...... prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort...
Pedersen, Charlotte R; Holstein, Bjørn E; Köhler, Lennart
BACKGROUND: This study analysed the influence of parents' labour market participation on their children's well-being in the five Nordic countries, and the changes from 1984 to 1996, during which unemployment rates generally rose in the Nordic countries. METHODS: Parent-reported questionnaire data...... from two cross-sectional studies, 12 years apart, with 15,354 (in 1984) and 15,255 (in 1996) randomly selected children aged 2-17 years. The response rates were 67.0% (n=10290) and 67.6% (n=10317), respectively. The parents' assessment of their children's well-being was measured by six items......, with three items focusing on psychological functioning and three items on social functioning. RESULTS: The association between parents' labour market participation and children's well-being changed from 1984 to 1996. In 1984, more children in families with paid work had low well-being than did children...
Full Text Available Our study is part of an ample research project on the students of a University of the Central West part of Romania. For this particular paper, our aim was to underline the correlation between the level of school training and a series of skills of the young people who took part in the study (such as labour market orientation, interaction with the managers of the employer company and with the company owner, in order to find an advantageous job, to undergo advanced training and to develop their career, meaning the connection between the global intelligence (useful for the school training and the emotional intelligence. We took into consideration the research in the specialised literature and our previous studies as well as an analysis based on a sociological survey. The survey was conducted on a sample of 518 students, most of them in their second year of Master Degree studies. The questionnaire that contained 38 questions was conceived by the authors, the data was processed with an SPSS software and the results obtained are presented in tables and explained throughout the paper. The conclusions consist of the authors’ considerations regarding the existent connection (in the presented case between the general, global intelligence of the subjects, manifested through their school results and their emotional intelligence, as well as a portrait of the representative person for the studied community.
Ricardo Esteban Legarreta
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at a critical analysis of the main tools existing in Spain to foster the employment of people with disabilities in the open labour market considering the new Consolidated Text of the General Act on the Rights of People with Disabilities and its social inclusion (Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013 and the Global Strategy on Employment of People with Disabilities 2008-2012. The main incentives are reductions in Social Security contributions and financial bonuses. The paper’s methodology is based in the study of both the law and the case law. Firstly, with regard to the reductions in Social Security contributions, the paper evaluates its reach, the different types of employment contracts concerned and the circumstances which could hamper employers’ access to bonuses. Secondly, the article evaluates some key issues regarding employment grants like their amount, the specific concept of disabled person to be hired or the possibility to pile up national and autonomous (regional grants. Finally, the article evaluates the existing limited grant to carry out workplace adjustments.
Full Text Available By acknowledging the uncertainty and unpredictability of the job search process in an unemployment setting, the present study explored the predictive strength of dispositional employability in job search behaviours. Dispositional employability has been recognized as a potentially important personal resource that promotes job opportunities. However, it has rarely been assessed in an unemployment setting to date. According to recent employability models that differentiate between distal (i.e., personal strengths and proximal (e.g., perceived employability determinants of behaviour on the labour market, we hypoth- esized that: (i dispositional employability relates positively to job search intensity and (ii perception of one’s employment possibilities (i.e., perceived employability serves as an explanatory mechanism of this relationship. The hypothesized structural model was tested among a heterogeneous sample of 533 unemployed persons in Croatia. The results of structural equation modelling provided support for our hypotheses: dispositional employability related positively to job search intensity via perceived employ- ability. Accordingly, nurturing dispositional employability may be beneficial for unemployed persons as it relates positively to engagement in job search behaviour.
Full Text Available This article proposes that the insecurity facing employees in the labour market can be viewed as a multifaceted concept that encompasses job insecurity, employment insecurity and income insecurity, as well as the cognitive and affective dimensions of each of these. The results indicate the validity of using this concept in order to better understand how insecurity relates to mental well-being by affecting both the manifest and latent functions of work.
Karin Astrid Siegmann
This study assesses the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on gendered labour markets in rural Indonesia. It focuses on the gender composition of the workforce, female and male workersâ€™ employment conditions and gender wage inequality. The research strategy of "between-methods triangulation" is chosen, denoting the combination of quantitative and qualitative types of data generation and analysis. Two underlying mechanisms have been identified. A "cost effect" associated with transnat...
The educational system in Sweden is expanding and while some see higher education as a remedy for unemployment, others argue that credentialing of the society with diplomas will harm the competition on the labour market and the value of higher education. However, the effects of educational expansion are noticeable not only at the macro, but also at the micro level. Studies have shown that Sweden is internationally on the bottom of the list when it comes to gross returns of higher education. D...
Full Text Available In the early 1990s, and especially after the accession to the European Union, southern European countries were faced with an increased influx of immigration, particularly by third country citizens. The majority of migration flows refers to illegal migration. In this paper, the integration of new immigrant groups in the labour market has been analysed by using the theory of the segmented labour market. A high degree of labour market segmentation and irregularities in the analyzed countries is particularly present in the construction, agricultural and service sectors (households, hotels and catering. Illegal recruitment is an important attractive factor for illegal migrants, and encourages the development of illegal migration. Frequent implementation of control programmes solves the problem of illegal migrants only partially while, at the same time, an increasing number of new immigrants is being “attracted”. Due to special features of more recent migration flows in southern European countries, it is possible to apply the “South European immigration model” by King and Ribas-Mateos, portraying these flows triangularly. In this model the mass influx of immigration is connected to a high level of irregularities in the economic sector and a weak welfare state. The uneven economic development of sending and receiving countries, as well as the perception of new immigrants (third country citizens exclusively through the prism of homo economicus, does not inspire too much optimism that their position in the labour market and in society will significantly improve in the foreseeable future. On behalf of more equitable treatment of new immigrant groups, their greater recognition should be demanded from receiving countries’ governments as well as the regulation of their position by introducing new and different norms and standards, based in the first place on universal human rights.
ABSTRACT Juliet Manzala Setebe. Informal Labor Market in Tanzania: A case of Kinondoni District in Dar es Salaam. Jarvenpaa Autumn 2011, 48p., 2 appendices . Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Program in Social Services (DSS). Informal Labor Market is a concept that has been researched for more than twenty years, but no one has come up with a concrete definition. Many researchers referred to it as activities which are done outside the governm...
Nanna Trolle; Thomas Lund; Trine Nohr Winding; Merete Labriola
.... The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences...
Doris Gomezelj Omerzel; Ana Azevedo
This paper provides a brief description of a research study entitled Mislem - ‘Developing Meta-level quality Indicators for establishing a Systematic Linkage between institutions of higher Education and the labour Market...
Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L
To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Osler, Merete; Mårtensson, Solvej; Prescott, Eva
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades survival after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has improved, leading to an increasing number of patients returning to work, but little is known about factors that may influence their labour market affiliation. This study examines the impact of gender, co-morbidity ......BACKGROUND: Over the last decades survival after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has improved, leading to an increasing number of patients returning to work, but little is known about factors that may influence their labour market affiliation. This study examines the impact of gender, co......-morbidity and socio-economic position on subsequent labour market affiliation and transition between various social services in patients admitted for the first time with ACS. METHODS: From 2001 to 2009 all first-time hospitalisations for ACS were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry (n = 79......,714). For this population, data on sick leave, unemployment and retirement were obtained from an administrative register covering all citizens. The 21,926 patients, aged 18-63 years, who had survived 30 days and were part of the workforce at the time of diagnosis were included in the analyses where subsequent transition...
Trolle, Nanna; Lund, Thomas; Winding, Trine Nohr; Labriola, Merete
Background Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20?21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. Methods A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register ...
Full Text Available Even if the issue of youths’ inclusion in the labour market was always an important item on political agendas, during the last two decades this issue had particular relevance. In the last years, unemployment for this age group had unprecedented amplitude, reaching 20.6% in Romania in 2016. Modern societies provide for youths opportunities, still they are faced with major challenges related to the education and training and access to the labour force market.
Nanna Trolle; Thomas Lund; Trine Nohr Winding; Merete Labriola
Abstract Background Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20–21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. Methods A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a ...
Heijke, J.A.M.; Meng, C.M.
This paper summarizes the outlines of three empirical studies that we have carried out on actual labour market value of the various types of competencies acquired in higher education and how these competencies may be taught most effectively. The focus is on the discipline-specific competencies and academic competencies. In all three studies, use was made of the European CHEERS dataset. The main results with regard to the labour market value of the various competencies are that a high level of...
Fransen, L.; Burgoon, B.
Why do companies choose the private labour regulations that they do? Scholars know plenty about why companies might accept private regulators to oversee and protect labour standards. But they know very little about why companies choose one rather than another private regulatory approach when several
The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.
Frost, Asger; Svendsen, Marie Louise; Rahbek, Jes; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lund, Thomas
To examine labour market participation and long-term sick leave following a diagnosis with myasthenia gravis (MG) compared with the general Danish population and for specific subgroups of MG patients. A nationwide matched cohort study from 1997 to 2011 using data from population-based medical and social registries. The study includes 330 MG patients aged 18 to 65 years old identified from hospital diagnoses and dispensed prescriptions, and twenty references from the Danish population matching each MG patient on age, gender, and profession. Main outcome measures are labour market participation (yes/no) and long-term sick leave ≥9 weeks (yes/no) with follow-up at 1- and 2 years after the time of MG diagnosis or match. Based on complete person-level information on all public transfer payments in Denmark, persons having no labour market participation are defined as individuals receiving social benefits for severely reduced workability, flexijob, and disability pension. MG is consistently associated with higher odds of having no labour market participation and long-term sick leave compared with the general Danish population (no labour market participation & ≥9 weeks sick leave at 2-year follow-up, adjusted OR (95% CI): 5.76 (4.13 to 8.04) & 8.60 (6.60 to 11.23)). Among MG patients, females and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and immunosuppression have higher odds of lost labour market participation and long-term sick leave. This study suggests that MG patients have almost 6 times higher odds of no labour market participation and almost 9 times higher odds of long-term sick leave 2 years after diagnosis compared with the general Danish population. In particular female MG patients and patients treated with both acetylcholinesterase and immunosuppression have high odds of a negative labour market outcome. Future research should focus on predictors in workplace and labour market policy of labour market participation among MG patients.
The classification of who benefits or loses from globalization is no longer based on the sector in which one works or the skill group a person belongs to. An increasing number of workers are experiencing global competition for their jobs as there is a global convergence in the international division of labour. This is due to improved educational levels and technological capacities in developing countries, and new technological developments, like the digitization of work. Higher labour costs i...
Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.
Sequence analysis to assess labour market participation following vocational rehabilitation: an observational study among patients sick-listed with low back pain from a randomised clinical trial in Denmark.
Lindholdt, Louise; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Horsbøl, Trine Allerslev; Lund, Thomas
The return-to-work (RTW) process after long-term sickness absence is often complex and long and implies multiple shifts between different labour market states for the absentee. Standard methods for examining RTW research typically rely on the analysis of one outcome measure at a time, which will not capture the many possible states and transitions the absentee can go through. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential added value of sequence analysis in supplement to standard regression analysis of a multidisciplinary RTW intervention among patients with low back pain (LBP). The study population consisted of 160 patients randomly allocated to either a hospital-based brief or a multidisciplinary intervention. Data on labour market participation following intervention were obtained from a national register and analysed in two ways: as a binary outcome expressed as active or passive relief at a 1-year follow-up and as four different categories for labour market participation. Logistic regression and sequence analysis were performed. The logistic regression analysis showed no difference in labour market participation for patients in the two groups after 1 year. Applying sequence analysis showed differences in subsequent labour market participation after 2 years after baseline in favour of the brief intervention group versus the multidisciplinary intervention group. The study indicated that sequence analysis could provide added analytical value as a supplement to traditional regression analysis in prospective studies of RTW among patients with LBP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Nwaru, Chioma A; Peutere, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka J
Little is known about the work patterns of re-employed people. We investigated the labour market attachment trajectories of re-employed people and assessed the influence of chronic diseases on these trajectories. The study was based on register data of 18 944 people (aged 18-60 years) who participated in a subsidised re-employment programme in Finland. Latent class growth analysis with zero-inflated Poisson was used to model the labour market attachment trajectories over a 6-year follow-up time. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between chronic diseases and labour market attachment trajectories, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, size of town and calendar year in subsidised re-employment programme. We identified four distinct labour market attachment trajectories, namely: strengthening (a relatively stable attachment throughout the follow-up time; 77%), delayed (initial weak attachment increasing later; 6%), leavers (attachment declined with time; 10%) and none-attached (weak attachment throughout the study period; 7%). We found that severe mental problems strongly increased the likelihood of belonging in the leavers (OR 3.61; 95% CI 2.23 to 5.37) and none-attached (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.91 to 6.10) trajectories, while chronic hypertension was associated with none-attached (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.77) trajectory. The associations between other chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, asthma and arthritics) and labour market attachment trajectories were less evident. Re-employed people appear to follow distinct labour market attachment trajectories over time. Having chronic diseases, especially mental disorders appear to increase the risk for relatively poor labour market attachment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Rabontu Cecilia Irina
Full Text Available Over the years the South West Oltenia Region have developed important activities in different areas. The most important activities are related to agriculture and natural potential and deposits, the South West Oltenia being one of the most important energy providers in the country. In this area that we brought into talk we find all sectors of the national economy. Agriculture is considered to be an important branch with a significant share in regional GDP with industry (food, non-ferrous metallurgy aluminum, chemical, electrical, machinery, light industry but we must also talk about the tertiary sector gets consistent in the economy of the region as well as nationally. We have proposed in this paper to provide an overview of the labor market in the Development South-West Oltenia Region,integrating it into national labor market realities. We will follow this to see if the labor market in the South-West Oltenia Region, reflect, generally, national trends. To analyze what we are proposed we used the latest official labor market statistics but to have a clearer picture on this field we used data provided by the National Commission of Forecasting, indicating the source.
T. V. Sabetova
Full Text Available The article researches the phenomenon of competitiveness in the labor market. It is noted that this phenomenon receives considerable attention in the fields of psychology, sociology, and pedagogy, but the economic researches of it are insufficient which proves the relevance of the suggested topic. The competitiveness of any subject means its ability to resist rivalry with similar subjects within certain environment. It implies the necessity to study employee competitiveness in the labor market on the basis of rivalry research. The term ‘competition’ has various definitions and the author demonstrates that the one most suitable for the labor market is the one provided by the conduct-based approach. The author also suggests that all features of the competitiveness in general and in the labor market should be studied and interpreted taking into account the specific pair of competitiveness bearer and consumer of his product or service, in case of labor market meaning labor service. Besides, the author agrees in this article with the opinion that competitiveness of an individual comprises of the total of his abilities, competencies and motives, which brings about the possibility that the elements forming individual’s competitiveness may be applied or disused at the moment of research or within a period of any duration. Considerable part of the article is devoted to the ways and methods of competency acquisitions. All this makes the author suggest a complex, multi-bases classification of characteristics included in the idea of an employee’s competitiveness in the target segment of the labor market. It is stated, that despite the impossibility of making the complete list of qualities useful for some professional activity, their classifications in terms of sources, effort input, and period of formation; methods and areas of application; inclusion in the various personality sub-systems may be successfully applied for various research or practical
Full Text Available Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood.We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18-34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969-1982. Beginning from the year of each subject's 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7-16 years. We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking.Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population.These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers.
Full Text Available This paper studies the Czech economy before, during and after the economic crisis. Consequences on the labour market, respectively on unemployment are also discussed in the paper. According to most economists the cause of the economic crisis was the financial crisis which was triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the United States banking system. It has resulted in the collapse of large financial institutions, the “bail out” of banks by national governments and downturns in stock markets around the world. Real gross domestic product decreased in almost all EU countries including the Czech economy. Massive drop of gross domestic product led to increase in the unemployment rate. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to discussion about consequences of this crisis. The paper provides also an analysis of gross domestic product and its components. The empirical analysis also tried to answer the question if it is more a return to steady–state than the deterioration of economic performance in the case of the Czech economy. In other words, it means that economic performance of the Czech economy was above the level of potential output. Research in this study is based on basic macroeconomic quarterly data between the years 2000 and 2010 which were published by the Czech Statistical Office and Eurostat. We found out that the Czech labour market had to cope with the consequences of the economic crisis and now it is going to reach a long-term equilibrium.
Jimenez, M Michelle; Bui, Anthony L; Mantilla, Eduardo; Miranda, J Jaime
Most analyses of gaps in human resources for health (HRH) do not consider training and the transition of graduates into the labour market. This study aims to explore the labour market for Peru's recent medical, nursing, and midwifery graduates as well as their transition into employment in the Ministry of Health's (MOH) system. Data from four different datasets, covering 2007-2013, was used to characterize the patterns of recently trained physicians, nurses, midwives, and postgraduate-trained physicians that enter employment in the MOH system, and scenario analyses were used to describe how this rate of entry needs to adapt in order to fill current HRH shortages. HRH graduates have been increasing from 2007 to 2011, but the proportions that enter employment in the MOH system 2 years later range from 8 to 45% and less than 10% of newly trained medical specialists. Scenario analyses indicate that the gap for physicians and nurses will be met in 2027 and 2024, respectively, while midwives in 2017. However, if the number of HRH graduates entering the MOH system doubles, these gaps could be filled as early as 2020 for physicians and 2019 for nurses. In this latter scenario, the MOH system would still only utilize 56% of newly qualified physicians, 74% of nurses, and 66% of midwives available in the labour market. At 2013 training rates, Peru has the number of physicians, nurses, and midwives it needs to address HRH shortages and meet estimated HRH gaps in the national MOH system during the next decade. However, a significant number of newly qualified health professionals do not work for the MOH system within 2 years of graduation. These analyses highlight the importance of building adequate incentive structures to improve the entry and retention of HRH into the public sector.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish gender equality politics and its influence on the gender equality on the Swedish labour market and within families in period between 1970s and 2000s. Problems such as wage differentials, occupational sex segregation and unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between the sexes were faced from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1960s. In order to address those issues gender equality politics was launched in 1970s including enacting of the law on separate taxation and law on gender equality. Moreover, a special family politics was launched encouraging men and women to divide childcare and housework equally. On one hand Swedish gender equality politics contributed to the growth of women’s participation in labour market, to minimize wage differentials and it also made sex distribution between the occupations and at the leading positions in companies and institutions more equal. Moreover, this politics led to more equal distribution of unpaid work between men and women at home. On the other hand it must be pointed out that none of these problems has been completely solved. Women’s wages are still generally lower than men’s and women and men tend to work in different sectors. Women still take greater part of parental leave and tend to do the bigger part of unpaid work. Although a significant change in the level of gender equality has been made since 1960s, which can be considered a success of the Swedish gender equality politics, there is still much that needs to be done in order to achieve gender equality both on labour market and in families.
This document contains five papers from a seminar devoted to the rise in the level of diplomas across the labor market. "Diploma and the Labour Market: Results and Questions Stemming from European Research" (Louis Mallet) discusses the findings of a recent study of six European countries in an attempt to explain the enormous growth in…
Full Text Available While the importance of investments in economic assets for ensuring economic and social progress was acknowledged for a long time, sustainable development draws attention on the environmental and human dimension which constitute to equal extent key-dimensions for ensuring economic growth and social development. Up to date, the human capital part represented by women was under-used and their work less valorised, their potential contribution to economic and social progress being practically marginalised. Women’s constraints in prioritising family life have influenced their career development inducing a certain lack of professional mobility, the resort to “part-time” work and even career disruptions. Career disruption limits access to on the job qualification and leads to human capital depreciation generating precarious results in wage, and career-advancement terms and in facilitating the return to job. Resorting to “part-time” work, in general, plays a positive role in the life of individuals from the perspective of rendering compatible professional commitments assumed with family life, the great shortcoming being that such jobs providing also for a high standard are less frequent. As a consequence, employees will suffer an adverse impact in terms of remuneration, occupational segregation (due to the concentration of these jobs in certain fields of employment such as services, trade, and office work, career advancement and even job insecurity. This reality frequently fed the stereotypes regarding gender which generated the “gender gap” currently existing between genders on the labour market with multiple dimensions: differences between genders regarding quantitative employment and unemployment indicators; occupational segregation with impact on the quality of employment, and as cumulative dimension of the effects of several factors the “gender pay gap” or the “wage differential”. All these have constituted a topic arising
Di Thiene, Domitilla; Alexanderson, K; Tinghög, P; La Torre, G; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E
Previous research suggests that first-generation immigrants have a lower suicide risk than those both born in Sweden and with both parents born in Sweden (natives), while the suicide risk in the second generation seems higher. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent suicide risk in first-generation and second-generation (both parents born abroad) and intermediate-generation (only one parent born abroad) immigrants compared with natives is associated with sociodemographic factors, labour market marginalisation and morbidity. A prospective population-based cohort study of 4 034 728 individuals aged 16-50 years was followed from 2005 to 2010. HRs for suicide were calculated for first-generation, intermediate-generation and second-generation immigrants compared with natives. Analyses were controlled for sociodemographic factors, morbidity and labour market marginalisation. The HR of suicide was significantly lower in first-generation immigrants (HR 0.83 CI 0.76 to 0.91), and higher in second-generation (HR 1.32, CI 1.15 to 1.52) and intermediate-generation immigrants (HR 1.20, CI 1.08 to 1.33) in comparison to natives. The excess risk was explained by differences in sociodemographics, morbidity and labour market marginalisation. In the fully adjusted models, a higher HR remained only for the Nordic second generation (HR 1.29, CI 1.09 to 1.52). There were no sex differences in HRs. The risk of suicide was shown to be lower in the first generation and higher in the second generation compared with natives. The higher HR in the Nordic second generation was not explained by differences in sociodemographics, labour market marginalisation and morbidity. Further research is warranted to investigate factors underlying this excess risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive review of marketing issues influenced by information technologies. The macro-environment of marketing activity, strategic issues like marketing philosophy, marketing research and segmentation as well as marketing mix were analysed. The main findings are the following: IT advances do change every element of marketing activity of any company, offering both opportunities and threats.
Liu, An; Noback, Inge
The paper analyses the determinants of female labour participation. Structural equation modelling is used to handle theoretical concepts and to solve the typical problem of multicollinearity. The proposed methodology is applied to a dataset for the year 2002 made up of a sample of 278 municipalities
Kottmann, Andrea; de Weert, Egbert
This report “Higher Education and the Labour Market” builds upon the previous report and aims to digging a bit deeper into some themes in the countries Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Sweden and the United States, and update developments since the first review in 2011. The following
Brankovic, Nina; Oruc, Nermin
This article analyses the differences between expected and actual wages of VET students and graduates. It uses a survey of VET students enrolled in schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and data about employed VET graduates from the Labour Force Survey. The model of determinants of wages, expected or actual, estimated separately on each dataset,…
Adodo, S. O.; Adewole, Timothy
This study investigated acquired and required competencies in interactive computer technology (ICT) in labour data were collected from employers' and employees'. The study is a descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of unemployed graduates, employed graduates and various parastatal where graduates seek for…
Vikström, Johan; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
-parametric methods to determine which of the individual policies that explains the positive effect. The use of non-parametric methods to separate sub-treatment effects is important from a methodological point of view, since the alternative, namely parametric/distributional assumptions, is in conflict...
los compromisos familiares.The paper draws attention to women's position in the changing labour market of the 1920s-1930s and after the reestablishment of independence in 1990 in the Republic of Lithuania. The author carries out a historical analysis of the impact of the laws issued at that period to solve the issue of unemployment and explores their implications to women's position in the labour market. Among the most significant laws dealing with rising unemployment in Lithuania at the beginning of the 20th century was the one demanding from an employer to dismiss an employee whose spouse had a job. Since the society of that time was predominantly patriarchal, married women were the first to be dismissed. The law raised a stormy reaction from women who sought support from international organizations such as the Federation of International Diplomaed Women and the Union of the Nations. However, the issue was not solved till 1940 and burst out after the reestablishment of the state in 1990 and persisted till 1998 when the law of Equal Opportunities was issued.
Mortensen, Torgeir Gjendem
Norway has been an immigrant country since the late 1960s and minority integration has since been a recurrent source of newspaper headlines and political debate. Now - nearly 50 years later - Norway is hosting a substantial immigrant population, and face the critical challenge of integrating their children. The economic sustainability of the welfare state could in part depend on the effective integration of descendants of immigrants to the point that they can participate in the labour force o...
ÖKE, Assoc Prof.Dr. M.Kemal
Since some decades many things have been changed such as culture, attitude, behaviour, structures in the economy and society naturally these process leads to industrial relations, but nothing has been changed in the field of structure and policy and stragedy of trade unions. As we remember one of challenging vawe has been realised during the Keynesian Age which called Post Fordism. This wave affected labour deeply, because new wave swepeed out blue colour workers at the manifacture sector. Th...
Full Text Available Seasonality of agricultural activities causes fluctuation in the quantity of labour consumed by these activities, and yet many rural labour studies in developing countries still treat labour demand in agriculture as if it is the same across different farm operations. To unearth the amount of information hidden by this aggregated analysis, labour demand for specific farm operations was estimated based on data collected from Kakamega District. This analysis shows that increasing household size increases labour demand for planting, weeding and harvesting. Increasing the share of elderly household members has a negligible effect on labour demand for farm activities except for land preparation, with which it is positively related. Participation of primary school-going children in farm activities is the highest in planting and harvesting. Participation in off-farm employment seems to increase labour demand only during peak seasons. The area planted appears to have an insignificant effect on labour demand for land preparation. Planting sugar cane appears to reduce labour demand for weeding and primary processing, but planting tea increases labour demand for planting. Mechanising land preparation only reduces labour demand for land preparation, but it seems to be offset by other labour-intensive farm operations. The distance from water source is positively related to labour demand for land preparation, but the distance to the market is negatively related to labour demand for weeding and harvesting. These observations point to the need for supporting and investing in technological and organisational innovations in agriculture.
Nhlanhla Cyril Mbatha
Full Text Available We began with the premise that South African recent migrants from rural to urban areas experience relatively lower rates of participation in formal labour markets compared to local residents in urban communities, and that these migrants are overrepresented in the informal labour market and in the unemployment sector. This means that rural to urban migrants are less likely than locals to be found in formal employment and more likely to be found in informal employment and among the unemployed. Using perspectives from Development Economics we explore the South African National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS panel datasets of 2008 and 2010, which only provide a perspective on what has happened between 2008 and 2010. We find that while migrants in general experience positive outcomes in informal labour markets, they also experience positive outcomes in formal markets, which is contrary to expectations. We also find that there are strong links between other indicators of performance in the labour market. Earned incomes are closely associated with migration decisions and educational qualifications (e.g. a matric certificate for respondents between the ages of 30 and 60 years. The youth (15 to 30 years old and senior respondents (over the age of 60 are the most disadvantaged in the labour market. The disadvantage is further reflected in lower earned incomes. This is the case even though the youth are most likely to migrate. We conclude that migration is motivated by both push (to seek employment and pull (existing networks or marriage at destination factors. For public policy, the emerging patterns – indicative and established – are important for informing strategies aimed at creating employment and developing skills for the unemployed, migrants and especially the youth. Similar policy strategies are embodied in the National Development Plan (NDP, the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS, etc.
Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, Mette
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross...... sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. RESULTS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence...... of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender...
Full Text Available Current economic crisis has hit the Czech economy in a less severe way compared with other economies, but there have been affected employees who have lost their jobs as well as those who have remained employed but their wages have been reduced. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the possibility of wider use of linkedemployer-employee microdata from the Average Earnings Information System (the Czech Structure of Earnings Survey in order to be able to identify comprehensive and more informative labour market indicators compared with the generally known basic set of indicators. With data on job flows and employee flows from the data source mentioned above, we show that the economic crisis has probably taken some effect in the economic subjects classified into our sample. Furthermore, we show that jobs in some industries have beendestroyed more frequently than jobs in the others.
Full Text Available The increasing graduate unemployment rate in Ghana is a matter of concern not only to government but also to stakeholders in education. In an era of globalisation, the issue has culminated in discourses about curriculum planning and alignment. Using a concurrent mixed method, the study purposely focused on exploring graduate competences as a labour market mechanism for curriculum alignment. In this regard, 63 participants comprising alumni, Human Resource Managers and lecturers were sampled using multiple procedures. In the end, the study showed that employers’ highly ranked integrated curriculum and their responses favoured an amalgamation of education and practical training tailored to promote organisational growth. A significant difference was found between responses of lecturers and alumni regarding their preference for graduate competences as the basis for curriculum alignment. The study finally advocated, among other things, for competency-based curriculum philosophy as the underpinning variable to underlie Business Education curriculum in Ghana.
Horsbøl, Trine Allerslev; Bültman, Ute; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to examine levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety following diagnosis of a haematological malignancy, to determine the incidence of return to work (RTW) and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) during 1-year follow-up and to examine whether fatigue......, depression and anxiety are associated with RTW and LTSA in this group of cancer patients. METHODS: Questionnaire-based data on fatigue, depression and anxiety were obtained at baseline. In all, 196 patients returned the questionnaire. Of these, 106 patients were on sick leave and 90 patients were working....... They were all followed prospectively for 1 year using register-based data on labour market participation. RESULTS: At baseline, high levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety were more prevalent among sickness absent patients than in those working. Half of the sickness absent patients returned to work...
Gracia, P.; Vázquez-Quesada, L.M.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.
In Western Europe, the children of Moroccan and Turkish migrants were found to be significantly disadvantaged in the labour market. This ethnic gap was found to persist after considering differences in schooling, which was argued to reflect ‘ethnic penalties’ driven by cultural, religious, or racial
Moerbeek, Hester Hagar Susan
Will people with friends experience profit and will people with foes experience harm on the labour market? The words ‘friends’ and ‘foes’ mean something else than in every day life, that is people who have helped or hindered someone in the past and/or are willing to do so in the future. From this
Kurtovic, E.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374879567; Rovira Sopeña, M.
This article aims at analysing the differences between European countries in the obstacles exoffenders face due to having a criminal record. First, a comparative analytical framework is introduced that takes into account all the different elements that can lead to exclusion from the labour market by