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Sample records for active k5v star

  1. The radii of the nearby K5V and K7V stars 61 Cyg A & B - CHARA/FLUOR interferometry and CESAM2k modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, Pierre; Pichon, Bernard; Thévenin, Frédéric; Heiter, Ulrike; Bigot, Lionel; Brummelaar, Theo A Ten; Mcalister, Harold A; Ridgway, Stephen T; Turner, Nils; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Goldfinger, P J; Farrington, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Context: The main sequence binary star 61 Cyg (K5V+K7V) is our nearest stellar neighbour in the northern hemisphere. This proximity makes it a particularly well suited system for very high accuracy interferometric radius measurements. Aims: Our goal is to constrain the poorly known evolutionary status and age of this bright binary star. Methods: We obtained high accuracy interferometric observations in the infrared K' band, using the CHARA/FLUOR instrument. We then computed evolutionary models of 61 Cyg A & B with the CESAM2k code. As model constraints, we used a combination of observational parameters from classical observation methods (photometry, spectroscopy) as well as our new interferometric radii. Results: The measured limb darkened disk angular diameters are theta_LD(A) = 1.775 +/- 0.013 mas and theta_LD(B) = 1.581 +/- 0.022 mas, respectively for 61 Cyg A and B. Considering the high accuracy parallaxes available, these values translate into photospheric radii of R(A) = 0.665 +/- 0.005 Rsun and R(B...

  2. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal structur

  3. Chromospheric changes in K stars with activity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieytes, Mariela; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    We study the differences in chromospheric structure induced in K stars by stellar activity, to expand our previous work for G stars, including the Sun as a star. We selected six stars of spectral type K with 0.82$activity levels. We computed chromospheric models for the stars in the sample, in most cases in two different moments of activity. The models were constructed to obtain the best possible match with the Ca II K and the H$\\beta$ observed profiles. We also computed in detail the net radiative losses for each model to constrain the heating mechanism that can maintain the structure in the atmosphere. We find a strong correlation between these losses and \\Sc, the index generally used as a proxy for activity, as we found for G stars.

  4. The star formation activity in cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Varela, Jesus; Quilis, Vicent

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of cosmic voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we study the star formation activity of void galaxies. The properties of galaxies living in voids are compared with those of galaxies living in the void shells and with a control sample, representing the general galaxy population. Void galaxies appear to form stars more efficiently than shell galaxies and the control sample. This result can not be interpreted as a consequence of the bias towards low masses in underdense regions, as void galaxy subsamples with the same mass distribution as the control sample also show statistically different specific star formation rates. This highlights the fact that galaxy evolution in voids is slower with respect to the evolution of the general population. Nevertheless, when only the star forming galaxies are considered, we find that the star formation rate is insensitive to the environment, as the main sequence is remarkably constant in the three samples under consideration. This fact...

  5. An Activity Catalogue of Southern Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J S; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; McCarthy, C; Marcy, G W; Pinfield, D J; Carter, B D; Penny, A J

    2006-01-01

    We have acquired high-resolution echelle spectra of 225 F6-M5 type stars in the southern hemisphere. The stars are targets or candidates to be targets for the Anglo-Australian Planet Search. Ca$\\small{\\rmn{\\textsc{II}}}$~HK line cores were used to derive activity indices for all of these objects. The indices were converted to the Mt. Wilson system of measurements and log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$ values determined. A number of these stars had no previously derived activity indices. In addition we have also included the stars from Tinney et al. (2002) using our Mt. Wilson calibration. The radial-velocity instability (also known as jitter) level was determined for all 21 planet-host stars in our dataset. We find the jitter to be at a level considerably below the radial-velocity signatures in all but one of these systems. 19 stars from our sample were found to be active (log\\emph{R}$'_{\\rmn{HK}}$~$>$~-4.5) and thus have high levels of jitter. Radial-velocity analysis for planetary companions to these stars should pr...

  6. Magnetism and activity of planet hosting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Miller, Brendan P.

    The magnetic activity levels of planet host stars may differ from that of stars not known to host planets in several ways. Hot Jupiters may induce activity in their hosts through magnetic interactions, or through tidal interactions by affecting their host's rotation or convection. Measurements of photospheric, chromospheric, or coronal activity might then be abnormally high or low compared to control stars that do not host hot Jupiters, or might be modulated at the planet's orbital period. Such detections are complicated by the small amplitude of the expected signal, by the fact that the signals may be transient, and by the difficulty of constructing control samples due to exoplanet detection biases and the uncertainty of field star ages. We review these issues, and discuss avenues for future progress in the field.

  7. Photometric Variability of Four Coronally Active Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. C. Pandey; K. P. Singh; R. Sagar; S. A. Drake

    2002-03-01

    We present photometric observations of four stars that are optical counterparts of soft X-ray/EUV sources, namely 1ES 0829+15.9, 1ES0920-13.6, 2RE J110159+223509 and 1ES 1737+61.2. We have discovered periodic variability in two of the stars, viz., MCC 527 (1ES 0829+15.9; Period = 0.828 ± 0.0047) and HD 81032 (1ES 0920-13.6; Period = ∼ 57.02 ± 0.560 days). HD 95559 (2RE J110159+223509) is found to show a period of 3. HD 160934 (1ES1737+61.2) also shows photometric variability but needs to be monitored further for finding its period. These stars most likely belong to the class of chromospherically active stars.

  8. Interactions, star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Heckman, Timothy M; White, Simon D M; Jing, Y P

    2007-01-01

    It has long been known that galaxy interactions are associated with enhanced star formation. In a companion paper, we explored this connection by applying a variety of statistics to SDSS data. In particular, we showed that specific star formation rates of galaxies are higher if they have close neighbours. Here we apply exactly the same techniques to AGN in the survey, showing that close neighbours are not associated with any similar enhancement of nuclear activity. Star formation is enhanced in AGN with close neighbours in exactly the same way as in inactive galaxies, but the accretion rate onto the black hole, as estimated from the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity, is not influenced by the presence or absence of companions. Previous work has shown that galaxies with more strongly accreting black holes contain more young stars in their inner regions. This leads us to conclude that star formation induced by a close companion and star formation associated with black hole accretion are distinct events. Th...

  9. Modeling Atmospheric Activity of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.

    2003-10-01

    This review discusses a set of simple models for cool-star activity with which we compute (1) photospheric field patterns on stars of different activity levels, (2) the associated outer-atmospheric field configurations, and (3) the soft X-ray emission that is expected to result from the ensemble of loop atmospheres in the coronae of these stars. The model is based on empirically-determined properties of solar activity. It allows us to extrapolate to stars of significantly higher and lower activity than seen on the present-day Sun through its cycle. With it, we can, for example, gain insight into stellar field patterns (including a possible formation mechanism for polar starspots), as well as in the properties of coronal heating (helpful in the identification of the quiescent coronal heating mechanism). Lacking comprehensive theoretical understanding, the model's reliance on empirical solar data means that the multitude of processes involved are approximated to be independent of rotation rate, activity level, and fundamental stellar parameters, or -- where unavoidably necessary -- assumed to simply scale with activity. An evaluation of the most important processes involved guides a discussion of the limits of the model, of the limitations in our knowledge, and of future needs. "I propose to adopt such rules as will ensure the testability of scientific statements; which is to say, their falsifiability." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

  10. Fugitive stars in active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate in detail the escape dynamics in an analytical gravitational model which describes the motion of stars in a quasar galaxy with a disk and a massive nucleus. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. In order to distinguish safely and with certainty between ordered and chaotic motion we apply the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) method. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins through the openings around the collinear Lagrangian points $L_1$ and $L_2$ and relate them with the corresponding spatial distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Our exploration takes place both in the configuration $(x,y)$ and in the phase $(x,\\dot{x})$ space in order to elucidate the escape process as well as the overall orbital properties of the galactic system. Our numerical analysis reveals the strong dependence of the properties of the con...

  11. Magnetic Doppler Imaging of Active Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O

    2007-01-01

    We present a new implementation of the magnetic Doppler imaging technique, which aims at self-consistent temperature and magnetic mapping of the surface structures in cool active stars. Our magnetic imaging procedure is unique in its capability to model individual spectral features in all four Stokes parameters. We discuss performance and intrinsic limitations of the new magnetic Doppler imaging method. A special emphasis is given to the simultaneous modelling of the magnetically sensitive lines in the optical and infrared regions and to combining information from both atomic and molecular spectral features. These two techniques may, for the first time, give us a tool to study magnetic fields in the starspot interiors.

  12. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  13. Circumnuclear Star Forming Activity in NGC 3982

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-Nai Zhang; Qiu-Sheng Gu; Yi-Peng Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 3982 using optical,infrared and X-ray data acquired by SDSS,Spitzer and Chandra.Our main results are as follows:(1) A simple stellar population synthesis on the nuclear and circumnuclear SDSS spectra gives unambiguous evidence of young stellar components in both the nuclear and circumnuclear regions.(2) The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectrum of the central region (~3") shows a power-law continuum,a silicate emission feature at 9.7 μm,and significant PAH emission features at 7.7,8.6,11.3 and 12.7/zm,suggesting the coexistence of AGN and starburst activities in the central region of NGC 3982.(3) We estimate the star formation rate (SFR) of the circumnuclear (~5"-20") region from the Ha luminosity to be for the active nucleus of NGC 3982 from radio to X-ray,and obtain a bolometric luminosity of Lbol=4.5×1042 erg s-1,corresponding to an Eddington ratio (Lbol/LEdd) of 0.014.The HST image of NGC 3982 shows a nuclear mini-spiral between the circumnuclear starforming region and the nucleus,which could be the channel through which gas is transported to the supermassive black hole from the circumnuclear star-forming region.

  14. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-24

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  15. Active Longitudes and Flip-Flops in Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Järvinen, Silva P.

    2007-08-01

    In many active stars the spots concentrate on two permanent active longitudes which are 180 degrees apart. In some of these stars the dominant part of the spot activity changes the longitude every few years. This so-called flip-flop phenomenon was first reported in the early 1990's in the single, late type giant FK Com. Since then flip-flops have been reported also on binary stars, young solar type stars and the Sun itself. Even though this phenomenon has been detected on many different kinds of active stars, still less than ten stars are known to exhibit this effect. Therefore no statistically significant correlation between the stellar parameters and the flip-flop phenomenon can be carried out. Here we present results from investigation where we have studied the long-term photometry of several magnetically active RS CVn binaries to see whether or not they show permanent active longitudes and the flip-flop phenomenon. We find that it is very common for the active regions to occur on permanent active longitudes, and some of these stars also show clear flip-flop phenomenon.

  16. Nearby Galaxy is a Hotbed of Star Birth Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This new image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1569. This galaxy is a hotbed of vigorous star birth activity which blows huge bubbles that riddle its main body. The bubble structure is sculpted by the galactic super-winds and outflows caused by a colossal input of energy from collective supernova explosions that are linked with a massive episode of star birth. The bubbles seen in this image are made of hydrogen gas that glows when hit by the fierce wind and radiation from hot young stars and is racked by supernova shocks. Its 'star factories' are also manufacturing brilliant blue star clusters. NGC 1569 had a sudden onset of star birth about 25 million years ago, which subsided about the time the very earliest human ancestors appeared on Earth. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST.

  17. Evolution of emission line activity in intermediate mass young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Manoj, P; Maheswar, G; Muneer, S

    2006-01-01

    We present optical spectra of 45 intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars. Together with the multi-epoch spectroscopic and photometric data compiled for a large sample of these stars and ages estimated for individual stars by using pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks, we have studied the evolution of emission line activity in them. We find that, on average, the H_alpha emission line strength decreases with increasing stellar age in HAeBe stars, indicating that the accretion activity gradually declines during the PMS phase. This would hint at a relatively long-lived (a few Myr) process being responsible for the cessation of accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. We also find that the accretion activity in these stars drops substantially by ~ 3 Myr. This is comparable to the timescale in which most intermediate mass stars are thought to lose their inner disks, suggesting that inner disks in intermediate mass stars are dissipated rapidly after the accretion activity has fallen below a certain level. We, further find a r...

  18. Understanding Activity Cycles of Solar Type Stars with Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Guadalupe; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the era of exploring new worlds and systems advances we seek to answer the question: How common is our Sun? There is considerable evidence about the recurring activity cycles of our Sun but very little is known about the activity cycles of other stars. By calibrating the full frame images from the original Kepler mission that were taken once a month over the course of four years, we are able to do relative photometry on roughly 5 million stars. By building a model of the pixel response function we were able to achieve 0.8% precision photometry. We identify 50,000 solar type stars based on magnitude, surface gravity, and temperature cuts. We observe the relative increase and decrease in brightness of the stars indicating signs of activity cycles similar to our Sun. We continue to explore how a data driven pixel response function model could improve our precision to 0.1% photometry measurements.

  19. A quest for activity cycles in low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Oláh, K

    2013-01-01

    Long-term photometric measurements in a sample of ultrashort-period (P~0.5 days or less) single and binary stars of different interior structures are analysed. A loose correlation exists between the rotational rate and cycle lengths of active stars, regardless of their evolutionary state and the corresponding physical parameters. The shortest cycles are expected on the fastest rotators in the order of 1-2 years, which is reported in this paper.

  20. Spectroscopic observations of active solar-analog stars with high X-ray luminosity, as a proxy of superflare stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Namekata, Kosuke; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies of solar-type superflare stars have suggested that even old slowly rotating stars similar to the Sun can have large starspots and superflares. We conducted high-dispersion spectroscopy of 49 nearby solar-analog stars (G-type main-sequence stars with Teff ≈ 5600-6000 K) identified as ROSAT soft X-ray sources, which are not binary stars from previous studies. We expected that these stars could be used as a proxy of bright solar-analog superflare stars, since superflare stars are expected to show strong X-ray luminosity. More than half (37) of the 49 target stars show no evidence of binarity, and their atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) are within the range of ordinary solar-analog stars. We measured the intensity of Ca II 8542 and Hα lines, which are good indicators of the stellar chromospheric activity. The intensity of these lines indicates that all the target stars have large starspots. We also measured v sin i (projected rotational velocity) and lithium abundance for the target stars. Li abundance is a key to understanding the evolution of the stellar convection zone, which reflects the stellar age, mass and rotational history. We confirmed that many of the target stars rapidly rotate and have high Li abundance, compared with the Sun, as suggested by many previous studies. There are, however, also some target stars that rotate slowly (v sin i = 2-3 km s-1) and have low Li abundance like the Sun. These results support that old and slowly rotating stars similar to the Sun could have high activity levels and large starspots. This is consistent with the results of our previous studies of solar-type superflare stars. In the future, it is important to conduct long-term monitoring observations of these active solar-analog stars in order to investigate detailed properties of large starspots from the viewpoint of stellar dynamo theory.

  1. The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Vieira, J D; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodr'iguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dunlop, J S; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    The old, red stars which constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly from accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproven, that the tight correlation in mass of the black hole and stellar components results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, while powerful star-forming galaxies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared to submillimetre wavelengths. Here we report observations in the submillimetre and X-ray which show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 Gyrs old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10^44 erg/s. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxies of powerful AGN ...

  2. The Suppression of Star Formation by Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight corre1ation between the mass of the black hole and the mas. of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming ga1axies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(exp 44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expe11ing the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  3. The role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation in the regulation of StAR activity and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana F; Orlando, Ulises; Helfenberger, Katia E; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2015-06-15

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, i.e. the delivery of cholesterol from the outer (OMM) to the inner (IMM) mitochondrial membrane. StAR is a 37-kDa protein with an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence that is cleaved off during mitochondrial import to yield 30-kDa intramitochondrial StAR. StAR acts exclusively on the OMM and its activity is proportional to how long it remains on the OMM. However, the precise fashion and the molecular mechanism in which StAR remains on the OMM have not been elucidated yet. In this work we will discuss the role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) as part of the mechanism that regulates StAR retention on the OMM and activity.

  4. Stellar magnetic activityStar-Planet Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppenhaeger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar magnetic activity is an important factor in the formation and evolution of exoplanets. Magnetic phenomena like stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, and high-energy emission affect the exoplanetary atmosphere and its mass loss over time. One major question is whether the magnetic evolution of exoplanet host stars is the same as for stars without planets; tidal and magnetic interactions of a star and its close-in planets may play a role in this. Stellar magnetic activity also shapes our ability to detect exoplanets with different methods in the first place, and therefore we need to understand it properly to derive an accurate estimate of the existing exoplanet population. I will review recent theoretical and observational results, as well as outline some avenues for future progress.

  5. Close stars and accretion in Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, S

    2004-01-01

    Quasar accretion disks are believed to form stars by self-gravity. Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (LLAGN) are much dimmer galactic centers, and are often believed to be quasars that ran out of gaseous fuel. LLAGN accretion disks should thus co-exist with thousands to millions of stars or proto-stars left from the previous stronger accretion activity. In principle, these stars may produce several important effects: (i) contribute to the optical/UV spectra of some LLAGN; (ii) reprocessing of the stellar radiation in the dusty disks could dominate the LLAGN infra-red spectra; (iii) deplete the (accretion) gas disk much faster than it can accrete onto the supper-massive black hole (SMBH); (iv) stars, individually or in groups, may slow down and modulate the accretion flow significantly due to their inertia. In this way they may produce the LLAGN cut-off disks; (v) alternatively, frequent enough stellar collisions and resulting stellar disruptions could keep the inner disk empty. Here we explore these ideas...

  6. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtinen, Jyri; Hackman, Thomas; Kajatkari, Perttu; Henry, Gregory W

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Continuous Period Search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B and V band photometry of 21 young and active solar-type, collected over 16 to 27 years and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Using the CPS method, differential rotation could be estimated from the observed variations of the photometric rotation period. Active longitudes were retrieved by applying a non-parametric period search on the light curve minimum epochs, and activity cycles by applying a secondary period search on the modelled light curve mean and amplitude values. We supplemented the time series results by calculating new $\\log{R'_{\\rm HK}}$ emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations point to a trend of increasing differential rotation coefficients towards longer rotation periods but do not reveal any dependence from the effective temperature of the stars. The secondary period searches revealed activity cycles in 18 of th...

  7. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  8. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom, E-mail: jlinsky@jilau1.colorado.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  9. Spectroscopic observations of active solar-analog stars having high X-ray luminosity, as a proxy of superflare stars

    CERN Document Server

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Namekata, Kosuke; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of solar-type superflare stars have suggested that even old slowly rotating stars similar to the Sun can have large starspots and superflares. We conducted high dispersion spectroscopy of 49 nearby solar-analog stars (G-type main sequence stars with $T_{\\rm{eff}}\\approx5,600\\sim6,000$ K) identified as ROSAT soft X-ray sources, which are not binary stars from the previous studies. We expected that these stars can be used as a proxy of bright solar-analog superflare stars, since superflare stars are expected to show strong X-ray luminosity. More than half (37) of the 49 target stars show no evidence of binarity, and their atmospheric parameters ($T_{\\rm{eff}}$, $\\log g$, and [Fe/H]) are within the range of ordinary solar-analog stars. We measured Ca II 8542 and H$\\alpha$ lines, which are good indicators of the chromospheric activity. The intensity of these lines indicates that all the target stars have large starspots. We also measured $v\\sin i$ (projected rotational velocity) and Lithium abundan...

  10. Improving fold activation of small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) with rational RNA engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarai; Chappell, James; Sankar, Sitara; Chew, Rebecca; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory RNAs have become integral components of the synthetic biology and bioengineering toolbox for controlling gene expression. We recently expanded this toolbox by creating small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) that act by disrupting the formation of a target transcriptional terminator hairpin placed upstream of a gene. While STARs are a promising addition to the repertoire of RNA regulators, much work remains to be done to optimize the fold activation of these systems. Here we apply rational RNA engineering strategies to improve the fold activation of two STAR regulators. We demonstrate that a combination of promoter strength tuning and multiple RNA engineering strategies can improve fold activation from 5.4-fold to 13.4-fold for a STAR regulator derived from the pbuE riboswitch terminator. We then validate the generality of our approach and show that these same strategies improve fold activation from 2.1-fold to 14.6-fold for an unrelated STAR regulator, opening the door to creating a range of additional STARs to use in a broad array of biotechnologies. We also establish that the optimizations preserve the orthogonality of these STARs between themselves and a set of RNA transcriptional repressors, enabling these optimized STARs to be used in sophisticated circuits.

  11. Quenching of the star formation activity in cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, A.; Roehlly, Y.; Fossati, M.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Boquien, M.; Burgarella, D.; Ciesla, L.; Gavazzi, G.; Serra, P.

    2016-11-01

    We study the star formation quenching mechanism in cluster galaxies by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Herschel Reference Survey, a complete volume-limited K-band-selected sample of nearby galaxies including objects in different density regions, from the core of the Virgo cluster to the general field. The SEDs of the target galaxies were fitted using the CIGALE SED modelling code. The truncated activity of cluster galaxies was parametrised using a specific star formation history with two free parameters, the quenching age QA and the quenching factor QF. These two parameters are crucial for the identification of the quenching mechanism, which acts on long timescales when starvation processes are at work, but is rapid and efficient when ram pressure occurs. To be sensitive to an abrupt and recent variation of the star formation activity, we combined twenty photometric bands in the UV to far-infrared in a new way with three age-sensitive Balmer line absorption indices extracted from available medium-resolution (R 1000) integrated spectroscopy and with Hα narrow-band imaging data. The use of a truncated star formation history significantly increases the quality of the fit in HI-deficient galaxies of the sample, that is to say, in those objects whose atomic gas content has been removed during the interaction with the hostile cluster environment. The typical quenching age of the perturbed late-type galaxies is QA ≲ 300 Myr whenever the activity of star formation is reduced by 50% 80%, while that of the quiescent early-type objects is QA ≃ 1-3 Gyr. The fraction of late-type galaxies with a star formation activity reduced by QF > 80% and with an HI-deficiency parameter HI-def > 0.4 drops by a factor of 5 from the inner half virial radius of the Virgo cluster (R/Rvir 4). The efficient quenching of the star formation activity observed in Virgo suggests that the dominant stripping process is ram pressure. We discuss the implication of this result in

  12. Constraints on the Star Formation Rate in Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M; Im, M; Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Im, Myungshin

    2006-01-01

    The [O II] 3727 emission line is often used as an indicator of star formation rate in extragalactic surveys, and it can be an equally effective tracer of star formation in systems containing luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In order to investigate the ongoing star formation rate of the host galaxies of AGNs, we measured the strength of [O II] and other optical emission lines from a large sample (~ 3600) of broad-line (Type 1) AGNs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We performed a set of photoionization calculations to help evaluate the relative contribution of stellar and nonstellar photoionization to the observed strength of [O II]. Consistent with the recent study of Ho (2005), we find that the observed [O II] emission can be explained entirely by photoionization from the AGN itself, with little or no additional contribution from HII regions. This indicates that the host galaxies of Type 1 AGNs experience very modest star formation concurrent with the optically active phase of the nucleus. B...

  13. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, C1428EHA-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brown, B. P. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Soderblom, D. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henry, T. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Hall, J. C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  14. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information & Activity Booklet Grades K-8, 1997-1998. Star-Child--A Learning Center for Young Astronomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for kindergarten through grade 8 classrooms. Background information on massive stars and medium stars and activities with subjects such as star life, constellation shapes, nebula terminology, astronomical distances, and pulsars is included. The 12…

  15. Spots, activity cycles, and differential rotation on cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The first results are reported from a search for activity cycles in stars similar to the sun based on modelling their spotting with an algorithm developed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Of the more than thirty program stars, 10 manifested a cyclical variation in their central latitudes and total starspot area. The observed cycles have durations of 4-15 years, i.e., analogous to the 11 year Schwabe sunspot cycle. Most of the stars have a rough analog of the solar butterfly pattern, with a reduction in the average latitude of the spots as their area increases. A flip-flop effect during the epoch of the maximum average latitude is noted in a number of these objects (e.g., the analog LQ Hya of the young sun or the RS CVn-type variable V711 Tau), as well as a reduction in the photometric rotation period of a star as the spots drift toward the equator, an analog of the differential rotation effect in the sun. Unlike in the sun, the observed spot formation cycles do not correlate uniquely with other indicators of activity— chromospheric emission in the CaII HK lines (Be Cet, EK Dra, Dx Leo), H line emission (LQ Hya, VY Ari, EV Lac), or cyclical flare activity (EV Lac). In V833 Tau, BY Dra, EK Dra, and VY Ari short Schwabe cycles coexist with long cycles that are analogous to the Gleissberg solar cycle, in which the spotted area can approach half the entire area of the star.

  16. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

  17. The evolution of galaxy star formation activity in massive halos

    CERN Document Server

    Popesso, P; Finoguenov,; Wilman, D; Salvato, M; Magnelli, B; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Rodighiero, G; Ziparo, F; Berta, S; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Lutz, D; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Cimatti, A; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Nordon, R; Poglitsch, A; Xu, C K

    2014-01-01

    There is now a large consensus that the current epoch of the Cosmic Star Formation History (CSFH) is dominated by low mass galaxies while the most active phase at 1~1, the most IR-luminous galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) are preferentially located in groups, and this is consistent with a reversal of the star-formation rate vs .density anti-correlation observed in the nearby Universe. At these redshifts, group galaxies contribute 60-80% of the CSFH, i.e. much more than at lower redshifts. Below z~1, the comoving number and SFR densities of IR-emitting galaxies in groups decline significantly faster than those of all IR-emitting galaxies. Our results are consistent with a "halo downsizing" scenario and highlight the significant role of "environment" quenching in shaping the CSFH.

  18. EUV Flare Activity in Late-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Audard, M; Drake, J J; Kashyap, V L; Audard, Marc; Guedel, Manuel; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2000-01-01

    \\textit{Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer} Deep Survey observations of cool stars (spectral type F to M) have been used to investigate the distribution of coronal flare rates in energy and its relation to activity indicators and rotation parameters. Cumulative and differential flare rate distributions were constructed and fitted with different methods. Power laws are found to approximately describe the distributions. A trend toward flatter distributions for later-type stars is suggested in our sample. Assuming that the power laws continue below the detection limit, we have estimated that the superposition of flares with radiated energies of about $10^{29}-10^{31}$ergs could explain the observed radiative power loss of these coronae, while the detected flares are contributing only $\\approx 10$%. While the power-law index is not correlated with rotation parameters (rotation period, projected rotational velocity, Rossby number) and only marginally with the X-ray luminosity, the flare occurrence rate is correlated wit...

  19. Magnetic Activity Cycles in the Exoplanet Host Star epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, T S; Brown, B P; Mathur, S; Soderblom, D R; Henry, T J; Mauas, P J D; Petrucci, R; Hall, J C; Basu, S

    2012-01-01

    The active K2 dwarf epsilon Eri has been extensively characterized, both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3 year magnetic activity cycle in epsilon Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3 year and 13 year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3 year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95+/-0.03 years and 12.7+/-0.3 years, which by analogy with the solar case suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called "active" and "inactive" sequences as proposed by Bohm-V...

  20. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This NASA grant covered EUVE observing and data analysis programs during EUVE Cycle 5 GO observing. The research involved a single Guest Observer project 97-EUVE-061 "Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars". The grant provided funding that covered 1.25 months of the PI's salary. The activities undertaken included observation planning and data analysis (both temporal and spectral). This project was awarded 910 ksec of observing time to study seven active binary stars, all but one of which were actually observed. Lambda-And was observed on 1997 Jul 30 - Aug 3 and Aug 7-14 for a total of 297 ksec; these observations showed two large complex flares that were analyzed by Osten & Brown (1999). AR Psc, observed for 350 ksec on 1997 Aug 27 - Sep 13, showed only relatively small flares that were also discussed by Osten & Brown (1999). EUVE observations of El Eri were obtained on 1994 August 24-28, simultaneous with ASCA X-ray spectra. Four flares were detected by EUVE with one of these also observed simultaneously, by ASCA. The other three EUVE observations were of the stars BY Dra (1997 Sep 22-28), V478 Lyr (1998 May 18-27), and sigma Gem (1998 Dec 10-22). The first two stars showed a few small flares. The sigma Gem data shows a beautiful complete flare with a factor of ten peak brightness compared to quiescence. The flare rise and almost all the decay phase are observed. Unfortunately no observations in other spectral regions were obtained for these stars. Analysis of the lambda-And and AR Psc observations is complete and the results were published in Osten & Brown (1999). Analysis of the BY Dra, V478 Lyr and sigma Gem EUVE data is complete and will be published in Osten (2000, in prep.). The El Eri EUV analysis is also completed and the simultaneous EUV/X-ray study will be published in Osten et al. (2000, in prep.). Both these latter papers will be submitted in summer 2000. All these results will form part of Rachel Osten's PhD thesis.

  1. Magnetar activity mediated by plastic deformations of neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    We advance a "Solar flare" model of magnetar activity, whereas a slow evolution of the magnetic field in the upper crust, driven by electron MHD (EMHD) flows, twists the external magnetic flux tubes, producing persistent emission, bursts and flares. At the same time the neutron star crust plastically relieves the imposed magnetic field stress, limiting the strain $ \\epsilon_t $ to values well below the critical strain $ \\epsilon_{crit}$ of a brittle fracture, $ \\epsilon_t \\sim 10^{-2}\\epsilon_{crit} $. Magnetar-like behavior, occurring near the magnetic equator, takes place in all neutron stars, but to a different extent. The persistent luminosity is proportional to cubic power of the magnetic field (at a given age), and hence is hardly observable in most rotationally powered neutron stars. Giant flares can occur only if the magnetic field exceeds some threshold value, while smaller bursts and flares may take place in relatively small magnetic fields. Bursts and flares are magnetospheric reconnection events t...

  2. Chromospherically active stars. X - Spectroscopy and photometry of HD 212280

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Browning, Jared C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Morton, Mary D.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1993-01-01

    The system HD 212280 is a chromospherically active double lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 45.284 days and an eccentricity of 0.50. The spectrum is composite with spectral types of G8 IV and F5-8 V for the components. An estimated inclination of 78 +/- 8 deg results in masses of 1.7 and 1.4 solar mass for the G subgiant and mid-F star, respectively. The distance to the system is estimated to be 112 pc. Photometric observations obtained between 1987 November and 1992 June reveal that HD 212280 is a newly identified variable star with a V amplitude of about 0.15 mag and a mean period of 29.46 days. Our V data were divided into 11 sets and in all but one case two spots were required to fit the data. Lifetimes of 650 days and a minimum of 1350 days have been determined for two of the four spots. The differential rotation coefficient of 0.05 is relatively small. The age of the system is about 1.9 X 10 exp 9 yrs. The G subgiant is rotating slower than pseudosynchronously while the F-type star is rotating faster.

  3. The Circumnuclear Star-forming Activities along the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Peng, Z; Shi, Lei; Gu, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhixin

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the circumnuclear star-forming activity along the Hubble sequence, we cross-correlate the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) to derive a large sample of 1015 galaxies with both morphological and spectral information. Among these, 385 sources are classified as star-forming galaxies and the SDSS fibre covered the circumnuclear regions (0.2 $-$ 2.0 kpc). By using the spectral synthesis method to remove the contribution from the underlying old stellar population, we measure the emission lines fluxes accurately which are then used to estimate the star formation rates(SFRs). Our main findings are that: (1) Early-type spirals show much larger H$\\alpha$ luminosities and hence higher SFRs, they also suffer more extinctions than late-type ones. The equivalent widths (EWs) of H$\\alpha$ emission lines show the similar trend, however, the very late types (Sdm $\\sim$ Irr) do have large fractions of high EWs. (2) We confirm that D$_n...

  4. Rotation, activity, and lithium abundance in cool binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Järvinen, S.

    2012-10-01

    We have used two robotic telescopes to obtain time-series high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy and V I and/or by photometry for a sample of 60 active stars, mostly binaries. Orbital solutions are presented for 26 double-lined systems and for 19 single-lined systems, seven of them for the first time but all of them with unprecedented phase coverage and accuracy. Eighteen systems turned out to be single stars. The total of 6609 {R=55 000} échelle spectra are also used to systematically determine effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, rotational velocities, lithium abundances and absolute Hα-core fluxes as a function of time. The photometry is used to infer unspotted brightness, {V-I} and/or b-y colors, spot-induced brightness amplitudes and precise rotation periods. An extra 22 radial-velocity standard stars were monitored throughout the science observations and yield a new barycentric zero point for our STELLA/SES robotic system. Our data are complemented by literature data and are used to determine rotation-temperature-activity relations for active binary components. We also relate lithium abundance to rotation and surface temperature. We find that 74 % of all known rapidly-rotating active binary stars are synchronized and in circular orbits but 26 % (61 systems) are rotating asynchronously of which half have {P_rot>P_orb} and {e>0}. Because rotational synchronization is predicted to occur before orbital circularization active binaries should undergo an extra spin-down besides tidal dissipation. We suspect this to be due to a magnetically channeled wind with its subsequent braking torque. We find a steep increase of rotation period with decreasing effective temperature for active stars, P_rot ∝ T_eff-7, for both single and binaries, main sequence and evolved. For inactive, single giants with {P_rot>100} d, the relation is much weaker, {P_rot ∝ T_eff-1.12}. Our data also indicate a period-activity relation for Hα of the form {R_Hα ∝ P

  5. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Erfanianfar, G; Finoguenov, A; Wuyts, S; Wilman, D; Biviano, A; Ziparo, F; Salvato, M; Nandra, K; Lutz, D; Elbaz, D; Dickinson, M; Tanaka, M; Mirkazemi, M; Balogh, M L; Altieri, M B; Aussel, H; Bauer, F; Berta, S; Bielby, R M; Brandt, N; Cappelluti, N; Cimatti, A; Cooper, M; Fadda, D; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Magnelli, B; Mulchaey, J S; Nordon, R; Newman, J A; Poglitsch, A; Pozzi, F

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass and halo occupation distribution in massive halos by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of SFR for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from SED fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high redshift groups (0.5activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive halos than in the more common lower mass ...

  6. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander

    EUVE has provided the first stellar coronal spectra showing individual emission lines, thereby allowing coronal modelling at a level of sophistication previously unattainable. Long EUVE observations have shown the prevalence of large-scale flaring in the coronae of active binary stars. We propose to obtain EUVE DSS spectra and photometry for 8 active binaries, four of which have never been observed by EUVE (EI Eri, AR Psc, V478 Lyr, BY Dra) and four EUV-bright systems that merit reobservation (Sigma CrB, Sigma Gem, Xi UMa, Lambda And). We shall use these observations to derive high quality quiescent coronal spectra for modelling, and to obtain new flare data. We shall try to coordinate these observations with ground-based radio observations and other spacecraft, if the scheduling allows. The proposed observations will significantly increase the available EUVE spectroscopy of active binaries.

  7. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  8. EXPLORING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ptak, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, D.; Bertincourt, B. [Columbia University, Department of Astronomy, New York, NY 10027 (United States); O' Dowd, M. [Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic contributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m emission line is well correlated with the star formation rate measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star-forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGNs show a clear excess of [Ne III] 15.6 {mu}m emission relative to star-forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [Ne V] 14.3 {mu}m to [Ne II] {mu}m 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7 {mu}m, 11.3 {mu}m, and 17 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, and the optical 'D' parameter which measures the distance at which a source lies from the locus of star-forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 {mu}m feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  9. Mid-infrared Spectral Indicators of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Normal Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; O'Dowd, Matt; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Martins, Lucimara; Seibert, Mark; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared (MIR) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, the continuum, and emission lines as probes of star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 100 "normal" and local (z similar to 0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra wer

  10. The young active star SAO 51891 (V383 Lac)

    CERN Document Server

    Biazzo, Katia; Marilli, Ettore; Covino, Elvira; Alcala', Juan M; Cakirli, Omur; Klutsch, Alexis; Meyer, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Our aim is investigating surface inhomogeneities of the young late-type star SAO51891, from photosphere to upper chromosphere, analyzing contemporaneous high-resolution spectra and broad-band photometry. The FOCES@CAHA spectral range is used to determine spectral classification and derive vsini and Vrad. The Li abundance is measured to estimate the age. The BVRIJHKs bands are used to construct the SED. The variations of our BV fluxes and Teff are used to infer the presence of photospheric spots and observe their behavior over time. The chromospheric activity is studied applying the spectral subtraction technique to Halpha, CaII H&K, Heps, and CaII IRT lines. We find SAO51891 to be a young K0-1V star with Li abundance close to the Pleiades upper envelope, confirming its youth (~100 Myr), also inferred from its kinematical membership to the Local Association. We detect no IR excess from SED analysis, and rotational modulation of luminosity, Teff, CaII, and Heps total fluxes. A spot model with two active reg...

  11. The quenching of the star formation activity in cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Fossati, M; Buat, V; Boissier, S; Boquien, M; Burgarella, D; Ciesla, L; Gavazzi, G; Serra, P

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation quenching mechanism in cluster galaxies by fitting the SED of the Herschel Reference Survey, a complete volume-limited K-band-selected sample of nearby galaxies including objects in different density regions, from the core of the Virgo cluster to the general field. The SED are fitted using the CIGALE SED modelling code. The truncated activity of cluster galaxies is parametrised using a specific SFH with 2 free parameters, the quenching age QA and the quenching factor QF. These 2 parameters are crucial for the identification of the quenching mechanism which acts on long timescales if starvation while rapid and efficient if ram pressure. To be sensitive to an abrupt and recent variation of the star formation activity, we combine in a new way 20 UV to FIR photometric bands with 3 age-sensitive Balmer line absorption indices extracted from available medium-resolution integrated spectroscopy and with Halpha narrow band imaging data. The use of a truncated SFH significantly increases the...

  12. Bar effects on central star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seulhee; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2011-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be a channel of gas inflow to the galactic center and trigger central star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially on AGN. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 < z < 0.05) bright (Mr < -19) database, we have constructed a sample of 6,658 relatively face-on late-type galaxies through visual inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGN are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black-hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degenera...

  13. Synthetic activity indicators for M-type dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a set of time-dependent 3D RMHD simulations of a M-dwarf star representative of AD Leo, which extend from the upper convection zone into the chromosphere. The 3D model atmospheres are characterized by a very dynamic and intermittent structure on small spatial and temporal scales and a wealth of physical processes, which by nature cannot be described by means of 1D static model atmospheres. Artificial observations of these models imply that a combination of complementary diagnostics such as Ca II lines and the continuum intensity from UV to millimeter wavelengths, probe various properties of the dynamics, thermal and magnetic structure of the photosphere and the chromosphere and thus provide measures of stellar activity, which can be compared to observations. The complicated magnetic field structure and its imprint in synthetic diagnostics may have important implications for the understanding and characterization of stellar activity and with it possibly for the evaluation of planetary habitabi...

  14. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar neighbourhood: characterizing possible exoplanetary system host stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arnáiz, Raquel M.

    2011-06-01

    This dissertation has investigated the chromospheric activity and rotation of nearby cool stars, which can potentially host exoplanetary systems. 1. High-resolution echelle spectra have been obtained for 565 nearby (d ≤ 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to M) stars. The observations were taken using high resolution echelle optical spectrographs. The observations were designed to ensure a spectral coverage including all the optical magnetic activity indicator lines: from the Ca II H & K lines to the Ca II IRT, including all the Balmer lines Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, and H?. This fact has ensured a simultaneous analysis of the magnetic activity using different diagnostics. The spectral coverage of the spectra has also permitted a precise analysis of the stellar properties as well as rotational and radial velocities. 2. The suitability of the stars as targets in exoplanetary search surveys has been analysed using the results obtained in the spectroscopic survey. Using the measured chromospheric activity in the optical spectrum, activity-induced RV jitter has been calculated for the active stars in the sample. Although the intrinsic variability of stellar activity makes it impossible to directly subtract the computed values from the RV signal, it provides an estimation of the activity-related noise. Therefore, this values can be used to set the minimum detectable mass for a planet orbiting the star or to determine the minimal amplitude variation that could indicate the existence of a planet. The compilation of the activity, rotation and predicted activity-induced RV jitter build up into a catalogue that determines the suitability of the stars as targets in exoplanet search surveys. 3. The relationship between pairs of excess surface flux in different activity diagnostics has been analysed using the results from the spectroscopic survey. The results show a clear correlation between the activity measured in different optical indicators. This fact confirms previous findings and

  15. Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active young solar type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hackman, Thomas; Rosén, Lisa; Kochukhov, Oleg; Käpylä, Maarit J

    2015-01-01

    By studying young magnetically active late-type stars, i.e. analogues to the young Sun, one can draw conclusions on the evolution of the solar dynamo. We determine the topology of the surface magnetic field and study the relation between the magnetic field and cool photospheric spots in three young late-type stars. High-resolution spectropolarimetry of the targets were obtained with the HARPSpol instrument mounted at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of the Stokes IV measurements were boosted by combining the signal from a large number of spectroscopic absorption lines through the least squares deconvolution technique. Surface brightness and magnetic field maps were calculated using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique. All the three targets show clear signs of both magnetic fields and cool spots. Only one of the targets, namely V1358 Ori, shows evidence of the dominance of non-axisymmetric modes. In two of the targets, the poloidal field is significantly stronger than the toroidal one, indic...

  16. The star formation rates of active galactic nuclei host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Rosario, David J; Mendel, J Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Using artificial neural network (ANN) predictions of total infra-red luminosities (LIR), we compare the host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) of ~21,000 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), 466 low excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) and 721 mid-IR selected AGN. SFR offsets (Delta SFR) relative to a sample of star-forming `main sequence' galaxies (matched in M*, z and local environment) are computed for the AGN hosts. Optically selected AGN exhibit a wide range of Delta SFR, with a distribution skewed to low SFRs and a median Delta SFR = -0.06 dex. The LERGs have SFRs that are shifted to even lower values with a median Delta SFR = -0.5 dex. In contrast, mid-IR selected AGN have, on average, SFRs enhanced by a factor ~1.5. We interpret the different distributions of Delta SFR amongst the different AGN classes in the context of the relative contribution of triggering by galaxy mergers. Whereas the LERGs are predominantly fuelled through low accretion rate secular processes which are not accompanied ...

  17. Active star formation at intermediate Galactic latitude: the case of IRAS 06345-3023

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, J L

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a small aggregate of young stars seen in high-resolution, deep near-infrared ($JHK_S$) images towards IRAS 06345-3023 in the outer Galaxy and well below the mid-plane of the Galactic disc. The group of young stars is likely to be composed of low-mass stars, mostly Class I young stellar objects. The stars are seen towards a molecular cloud whose CO map peaks at the location of the IRAS source. The near-infrared images reveal, additionally, the presence of nebular emission with rich morphological features, including arcs in the vicinity of embedded stars, wisps and bright rims of a butterfly-shaped dark cloud. The location of this molecular cloud as a new star formation site well below the Galactic plane in the outer Galaxy indicates that active star formation is taking place at vertical distances larger than those typical of the (thin) disc.

  18. First Detection of Linear Polarization in the Line Profiles of Active Cool Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochukhov, O.; Makaganiuk, V.; Piskunov, N.; Snik, F.; Jeffers, S.V.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Keller, C.U.; Rodenhuis, M.; Valenti, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of high-resolution spectropolarimetry has led to major progress in understanding the magnetism and activity of late-type stars. During the last decade, magnetic fields have been discovered and mapped for many types of active cool stars using spectropolarimetric data. However, these o

  19. Stellar activity of planetary host star HD 189 733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, I.; Moutou, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Bouchy, F.; Pont, F.; Hébrard, G.; Bonfils, X.; Croll, B.; Delfosse, X.; Desort, M.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Loeillet, B.; Lovis, C.; Matthews, J. M.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Queloz, D.; Rowe, J. F.; Santos, N. C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2009-03-01

    Aims: Extra-solar planet search programs require high-precision velocity measurements. They need to determine how to differentiate between radial-velocity variations due to Doppler motion and the noise induced by stellar activity. Methods: We monitored the active K2V star HD 189 733 and its transiting planetary companion, which has a 2.2-day orbital period. We used the high-resolution spectograph SOPHIE mounted on the 1.93-m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence to obtain 55 spectra of HD 189 733 over nearly two months. We refined the HD 189 733b orbit parameters and placed limits on both the eccentricity and long-term velocity gradient. After subtracting the orbital motion of the planet, we compared the variability in spectroscopic activity indices with the evolution in the radial-velocity residuals and the shape of spectral lines. Results: The radial velocity, the spectral-line profile, and the activity indices measured in He I (5875.62 Å), Hα (6562.81 Å), and both of the Ca II H&K lines (3968.47 Å and 3933.66 Å, respectively) exhibit a periodicity close to the stellar-rotation period and the correlations between them are consistent with a spotted stellar surface in rotation. We used these correlations to correct for the radial-velocity jitter due to stellar activity. This results in achieving high precision in measuring the orbital parameters, with a semi-amplitude K = 200.56 ± 0.88 m s-1 and a derived planet mass of MP = 1.13 ± 0.03 M_Jup. Based on observations collected with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, by the SOPHIE Consortium (program 07A.PNP.CONS).

  20. Stars and Planets: A New Set of Middle School Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A set of lesson plans for grades 6-8 which deal with the sizes and distances of stars and planets using a scale factor of 1 to 10 billion, the life cycle of stars, and the search for planets beyond the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Active star-forming galaxies in the X ray foreground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Padovani, P.

    1989-01-01

    Star forming galaxies were discovered as a component of the X-ray background (XRB) in the Einstein deep surveys. Such star forming galaxies may be largely powered by superluminous Population 1 massive X-ray binaries (MXRB), formed in the wake of star formation in regions of low metallicity. The star forming galaxies with moderate numbers of MXRB may evolve into the infrared starburst galaxies found at low redshifts using IRAS (Infrared Astronomy Satellite), and may also be related to those galaxies identified with sub-mJy radio sources. A conservative contribution to the XRB of at least approximately 15 percent, without evolution is estimated. It is shown that moderate evolution leads to a contribution at least equalling that of quasars. Above 3 keV, star forming galaxies may dominate the XRB.

  2. Evolutionary status of the active star PZ Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Pakhomov, Yu V; Bondar, N I; Gorynya, N A; Semenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    We use original spectra and available photometric data to recover parameters of the stellar atmosphere of PZ Mon, formerly referred as an active red dwarf. The derived effective temperature Teff=4700K and gravity lgg=2.8 suggest that PZ Mon is a K2III giant. Stellar atmosphere parameters (Teff and lgg) alongside with the evolutionary tracks are used to estimate the stellar mass of ~1.5Mo and the radius of ~7.7Ro. The angular radius derived by the infrared flux method when combined with the linear radius suggests the distance of 250+/-70 pc, a factor 2.5 smaller than that suggested by the Hipparcos parallax. The red giant status of PZ Mon is confirmed by the carbon and nitrogen abundance. The spectrum reveals pronounced HeI 5876 A absorption and Halpha emission indicating the robust chromosphere. The IUE spectrum is found to contain transition layer emission line of CIV 1550 A. The CIV and X-ray luminosities turn out typical of RS CVn stars. The extended set of available photometric data confirms the period of...

  3. Change in activity character of coronae of low-mass stars of various spectral types

    CERN Document Server

    Nizamov, B A; Livshits, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the dependence of the coronal activity index on the star's rotation rate. This question was considered earlier for 824 late-type stars on the basis of a consolidated catalogue of the soft X-ray fluxes. We carry out a more refined analysis separately for G, K and M dwarfs. They distinctively exhibit two modes of activity. The first one is the saturation mode, it is characteristic of young stars and is practically not related to their rotation. The second one refers to the solar-type activity the level of which strongly depends on the rotation period. We show that the transition from one mode to another takes place at the rotation periods of 1.1, 3.3 and 7.2 days for the stars of spectral types G2, K4 and M3 respectively. In the light of the discovery of superflares on G and K stars on the Kepler spacecraft there arises a question of how these objects differ from other active late-type stars. We analyse the location of superflare stars relative to the stars observed by Kepler on the "amplitude of rotat...

  4. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of some very Active Southern Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Henry, Todd J.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra of 18 solar-type stars that an earlier survey showed to have very high levels of Ca II H and K emission. Most of these stars belong to close binary systems, but five remain as probable single stars or well-separated binaries that are younger than the Pleiades on the basis of their lithium abundances and H.alpha emission. Three of these probable single stars also lie more than 1 mag above the main sequence in a color-magnitude diagram, and appear to have ages of 10 to 15 Myr. Two of them, HD 202917 and HD 222259, also appear to have a kinematic association with the pre-main-sequence multiple system HD 98800.

  5. Rotation, differential rotation, and gyrochronology of active Kepler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The high-precision photometry from the CoRoT and Kepler satellites has led to measurements of surface rotation periods for tens of thousands of stars. Our main goal is to derive ages of thousands of field stars using consistent rotation period measurements in different gyrochronology relations. Multiple rotation periods are interpreted as surface differential rotation (DR). We re-analyze the sample of 24,124 Kepler stars from Reinhold et al. (2013) using different approaches based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Each quarter (Q1-Q14) is treated individually using a prewhitening approach. Additionally, the full time series, and different segments thereof are analyzed. For more than 18,500 stars our results are consistent with the rotation periods from McQuillan et al. (2014). Thereof, more than 12,300 stars show multiple significant peaks, which we interpret as DR. Gyrochronology ages between 100 Myr and 10 Gyr were derived for more than 17,000 stars using different gyrochronology relations. We find a bimodal...

  6. First detection of linear polarization in the line profiles of active cool stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Snik, F; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Valenti, J A

    2011-01-01

    The application of high-resolution spectropolarimetry has led to major progress in understanding the magnetism and activity of late-type stars. During the last decade, magnetic fields have been discovered and mapped for many types of active cool stars using spectropolarimetric data. However, these observations and modeling attempts are fundamentally incomplete since they are based on the interpretation of the circular polarization alone. Taking advantage of the newly built HARPS polarimeter, we have obtained the first systematic observations of several cool active stars in all four Stokes parameters. Here we report the detection of magnetically-induced linear polarization for the primary component of the very active RS CVn binary HR 1099 and for the moderately active K dwarf epsilon Eri. For both stars the amplitude of linear polarization signatures is measured to be ~10^{-4} of the unpolarized continuum, which is approximately a factor of ten lower than for circular polarization. This is the first detection ...

  7. The role of dust in "active" and "passive" low-metallicity star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, N

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the role of dust in star formation activity of extremely metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). Observations suggest that star formation in BCDs occurs in two different regimes: "active" and "passive". The "active" BCDs host super star clusters (SSCs), and are characterised by compact size, rich H2 content, large dust optical depth, and high dust temperature; the "passive" BCDs are more diffuse with cooler dust, and lack SSCs and large amounts of H2. By treating physical processes concerning formation of stars and dust, we are able to simultaneously reproduce all the above properties of both modes of star formation (active and passive). We find that the difference between the two regimes can be understood through the variation of the "compactness" of the star-forming region: an "active" mode emerges if the region is compact (with radius $\\la 50$ pc) and dense (with gas number density $\\ga 500$ cm$^{-3}$). The dust, supplied from Type II supernovae in a compact star-forming region, effec...

  8. Bar Effects on Central Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seulhee; Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be channels of gas inflow to the galactic center and to trigger central star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially regarding AGNs. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGNs are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degeneracies, we inspect bar effects for fixed galaxy properties. Bar effects on central star formation seem higher in redder galaxies. Bar effects on AGNs on the other hand are higher in bluer and less massive galaxies. These effects seem more pronounced with increasing bar length. We discuss possible implications in terms of gas contents, bar strength, bar evolution, fueling timescale, and the dynamical role of supermassive black hole.

  9. Chromospherically Active Stars in the RAVE Survey. II. Young Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žerjal, M.; Zwitter, T.; Matijevič, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Seabroke, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Wojno, J.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Conrad, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kunder, A.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of over 38,000 chromospherically active candidate solar-like stars and cooler dwarfs from the RAVE survey is addressed in this paper. An improved activity identification with respect to the previous study was introduced to build a catalog of field stars in the solar neighborhood with an excess emission flux in the calcium infrared triplet wavelength region. The central result of this work is the calibration of the age–activity relation for main-sequence dwarfs in a range from a few 10 {Myr} up to a few Gyr. It enabled an order of magnitude age estimation of the entire active sample. Almost 15,000 stars are shown to be younger than 1 {Gyr} and ∼2000 younger than 100 {Myr}. The young age of the most active stars is confirmed by their position off the main sequence in the J ‑ K versus {N}{UV}-V diagram showing strong ultraviolet excess, mid-infrared excess in the J ‑ K versus {W}1-{W}2 diagram, and very cool temperatures (J-K> 0.7). They overlap with the reference pre-main-sequence RAVE stars often displaying X-ray emission. The activity level increasing with the color reveals their different nature from the solar-like stars and probably represents an underlying dynamo-generating magnetic fields in cool stars. Of the RAVE objects from DR5, 50% are found in the TGAS catalog and supplemented with accurate parallaxes and proper motions by Gaia. This makes the database of a large number of young stars in a combination with RAVE’s radial velocities directly useful as a tracer of the very recent large-scale star formation history in the solar neighborhood. The data are available online in the Vizier database.

  10. XUV-driven mass loss from extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadney, J. M.; Galand, M.; Unruh, Y. C.; Koskinen, T. T.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2015-04-01

    Upper atmospheres of Hot Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation conditions that can result in rapid atmospheric escape. The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of these planets are affected by the high-energy spectrum of the host star. This emission depends on stellar type and age, which are thus important factors in understanding the behaviour of exoplanetary atmospheres. In this study, we focus on Extrasolar Giant Planets (EPGs) orbiting K and M dwarf stars. XUV spectra for three different stars - ɛ Eridani, AD Leonis and AU Microscopii - are constructed using a coronal model. Neutral density and temperature profiles in the upper atmosphere of hypothetical EGPs orbiting these stars are then obtained from a fluid model, incorporating atmospheric chemistry and taking atmospheric escape into account. We find that a simple scaling based solely on the host star's X-ray emission gives large errors in mass loss rates from planetary atmospheres and so we have derived a new method to scale the EUV regions of the solar spectrum based upon stellar X-ray emission. This new method produces an outcome in terms of the planet's neutral upper atmosphere very similar to that obtained using a detailed coronal model of the host star. Our results indicate that in planets subjected to radiation from active stars, the transition from Jeans escape to a regime of hydrodynamic escape at the top of the atmosphere occurs at larger orbital distances than for planets around low activity stars (such as the Sun).

  11. Hormonal activation of a kinase cascade localized at the mitochondria is required for StAR protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderoso, Cecilia; Maloberti, Paula; Duarte, Alejandra; Neuman, Isabel; Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2009-03-01

    It is known that ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 participate in the regulation of Star gene transcription. However, their role in StAR protein post-transcriptional regulation is not described yet. In this study we analyzed the relationship between the MAPK cascade and StAR protein phosphorylation and function. We have demonstrated that (a) steroidogenesis in MA-10 Leydig cells depends on the specific of ERK1/2 activation at the mitochondria; (b) ERK1/2 phosphorylation is driven by mitochondrial PKA and constitutive MEK1/2 in this organelle; (c) active ERK1/2 interacts with StAR protein, leads to StAR protein phosphorylation at Ser(232) only in the presence of cholesterol; (d) directed mutagenesis of Ser(232) (S232A) inhibited in vitro StAR protein phosphorylation by ERK1; (e) transient transfection of MA-10 cells with StAR S232A cDNA markedly reduced the yield of progesterone production. We show that StAR protein is a substrate of ERK1/2, and that mitochondrial ERK1/2 is part of a multimeric complex that regulates cholesterol transport.

  12. Long-term stellar activity variations of stars from the HARPS M-dwarf sample: Comparison between activity indices

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, J Gomes; Bonfils, X

    2010-01-01

    We used four known chromospheric activity indicators to measure long-term activity variations in a sample of 23 M-dwarf stars from the HARPS planet search program. We compared the indices using weighted Pearson correlation coefficients and found that in general (i) the correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{Na}{i} is very strong and does not depend on the activity level of the stars, (ii) the correlation between our $S_{CaII}$ and H$\\alpha$ seems to depend on the activity level of the stars, and (iii) there is no strong correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{He}{i} for these type of stars.

  13. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  14. Investigating Binarity and Active Accretion in a New Class of AGB Stars with FUV Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2013-09-01

    We propose a pilot survey for X-ray emission from AGB stars that are candidates for having binary companions with active accretion. These objects were identified via our innovative technique to search for FUV/NUV excesses in AGB stars using GALEX. The detection (or non-detection) of X-rays from this sample will enable us to begin testing models for the origin of the UV-excesses, leading to vital breakthroughs in our understanding of accretion-related phenomena and binarity in AGB stars. A larger survey, optimised using results fron this study, will be proposed in future cycles.

  15. Dissecting Galaxies: Spatial and Spectral Separation of Emission Excited by Star Formation and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rebecca L; Kewley, Lisa J; Dopita, Michael A; Hampton, Elise J; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwachter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stephanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and AGN activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion onto an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (> 85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated...

  16. Examining the Flicker-Jitter Relation of K2 stars: the Dependence on Chromospheric Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhn, Jacob K.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Bastien et al. (2014) have shown that short timescale photometric variations from high-precision Kepler light curves, coined "flicker", can be linked to radial velocity (RV) noise, or "jitter", in chromospherically inactive stars. Observations of the sun show invariance in flicker over its 11-year activity cycle. Therefore, we seek to examine how well the relation holds for more active stars. Here we explore the relation between photometric flicker and RV jitter by extending the sample to stars observed by the recent K2 mission for which data have been released (Campaigns 0-8). The initial Kepler sample included 12 stars with surface gravities 3 TESS and other future telescopes which will produce high-precision light curves.

  17. A mixture of chamomile and star anise has anti-motility and antidiarrheal activities in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Díaz; Izel Vargas-Perez; Lidia Aguilar-Cruz; Roberto Calva-Rodríguez; Samuel Treviño; Berenice Venegas; Irma Rosalía Contreras-Mora

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is a serious public health problem in Mexico and other countries. A widely used alternative in the treatment of diarrhea is the use of herbal medicines. Infusions of chamomile and star anise possess anti-inflammatory and antimotility properties that could help alleviate gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mixture of chamomile and star anise infusions on gastrointestinal activity in mice. A gastrointestinal assessment of the mixture of ...

  18. Magnetic Activity of Pre-main Sequence Stars near the Stellar-Substellar Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, David A; Rodriguez, David

    2015-01-01

    X-ray observations of pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars of M-type probe coronal emission and offer a means to investigate magnetic activity at the stellar-substellar boundary. Recent observations of main sequence (MS) stars at this boundary display a decrease in fractional X-ray luminosity ($L_{X}$/$L_{bol}$) by almost two orders of magnitude for spectral types M7 and later. We investigate magnetic activity and search for a decrease in X-ray emission in the pre-MS progenitors of these MS stars. We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations and preliminary results for ~10 nearby (30-70 pc), very low mass pre-MS stars in the relatively unexplored age range of 10-30 Myr. We compare the fractional X-ray luminosities of these 10-30 Myr old stars to younger (1-3 Myr) pre-MS brown dwarfs and find no dependence on spectral type or age suggesting that X-ray activity declines at an age later than ~30 Myr in these very low-mass stars.

  19. Magnetic Activity of Pre-main Sequence Stars near the Stellar-Substellar Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David; Kastner, Joel. H.; Rodriguez, David

    2016-01-01

    X-ray observations of pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars of M-type probe coronal emission and offer a means to investigate magnetic activity at the stellar-substellar boundary. Recent observations of main sequence (MS) stars at this boundary display a decrease in fractional X-ray luminosity (L X /L bol ) by almost two orders of magnitude for spectral types M7 and later. We investigate magnetic activity and search for a decrease in X-ray emission in the pre-MS progenitors of these MS stars. We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations and preliminary results for ~10 nearby (30-70 pc), very low mass pre-MS stars in the relatively unexplored age range of 10-30 Myr. We compare the fractional X-ray luminosities of these 10-30 Myr old stars to younger (1-3 Myr) pre-MS brown dwarfs and find no dependence on spectral type or age suggesting that X-ray activity declines at an age later than ~30 Myr in these very low-mass stars.

  20. A Substantial Dust Disk Surrounding an Actively Accreting First-Ascent Giant Star

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, C; Song, I; Rhee, J H; Metchev, S

    2009-01-01

    We report identification of the first unambiguous example of what appears to be a new class of first-ascent giant stars that are actively accreting gas and dust and that are surrounded by substantial dusty disks. These old stars, who are nearing the end of their lives, are experiencing a rebirth into characteristics typically associated with newborn stars. The F2-type first-ascent giant star TYC 4144 329 2 is in a wide separation binary system with an otherwise normal G8 IV star, TYC 4144 329 1. From Keck near-infrared imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy we are able to determine that these two stars are $\\sim$1 Gyr old and reside at a distance of $\\sim$550 pc. One possible explanation for the origin of the accreting material is common-envelope interaction with a low-mass stellar or sub-stellar companion. The gaseous and dusty material around TYC 4144 329 2, as it is similar to the primordial disks observed around young classical T Tauri stars, could potentially give rise to a new generation of planets an...

  1. WASP-41b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Planet Orbiting a Magnetically Active G8V Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Street, R. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Gillon, M.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05 days orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8 V star (V = 11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the Ca ii H and K ines and photometric variability with a period of 18.4 days and an amplitude of about 1%. We use a new method to show quantitatively that this periodic signal has a low false-alarm probability. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8 Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.92 ± 0.06 MJup, 1.20 ± 0.06 RJup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

  2. Formation of neutral disk-like zone around the active hot stars in symbiotic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Carikova, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution we present the ionization structure in the enhanced wind from the hot star in symbiotic binaries during active phases. Rotation of the hot star leads to the compression of the outflowing material towards its equatorial plane. As a result a neutral disk-like zone around the active hot star near the orbital plane is created. We modelled the compression of the wind using the wind compression model. Further, we calculated the neutral disk-like zone in the enhanced wind from the hot star using the equation of the photoionization equilibrium. The presence of such neutral disk-like zones was also suggested on the basis of the modelling the spectral energy distribution of symbiotic binaries. We confront the calculated ionization structures in the enhanced wind from the hot star with the observations. We found that the calculated column density of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the neutral disk-like zone and the emission measure of the ionized part of the wind from the hot star are in a good agreem...

  3. Exploring the Connection Between Star Formation and AGN Activity in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman. T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Schiminovich, D.; O'Dowd, M.; Bertincourt, B.

    2012-01-01

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from SDSS and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic con- tributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [NeII] 12.8 micron emission-line is well correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGN show a clear excess of [NeIII] 15.6 micron emission relative to star forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including: the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [NeV] 14.3 micron to [NeII] micron 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7, 11.3, and 17 micron PAH features, and the optical "D" parameter which measures the distance a source lies from the locus of star forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN-dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 micron feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  4. Actively Star Forming Elliptical Galaxies at Low Redshifts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Fukugita, M; Turner, E L; Helmboldt, J; Nichol, R C; Fukugita, Masataka; Nakamura, Osamu; Turner, Edwin L.; Helmboldt, Joe

    2004-01-01

    We report discovery of actively star forming elliptical galaxies in a morphologically classified sample of bright galaxies at a low redshift obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The emission lines of these galaxies do not show the characteristics of active galactic nuclei, and thus their strong H$\\alpha$ emission is ascribed to star formation with a rate nearly as high as that is seen in typical late spiral galaxies. This is taken as evidence against the traditional view that all elliptical galaxies formed early and now evolve only passively. The frequency of such star forming elliptical galaxies is a few tenths of a percent in the sample, but increases to 3% if we include active S0 galaxies. We may identify these galaxies as probable progenitors of so-called E+A galaxies that show the strong Balmer absorption feature of A stars superimposed on an old star population. The approximate match of the abundance of active elliptical plus S0 galaxies with that of E+A galaxies indicates that the duration of su...

  5. Extraction and Antioxidative Activity of Essential Oil From Star Anise (Illicium verum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Star anise (Illiciumverum essential oil was extracted using solvent extraction method. The extraction yields and antioxidant activities of essential oils at different extraction times (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days and temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 °C were studied. The results showed that the highest yield of essential oil was 8.56 % by extracting star anise at 60 ⁰C for 7 days.The antioxidant activities of the extracted star anise essential oils were investigated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay on Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging method. The results showed that at least two different bands with antioxidant activity with different polarity were appeared on the TLC plates after spraying with DPPH and incubated for 30 minutes. The highest antioxidant activity of star anise essential oil was obtained when the sample was extracted at 60 ⁰C for 1 day (EC50 value = 0.089±0.05 mg/ml. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration (% of trans-Anethole present in the essential oils extracted at varied extraction times and temperatures was ranged from 77.29 % to 91.87 %.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was also done on a sample of star anise essential oil and a distinctive peak at retention time 13.84 minutes with peak area 100% was found to be Estragole compound. Anethole compound was also found to be present at two peaks.

  6. iota Horologi, the first coronal activity cycle in a young solar-like star

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz-Forcada, J; Metcalfe, T S; 10.1051/0004-6361/201321388

    2013-01-01

    Context: The shortest chromospheric (Ca II H&K) activity cycle (1.6 yr) has been recently discovered in the young (~600 Myr) solar-like star iota Hor. Coronal X-ray activity cycles have only been discovered in a few stars other than the Sun, all of them with an older age and a lower activity level than iota Hor. Aims: We intended to find the X-ray coronal counterpart of the chromospheric cycle for i Hor. This represents the first X-ray cycle observed in an active star, as well as the paradigm of the first coronal cycles in the life of a solar-like star. Methods: We monitored i Hor with XMM-Newton observations spanning almost two years. The spectra of each observation are fit with two-temperature coronal models to study the long-term variability of the star. Results: We find a cyclic behavior in X-rays very similar to the contemporaneous chromospheric cycle. The continuous chromospheric monitoring for more than three cycle lengths shows a trend toward decreasing amplitude, apparently modulated by a longer ...

  7. Measured Mass Loss Rates of Solar-like Stars as a Function of Age and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, B E; Zank, G P; Linsky, J L; Wood, Brian E.; Mueller, Hans-Reinhard; Zank, Gary P.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Collisions between the winds of solar-like stars and the local ISM result in a population of hot hydrogen gas surrounding these stars. Absorption from this hot H I can be detected in high resolution Lyman-alpha spectra of these stars from the Hubble Space Telescope. The amount of absorption can be used as a diagnostic for the stellar mass loss rate. We present new mass loss rate measurements derived in this fashion for four stars (Epsilon Eri, 61 Cyg A, 36 Oph AB, and 40 Eri A). Combining these measurements with others, we study how mass loss varies with stellar activity. We find that for the solar-like GK dwarfs, the mass loss per unit surface area is correlated with X-ray surface flux. Fitting a power law to this relation yields Mdot ~ Fx^(1.15+/-0.20). The active M dwarf Proxima Cen and the very active RS CVn system Lambda And appear to be inconsistent with this relation. Since activity is known to decrease with age, the above power law relation for solar-like stars suggests that mass loss decreases with t...

  8. Investigating Active Accretion, Flare Activity and a 50 Million Degree Corona in the cool AGB Star, Y Gem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2014-09-01

    We propose to make multi-epoch observations of the X-ray (and radio contiuum) emission from a cool AGB star, Y Gem. This star shows relatively strong X-ray emission implying the presence of 50 million degree coronal gas, and highly-variable FUV and NUV fluxes - likely evidence of variable accretion onto a magnetized accretion disk in a binary system. Y Gem is the most prominent member of a new class of AGB stars with FUV excesses identified using the GALEX archive. Our study will allow us to study the never-before explored phase of an active accretion disk in an AGB star with a binary companion. Such disks are believed to ultimately produce collimated jets that transform AGB circumsetllar envelopes into bipolar planetary nebulae.

  9. Early optical follow-up of the nearby active star DG CVn during its 2014 superflare

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Garcia, M D; Jelinek, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cwiek, A; Claret, A; Opiela, R; Zarnecki, A F; Gorosabel, J; Oates, S R; Cunniffe, R; Jeong, S; Hudec, R; Sokolov, V V; Makarov, D I; Tello, J C; Lara-Gil, O; Kubanek, P; Guziy, S; Bai, J; Fan, Y; Wang, C; Park, I H

    2015-01-01

    DG CVn is a binary system in which one of the components is an M type dwarf ultra fast rotator, only three of which are known in the solar neighborhood. Observations of DG CVn by the Swift satellite and several ground-based observatories during its super-flare event on 2014 allowed us to perform a complete hard X-ray - optical follow-up of a super-flare from the red-dwarf star. The observations support the fact that the super-flare can be explained by the presence of (a) large active region(s) on the surface of the star. Such activity is similar to the most extreme solar flaring events. This points towards a plausible extrapolation between the behaviour from the most active red-dwarf stars and the processes occurring in the Sun.

  10. H$_\\alpha$-activity and ages for stars in the SARG survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sissa, E; Desidera, S; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Bonfanti, A; Carolo, E; Vassallo, D; Claudi, R U; Endl, M; Cosentino, R

    2016-01-01

    Stellar activity influences radial velocity (RV) measurements and can also mimic the presence of orbiting planets. As part of the search for planets around the components of wide binaries performed with the SARG High Resolution Spectrograph at the TNG, it was discovered that HD 200466A shows strong variation in RV that is well correlated with the activity index based on H$_\\alpha$. We used SARG to study the H$_\\alpha$ line variations in each component of the binaries and a few bright stars to test the capability of the H$_\\alpha$ index of revealing the rotation period or activity cycle. We also analysed the relations between the average activity level and other physical properties of the stars. We finally tried to reveal signals in the RVs that are due to the activity. At least in some cases the variation in the observed RVs is due to the stellar activity. We confirm that H$_\\alpha$ can be used as an activity indicator for solar-type stars and as an age indicator for stars younger than 1.5 Gyr.

  11. Dissecting galaxies: spatial and spectral separation of emission excited by star formation and AGN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-10-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion on to an AGN. We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (>85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated spectrum. We separate the Hα, Hβ, [N II]λ6583, [S II]λλ6716, 6731, [O III]λ5007 and [O II]λλ3726, 3729 luminosities of every spaxel into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. The decomposed emission line images are used to derive the star formation rates and AGN bolometric luminosities for NGC 5728 and NGC 7679. Our calculated values are mostly consistent with independent estimates from data at other wavelengths. The recovered star-forming and AGN components also have distinct spatial distributions which trace structures seen in high-resolution imaging of the galaxies, providing independent confirmation that our decomposition has been successful.

  12. Disentangling star formation and AGN activity in powerful infrared luminous radio galaxies at 1 < z < 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouart, G.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; De Breuck, C.; Fioc, M.; Lehnert, M.; Seymour, N.; Stern, D.; Vernet, J.

    2016-09-01

    High-redshift radio galaxies present signs of both star formation and AGN activity, making them ideal candidates to investigate the connection and coevolution of AGN and star formation in the progenitors of present-day massive galaxies. We make use of a sample of 11 powerful radio galaxies spanning 1 relative contribution of the AGN and star formation by combining the galaxy evolution code PÉGASE.3 with an AGN torus model. We find that three components are necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs: an evolved and massive stellar component, a submm bright young starburst, and an AGN torus. We find that powerful radio galaxies form at very high-redshift, but experience episodic and important growth at 1 mass of the associated starburst varies from 5 to 50% of the total mass of the system. The properties of star formation differ from source to source, indicating no general trend of the star formation properties in the most infrared luminous high-redshift radio galaxies and no correlation with the AGN bolometric luminosity. Moreover, we find that AGN scattered light have a very limited impact on broad-band SED fitting on our sample. Finally, our analysis also suggests a wide range in origins for the observed star formation,which we partially constrain for some sources.

  13. Chromospherically active stars. II - HD 82558, a young single BY Draconis variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John L.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Palmer, Leigh Hunter

    1986-01-01

    It is presently noted that the HD 82558 chromospherically active star is a young and rapidly rotating K2 V single BY Draconis variable with very strong far-UV emission features and an H-alpha line filled to the continuum level by emission. HD 82558 has constant velocity and is not a member of the Hyades Supercluster. Its light curve behavior, which appears to have been stable for several hundred rotation cycles, is reminiscent of that of the young, rapidly rotating, single K V variable H II 1883 in the Pleiades; this stability may be characteristic of young, single, chromospherically active stars.

  14. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  15. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  16. Bulges and discs in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.; Concas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We use a sample built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue and the bulge-disc decomposition of Simard et al. (2011, ApJS, 196, 11) to study how the bulge and disc components contribute to the parent galaxy's star formation activity, by determining its position in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M⋆) plane at 0.02 age or metallicity content, suggesting different evolutionary paths for bulges on the MS and green valley with respect to those in the quiescence region. The disc g-r colour anti-correlates at any mass with the distance from the MS, getting redder when approaching the MS lower envelope and the quiescence region. The anti-correlation flattens as a function of the stellar mass, likely due to a higher level of dust obscuration in massive SF galaxies. We conclude that the position of a galaxy in the Log SFR - Log M⋆ plane depends on the star formation activity of its components: above the MS both bulge and disc are actively star forming. The nuclear activity is the first to be suppressed, moving the galaxies on the MS. Once the disc stops forming stars as well, the galaxy moves below the MS and eventually to the quiescence region. This is confirmed by a significant percentage ( 45%) of passive galaxies with a secure two component morphology, coexisting with a population of pure spheroidals. Our findings are qualitatively in agreement with the compaction-depletion scenario, in which subsequent phases of gas inflow in the centre of a galaxy and depletion due to high star formation activity move the galaxy across the MS before the final quenching episode takes place.

  17. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information and Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 1997-1998. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evaluation of the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for grade 9 through grade 12 classrooms. Background information about star birth and life, black dwarfs, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and the electromagnetic spectrum is included. The seven activities focus on star mass,…

  18. Stellar activity mimics a habitable-zone planet around Kapteyn's star

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2015-01-01

    Kapteyn's star is an old M subdwarf believed to be a member of the Galactic halo population of stars. A recent study has claimed the existence of two super-Earth planets around the star based on radial velocity (RV) observations. The innermost of these candidate planets--Kapteyn b (P = 48 days)--resides within the circumstellar habitable zone. Given recent progress in understanding the impact of stellar activity in detecting planetary signals, we have analyzed the observed HARPS data for signatures of stellar activity. We find that while Kapteyn's star is photometrically very stable, a suite of spectral activity indices reveals a large-amplitude rotation signal, and we determine the stellar rotation period to be 143 days. The spectral activity tracers are strongly correlated with the purported RV signal of "planet b," and the 48-day period is an integer fraction (1/3) of the stellar rotation period. We conclude that Kapteyn b is not a planet in the Habitable Zone, but an artifact of stellar activity.

  19. FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (< or =3000 K), thus their fluxes falls off drastically for wavelengths 3000 Angstroms and shorter. Therefore, ultraviolet observations offer an important, new technique for detecting the binary companions and/or associated accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.

  20. Massive molecular cloud cores and activities of star formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wu-Fei; Wu Yue-Fang; Wei Yue; Ju Bing-Gang

    2005-01-01

    We have mapped 23 sources in the J=1-0 lines of 12CO, 13CO and C18O with the 13.7-m telescope at Qinghai station of Purple Mountain Observatory. The samples were chosen from the massive star formation regions whose single point lines have the broad-wing profile. The mapping shows that 12 clouds have cores and 5 outflows were identified with the 12CO J=1-0 lines. Among the 12 cores, systematic velocity shifts were found in 2 cores, and blue asymmetric double-peak profile of 12CO line was found in IRAS 19529+2704, indicating that it may be an infall candidate. Physical parameters of the cores and outflows were derived from the local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The masses range from ~ 9.4 × 102M⊙ to ~ 2.2 × 105M⊙. The hydrogen molecule densities range from ~ 3.4 × 102cm-3 to~ 1.2 × 104cm-3. The molecular outflows have masses larger than 3.5M⊙, and kinetic energies greater than 0.9× 1038J.The outflows have significantly greater masses and kinetic energies than those from low-mass young stellar objects(YSOs). For the cores, 2MASS data are available, dozens of 2MASS sources with different colour indices and brightness are often found around IRAS source, among which the reddest 2MASS source is always within the IRAS error ellipse thus probably corresponds to the IRAS source.

  1. Thermally-Activated Post-Glitch Response of the Neutron Star Inner Crust and Core

    CERN Document Server

    Link, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Pinning of superfluid vortices is predicted to prevail throughout much of a neutron star. Here I develop a description of the coupling through thermally-activated vortex slippage}, and calculate the post-glitch response of a neutron star to a spin glitch. The theory has three robust conclusions: 1) If vortex pinning occurs in the core, typical large glitches decouple the core superfluid from the charged components over observable timescales. Core response to a glitch has a distinct observational signature that could be identified through analyses of existing and future timing data. 2) Post-glitch response over short timescales (days) in pulsars with large glitches (fractional spin jumps of $\\Delta\

  2. The Host Stars of Keplers Habitable Exoplanets: Superflares, Rotation and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, D J; Broomhall, A -M; Brown, D J A; Lund, M N; Osborn, H P; Pollacco, D L

    2015-01-01

    We embark on a detailed study of the lightcurves of Keplers most Earth-like exoplanet host stars using the full length of Kepler data. We derive rotation periods, photometric activity indices, flaring energies, mass loss rates, gyrochronological ages, X-ray luminosities and consider implications for the planetary magnetospheres and habitability. Furthermore, we present the detection of superflares in the lightcurve of Kepler-438, the exoplanet with the highest Earth Similarity Index to date. Kepler-438b orbits at a distance of 0.166AU to its host star, and hence may be susceptible to atmospheric stripping. Our sample is taken from the Habitable Exoplanet Catalogue, and consists of the stars Kepler-22, Kepler-61, Kepler-62, Kepler-174, Kepler-186, Kepler-283, Kepler-296, Kepler-298, Kepler-438, Kepler-440, Kepler-442, Kepler-443 and KOI-4427, between them hosting 15 of the most habitable transiting planets known to date from Kepler.

  3. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, E.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5%, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing that the targets are dwarf stars with spectral types between F and mid-K. Detectable Li i absorption in four of the targets confirms a low age of 100-400 Myr also deduced from gyrochronology. Our study indicates that the photometric beating phenomenon is likely attributable to differential rotation in fast-rotating stars with outer convection zones.

  4. EUV-driven ionospheres and electron transport on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chadney, J M; Koskinen, T T; Miller, S; Sanz-Forcada, J; Unruh, Y C; Yelle, R V

    2016-01-01

    The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs) are affected by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to EUV. This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. We focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages. XUV spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation is included through photo-ionisation and electron-impact processes. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H$^+$ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H$_2$ is not substantially dissociated have a layer in which H$_3^+$ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H$_3^+$ undergo significant diurnal variation...

  5. Correlating The Star Formation Histories Of MaNGA Galaxies With Their Past AGN Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Ortiz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a primary mechanism affecting star formation in MaNGA galaxies. Using the Pipe3D code, we modeled the stellar population from MaNGA spectra and derived the star formation histories of 53 AGN host galaxies. We seek to compare the star formation histories of the host galaxies of AGN with the ages of their radio lobes to better understand the role of AGN feedback in the star formation histories of MaNGA galaxies. MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is one of the three core programs in the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS). MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematics of nearly 10,000 local galaxies through dithered observations using fiber integral field units (IFUs) that vary in diameter from 12" (19 fibers) to 32" (127 fibers). In this poster, we present initial results on the star formation histories of MaNGA AGN host galaxies. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  6. Multiwavelength study of the magnetically active T Tauri star HD 283447

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Welty, Alan D.; Imhoff, Catherine; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Etzel, Paul B.; Phillips, Robert B.; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1994-01-01

    We observed the luminous T Tauri star HD 283447 = V773 Tauri simultaneously at X-ray, ultraviolet, optical photometric and spectroscopic, and radio wavelengths for several hours on UT 1992 September 11. ROSAT, IUE, Very Large Array (VLA) and an intercontinental Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network, and three optical observatories participated in the campaign. The star is known for its unusually high and variable nonthermal radio continuum emission. High levels of soft X-ray and Mg II line emission are discovered, with luminosity L(sub x) = 5.5 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s (0.2 - 2 keV) and L(sub Mg II) = 1 x 10(exp 29) ergs/s, respectively. Optically, the spectrum exhibits rather weak characteristics of `classical' T Tauri stars. A faint, broad emission line component, probably due to a collimated wind or infall, is present. During the campaign, the radio luminosity decreased by a factor of 4, while optical/UV lines and X-ray emission remained strong but constant. The large gyrosynchrotron-emitting regions are therefore decoupled from the chromospheric and coronal emission. Five models for the magnetic geometry around the star are discussed; solar-type activity, dipole magnetosphere, star-disk magnetic coupling, disk magnetic fields, and close binary interaction. The data suggest that two magnetic geometries are simultaneously present: complex multipolar fields like those on the Sun, and a large-scale field possibly associated with the circumstellar disk.

  7. Cosmic Web and Star Formation Activity in Galaxies at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Scoville, Nicholas; Best, Philip; Sales, Laura; Smail, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of the delineated cosmic web/filaments on the star formation activity by exploring a sample of 425 narrow-band selected H{\\alpha} emitters, as well as 2846 color-color selected underlying star-forming galaxies for a large scale structure (LSS) at z=0.84 in the COSMOS field from the HiZELS survey. Using the scale-independent Multi-scale Morphology Filter (MMF) algorithm, we are able to quantitatively describe the density field and disentangle it into its major components: fields, filaments and clusters. We show that the observed median star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific star formation rate (sSFR), the mean SFR-Mass relation and its scatter for both H{\\alpha} emitters and underlying star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on different classes of environment, in agreement with previous studies. However, the fraction of H{\\alpha} emitters varies with environment and is enhanced in filamentary structures at z~1. We propose mild galaxy-galaxy interactions as the possible ...

  8. HerMES: Disentangling active galactic nuclei and star formation in the radio source population

    CERN Document Server

    Rawlings, J I; Symeonidis, M; Bock, J; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Guo, K; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Oliver, S J; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Vaccari, M; Wardlow, J L

    2015-01-01

    We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ~50 uJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN. The majority of these radio sources (60 per cent) show the signature of an AGN at some wavelength. Of the sources with AGN signatures, 58 per cent are hybrid systems for which the radio emission is being powered by star formation. This implies that r...

  9. A mixture of chamomile and star anise has anti-motility and antidiarrheal activities in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a serious public health problem in Mexico and other countries. A widely used alternative in the treatment of diarrhea is the use of herbal medicines. Infusions of chamomile and star anise possess anti-inflammatory and antimotility properties that could help alleviate gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the mixture of chamomile and star anise infusions on gastrointestinal activity in mice. A gastrointestinal assessment of the mixture of chamomile and star anise was carried out in mice, and the percentage of advance of administered activated carbon through the intestinal tract of the animals was measured. Furthermore, the diarrhea model was induced with castor oil. The infusions were prepared using a mix with a 50:50 ratio of the herbs, and were administered at Mix-10, 20, 40 and 80 (mg/kg orally. The results indicate that Mix-40 and Mix-80 decreased the completion percentage of the activated carbon, delayed the appearance of diarrhea and decreased the number of evacuations in comparison with the control group. This suggests that the combination of chamomile and star anise can be used as an alternative antidiarrheal treatment.

  10. Photometric and Polarimetric Activity of the Herbig Ae Star VX Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhovskoi, D. N.; Rostopchina, A. N.; Grinin, V. P.; Minikulov, N. Kh.

    2003-04-01

    We present the results of our simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations of the Herbig Ae/Be star VX Cas acquired in 1987 2001. The star belongs to the UX Ori subtype of young variable stars and exhibits a rather low level of photometric activity: only six Algol-like minima with amplitudes ΔV>1m were recorded in 15 years of observations. Two of these minima, in 1998 and 2001, were the deepest in the history of the star’s photometric studies, with V amplitudes of about 2m. In each case, the dimming was accompanied by an increase in the linear polarization in agreement with the law expected for variable circumstellar extinction. The highest V polarization was about 5%. Observations of VX Cas in the deep minima revealed a turnover of the color tracks, typical of stars of this type and due to an increased contribution from radiation scattered in the circumstellar disk. We separated the observed polarization of VX Cas into interstellar (P is) and intrinsic (P in) components. Their position angles differ by approximately 60°, with P is dominating in the bright state and P in dominating during the deep minima. The competition of these two polarization components leads to changes in both the degree and position angle of the polarization during the star’s brightness variations. Generally speaking, in terms of the behavior of the brightness, color indices, and linear polarization, VX Cas is similar to other UX Ori stars studied by us earlier. A number of episodes of photometric and polarimetric activity suggest that, in their motion along highly eccentric orbits, circumstellar gas and dust clouds can enter the close vicinity of the star (and be disrupted there).

  11. Photometric activity of the Herbig Be star MWC 297 over 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Mel'nikov, S. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Katysheva, N. A.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    The photometric behavior of the hot, young Herbig Be starMWC 297 on various time scales is studied using published data, as well as new observations. The series of photometric observations covers about 25 years. Over this time, the star showed low-amplitude (Δ V ≈ 0.3 m ) irregular variabilitymodulated by large-scale cyclic variabilitywith an amplitude close to 0.2 m and a period (or quasi-period) of 5.4±0.1 yr. A detailed seasonal analysis of the data shows that the light curve of MWC 297 displays two types of photometric features: low-amplitude Algol-like fading with an amplitude close to 0.2 m and low-amplitude flares resembling the flares of UV Ceti stars, but being more powerful and having longer durations. The variations of the stellar brightness are accompanied by variations of the B- V and V - R colors: when the brightness decreases, B- V decreases, while V - R increases (the star reddens). The reddening law is close to the standard interstellar reddening law. Although the character of the brightness variability ofMWC 297 resembles the photometric activity of UX Ori type stars, which is due to variations of their circumstellar extinction, its scale is very far from the scales observed for UX Ori stars. It is difficult to reconcile the level of photometric activity with the idea that MWC 297 is observed through its own gas-dust disk viewed almost edge-on, as has been suggested in several studies.

  12. Variability of stellar granulation and convective blueshift with spectral type and magnetic activity. I. K and G main sequence stars

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, N.; Lagrange, A. -M.; Kabuiku, L. Mbemba; Alex, M; Mignon, L.; Borgniet, S.

    2016-01-01

    In solar-type stars, the attenuation of convective blueshift by stellar magnetic activity dominates the RV variations over the low amplitude signal induced by low mass planets. Models of stars that differ from the Sun will require a good knowledge of the attenuation of the convective blueshift to estimate its impact on the variations. It is therefore crucial to precisely determine not only the amplitude of the convective blueshift for different types of stars, but also the dependence of this ...

  13. On X-ray Variability in Active Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, V L; Kashyap, Vinay; Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    We compare the count-rates of active binaries observed by Einstein and ROSAT. We find significant evidence for short-term variability (approx 0.32) and marginal evidence for a larger variability at longer timescales (approx 0.38). Modeling this excess as cyclic variability, we place an upper limit on the relative amplitude of the cyclic component (I_cyc/I_min < 4) for active binaries, significantly less than the variations seen in the Solar X-ray output over the Solar cycle.

  14. Hα-activity and ages for stars in the SARG survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissa, E.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Bonfanti, A.; Carolo, E.; Vassallo, D.; Claudi, R. U.; Endl, M.; Cosentino, R.

    2016-12-01

    Stellar activity influences radial velocity (RV) measurements and can also mimic the presence of orbiting planets. As part of the search for planets around the components of wide binaries performed with the SARG High Resolution Spectrograph at the TNG, it was discovered that HD 200466A shows strong variation in RV that is well correlated with the activity index based on Hα. We used SARG to study the Hα line variations in each component of the binaries and a few bright stars to test the capability of the Hα index of revealing the rotation period or activity cycle. We also analysed the relations between the average activity level and other physical properties of the stars. We finally tried to reveal signals in the RVs that are due to the activity. At least in some cases the variation in the observed RVs is due to the stellar activity. We confirm that Hα can be used as an activity indicator for solar-type stars and as an age indicator for stars younger than 1.5 Gyr. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.A table of the individual Hα measurements is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A76

  15. Bulges and disks in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    CERN Document Server

    Morselli, L; Erfanianfar, G; Concas, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy morphology and star formation activity are strictly linked, in the way that bulge-dominated galaxies are in general quiescent, while disk dominated galaxies are actively star-forming. In this paper, we study the properties of bulges and disks as a function of the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) plane. Our sample is built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue, and the bulge-disk decomposition is the one of Simard et al. (2011). We find that at a given stellar mass the Main Sequence (MS) is populated by galaxies with the lowest B/T ratios. The B/T on the MS increases with increasing stellar mass, thus confirming previous results in literature. In the upper envelop of the MS, the average B/T is higher than that of MS counterparts at fixed stellar mass. This indicates that starburst galaxies have a significant bulge component. In addition, bulges above the MS are characterised by blue colours, whereas, if on the MS or below it, they are mostly red and dead. The disks ...

  16. Star formation and black hole accretion activity in rich local clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, Matteo; Fadda, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and central black hole accretion activity of the galaxies hosted in the two nearby (z$\\sim$0.2) rich galaxy clusters Abell 983 and 1731. Aims: We are able to quantify both the obscured and unobscured star formation rates, as well as the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the environment in which the galaxy is located. Methods: We targeted the clusters with unprecedented deep infrared Spitzer observations (0.2 mJy @ 24 micron), near-IR Palomar imaging and optical WIYN spectroscopy. The extent of our observations ($\\sim$ 3 virial radii) covers the vast range of possible environments, from the very dense cluster centre to the very rarefied cluster outskirts and accretion regions. Results: The star forming members of the two clusters present star formation rates comparable with those measured in coeval field galaxies. The analysis of the spatial arrangement of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals an elongated distribution for A1731 with re...

  17. Forecasting life: a study of activity cycles in low-mass stars: lessons from long-term stellar light curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Stella

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic activity cycles are indirect traces of magnetic fields and can provide an insight on the nature and action of stellar dynamos and stellar magnetic activity. This, in turn, can determine local space weather and activity effects on stellar habitable zones. Using photometric monitoring of low-mass stars, we study the presence and properties of their magnetic activity cycles. We introduce long-term light curves of our sample stars, and discuss the properties of the observed trends, especially at spectral types where stars are fully convective (later than M3).

  18. No Sun-like dynamo on the active star ζ Andromedae from starspot asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettenbacher, R M; Monnier, J D; Korhonen, H; Aarnio, A N; Baron, F; Che, X; Harmon, R O; Kővári, Zs; Kraus, S; Schaefer, G H; Torres, G; Zhao, M; ten Brummelaar, T A; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L

    2016-05-12

    Sunspots are cool areas caused by strong surface magnetic fields that inhibit convection. Moreover, strong magnetic fields can alter the average atmospheric structure, degrading our ability to measure stellar masses and ages. Stars that are more active than the Sun have more and stronger dark spots than does the Sun, including on the rotational pole. Doppler imaging, which has so far produced the most detailed images of surface structures on other stars, cannot always distinguish the hemisphere in which the starspots are located, especially in the equatorial region and if the data quality is not optimal. This leads to problems in investigating the north-south distribution of starspot active latitudes (those latitudes with more starspot activity); this distribution is a crucial constraint of dynamo theory. Polar spots, whose existence is inferred from Doppler tomography, could plausibly be observational artefacts. Here we report imaging of the old, magnetically active star ζ Andromedae using long-baseline infrared interferometry. In our data, a dark polar spot is seen in each of two observation epochs, whereas lower-latitude spot structures in both hemispheres do not persist between observations, revealing global starspot asymmetries. The north-south symmetry of active latitudes observed on the Sun is absent on ζ And, which hosts global spot patterns that cannot be produced by solar-type dynamos.

  19. Heliophysics: Active Stars, their Astrospheres, and Impacts on Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Bagenal, F.; Sojka, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction Carolus J. Schrijver, Frances Bagenal and Jan J. Sojka; 2. Solar explosive activity throughout the evolution of the Solar System Rachel Osten; 3. Astrospheres, stellar winds, and the interstellar medium Brian Wood and Jeffrey L. Linsky; 4. Effects of stellar eruptions throughout astrospheres Ofer Cohen; 5. Characteristics of planetary systems Debra Fischer and Ji Wang; 6. Planetary dynamos: updates and new frontiers Sabine Stanley; 7. Climates of terrestrial planets David Brain; 8. Upper atmospheres of the giant planets Luke Moore, Tom Stallard and Marina Garland; 9. Aeronomy of terrestrial upper atmospheres David E. Siskind and Stephen W. Bougher; 10. Moons, asteroids, and comets interacting with their surroundings Margaret G. Kivelson; 11. Dusty plasmas Mihály Horányi; 12. Energetic-particle environments in the Solar System Norbert Krupp; 13. Heliophysics with radio scintillation and occultation Mario M. Bisi; Appendix 1. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; References; Index.

  20. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  1. Signatures of Young Star Formation Activity Within Two Parsecs of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Sewilo, M; Roberts, D A; Smith, I; Arendt, R; Cotton, W; Lacy, J; Martin, S; Pound, M W; Rickett, M; Royster, M

    2015-01-01

    We present radio and infrared observations indicating on-going star formation activity inside the $\\sim2-5$ pc circumnuclear ring at the Galactic center. Collectively these measurements suggest a continued disk-based mode of on-going star formation has taken place near Sgr A* over the last few million years. First, VLA observations with spatial resolution 2.17$"\\times0.81"$ reveal 13 water masers, several of which have multiple velocity components. The presence of interstellar water masers suggests gas densities that are sufficient for self-gravity to overcome the tidal shear of the 4$\\times10^6$ \\msol\\, black hole. Second, SED modeling of stellar sources indicate massive YSO candidates interior to the molecular ring, supporting in-situ star formation near Sgr A* and appear to show a distribution similar to that of the counter-rotating disks of $\\sim$100 OB stars orbiting Sgr A*. Some YSO candidates (e.g., IRS~5) have bow shock structures suggesting that they have have gaseous disks that are phototoevaporated...

  2. Flare Activity and Polarization States of White Dwarfs in Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, D.; Filipov, L.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate flare activity and emission properties of white dwarf binary stars. We apply the polarization as a mechanism to probe the flares and the released resulting radiation. The polarization could appear as patterns in these cases, as it depends mainly on the properties of radiation and geometry of the source. The observational data of MV Lyr and CH Cyg are analysed. A repeated variability in the brightness could affect the degree of polarization. Detectable variations in the polarization parameters of selected binaries for the flares activity period are shown in the result. The analysis may help us to establish more evidence of the close correlation between flares, flow structure transformation around the primary star and polarization parameter variability.

  3. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Defru, N.; Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Rameau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres, and thus increase the observed flux in the Ca ii H and K doublet. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, these two spectral lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period (Prot) and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca ii emission is traditionally quantified through the -index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M dwarfs - the most numerous stars of the Galaxy - were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H and K emission to an exists to date. Aims: We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low- and very-low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the -index that extends to the realm of M dwarfs, and by evaluating the relationship between and the rotation period. Methods: We calibrated the bolometric and photospheric factors for M dwarfs to properly transform the S-index (which compares the flux in the Ca ii H and K lines to a close spectral continuum) into the . We monitored magnetic activity through the Ca ii H and K emission lines in the HARPS M dwarf sample. Results: The index, like the fractional X-ray luminosity LX/Lbol, shows a saturated correlation with rotation, with saturation setting in around a ten days rotation period. Above that period, slower rotators show weaker Ca ii activity, as expected. Under that period, the index saturates to approximately 10-4. Stellar mass modulates the Ca ii activity, with showing a constant basal activity above 0.6 M⊙ and then decreasing with mass between 0.6 M⊙ and the fully-convective limit of 0.35 M⊙. Short-term variability of the

  4. Stellar activity as noise in exoplanet detection I. Methods and application to solar-like stars and activity cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, H; Piskunov, N; Hackman, T; Juncher, D; Jarvinen, S P; Joergensen, U G

    2015-01-01

    The detection of exoplanets using any method is prone to confusion due to the intrinsic variability of the host star. We investigate the effect of cool starspots on the detectability of the exoplanets around solar-like stars using the radial velocity method. For investigating this activity-caused "jitter" we calculate synthetic spectra using radiative transfer, known stellar atomic and molecular lines, different surface spot configurations, and an added planetary signal. Here, the methods are described in detail, tested and compared to previously published studies. The methods are also applied to investigate the activity jitter in old and young solar-like stars, and over a solar-like activity cycles. We find that the mean full jitter amplitude obtained from the spot surfaces mimicking the solar activity varies during the cycle approximately between 1 m/s and 9 m/s. With a realistic observing frequency a Neptune mass planet on a one year orbit can be reliably recovered. On the other hand, the recovery of an Ea...

  5. Nuclear activity versus star formation: emission-line diagnostics at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Feltre, Anna; Gutkin, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the context of observations of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission from distant galaxies, we explore the emission-line properties of photoionization models of active and inactive galaxies. Our aim is to identify new line-ratio diagnostics to discriminate between gas photoionization by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation. We use a standard photoionization code to compute the emission from AGN narrow-line regions and compare this with calculations of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies achieved using the same code. We confirm the appropriateness of widely used optical spectral diagnostics of nuclear activity versus star formation and explore new diagnostics at ultraviolet wavelengths. We find that combinations of a collisionally excited metal line or line multiplet, such as CIV 1548,1551, OIII]1661,1666, NIII]1750, [SiIII]1883+[SiIII]1892 and [CIII]1907+CIII]1909, with the HeII 1640 recombination line are individually good discriminants of the nature of the ionizing source...

  6. A Mid-Infrared Census of Star Formation Activity in Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Miranda K; Evans, Neal J; Schlingman, Wayne M; Cyganowski, Claudia J; Urquhart, James

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for mid-infrared signs of star formation activity in the 1.1 mm sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). We have correlated the BGPS catalog with available mid-IR Galactic plane catalogs based on the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE legacy survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey. We find that 44% (3,713 of 8,358) of the BGPS sources contain at least one mid-IR source, including 2,458 of 5,067 (49%) within the area where all surveys overlap (10 deg < l < 65 deg). Accounting for chance alignments between the BGPS and mid-IR sources, we conservatively estimate that 20% of the BPGS sources within the area where all surveys overlap show signs of active star formation. We separate the BGPS sources into four groups based on their probability of star formation activity. Extended Green Objects (EGOs) and Red MSX Sources (RMS) make up the highest probability group, while the lowest probability group is comprised of "starless" BGPS sources...

  7. No FIP fractionation in the active stars AR Psc and AY Cet

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz-Forcada, J; Micela, G

    2009-01-01

    Context: The comparison of coronal and photospheric abundances in cool stars is an essential question pending of resolution. In the Sun an enhancement of the elements with low First Ionization Potential (FIP) is observed in the corona with respect to the photosphere. Stars with high levels of activity seem to show a depletion of elements with low FIP when compared to solar standard values. However the few cases of active stars in which photospheric values are available for comparison shed confusing results, and an enlargement of the sample is mandatory to solve this long-standing problem. Aims: We calculate in this paper the photospheric and coronal abundances of two well known active binary systems, AR Psc and AY Cet, to reach further insights in the complicate scene of coronal abundances. Methods: Coronal abundances of 9 elements are calculated by means of the reconstruction of a detailed Emission Measure Distribution, using a line-based method that consider the lines from different elements separately. Pho...

  8. Starspot activity and rotation of the planet-hosting star Kepler-17

    CERN Document Server

    Bonomo, Aldo S

    2012-01-01

    Context. Kepler-17 is a G2V sun-like star accompanied by a transiting planet with a mass of ~2.5 Jupiter masses and an orbital period of 1.486 d, recently discovered by the Kepler space telescope. This star is highly interesting as a young solar analogue. Aims. We used about 500 days of high-precision, high-duty-cycle optical photometry collected by Kepler to study the rotation of the star and the evolution of its photospheric active regions. Methods. We applied a maximum-entropy light curve inversion technique to model the flux rotational modulation induced by active regions that consist of dark spots and bright solar-like faculae with a fixed area ratio. Their configuration was varied after a fixed time interval to take their evolution into account. Active regions were used as tracers to study stellar differential rotation, and planetary occultations were used to constrain the latitude of some spots. Results. Our modelling approach reproduces the light variations of Kepler-17 with a standard deviation of th...

  9. Physical Properties, Star Formation, and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Balmer Break Galaxies at 0 < z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Tello, J Díaz; Padilla, N; Fujishiro, N; Hanami, H; Yoshikawa, T; Hatsukade, 'and' B; .,

    2013-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study with the derivation of the physical properties of 37 Balmer break galaxies, which have the necessary lines to locate them in star-forming-AGN diagnostic diagrams. These galaxies span a redshift range from 0.045 to 0.93 and are somewhat less massive than similar samples of previous works. The studied sample has multiwavelength photometric data coverage from the ultraviolet to MIR Spitzer bands. We investigate the connection between star formation and AGN activity via optical, mass-excitation (MEx) and MIR diagnostic diagrams. Through optical diagrams, 31 (84%) star-forming galaxies, 2 (5%) composite galaxies and 3 (8%) AGNs were classified, whereas from the MEx diagram only one galaxy was classified as AGN. A total of 19 galaxies have photometry available in all the IRAC/Spitzer bands. Of these, 3 AGN candidates were not classified as AGN in the optical diagrams, suggesting they are dusty/obscured AGNs, or that nuclear star formation has diluted their contributions. Furthermore...

  10. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE S235 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Luna, A.; Mayya, Y. D. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro # 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840, México (Mexico); Ojha, D. K.; Ninan, J. P.; Mallick, K. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Anandarao, B. G., E-mail: lokeshd@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad—380 009 (India)

    2016-03-01

    We have carried out an extensive multi-wavelength study to investigate the star formation process in the S235 complex. The S235 complex has a spherelike shell appearance at wavelengths longer than 2 μm and harbors an O9.5V type star approximately at its center. A near-infrared extinction map of the complex traces eight subregions (having A{sub V} > 8 mag), and five of them appear to be distributed in an almost regularly spaced manner along the spherelike shell surrounding the ionized emission. This picture is also supported by the integrated {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO intensity maps and by Bolocam 1.1 mm continuum emission. The position–velocity analysis of CO reveals an almost semi-ringlike structure, suggesting an expanding H ii region. We find that the Bolocam clump masses increase as we move away from the location of the ionizing star. This correlation is seen only for those clumps that are distributed near the edges of the shell. Photometric analysis reveals 435 young stellar objects (YSOs), 59% of which are found in clusters. Six subregions (including five located near the edges of the shell) are very well correlated with the dust clumps, CO gas, and YSOs. The average values of Mach numbers derived using NH{sub 3} data for three (East 1, East 2, and Central E) out of these six subregions are 2.9, 2.3, and 2.9, indicating these subregions are supersonic. The molecular outflows are detected in these three subregions, further confirming the ongoing star formation activity. Together, all these results are interpreted as observational evidence of positive feedback of a massive star.

  11. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - V. The Active Star Forming Region SH 2-255-257

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Lee, Kang Hwan; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeong, Gwanghui

    2015-12-01

    There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the H II regions Sh 2-255-257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared, in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B-V) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (R_V = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from a comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J-H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Γ = -1.6 ± 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. It implies that low-mass star formation is dominant in the SFR. The sum of the masses of all the identified members provides the lower limit of the cluster mass (169 M_{⊙}). We also analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of pre-main sequence stars using the SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al., and confirm that there is a significant discrepancy between stellar mass and age obtained from two different methods based on the SED fitting tool and the HRD.

  12. Assessment of antimycotoxigenic and antioxidant activity of star anise (Illicium verum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soher E. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists have focused on the identification and the application of natural products for inactivation of mycotoxins. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties are probably the most promising method for the prevention of potentially toxigenic fungi. Thus the aim of this work is to characterise star anise (Illicium verum and to assess its antioxidant and antifungal and antimycotoxigenic properties using different methods. Results revealed that the major components of star anise essential oil identified by GC/MS were trans-anethole (82.7%, carryophyllene (4.8% and limonene (2.3%. Total phenolics of ethanol and methanol extracts recorded 112.4 and 96.3 mg GAE/g DW respectively, whereas higher total flavonoid content was recorded for the ethanol extract than the methanol extract. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity (55.6 mg/mL than the extracts using DPPH-scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Results revealed growth reduction of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides by 83.2%, 72.8% and 65.11%, respectively when using 100 ppm of the star anise essential oil, where a complete inhibition was achieved at 200 ppm for A. flavus and A. parasiticus respectively. Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 production were inhibited completely at 100 and 200 ppm respectively. It could be concluded that star anise extracts could be considered an important substance that should be explored for the discovery and development of newer and safer food supplements as well as drug products.

  13. The hot Jupiter of the magnetically active weak-line T Tauri star V830 Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, J.-F.; Yu, L.; Moutou, C.; Cameron, A. C.; Malo, L.; Grankin, K.; Hébrard, E.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Vidotto, A. A.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Haywood, R. D.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Takami, M.; Herczeg, G. J.; Gregory, S. G.; Jardine, M. M.; Morin, J.; MaTYSSE Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We report results of an extended spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star V830 Tau and its recently detected newborn close-in giant planet. Our observations, carried out within the MaTYSSE (Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in giant Exoplanets) programme, were spread over 91 d, and involved the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters linked to the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii, the 2-m Bernard Lyot, and the 8-m Gemini-North Telescopes. Using Zeeman-Doppler Imaging, we characterize the surface brightness distributions, magnetic topologies, and surface differential rotation of V830 Tau at the time of our observations, and demonstrate that both distributions evolve with time beyond what is expected from differential rotation. We also report that near the end of our observations, V830 Tau triggered one major flare and two weaker precursors, showing up as enhanced redshifted emission in multiple spectral activity proxies. With three different filtering techniques, we model the radial velocity (RV) activity jitter (of semi-amplitude 1.2 km s-1) that V830 Tau generates, successfully retrieve the 68 ± 11 m s-1 RV planet signal hiding behind the jitter, further confirm the existence of V830 Tau b, and better characterize its orbital parameters. We find that the method based on Gaussian-process regression performs best thanks to its higher ability at modelling not only the activity jitter, but also its temporal evolution over the course of our observations, and succeeds at reproducing our RV data down to an rms precision of 35 m s-1. Our result provides new observational constraints on scenarios of star/planet formation and demonstrates the scientific potential of large-scale searches for close-in giant planets around T Tauri stars.

  14. Modelling the photosphere of active stars for planet detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Enrique; Ribas, Ignasi; Jordi, Carme; Morales, Juan Carlos; Perger, Manuel; Rosich, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Context. Stellar activity patterns are responsible for jitter effects that are observed at different timescales and amplitudes in the measurements obtained from photometric and spectroscopic time series observations. These effects are currently in the focus of many exoplanet search projects, since the lack of a well-defined characterization and correction strategy hampers the detection of the signals associated with small exoplanets. Aims: Accurate simulations of the stellar photosphere based on the most recent available models for main-sequence stars can provide synthetic photometric and spectroscopic time series data. These may help to investigate the relation between activity jitter and stellar parameters when considering different active region patterns. Moreover, jitters can be analysed at different wavelength scales (defined by the passbands of given instruments or space missions) to design strategies to remove or minimize them. Methods: We present the StarSim tool, which is based on a model for a spotted rotating photosphere built from the integration of the spectral contribution of a fine grid of surface elements. The model includes all significant effects affecting the flux intensities and the wavelength of spectral features produced by active regions and planets. The resulting synthetic time series data generated with this simulator were used to characterize the effects of activity jitter in extrasolar planet measurements from photometric and spectroscopic observations. Results: Several cases of synthetic data series for Sun-like stars are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the methodology. A specific application for characterizing and modelling the spectral signature of active regions is considered, showing that the chromatic effects of faculae are dominant for low-temperature contrasts of spots. Synthetic multi-band photometry and radial velocity time series are modelled for HD 189733 by adopting the known system parameters and fitting for the

  15. Star Formation Activity in the Long, Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G53.2

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Davis, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    We present star formation activity in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G53.2, a remarkable IRDC located at Galactic coordinates $(l,b)\\sim(53^{\\circ}.2,\\,0^{\\circ}.0)$ based on the census of young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRDC G53.2 was previously identified as several IRDCs in mid-IR images, but it is in fact a long ($\\gtrsim$45 pc) cloud, well consistent with a CO cloud at $v\\sim23$ \\kms\\ (or at $d\\sim$1.7 kpc). We present a point-source catalog of IRDC G53.2 that contains $\\sim$370 sources from our photometry of the {\\it Spitzer} MIPS 24 \\um\\ data and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Catalog. The classification of the identified sources based on their spectral index and control field analysis to remove field star contamination reveals that IRDC G53.2 is an active star-forming region with $\\sim$300 YSO candidates. We compare the YSO classification based on spectral index, mid-IR colors, and the wavelength range used, which results in consistent classification, except for flat-s...

  16. Magnetically elevated accretion disks in active galactic nuclei: broad emission line regions and associated star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the accretion disks fueling active galactic nuclei are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal ($\\phi-$direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disk dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at $R$ to large heights $z > 0.1 R$ and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass --- but contributing very little accretion --- around the equator. We show that such a disk model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disk models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disk models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: th...

  17. EChO spectra and stellar activity II. The case of dM stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scandariato, G

    2014-01-01

    EChO is a dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres. When extracting the planetary signal, one has to take care of the variability of the hosting star, which introduces spectral distortion that can be mistaken as planetary signal. Magnetic variability is a major deal in particular for M stars. To this purpose, assuming a one spot dominant model for the stellar photosphere, we develop a mixed observational-theoretical tool to extract the spot's parameters from the observed optical spectrum. This method relies on a robust library of spectral M templates, which we derive using the observed spectra of quiet M dwarfs in the SDSS database. Our procedure allows to correct the observed spectra for photospheric activity in most of the analyzed cases, reducing the spectral distortion down to the noise levels. Ongoing refinements of the template library and the algorithm will improve the efficiency of our algorithm.

  18. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar vicinity. An estimation of the radial velocity jitter

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Arnaiz, R; Montes, D; Eiroa, C; Montesinos, B

    2010-01-01

    Context: Chromospheric activity produces both photometric and spectroscopic variations that can be mistaken as planets. Large spots crossing the stellar disc can produce planet-like periodic variations in the light curve of a star. These spots clearly affect the spectral line profiles and their perturbations alter the line centroids creating a radial velocity jitter that might contaminate" the variations induced by a planet. Precise chromospheric activity measurements are needed to estimate the activity-induced noise that should be expected for a given star. Aims: We obtain precise chromospheric activity measurements and projected rotational velocities for nearby (d < 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to K) stars, to estimate their expected activity-related jitter. As a complementary objective, we attempt to obtain relationships between fluxes in different activity indicator lines, that permit a transformation of traditional activity indicators, i.e, CaII H & K lines, to others that hold noteworthy advanta...

  19. Hide and Seek: Radial-velocity searches for planets around active stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Raphaelle

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate obstacle to determining the masses of small, rocky exoplanets through radial-velocity (RV) monitoring is the intrinsic variability of the host stars themselves. For my PhD, I developed an intuitive and robust data analysis framework in which the activity-induced variations are modelled with a Gaussian process that has the frequency structure of the stellar magnetic activity. This allowed me to determine precise and accurate masses of the planets in the CoRoT-7, Kepler-78 and Kepler-10 systems. In parallel, I explored the physical origin of activity-induced RV variations of our best-known star: the Sun. I conducted the first systematic RV campaign of the Sun seen as an exoplanet host star using the 3.6m/HARPS spectrograph, by observing sunlight reflected off the bright asteroid 4/Vesta. I used images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to reconstruct the RV signals incurred by individual surface features such as sunspots, faculae and granulation. I found that the activity-induced RV variations are driven by the suppression of convective blueshift arising dominantly from the presence of faculae. I also identified the full-disc magnetic flux as an excellent proxy for activity-induced RV variations.I am now pursuing my solar investigations using Sun-as-a-star RV observations acquired with the new solar telescope feed at HARPS-N. In particular, I am investigating the impact of magnetic surface features on the shapes of the spectral line profiles, rather than on the RVs themselves (which are a single moment of these lines). This work is key to developing physically-driven, better-tailored models for activity-induced RV variations, in preparation for the potentially habitable, Earth-like planets to be discovered and characterised in the coming years with TESS and GMT/G-CLEF.This work was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council in the United Kingdom and the John Templeton Foundation.

  20. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pović, Mirjana; Márquez, Isabel; Netzer, Hagai; Masegosa, Josefa; Nordon, Raanan; Pérez, Enrique; Schoenell, William

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate (SFR) low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) at z = 0.04-0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them. We measured emission-line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities, and SFRs. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, in terms of extinction, and general similarity to star-forming galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z ˜ 0.3 by Tommasin et al. The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6-7 × 1010 M⊙ which was found in previous work to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources have LAGN ˜ LSF suggesting co-evolution of black hole and stellar mass. In general, the fraction of local LINERs on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies is related to their AGN luminosity.

  1. Mid- to far infrared properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, G E; Helou, G; Farrah, D; Hurley, P; Alonso-Herrero, A; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Chapman, S; Charmandaris, V; Cooray, A; Dai, Y S; Dale, D; Elbaz, D; Feltre, A; Hatziminaoglou, E; Huang, J-S; Morrison, G; Oliver, S; Page, M; Scott, D; Shi, Y

    2013-01-01

    We study the mid- to far-IR properties of a 24um-selected flux-limited sample (S24 > 5mJy) of 154 intermediate redshift (~0.15), infrared luminous galaxies, drawn from the 5MUSES survey. By combining existing mid-IR spectroscopy and new Herschel SPIRE submm photometry from the HerMES program, we derived robust total infrared luminosity (LIR) and dust mass (Md) estimates and infered the relative contribution of the AGN to the infrared energy budget of the sources. We found that the total infrared emission of galaxies with weak 6.2um PAH emission (EW0.2um more than 50% of the LIR arises from star formation. We also found that for galaxies detected in the 250-500um Herschel bands an AGN has a statistically insignificant effect on the temperature of the cold dust and the far-IR colours of the host galaxy, which are primarily shaped by star formation activity. For star-forming galaxies we reveal an anti-correlation between the LIR-to-rest-frame 8um luminosity ratio, IR8 = LIR\\L8, and the strength of PAH features. ...

  2. Sejong open cluster survey (SOS) - V. The active star forming region Sh 2-255 -- 257

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Bessell, Michael S; Kim, Jinyoung S; Lee, Kang Hwan; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeong, Gwanghui

    2015-01-01

    There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the HII regions Sh 2-255 -- 257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B-V) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (R_V = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 +/- 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J-H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Gamma = -1.6 +/- 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kro...

  3. New Insights on Late-A and Early-F Star Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Catalano, S.; Marilli, E.; Gouttebroze, P.; Talavera, A.; Bruhweiler, F.

    The onset of chromospheric activity in late-A and early-F stars is here discussed. The detection of Ly- emission core in several A and F atars with the IUE satellite, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0m.19 (Marilli et al., 1996). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire Ferrero et al., 1995) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal H I interstellar (IS) absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity, we analysed alternative hypotheses to explain the observed emissions: (1) circumstellar or shell matter; (2) co-rotating expanding optically thin wind. We ruled out these hypotheses because their effects are negligible and as a consequence, this result reinforces the chromospheric origin of the observed Ly- core in Altair. The stars of our sample, having observed Ly- profilies similar to Altair's and similar stellar and IS properties, should reproduce similar chromospheric behaviour. Here we discuss several important questions that are raised by these results.

  4. Magnetically elevated accretion disks in active galactic nuclei: broad emission line regions and associated star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    We propose that the accretion disks fueling active galactic nuclei are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ -direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disk dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ˜ 0.1 R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disk model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disk models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disk models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disk of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ˜0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  5. Nuclear Bar, Star Formation and Gas Fueling in the Active Galaxy NGC 4303

    CERN Document Server

    Colina, L

    1999-01-01

    A combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 and NICMOS images are used to investigate the gas/dust and stellar structure inside the central 300 pc of the nearby active galaxy NGC 4303. The NICMOS H-band (F160W) image reveals a bright core and a nuclear elongated bar-like structure of 250 pc in diameter. The bar is centered on the bright core, and its major axis is oriented in proyection along the spin axis of the nuclear gaseous rotating disk recently detected (Colina & Arribas 1999). The V-H (F606W - F160W) image reveals a complex gas/dust distribution with a two-arm spiral structure of about 225 pc in radius. The southwestern arm is traced by young star-forming knots while the northeastern arm is detected by the presence of dust lanes. These spirals do not have a smooth structure but rather they are made of smaller flocculent spirals or filament-like structures. The magnitudes and colors of the star-forming knots are typical of clusters of young stars with masses of 0.5 to 1 x $10^5 M_{solar}, a...

  6. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, I.; Povic, M.; Netzer, H.; Masegosa, J.; Nordon, R.; Pérez, E.; Schoenell, W.

    2017-03-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate (SFR) low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) at z = 0.04 - 0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them.We measured emission-line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosities, and SFRs. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, and general similarity to star-forming galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z˜0.3 by Tommasin et al. The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6 - 7× 10^{10} M_⊙ which was found in previous works to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources have LAGN ˜ LSF suggesting co-evolution of black hole and stellarmass. In general, the fraction of local LINERs on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies is related to their AGN luminosity.

  7. A connection between star formation activity and cosmic rays in the starburst galaxy M 82

    CERN Document Server

    Acciari, V A; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Boltuch, D; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Chow, Y C; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Colin, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, Philip; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nagai, T; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pizlo, F; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Varlotta, A; Vasilev, V V; Vincent, S; Wagner, R G; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Zitzer, B; 10.1038/nature08557

    2009-01-01

    Although Galactic cosmic rays (protons and nuclei) are widely believed to be dominantly accelerated by the winds and supernovae of massive stars, definitive evidence of this origin remains elusive nearly a century after their discovery [1]. The active regions of starburst galaxies have exceptionally high rates of star formation, and their large size, more than 50 times the diameter of similar Galactic regions, uniquely enables reliable calorimetric measurements of their potentially high cosmic-ray density [2]. The cosmic rays produced in the formation, life, and death of their massive stars are expected to eventually produce diffuse gamma-ray emission via their interactions with interstellar gas and radiation. M 82, the prototype small starburst galaxy, is predicted to be the brightest starburst galaxy in gamma rays [3, 4]. Here we report the detection of >700 GeV gamma rays from M 82. From these data we determine a cosmic-ray density of 250 eV cm-3 in the starburst core of M 82, or about 500 times the averag...

  8. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, I G; Smith, D M; Glesener, L; Krucker, S; Hudson, H S; Madsen, K K; Marsh, A; White, S M; Caspi, A; Shih, A Y; Harrison, F A; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    We present the first observations of quiescent active regions (ARs) using NuSTAR, a focusing hard X-ray telescope capable of studying faint solar emission from high temperature and non-thermal sources. We analyze the first directly imaged and spectrally resolved X-rays above 2~keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures $3.1-4.4$~MK and emission measures $1-8\\times 10^{46}$~cm$^{-3}$. We do not observe emission above 5~MK but our short effective exposure times restrict the spectral dynamic range. With few counts above 6~keV, we can place constraints on the presence of an additional hotter component between 5 and 12~MK of $\\sim 10^{46}$cm$^{-3}$ and $\\sim 10^{43}$ cm$^{-3}$, respectively, at least an order of magnitude stricter than previous limits. With longer duration observations and a weakening solar c...

  9. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Evangelos; Schmitt, Jürgen H M M

    2016-01-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5 %, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing...

  10. Active Galactic Nuclei and the Truncation of Star Formation in K+A Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; Caldwell, Nelson; Palamara, David; Cool, Richard J; Dey, Arjun; Hickox, Ryan; Jannuzi, Buell T; Murray, Stephen S; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K+A galaxies, using multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The K+A galaxies, which have had their star formation rapidly truncated, are selected via their strong Balmer absorption lines and weak H-alpha emission. Our sample consists of 24 K+A galaxies selected from 6594 0.10star formation, or we are observing the aftermath of merger triggered starbursts. As expected, the optical colors of K+A galaxies largely fall between blue galaxies with ongoing star formation and red passive galaxies. However, only 1% of the galaxies with colors between the red and blue populations are K+A galaxies, and we conclude that the truncation of ...

  11. The X-Ray Luminosity Function of M37 and the Evolution of Coronal Activity in Low-mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2016-10-01

    We use a 440.5 ks Chandra observation of the ≈500 Myr old open cluster M37 to derive the X-ray luminosity functions of its ≤1.2 {M}ȯ stars. Combining detections of 162 M37 members with upper limits for 160 non-detections, we find that its G, K, and M stars have a similar median (0.5–7 keV) X-ray luminosity {L}{{X}}={10}29.0 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, whereas the {L}{{X}}-to-bolometric-luminosity ratio ({L}{{X}}/{L}{bol}) indicates that M stars are more active than G and K stars by ≈ 1 order of magnitude at 500 Myr. To characterize the evolution of magnetic activity in low-mass stars over their first ≈ 600 {{Myr}}, we consolidate X-ray and optical data from the literature for stars in six other open clusters: from youngest to oldest they are, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), NGC 2547, NGC 2516, the Pleiades, NGC 6475, and the Hyades. For these, we homogenize the conversion of instrumental count rates to {L}{{X}} by applying the same one-temperature emission model as for M37, and obtain masses using the same empirical mass-absolute magnitude relation (except for the ONC). We find that for G and K stars X-ray activity decreases ≈ 2 orders of magnitude over their first 600 Myr, and for M stars, ≈1.5. The decay rate of the median {L}{{X}} follows the relation {L}{{X}}\\propto {t}b, where b=-0.61+/- 0.12 for G stars, ‑0.82 ± 0.16 for K stars, and ‑0.40 ± 0.17 for M stars. In {L}{{X}}/{L}{bol} space, the slopes are ‑0.68 ± 0.12, ‑0.81 ± 0.19, and ‑0.61 ± 0.12, respectively. These results suggest that for low-mass stars the age-activity relation steepens after ≈ 625 {{Myr}}, consistent with the faster decay in activity observed in solar analogs at t\\gt 1 {{Gyr}}.

  12. The active source in the region of the Herbig star BD+40 4124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, F.; Testi, L.; Hunter, T. R.; Taylor, G. B.; Prusti, T.; Felli, M.; Natta, A.; Stanga, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    We present new near-infrared, millimeter and radio observations of the region associated with BD+40 4124, a Herbig Be star located in the direction of the Cygnus arm. BD+40 4124 is the optically brightest member of a small group of young emission line stars, including V 1318 Cygni and V 1686 Cygni. Near-IR broad-band imaging of V 1318 Cygni reveals the presence of two distinct stellar components oriented north-south, a result recently reported by Aspin et al. (1994). On a larger scale, the near-IR images also indicate the presence of many highly embedded sources concentrated in the vicinity of the bright visible stars. In the central part of the cluster, the near-IR sources outnumber the optically visible ones by a factor of three. The distribution of the high density molecular gas traced by the CS J=5->4 emission is highly concentrated around V1318 and V1686 Cygni, while the total column density of gas traced by the C^18^O J=2->1 shows a ridge morphology centered on these sources. The Herbig star BD+40 4124lies at the edge of both structures. From the otpically thin C^18^O emission, we derive a total molecular mass of M_core_=280Msun_. A molecular outflow has been detected in CO J=2->1. The high velocity gas is confined to a compact region of size =~20", corresponding to a physical length of 0.1pc. The outflow is not well resolved, or collimated, on the observed scales. We have also detected H_2_O maser emission at 22.2GHz at a position coincident with the center of the bipolar outflow. Both the maser and the outflow are located at the position of the southern source V1318 S which we identify as the source responsible for the activity observed in the BD+40 region.

  13. On X-ray Optical Depth in the Coronae of Active Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Peres, Giovanni; Huenemoerder, David P

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the optical thickness of the coronal plasma through the analysis of high-resolution X-ray spectra of a large sample of active stars observed with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on Chandra. In particular, we probed for the presence of significant resonant scattering in the strong Lyman series lines arising from hydrogen-like oxygen and neon ions. The active RS CVn-type binaries II Peg and IM Peg and the single M dwarf EV Lac show significant optical depth. For these active coronae, the Lya/Lyb ratios are significantly depleted as compared with theoretical predictions and with the same ratios observed in similar active stars. Interpreting these decrements in terms of resonance scattering of line photons out of the line-of-sight, we are able to derive an estimate for the typical size of coronal structures, and from these we also derive estimates of coronal filling factors. For all three sources we find that the both the photon path length as a fraction of the stellar radiu...

  14. Supersaturation and Activity-Rotation Relation in PMS stars: the case of the Young Cluster h Per

    CERN Document Server

    Argiroffi, C; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Moraux, E; Bouvier, J; Flaccomio, E

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic activity of late-type MS stars is characterized by different regimes, and their activity levels are well described by Ro, the ratio between P_rot and the convective turnover time. Very young PMS stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Per, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators, whose members have ended their accretion phase and have already developed a radiative core. It offers us the opportunity to study the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while P_rot were obtained by ...

  15. The Star Formation History of NGC 1705: a Post-Starburst Galaxy on the Verge of Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Annibali, F; Tosi, M P; Aloisi, A; Leitherer, C

    2003-01-01

    We infer the star formation history in different regions of the blue compact dwarf NGC 1705 by comparing synthetic color-magnitude diagrams with HST optical and near-infrared photometry. We find that NGC 1705 is not a young galaxy because its star formation commenced at least 5 Gyr ago. On the other hand, we confirm the existence of a recent burst of star formation between 15 and 10 Myr ago. We also find evidence for new strong activity, which started 3 Myr ago and is still continuing. The old population is spread across the entire galaxy, while the young and intermediate stars are more concentrated in the central regions. We derive an almost continuous star formation with variable rate, and exclude the presence of long quiescent phases between the episodes during the last ~1 Gyr. The central regions experienced an episode of star formation of \\~0.07 Msun/yr (for a Salpeter initial mass function [IMF]) 15 to 10 Myr ago. This coincides with the strong activity in the central super star cluster. We find a rate ...

  16. Star-formation in active galaxies to z~2: a perspective from Herschel studies

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J

    2013-01-01

    In the era of deep, large-area far-infrared (FIR) surveys from the Herschel Space Telescope, the bulk of the star-formation in distant galaxies, once hidden by dust, is now being revealed. The FIR provides probably the cleanest view of SF in the host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) over cosmic time. We report results from studies of the relationships between SF, AGN activity and AGN obscuration out to z=2.5, which employ some of the deepest Herschel and X-ray datasets currently available, while spanning orders of magnitude in the dynamic range of AGN properties. We highlight the role of gaseous supply in modulating both SF and AGN activity without necessarily implying a direct causal connection between these phenomenon. The role of starburst- or major merger-fueled AGN activity at low and high redshifts is discussed in the context of our results.

  17. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  18. The quenching of star formation in accretion-driven clumpy turbulent tori of active galactic nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, B; Davies, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    Galactic gas-gas collisions involving a turbulent multiphase ISM share common ISM properties: dense extraplanar gas visible in CO, large linewidths (>= 50 km/s), strong mid-infrared H_2 line emission, low star formation activity, and strong radio continuum emission. Gas-gas collisions can occur in the form of ICM ram pressure stripping, galaxy head-on collisions, compression of the intragroup gas and/or galaxy ISM by an intruder galaxy which flies through the galaxy group at a high velocity, ...

  19. Star Formation Activity in the Long, Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G53.2

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Davis, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We present star formation activity in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G53.2, a remarkable IRDC located at Galactic coordinates $(l,b)\\sim(53^{\\circ}.2,\\,0^{\\circ}.0)$ based on the census of young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRDC G53.2 was previously identified as several IRDCs in mid-IR images, but it is in fact a long ($\\gtrsim$45 pc) cloud, well consistent with a CO cloud at $v\\sim23$ \\kms\\ (or at $d\\sim$1.7 kpc). We present a point-source catalog of IRDC G53.2 that contains $\\sim$370 s...

  20. No evidence for activity correlations in the radial velocities of Kapteyn's star

    CERN Document Server

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Arriagada, Pamela; Zechmeister, Mathias; Jenkins, James S; Ofir, Aviv; Dreizler, Stefan; Gerlach, Enrico; Marvin, Chistopher J; Reiners, Ansgar; Jeffers, Sandra V; Butler, Paul; Vogt, Steven S; Amado, Pedro J; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Berdiñas, Zaira M; Morin, Julien; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A; Díaz, Matías; Sarmiento, Luis F; Jones, Hugh R A

    2015-01-01

    Stellar activity may induce Doppler variability at the level of a few m/s which can then be confused by the Doppler signal of an exoplanet orbiting the star. To first order, linear correlations between radial velocity measurements and activity indices have been proposed to account for any such correlation. The likely presence of two super-Earths orbiting Kapteyn's star was reported in Anglada et al. (2014, MNRAS 443L, 89A), but this claim was recently challenged by Robertson et al. (2015, ApJ 805L, 22R) arguing evidence of a rotation period (143 days) at three times the orbital period of one of the proposed planets (Kapteyn's b, P=48.6 days), and the existence of strong linear correlations between its Doppler signal and activity data. By re-analyzing the data using global optimization methods and model comparison, we show that such claim is incorrect given that; 1) the choice of a rotation period at 143 days is unjustified, and 2) the presence of linear correlations is not supported by the data. We conclude t...

  1. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Joanna S; Trump, Jonathan R; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek B; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity and star formation in z ~ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line ratio diagnostics, change with redshift while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/H$\\beta$ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ~ sim 40% more low-mass and obscured AGN than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O III]/H$\\beta$ gradient to AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ~2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. Using this gradient method will also be able to inform other galaxy ev...

  2. Detecting planets around active stars: impact of magnetic fields on radial velocities and line bisectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, É. M.; Donati, J.-F.; Delfosse, X.; Morin, J.; Boisse, I.; Moutou, C.; Hébrard, G.

    2014-09-01

    Although technically challenging, detecting Earth-like planets around very low mass stars is in principle accessible to the existing velocimeters of highest radial-velocity (RV) precision. However, low-mass stars being active, they often feature dark spots and magnetic regions at their surfaces generating a noise level in RV curves (called activity jitter) that can severely limit our practical ability at detecting Earth-like planets. Whereas the impact of dark spots on RV data has been extensively studied in the literature, that of magnetic features only received little attention up to now. In this paper, we aim at quantifying the impact of magnetic fields (and the Zeeman broadening they induce) on line profiles, line bisectors and RV data. With a simple model, we quantitatively study the RV signals and bisector distortions that small magnetic regions or global magnetic dipoles can generate, especially at infrared wavelengths where the Zeeman broadening is much larger than that in the visible. We report in particular that the impact of magnetic features on line bisectors can be different from that of cool spots when the rotational broadening is comparable to or larger than the Zeeman broadening; more specifically, we find in this case that the top and bottom sections of the bisectors are anticorrelated, i.e. the opposite behaviour of what is observed for cool spots. We finally suggest new options to show and ultimately filter the impact of the magnetic activity on RV curves.

  3. Rotation-Activity-Age Relations For Solar-Type And Cooler Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Gibor

    2016-08-01

    The fact that stellar rotation and chromospheric emission are correlated with age was explicitly noted by Wilson (1963) and reinforced by Kraft (1967). Wilson knew that Ca II emission was correlated with surface magnetic field in the Sun. Skumanich (1972) suggested a simple functional for the age-activity relation, and suggested that magnetic braking was the likely reason for the decline in activity. A theory for the rotation-activity connection was elucidated by Noyes et al. (1984), who invoked the Rossby number as important to the stellar dynamo. This calibrated the relation by convection zone depth and turnover time, although it was noted early and recently confirmed that it is not clear whether Rossby number is empirically superior to the rotation period itself in producing a clear rotation-activity relation. In fact, turnover times are hard to properly define, and the Rossby number is itself calibrated to tighten the relations. The number of stars in samples used to study this has increased dramatically, as have the diagnostics available to assess magnetic activity. It remains clear is that there is a strong relationship between magnetic activity and stellar rotation, and that magnetic braking forces both activity and rotation to decrease with age. These relations are also subject to modification as a function of stellar mass. There has recently been a great increase in the number of measured stellar rotation periods, and in the calibration of these relations using star clusters (whose ages can be independently assessed). I will summarize some of the ongoing progress on this topic.

  4. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars: Coronal Structure and Flares (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander

    EUVE has provided the first stellar coronal spectra showing individual emission lines, thereby allowing coronal modelling at a level of sophistication previously unattainable. Long EUVE observations have shown that large-scale flaring is prevalent in the coronae of active binary stars. We propose to obtain EUVE DSS spectra and photometry for 4 active binaries, one of which has never been observed by EUVE (V478 Lyr) and three EUV-bright systems that merit reobservation (Sigma CrB, Sigma Gem, Xi UMa). We shall use these observations to derive high quality quiescent coronal spectra for measuring emission measure distributions and modelling, and to obtain new flare data. We shall try to coordinate these observations with ground-based radio observations and other spacecraft, if the scheduling allows. The Sigma CrB spectra may be coordinated with AXAF GTO observations. The proposed observations will significantly increase the available EUVE spectroscopy of active binaries.

  5. Looking for activity cycles in late-type Kepler stars using time-frequency analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    We analyse light curves covering four years of 39 fast-rotating ($P_\\mathrm{rot}< 1d$) late-type active stars from the Kepler database. Using time-frequency analysis (Short-Term Fourier-Transform), we find hints for activity cycles of 300-900 days at 9 targets from the changing typical latitude of the starspots, which, with the differential rotation of the stellar surface change the observed rotation period over the activity cycle. We also give a lowest estimation for the shear parameter of the differential rotation, which is ~0.001 for the cycling targets. These results populate the less studied, short period end of the rotation-cycle length relation.

  6. Mg II h + k emission lines as stellar activity indicators of main sequence F-K stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to use the IUE spectra in the analysis of magnetic activity of main sequence F-K stars. Combining IUE observations of MgII and optical spectroscopy of Ca II, the registry of ctivity of stars can be extended in time. We retrieved all the high-resolution spectra of F, G, and K main sequence stars observed by IUE (i.e. 1623 spectra of 259 F to K dwarf stars). We obtained the continuum surface flux near the Mg II h+k lines near 2800 \\AA and the MgII line-core surface flux from the IUE spectra. We obtained a relation between the mean continuum flux near the MgII lines with the colour $B-V$ of the star. For a set of 117 nearly simultaneous observations of Mg II and Ca II fluxes of 21 F5 to K3 main sequence stars, we obtained a colour dependent relation between the Mount Wilson CaII S-index and the MgII emission line-core flux. As an application of this calibration, we computed the Mount Wilson index for all the dF to dK stars which have high resolution IUE spectra. For some of the ...

  7. A 12-year Activity Cycle for the Nearby Planet Host Star HD 219134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Meschiari, Stefano; Robertson, Paul; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Hatzes, Artie P.; Ramírez, Ivan; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2016-04-01

    The nearby (6.5 pc) star HD 219134 was recently shown by Motalebi et al. and Vogt et al. to host several planets, the innermost of which is transiting. We present 27 years of radial velocity (RV) observations of this star from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search program, and 19 years of stellar activity data. We detect a long-period activity cycle measured in the Ca ii SHK index, with a period of 4230 ± 100 days (11.7 years), very similar to the 11 year solar activity cycle. Although the period of the Saturn-mass planet HD 219134 h is close to half that of the activity cycle, we argue that it is not an artifact due to stellar activity. We also find a significant periodicity in the SHK data due to stellar rotation with a period of 22.8 days. This is identical to the period of planet f identified by Vogt et al., suggesting that this RV signal might be caused by rotational modulation of stellar activity rather than a planet. Analysis of our RVs allows us to detect the long-period planet HD 219134 h and the transiting super-Earth HD 219134 b. Finally, we use our long time baseline to constrain the presence of longer period planets in the system, excluding to 1σ objects with M{sin}i\\gt 0.36{M}J at 12 years (corresponding to the orbital period of Jupiter) and M{sin}i\\gt 0.72{M}J at a period of 16.4 years (assuming a circular orbit for an outer companion).

  8. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 4 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest–southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2–3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.

  9. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Wang, Yiping; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3x10^7 M_sun using [NeIII]15.56micron and optical [OIII]5007A gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3micron PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios highe...

  10. HATS-2b: A transiting extrasolar planet orbiting a K-type star showing starspot activity

    CERN Document Server

    Mohler-Fischer, M; Hartman, J D; Bakos, G B; Penev, K; Bayliss, D; Jordan, A; Csubry, Z; Zhou, G; Rabus, M; Nikolov, N; Brahm, R; Espinoza, N; Buchhave, L A; Beky, B; Suc, V; Csak, B; Henning, T; Wright, D J; Tinney, C G; Addison, B C; Schmidt, B; Noyes, R W; Papp, I; Lazar, J; Sari, P; Conroy, P

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-2b, the second transiting extrasolar planet detected by the HATSouth survey. HATS-2b is moving on a circular orbit around a V=13.6 mag, K-type dwarf star (GSC 6665-00236), at a separation of 0.0230 \\pm 0.0003 AU and with a period of 1.3541 days. The planetary parameters have been robustly determined using a simultaneous fit of the HATSouth, MPG/ESO~2.2\\,m/GROND, Faulkes Telescope South/Spectral transit photometry and MPG/ESO~2.2\\,m/FEROS, Euler~1.2\\,m/CORALIE, AAT~3.9\\,m/CYCLOPS radial-velocity measurements. HATS-2b has a mass of 1.37 \\pm 0.16 M_J, a radius of 1.14 \\pm 0.03 R_J and an equilibrium temperature of 1567 \\pm 30 K. The host star has a mass of 0.88 \\pm 0.04 M_Sun, radius of 0.89 \\pm 0.02 R_Sun and shows starspot activity. We characterized the stellar activity by analysing two photometric follow-up transit light curves taken with the GROND instrument, both obtained simultaneously in four optical bands (covering the wavelength range of 3860-9520 \\AA). The two light curv...

  11. Widespread and Hidden Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshift > 0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Alexander, David M; Daddi, Emanuele; Mullaney, James R; Magnelli, Benjamin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S P; Coil, Alison L; Rosario, David J; Trump, Jonathan R; Weiner, Benjamin J; Willmer, Christopher N A; Cooper, Michael C; Elbaz, David; Faber, S M; Frayer, David T; Kocevski, Dale D; Laird, Elise S; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey; Salim, Samir; Symeonidis, Myrto

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70-micron from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect "normal" galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37+/-3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-lum...

  12. WIDESPREAD AND HIDDEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT >0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, Stephanie; Bournaud, Frederic; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Magnelli, Benjamin [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Trump, Jonathan R.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Frayer, David T., E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); and others

    2013-02-20

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70 {mu}m from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect 'normal' galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37% {+-} 3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.

  13. WASP-41b: A transiting hot Jupiter planet orbiting a magnetically-active G8V star

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L; Cameron, A Collier; Hellier, C; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Gillon, M; Lister, T A; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Udry, S

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05d orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8V star (V=11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.08+-0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the CaII H and K lines and photometric variability with a period of 18.3d and an amplitude of about 1%. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.93+-0.06M_Jup, 1.21+-0.06R_Jup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

  14. The X-ray luminosity function of M37 and the evolution of coronal activity in low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We use a 440.5 ks Chandra observation of the $\\approx$500-Myr-old open cluster M37 to derive the X-ray luminosity functions of its $\\leq1.2$ $M_{\\odot}$ stars. Combining detections of 162 M37 members with upper limits for 160 non-detections, we find that its G, K, and M stars have a similar median (0.5$-$7 keV) X-ray luminosity L$_X =10^{29.0}$ erg/s, whereas the L$_X$-to-bolometric-luminosity ratio (L$_X$/L$_{bol}$) indicates that M stars are more active than G and K stars by $\\approx$1 order of magnitude at 500 Myr. To characterize the evolution of magnetic activity in low-mass stars over their first $\\approx$600 Myr, we consolidate X-ray and optical data from the literature for stars in six other open clusters: from youngest to oldest, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), NGC 2547, NGC 2516, the Pleiades, NGC 6475, and the Hyades. For these, we homogenize the conversion of instrumental count rates to L$_X$ by applying the same one-temperature emission model as for M37, and obtain masses using the same empirical...

  15. Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active young solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Käpylä, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Context. By studying young magnetically active late-type stars, i.e. analogues to the young Sun, we can draw conclusions on the evolution of the solar dynamo. Aims: We determine the topology of the surface magnetic field and study the relation between the magnetic field and cool photospheric spots in three young late-type stars. Methods: High-resolution spectropolarimetry of the targets was obtained with the HARPSpol instrument mounted at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The signal-to-noise ratios of the Stokes IV measurements were boosted by combining the signal from a large number of spectroscopic absorption lines through the least squares deconvolution technique. Surface brightness and magnetic field maps were calculated using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique. Results: All three targets show clear signs of magnetic fields and cool spots. Only one of the targets, V1358 Ori, shows evidence of the dominance of non-axisymmetric modes. In two of the targets, the poloidal field is significantly stronger than the toroidal one, indicative of an α2-type dynamo, in which convective turbulence effects dominate over the weak differential rotation. In two of the cases there is a slight anti-correlation between the cool spots and the strength of the radial magnetic field. However, even in these cases the correlation is much weaker than in the case of sunspots. Conclusions: The weak correlation between the measured radial magnetic field and cool spots may indicate a more complex magnetic field structure in the spots or spot groups involving mixed magnetic polarities. Comparison with a previously published magnetic field map shows that on one of the stars, HD 29615, the underlying magnetic field changed its polarity between 2009 and 2013. Based on observations made with the HARPSpol instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla (Chile), under the program ID 091.D-0836.

  16. Exploring the optical contrast effect in strong atomic lines for exoplanets transiting active stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Paul W.; Redfield, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a powerful tool for detecting and characterizing planetary atmospheres. Non-photospheric features on the stellar disk, however, can contaminate the planetary signal: during transit the observed spectrum is weighted towards the features not currently being occulted by the planet. This contrast effect can mimic absorption in the planetary atmosphere for strong atomic lines such as Na I, Ca II, and the hydrogen Balmer lines. While the contrast effect is negligible for quiet stars, contributions to the transmission signal from active stellar surfaces can produce ~1% changes in the line core. It is therefore critical that these contrast signals be differentiated from true absorption features in the planetary atmosphere. Here we present our work on simulating the contrast effect for an active stellar surface. We discuss the particular case of HD 189733 b, a well-studied hot Jupiter orbiting an active K-dwarf, due to the plethora of atomic absorption signals reported in its atmosphere.Specifically, we focus on Hα to address recent suggestions that the measured in-transit signals are a result of stellar activity. In the contrast model we include center-to-limb variations and calculate limb darkening parameters as a function of wavelength across the line of interest. The model includes contributions to the spectrum from spots, faculae and plages, filaments, and the bare stellar photosphere. Stellar rotation is also included. We find that it is very difficult to reproduce the measured in-transit Hα signals for reasonable active region parameters. In addition, it is difficult to create an in-transit contrast signature that lasts for the duration of the transit unless the planet is crossing an active latitudinal belt and is always obscuring active regions. This suggests that the Hα measurements arise predominantly in the planetary atmosphere. However, the contrast effect likely contributes to these signals. Furthermore, our results could be

  17. Stellar magnetic activity and variability of oscillation parameters - An investigation of 24 solar-like stars observed by Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, René; Davies, Guy; Roth, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Sun and solar-like stars undergo activity cycles for which the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The oscillations of the Sun are known to vary with its activity cycle and these changes provide diagnostics on the conditions below the photosphere. Kepler has detected oscillations in hundreds of solar-like stars but as of yet, no widespread detection of signatures of magnetic activity cycles in the oscillation parameters of these stars have been reported. Aims. We analyse the photometric short cadence Kepler time series of a set of 24 solar-like stars, which were observed for at least 960 days each, with the aim to find signatures of stellar magnetic activity in the oscillation parameters. Methods. We analyse the temporal evolution of oscillation parameters by measuring mode frequency shifts, changes in the height of the p-mode envelope, as well as granulation time scales. Results. For 23 of the 24 investigated stars, we find significant frequency shifts in time. We present evidence for...

  18. An Evolutionary Model for Collapsing Molecular Clouds and Their Star Formation Activity. II. Mass Dependence of the Star Formation Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we presented a semi-analytical model for the regulation of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) in which the molecular clouds (MCs) were assumed to be in gravitational collapse, and the SFR was instantaneously controlled by evaporation of the cloud material by massive-star ionization feedback. In this model, the main parameter controlling the evolution of the clouds was found to be the gas mass involved in the process and here we discuss various properties of the SFR and SFE as a function of the cloud masses, that can be compared with observations and implemented in numerical models of galactic evolution. Because the model neglects magnetic fields, supernova explosions, and radiation pressure, the results presented are upper limits. We find that $\\SFRavg$ and $\\SFEavg$ are well represented as functions of the maximum cloud mass by the fits $\\SFRavg \\approx 100 (1+\\Mmax/2 \\times 10^5 ~ \\Msun)^{2} ~ \\Msun \\Myr^{-1}$ and $\\SFEavg \\approx 0.024 (\\Mmax/10^5 ~ \\Msun)^{0.28}$, resp...

  19. Relativistic jet activity from the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Ghisellini, G; Mangano, V; Zhang, B; Page, K L; Eracleous, M; Romano, P; Sakamoto, T; Falcone, A D; Osborne, J P; Campana, S; Beardmore, A P; Breeveld, A A; Chester, M M; Corbet, R; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Esposito, P; Evans, P A; Fugazza, D; Gelbord, J M; Hiroi, K; Holland, S T; Huang, K Y; Im, M; Israel, G; Jeon, Y; Jeon, Y-B; Jun, H D; Kawai, N; Kim, J H; Krimm, H A; Marshall, F E; P Mészáros; Negoro, H; Omodei, N; Park, W-K; Perkins, J S; Sugizaki, M; Sung, H-I; Tagliaferri, G; Troja, E; Ueda, Y; Urata, Y; Usui, R; Antonelli, L A; Barthelmy, S D; Cusumano, G; Giommi, P; Melandri, A; Perri, M; Racusin, J L; Sbarufatti, B; Siegel, M H; Gehrels, N

    2011-08-24

    Supermassive black holes have powerful gravitational fields with strong gradients that can destroy stars that get too close, producing a bright flare in ultraviolet and X-ray spectral regions from stellar debris that forms an accretion disk around the black hole. The aftermath of this process may have been seen several times over the past two decades in the form of sparsely sampled, slowly fading emission from distant galaxies, but the onset of the stellar disruption event has not hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of a bright X-ray flare from the extragalactic transient Swift J164449.3+573451. This source increased in brightness in the X-ray band by a factor of at least 10,000 since 1990 and by a factor of at least 100 since early 2010. We conclude that we have captured the onset of relativistic jet activity from a supermassive black hole. A companion paper comes to similar conclusions on the basis of radio observations. This event is probably due to the tidal disruption of a star falling into a supermassive black hole, but the detailed behaviour differs from current theoretical models of such events.

  20. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Esquej, P; González-Martín, O; Hönig, S F; Caballero, A Hernán; Roche, P F; Almeida, C Ramos; Mason, R E; Díaz-Santos, T; Levenson, N A; Aretxaga, I; Espinosa, J M Rodríguez; Packham, C

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (0.4-0.8 arcsec) mid-infrared (8-13 micron) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalogue. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of 65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 micron PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are...

  1. The resolved star-formation relation in nearby active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Casasola, Viviana; Combes, Francoise; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relation between star formation rate (SFR) surface density (sigmasfr) and mass surface density of molecular gas (sigmahtwo), commonly referred to as the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) relation, at its intrinsic spatial scale, i.e. the size of giant molecular clouds (10-150 pc), in the central, high-density regions of four nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). We used interferometric IRAM CO(1-0) and CO(2-1), and SMA CO(3-2) emission line maps to derive sigmahtwo and HST-Halpha images to estimate sigmasfr. Each galaxy is characterized by a distinct molecular SF relation at spatial scales between 20 to 200 pc. The K-S relations can be sub-linear, but also super-linear, with slopes ranging from 0.5 to 1.3. Depletion times range from 1 and 2Gyr, compatible with results for nearby normal galaxies. These findings are valid independently of which transition, CO(1-0), CO(2-1), or CO(3-2), is used to derive sigmahtwo. Because of star-formation feedback, life-time of clouds, turbule...

  2. Determining the covering factor of Compton-thick active galactic nuclei with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, M; Stern, D; Arevalo, P; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Craig, W W; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Hickox, R C; Koss, M; LaMassa, S; Puccetti, S; Rivers, E; Vasudevan, R; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting Compton-thick absorption along the line of sight ($N_{H}>1.5\\times10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this Compton-thick fraction is difficult however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays ($>$10 keV), NuSTAR is sensitive to the AGN covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGN observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so called Compton-thick (CT) AGN. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra which predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the Compton-thick gas i...

  3. Long-term chromospheric activity of non-eclipsing RS CVn-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-01-01

    Context. The IUE database provides a large number of UV high and low-resolution spectra of RS CVn-type stars from 1978 to 1996. In particular, many of these stars were monitored continuously during several seasons by IUE. Aims. Our main purpose is to study the short and long-term chromospheric activity of the RS CVn systems most observed by IUE: HD 22468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099, K1IV+G5V), HD 21242 (UX Ari, K0IV+G5V) and HD 224085 (II Peg, K2IV). Methods. We first obtain the Mount Wilson index S from the IUE high and low-resolution spectra. Secondly, we analyse with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram the mean annual index S and the amplitude of its rotational modulation. Results. For HD 22468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099), we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter cycle with a period of 3 years, which could be associated to a chromospheric "flip-flop" cycle. The data of HD 224085 (II Peg) also suggest a chromospheric cycle of 21 years and a flip-flop cycle of 9 years. Finally, we obtained a p...

  4. WASP-50b: a hot Jupiter transiting a moderately active solar-type star

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Triaud, A H M J; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Collier-Cameron, A; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Magain, P; Montalban, J; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Udry, S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of a giant planet in a close orbit (0.0295+-0.0009 AU) around a moderately bright (V=11.6, K=10) G9 dwarf (0.89+-0.08 M_sun, 0.84+-0.03 R_sun) in the Southern constellation Eridanus. Thanks to high-precision follow-up photometry and spectroscopy obtained by the telescopes TRAPPIST and Euler, the mass and size of this planet, WASP-50b, are well constrained to 1.47+-0.09 M_jup and 1.15+-0.05 R_jup, respectively. The transit ephemeris is 2455558.6120 (+-0.0002) + N x 1.955096 (+-0.000005) HJD_UTC. The size of the planet is consistent with basic models of irradiated giant planets. The chromospheric activity (log R'_HK = -4.67) and rotational period (P_rot = 16.3+-0.5 days) of the host star suggest an age of 0.8+-0.4 Gy that is discrepant with a stellar-evolution estimate based on the measured stellar parameters (rho_star = 1.48+-0.10 rho_sun, Teff = 5400+-100 K, [Fe/H]= -0.12+-0.08) which favours an age of 7+-3.5 Gy. This discrepancy could be explained by the tid...

  5. Activity and Magnetic Field Structure of the Sun-Like Planet Hosting Star HD 1237

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarado-Gómez, J D; Grunhut, J; Fares, R; Donati, J -F; Alecian, E; Kochukhov, O; Oksala, M; Morin, J; Redfield, S; Cohen, O; Drake, J J; Jardine, M; Matt, S; Petit, P; Walter, F M

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the magnetic activity characteristics of the planet hosting Sun-like star, HD 1237, using HARPS spectro-polarimetric time-series data. We find evidence of rotational modulation of the magnetic longitudinal field measurements consistent with our ZDI analysis, with a period of 7 days. We investigate the effect of customising the LSD mask to the line depths of the observed spectrum and find that it has a minimal effect on shape of the extracted Stokes V profile but does result in a small increase in the S/N ($\\sim$ 7%). We find that using a Milne-Eddington solution to describe the local line profile provides a better fit to the LSD profiles in this slowly rotating star, which also impacts the recovered ZDI field distribution. We also introduce a fit-stopping criterion based on the information content (entropy) of the ZDI maps solution set. The recovered magnetic field maps show a strong (+90 G) ring-like azimuthal field distribution and a complex radial field dominating at mid latitudes ($\\sim$45 degr...

  6. Long-term chromospheric activity of non-eclipsing RS CVn-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2009-02-01

    Context: The IUE database provides several UV high and low-resolution spectra of RS CVn-type stars from 1978 to 1996. In particular, many of these stars were monitored continuously during several seasons by IUE. Aims: Our main purpose is to study the short and long-term chromospheric activity of the RS CVn systems most observed by IUE: HD 22 468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099, K1IV+G5V), HD 21 242 (UX Ari, K0IV+G5V), and HD 224 085 (II Peg, K2IV). Methods: We first obtained the Mount Wilson index S from the IUE high and low-resolution spectra. Secondly, we used the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to analyse the mean annual index and the amplitude of the rotational modulation of the index S. Results: For HD 22 468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099), we find a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of ~18 years and a shorter cycle with a period of ~3 years, which could be associated to a chromospheric “flip-flop” cycle. The data of HD 224 085 (II Peg) also suggest a chromospheric cycle of ~21 years and a flip-flop cycle of ~9 years. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of ~7 years for HD 21 242 (UX Ari).

  7. Mid-Infrared Spectral Indicators of Star-Formation and AGN Activity in Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared PAH bands, continuum and emission lines as probes of star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 100 `normal' and local (z~0.1) galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer IRS as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the UV to the FIR and optical spectroscopy. The spectra were decomposed using PAHFIT (Smith et al. 2007), which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths (EW) up to ~30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Based on correlations between PAH, continuum and emission line properties and optically derived physical properties (gas phase metallicity, radiation field hardness), we revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH EWs and [NeII]/[OIV] and find it more efficient as distinguishing weak AGNs from star-forming galaxies than when spline decompositions are used. The luminosity of individual MIR component (PAH, continuum, Ne and molecular hydrogen lines) are found to...

  8. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Interacting Galaxies: A Near-UV Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    We study nearby galaxies in close pairs to study the key factors affecting star formation and AGN activity triggered during galaxy interactions. Close pairs are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey assuming a projected separation of $<$30kpc and recessional velocity difference $<$500km s$^{-1}$. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) fluxes from GALEX are used to estimate specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We find a factor of $\\sim$5.3 increase in SSFR for low mass (10$^{8}-10^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$) close pair galaxies and a factor of $\\sim$2.1 increase in SSFR for high mass mass (10$^{11}-10^{13}$M$_{\\odot}$) close pairs compared to the general galaxy population. Considering galaxies of all masses, we find a factor of $\\sim$1.8 enhancement in SSFR for close pairs in field environments compared to non-pairs, with no significant increase for pairs in group and cluster environments. A modest decrease of a factor of $\\sim$1.4 is found in the Seyfert fraction in close pair galaxies when compared to isolated galaxies, ...

  9. The quenching of star formation in accretion-driven clumpy turbulent tori of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B

    2013-01-01

    Galactic gas-gas collisions involving a turbulent multiphase ISM share common ISM properties: dense extraplanar gas visible in CO, large linewidths (>= 50 km/s), strong mid-infrared H_2 line emission, low star formation activity, and strong radio continuum emission. Gas-gas collisions can occur in the form of ICM ram pressure stripping, galaxy head-on collisions, compression of the intragroup gas and/or galaxy ISM by an intruder galaxy which flies through the galaxy group at a high velocity, or external gas accretion on an existing gas torus in a galactic center. We suggest that the common theme of all these gas-gas interactions is adiabatic compression of the ISM leading to an increase of the turbulent velocity dispersion of the gas. The turbulent gas clouds are then overpressured and star formation is quenched. Within this scenario we developed a model for turbulent clumpy gas disks where the energy to drive turbulence is supplied by external infall or the gain of potential energy by radial gas accretion wi...

  10. Molecular Hydrogen and [Fe II] in Active Galactic Nuclei III: LINERS and Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Riffel, R; Aleman, I; Brotherton, M S; Pastoriza, M G; Bonatto, C J; Dors, O L

    2013-01-01

    We study the kinematics and excitation mechanisms of H2 and [Fe II] lines in a sample of 67 emission-line galaxies with Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX near-infrared (NIR, 0.8-2.4 micrometers) spectroscopy together with new photoionisation models. H2 emission lines are systematically narrower than narrow-line region (NLR) lines, suggesting that the two are, very likely, kinematically disconnected. The new models and emission-line ratios show that the thermal excitation plays an important role not only in active galactic nuclei but also in star forming galaxies. The importance of the thermal excitation in star forming galaxies may be associated with the presence of supernova remnants close to the region emitting H2 lines. This hypothesis is further supported by the similarity between the vibrational and rotational temperatures of H2. We confirm that the diagram involving the line ratios H2 2.121/Br_gamma and [Fe II] 1.257/Pa_beta is an efficient tool for separating emission-line objects according to their dom...

  11. The Role of Galaxy Interaction in Environmental Dependence of the Star Formation Activity at z~1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ideue, Yuko; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Kajisawa, Masaru; Trump, Jonathan R; Vergani, Daniela; Iovino, Angela; Koekemoer, Anton M; Fevre, Olivier Le; Ilbert, Olivier; Scoville, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand environmental effects on star formation in high-redshift galaxies, we investigate the physical relationships between the star formation activity, stellar mass, and environment for z ~1.2 galaxies in the 2 deg^2 COSMOS field. We estimate star formation using the [OII] emission line and environment from the local galaxy density. Our analysis shows that for massive galaxies M_*>10^10 M_sun, the fraction of [OII] emitters in high-density environments is 1.7 times higher than in low-density environments, while the [OII] emitter fraction does not depend on environment for low-mass M_* 10^10 M_sun. In addition, massive galaxies are more likely to have companions in high-density environments. However, although the "number" of star forming galaxies increases for massive galaxies with close companions and in dense environments, the "average" star formation rate of star forming galaxies at a given mass is independent of environment and the presence/absence of a close companion. These results sugg...

  12. Strong Variable Ultraviolet Emission from Y Gem: Accretion Activity in an AGB Star with a Binary Companion?

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; de Paz, Armando Gil; Contreras, Carmen Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Binarity is believed to dramatically affect the history and geometry of mass loss in AGB and post-AGB stars, but observational evidence of binarity is sorely lacking. As part of a project to look for hot binary companions to cool AGB stars using the GALEX archive, we have discovered a late-M star, Y Gem, to be a source of strong and variable UV emission. Y Gem is a prime example of the success of our technique of UV imaging of AGB stars in order to search for binary companions. Y Gem's large and variable UV flux makes it one of the most prominent examples of a late AGB star with a mass accreting binary companion. The UV emission is most likely due to emission associated with accretion activity and a disk around a main-sequence companion star. The physical mechanism generating the UV emission is extremely energetic, with an integrated luminosity of a few L(sun) at its peak. We also find weak CO J=2-1 emission from Y Gem with a very narrow line profile (FWHM of 3.4 km/s). Such a narrow line is unlikely to arise...

  13. Active optics: variable curvature mirrors for ELT laser guide star refocusing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Vivès, Sébastien; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2011-10-01

    The future generation of Extremely Large Telescopes will require a complex combination of technologies for adaptive optics (AO) systems assisted by laser guide stars (LGS). In this context, the distance from the LGS spot to the telescope pupil ranges from about 80 to 200 km, depending on the Sodium layer altitude and the elevation of the telescope. This variation leads to a defocusing effect on the LGS wave-front sensor which needs to be compensated. We propose an active mirror able to compensate for this variation, based on an original optical design including this active optics component. This LGS Variable Curvature Mirror (LGS-VCM) is a 120 mm spherical active mirror able to achieve 820 μm deflection sag with an optical quality better than 150 nm RMS, allowing the radius of curvature variation from F/12 to F/2. Based on elasticity theory, the deformation of the metallic mirror is provided by an air pressure applied on a thin meniscus with a variable thickness distribution. In this article, we detail the analytical development leading to the specific geometry of the active component, the results of finite element analysis and the expected performances in terms of surface error versus the range of refocalisation. Three prototypes have been manufactured to compare the real behavior of the mirror and the simulations data. Results obtained on the prototypes are detailed, showing that the deformation of the VCM is very close to the simulation, and leads to a realistic active concept.

  14. SALT observations of the chromospheric activity of transiting planet hosts: mass-loss and star-planet interactions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, D.; Haswell, C. A.; Smith, Gareth D.; Fossati, L.; Barnes, J. R.; Busuttil, R.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    We measured the chromospheric activity of the four hot Jupiter hosts WASP-43, WASP-51/HAT-P-30, WASP-72 and WASP-103 to search for anomalous values caused by the close-in companions. The Mount Wilson Ca II H & K S-index was calculated for each star using observations taken with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph at the Southern African Large Telescope. The activity level of WASP-43 is anomalously high relative to its age and falls among the highest values of all known main-sequence stars. We found marginal evidence that the activity of WASP-103 is also higher than expected from the system age. We suggest that for WASP-43 and WASP-103 star-planet interactions (SPI) may enhance the Ca II H & K core emission. The activity levels of WASP-51/HAT-P-30 and WASP-72 are anomalously low, with the latter falling below the basal envelope for both main-sequence and evolved stars. This can be attributed to circumstellar absorption due to planetary mass-loss, though absorption in the interstellar medium may contribute. A quarter of known short-period planet hosts exhibit anomalously low activity levels, including systems with hot Jupiters and low-mass companions. Since SPI can elevate and absorption can suppress the observed chromospheric activity of stars with close-in planets, their Ca II H & K activity levels are an unreliable age indicator. Systems where the activity is depressed by absorption from planetary mass-loss are key targets for examining planet compositions through transmission spectroscopy.

  15. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquej, P. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Villafranca del Castillo, E-28850, Madrid (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, E-38205, La Laguna (Spain); Hönig, S. F. [UCSB Department of Physics, Broida Hall 2015H, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Roche, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku, HI 96720 (United States); Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Packham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot {sub BH}) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot {sub BH} and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.

  16. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yashiro, Seiji [Interferometrics Inc., Herndon, VA 20171 (United States); Gopalswamy, Nat, E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  17. Challenges to Understand Stellar Chromospheres and Stellar Activity: The Limit Case of Late-A and Early-F Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Gouttebroze, P.

    The onset of chromospheric activity appears at late-A and early-F stars where theories predict atmospheres in radiative equilibrium and shallow or non-existent convective zones. The detection of Ly-α emission cores in several A and F stars, first with the IUE satellite and then with the HST, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0. ^m19 (Catalano et al. [CITE]). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire et al. [CITE]) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal HI IS absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity we analyzed alternative hypotheses like the formation of Ly-α emissions into a corotating expanding wind, but we ruled out this alternative because we obtained inconsistent results. In addition, X-ray emission (originated surely in a corona) strengthen the presence of a chromosphere. Here we place the problem of chromospheric activity of late-A and early-F stars in the general context of the formation of over-photospheric stellar layers, comparing them with late-type star and solar cases.

  18. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants catalyzed by acidic nanocatalyst based on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanzadeh, Mohsen; Naeimi, Hossein; Zahraie, Zohreh

    2017-02-01

    Phenolic antioxidants play important role in prevention of oxidation in different industrials. The research objective in the current study was synthesis and evaluate of antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants. The synthetic compounds were prepared in the presence of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide. The antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was investigated by spectrophotometrically method according to the DPPH assay. Overall, these compounds are potentially important antioxidant and also to limit activity of reactive oxygen species.

  19. Variability of stellar granulation and convective blueshift with spectral type and magnetic activity. I. K and G main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, N.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mbemba Kabuiku, L.; Alex, M.; Mignon, L.; Borgniet, S.

    2017-01-01

    Context. In solar-type stars, the attenuation of convective blueshift by stellar magnetic activity dominates the RV (radial velocity) variations over the low amplitude signal induced by low mass planets. Models of stars that differ from the Sun will require a good knowledge of the attenuation of the convective blueshift to estimate its impact on the variations. Aims: It is therefore crucial to precisely determine not only the amplitude of the convective blueshift for different types of stars, but also the dependence of this convective blueshift on magnetic activity, as these are key factors in our model producing the RV. Methods: We studied a sample of main sequence stars with spectral types from G0 to K2 and focused on their temporally averaged properties: the activity level and a criterion allowing to characterise the amplitude of the convective blueshift. This criterion is derived from the dependence of the convective blueshift with the intensity at the bottom of a large set of selected spectral lines. Results: We find the differential velocity shifts of spectral lines due to convection to depend on the spectral type, the wavelength (this dependence is correlated with the Teff and activity level), and on the activity level. This allows us to quantify the dependence of granulation properties on magnetic activity for stars other than the Sun. We are indeed able to derive a significant dependence of the convective blueshift on activity level for all types of stars. The attenuation factor of the convective blueshift appears to be constant over the considered range of spectral types. We derive a convective blueshift which decreases towards lower temperatures, with a trend in close agreement with models for Teff lower than 5800 K, but with a significantly larger global amplitude. Differences also remain to be examined in detail for larger Teff. We finally compare the observed RV variation amplitudes with those that could be derived from our convective blueshift using

  20. A SINFONI view of the nuclear activity and circumnuclear star formation in NGC 4303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.; Colina, L.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Piqueras López, J.; Arribas, S.; Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M.; Sales, Dinalva A.; Dametto, N. Z.; Labiano, A.; Davies, R. I.

    2016-10-01

    We present new maps of emission-line flux distributions and kinematics in both ionized (traced by H I and [Fe II] lines) and molecular (H2) gas of the inner 0.7 × 0.7 kpc2 of the galaxy NGC 4303, with a spatial resolution 40-80 pc and velocity resolution 90-150 km s- 1 obtained from near-IR integral field spectroscopy using the Very Large Telescope instrument SINFONI. The most prominent feature is a 200-250 pc ring of circumnuclear star-forming regions. The emission from ionized and molecular gas shows distinct flux distributions: while the strongest H I and [Fe II] emission comes from regions in the west side of the ring (ages ˜ 4 Myr), the H2 emission is strongest at the nucleus and in the east side of the ring (ages > 10 Myr). We find that regions of enhanced hot H2 emission are anti-correlated with those of enhanced [Fe II] and H I emission, which can be attributed to post-starburst regions that do not have ionizing photons anymore but still are hot enough (≈2000 K) to excite the H2 molecule. The line ratios are consistent with the presence of an active galactic nucleus at the nucleus. The youngest regions have stellar masses in the range 0.3-1.5 × 105 M⊙ and ionized and hot molecular gas masses of ˜0.25-1.2 × 104 M⊙ and ˜2.5-5 M⊙, respectively. The stellar and gas velocity fields show a rotation pattern, with the gas presenting larger velocity amplitudes than the stars, with a deviation observed for the H2 along the nuclear bar, where increased velocity dispersion is also observed, possibly associated with non-circular motions along the bar. The stars in the ring show smaller velocity dispersion than the surroundings, which can be attributed to a cooler dynamics due to their recent formation from cool gas.

  1. Variability of stellar granulation and convective blueshift with spectral type and magnetic activity. I. K and G main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, N; Kabuiku, L Mbemba; Alex, M; Mignon, L; Borgniet, S

    2016-01-01

    In solar-type stars, the attenuation of convective blueshift by stellar magnetic activity dominates the RV variations over the low amplitude signal induced by low mass planets. Models of stars that differ from the Sun will require a good knowledge of the attenuation of the convective blueshift to estimate its impact on the variations. It is therefore crucial to precisely determine not only the amplitude of the convective blueshift for different types of stars, but also the dependence of this convective blueshift on magnetic activity, as these are key factors in our model producing the RV. We studied a sample of main sequence stars with spectral types from G0 to K2 and focused on their temporally averaged properties: the activity level and a criterion allowing to characterise the amplitude of the convective blueshift. We find the differential velocity shifts of spectral lines due to convection to depend on the spectral type, the wavelength (this dependence is correlated with the Teff and activity level), and o...

  2. Effect of local and large-scale environments on nuclear activity and star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Argudo-Fernández, M; Sabater, J; Puertas, S Duarte; Verley, S; Yang, X

    2016-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of the main drivers for transition from star-forming disk to passive spheroidal galaxies. However, the role of large-scale environment versus one-on-one interactions in triggering different types of AGN is still uncertain. We present a statistical study of the prevalence of the nuclear activity in isolated galaxies and physically bound isolated pairs. For the purpose of this study we considered optically and radio selected nuclear activity types. We aim to assess the effect of one-on-one interaction on the fraction of AGN and the role of their large-scale environment. To study the effect of one-on-one interaction on the fraction of AGN in isolated galaxy pairs, we compare with a sample of isolated galaxies homogeneously selected under the same isolation criterion. We examine the effect of the large-scale environment by comparing with control samples of single galaxies and galaxy pairs. In general we found no difference in the prevalence of optical AGN for the considered sam...

  3. The Detection of Earth-mass Planets around Active Stars: The Mass of Kepler-78b

    CERN Document Server

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2014-01-01

    Kepler-78b is a transiting Earth-mass planet in an 8.5 hr orbit discovered by the Kepler Space Mission. We performed an analysis of the published radial velocity measurements for Kepler-78 in order to derive a refined measurement for the planet mass. Kepler-78 is an active star and radial velocity variations due to activity were removed using a Floating Chunk Offset (FCO) method where an orbital solution was made to the data by allowing the velocity offsets of individual nights to vary. We show that if we had no a priori knowledge of the transit period the FCO method used as a periodogram would still have detected Kepler-78b in the radial velocity data. It can thus be effective at finding unknown short-period signals in the presence of significant activity noise. Using the FCO method while keeping the ephemeris and orbital phase fixed to the photometric values and using only data from nights where 6-10 measurements were taken results in a K-amplitude of 1.34 +/- 0.25 m/s. a planet mass of 1.31 +/- 0.24 M_Eart...

  4. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. II. Stellar Rotation, Starspots, and Chromospheric Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    We conducted high dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru/HDS. These 50 stars were selected from the solar-type superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler data. More than half (34 stars) of these 50 target superflare stars show no evidence of binarity, and we estimated stellar parameters of these 34 stars in our previous study (Notsu et al. 2015, hereafter called Paper I). According to our previous studies using Kepler data, superflare stars show quasi-periodic brightness variations whose amplitude (0.1-10\\%) is much larger than that of the solar brightness variations (0.01-0.1\\%) caused by the existence of sunspots on the rotating solar surface. In this study, we investigated whether these quasi-periodic brightness variations of superflare stars are explained by the rotation of a star with fairly large starspots, by using stellar parameters derived in Paper I. First, we confirmed that the value of the projected rotational velocity $v \\sin i$ is consistent with th...

  5. The Evolution of Star Formation Activity in Cluster Galaxies Over $0.15

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Cory R; Brodwin, Mark; Stanford, S A; Snyder, Gregory F; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We explore 7.5 billion years of evolution in the star formation activity of massive ($M_{\\star}>10^{10.1}\\,M_{\\odot}$) cluster galaxies using a sample of 25 clusters over $0.15star formation rates, stellar masses, and 4000 \\AA\\ break strengths. The latter are used to separate quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). From $z\\sim1.3$ to $z\\sim0.2$, the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of cluster SFGs and quiescent galaxies decreases by factors of three and four, respectively. Over the same redshift range, the sSFR of the entire cluster population declines by a factor of 11, from $0.48\\pm0.06\\;\\mathrm{Gyr}^{-1}$ to $0.043\\pm0.009\\;\\mathrm{Gyr}^{-1}$. This strong overall sSFR evolution is driven by t...

  6. Unbiased identification of signal-activated transcription factors by barcoded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pauline; Rando, Gianpaolo; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-08-15

    The discovery of transcription factors (TFs) controlling pathways in health and disease is of paramount interest. We designed a widely applicable method, dubbed barcorded synthetic tandem repeat promoter screening (BC-STAR-PROM), to identify signal-activated TFs without any a priori knowledge about their properties. The BC-STAR-PROM library consists of ∼3000 luciferase expression vectors, each harboring a promoter (composed of six tandem repeats of synthetic random DNA) and an associated barcode of 20 base pairs (bp) within the 3' untranslated mRNA region. Together, the promoter sequences encompass >400,000 bp of random DNA, a sequence complexity sufficient to capture most TFs. Cells transfected with the library are exposed to a signal, and the mRNAs that it encodes are counted by next-generation sequencing of the barcodes. This allows the simultaneous activity tracking of each of the ∼3000 synthetic promoters in a single experiment. Here we establish proof of concept for BC-STAR-PROM by applying it to the identification of TFs induced by drugs affecting actin and tubulin cytoskeleton dynamics. BC-STAR-PROM revealed that serum response factor (SRF) is the only immediate early TF induced by both actin polymerization and microtubule depolymerization. Such changes in cytoskeleton dynamics are known to occur during the cell division cycle, and real-time bioluminescence microscopy indeed revealed cell-autonomous SRF-myocardin-related TF (MRTF) activity bouts in proliferating cells.

  7. Star-shaped ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures for enhanced photocatalysis and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, George R. S.; Nascimento, Cristiane C.; Lima, Zenon M.; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Costa, Luiz P.; Gimenez, Iara F.

    2017-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles with a star-shaped morphology have been synthesized by a novel and simple room-temperature method and decorated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) for enhanced photocatalysis and bactericide applications. The presence of thiourea during the precipitation of ZnO in alkaline conditions allowed the control of morphological features (e.g. average size and shape) and the surface functionalization with thiocyanate ions (SCN-). SNPs were deposited into the ZnO surface by a photoreduction method and their sizes could be easily controlled by changing the ZnO/AgNO3 ratio. The presence of SCN- on the semiconductor surface prevents uncontrollable growth of Ag nanoparticles into different morphologies and high degrees of polydispersity. XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR and PL were employed for characterizing the structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-obtained pure and hybrid nanostructures. Finally, the hybrid ZnO/Ag particles have shown plasmon-enhanced performance for applications in photocatalysis and antibacterial activity compared to the pure ZnO counterpart. In this work, evaluation of the photodegradation of an aqueous methylene blue solution under UV-A irradiation and the antibacterial activity toward 4 bacterial strains, including Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300, ATCC 25923 and ATCC 33591) and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853).

  8. Implications of mass and energy loss due to coronal mass ejections on magnetically-active stars

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Jeremy J; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power law relationships between the 1-8 AA flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE=kE^-alpha. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of alpha and are very large: M_dot ~ 5x10^-10 M_sun/yr and E_dot ~ 0.1L_sun. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence >~ 10^31 erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energ...

  9. What powers the starburst activity of NGC 1068? Star-driven gravitational instabilities caught in the act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Alessandro B.; Fathi, Kambiz

    2016-08-01

    We explore the role that gravitational instability plays in NGC 1068, a nearby Seyfert galaxy that exhibits unusually vigorous starburst activity. For this purpose, we use the Romeo-Falstad disc instability diagnostics and data from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae. Our analysis illustrates that NGC 1068 is a gravitationally unstable `monster'. Its starburst disc is subject to unusually powerful instabilities. Several processes, including feedback from the active galactic nucleus and starburst activity, try to quench such instabilities from inside out by depressing the surface density of molecular gas across the central kpc, but they do not succeed. Gravitational instability `wins' because it is driven by the stars via their much higher surface density. In this process, stars and molecular gas are strongly coupled, and it is such a coupling that ultimately triggers local gravitational collapse/fragmentation in the molecular gas.

  10. Evolution of the cycles of magnetic activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars in time

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Artamonov, B P

    2016-01-01

    We applied the method of continuous wavelet-transform to the time-frequency analysis to the sets of observations of relative sunspot numbers, sunspot areas and to 6 Mount Wilson HK-project stars with well-defined magnetic cycles. Wavelet analysis of these data reveals the following pattern: at the same time there are several activity cycles whose periods vary widely from the quasi-biennial up to the centennial period for the Sun and vary significant during observations time of the HK-project stars. These relatively low-frequency periodic variations of the solar and stellar activity gradually change the values of periods of different cycles in time. This phenomenon can be observed in every cycles of activity

  11. Detection of Low-Level Activities in Solar-Analog Stars from the Emission Strengths of Ca II 3934 Line

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Activity studies of solar-type stars, especially with reference to the status of our current Sun among them, have exposed the importance of (1) homogeneously selecting the sample stars and (2) reliably evaluating their activities down to a considerably low level. Motivated by these requirements, we conducted an extensive study on the activities of 118 solar-analog stars (of sufficiently similar properties to each other) by measuring the emission strength at the core of Ca II 3933.663 line (K line) on the high-dispersion spectrogram obtained by Subaru/HDS, where special attention was paid to correctly detecting the chromospheric emission by removing the wing-fitted photospheric profile calculated from the classical solar model atmosphere. This enabled us to detect low-level activities down to log R' ~ -5.4 (R' is the ratio of the chromospheric core emission flux to the total bolometric flux), by which we could detect subtle activity differences which were indiscernible in previous studies. Regarding the Sun, w...

  12. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    CERN Document Server

    Borisova, A; Petit, P; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Charbonnel, C; Drake, N A

    2016-01-01

    Context: When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but diferent rotation rates - OU And (Prot=24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot=6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013.We used the least squares deconvolution technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging, activity indicator monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use stellar evolutionary models to infer the evolutionary status and the initial rotation velocity on the main sequence. Resul...

  13. Active phenomena in the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae star HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, C.; Praderie, F.; Simon, T.; Talavera, A.; The, P. S.

    1989-01-01

    Observations by IUE of the short-term variability of the Mg II and Ca II resonance lines in the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 are presented. Evidence that these lines show a phenomenon of rotational modulation, similar to the one observed in AB Aur, another Herbig Ae star is found. The variations in the spectrum of HD 163296 are even more conspicuous than in the spectrum of AB Aur. Magnetically structured winds may thus be a widespread phenomenon among the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars.

  14. Determining the covering factor of compton-thick active galactic nuclei with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.

    2015-01-01

    opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with NH measured from 1024 to 1026 cm-2, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We......The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average...... covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material...

  15. AEGIS: New Evidence Linking Active Galactic Nuclei to the Quenching of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bundy, Kevin; Nandra, Kirpal; Ellis, Richard S; Conselice, Christopher J; Laird, Elise; Coil, Alison; Cooper, Michael; Faber, Sandra M; Newman, Jeff A; Pierce, Christy M; Primack, Joel R; Yan, Renbin

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing Chandra X-ray observations in the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) we identify 241 X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs, L > 10^{42} ergs/s) and study the properties of their host galaxies in the range 0.4 < z < 1.4. By making use of infrared photometry from Palomar Observatory and BRI imaging from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we estimate AGN host galaxy stellar masses and show that both stellar mass and photometric redshift estimates (where necessary) are robust to the possible contamination from AGNs in our X-ray selected sample. Accounting for the photometric and X-ray sensitivity limits of the survey, we construct the stellar mass function of X-ray selected AGN host galaxies and find that their abundance decreases by a factor of ~2 since z~1, but remains roughly flat as a function of stellar mass. We compare the abundance of AGN hosts to the rate of star formation quenching observed in the total galaxy population. If the timescale for X-ray det...

  16. Star forming activity in the H II regions associated with IRAS 17160-3707 complex

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumar, G; Vig, S; Tej, A; Ghosh, S K; Ojha, D K

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity towards the southern H II regions associated with IRAS 17160-3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 830000 Lsun.The ionised gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths.The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission.At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties like temperature: 24 - 30 K, mass: 300 - 4800 Msun and luminosity: 900 - 31700 Lsun using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions between 70 and 870 um.We find 24 young stellar objects in the mid-infrared, with few of them coincident with the compact radio sources.The spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects have been fitted by the Rob...

  17. Mid-Infrared Spectral Measures of Star-Formation and AGN Activity in Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Treyer, Marie; Johnson, B D; O'Dowd, M; Martin, C D; Wyder, T; Charlot, S; Heckman, T; Martins, L; Seibert, M; van der Hulst, J M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of MIR PAH bands, continuum and emission lines as probes of star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 100 'normal' and local (z~0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the UV to the FIR and optical spectroscopy. The continuum and features were extracted using PAHFIT (Smith et al. 2007), a decomposition code which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths up to ~30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Despite the lack of extreme objects in our sample (such as strong AGNs, low metallicity galaxies or ULIRGs), we find significant variations in PAH, continuum and emission line properties and systematic trends between these MIR properties and optically derived physical properties such as age, metallicity and radiation field hardness. We revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH equival...

  18. Submillimetre observations of galaxy clusters with BLAST: the star-formation activity in Abell 3112

    CERN Document Server

    Braglia, Filiberto G; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Edge, Alastair; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Ngo, Henry; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We present observations at 250, 350, and 500 um of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 3112 (z=0.075) carried out with BLAST, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope. Five cluster members are individually detected as bright submillimetre sources. Their far-infrared SEDs and optical colours identify them as normal star-forming galaxies of high mass, with globally evolved stellar populations. They all have B-R colours of 1.38+/-0.08, transitional between the blue, active population and the red, evolved galaxies that dominate the cluster core. We stack to determine the mean submillimetre emission from all cluster members, which is determined to be 16.6+/-2.5, 6.1+/-1.9, and 1.5+/-1.3 mJy at 250, 350, and 500 um, respectively. Stacking analyses of the submillimetre emission of cluster members reveal trends in the mean far-infrared luminosity with respect to cluster-centric radius and Ks-band magnitude. We find that a large fraction of submillimetre emission comes from the boundary of the inner, viria...

  19. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the ...

  20. Photometric activity of UX orionis stars and related objects in the near infrared and optical: CO Ori, RR Tau, UX Ori, and VV Ser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaya, A. N.; Grinin, V. P.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.; Belan, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper continues a study of the photometric activity of UX Ori stars in the optical and near-infrared ( JHKLM bands) initiated in 2000. For comparison, the list of program stars contains two Herbig Ae stars that are photometrically quiet in the optical: MWC480 andHD179218. Fadings ofUXOri stars in the optical ( V band) due to sporadic increases of the circumstellar extinction are also observed in the infrared (IR), but with decreasing amplitude. Two stars, RR Tau and UX Ori, displayed photometric events when V -band fadings were accompanied by an increase in IR fluxes. Among the two Herbig Ae stars that are photometrically quiet in the optical, MWC 480 proved to be fairly active in the IR. Unlike the UX Ori stars, the variation amplitude of MWC 480 increases from the J band to the M band. In the course of the observations, no deep fadings in the IR bands were detected. This indicates that eclipses of the program stars have a local nature, and are due to extinction variations in the innermost regions of the circumstellar disks. The results presented testify to an important role of the alignment of the circumstellar disks relative to the direction towards the observer in determining the observed IR variability of young stars.

  1. The evolution of the star formation activity in galaxies and its dependence on environment

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, B M; De Lucia, G; Desai, V; Simard, L; Halliday, C; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Bower, R; Varela, J; Best, P; Clowe, D I; Dalcanton, J; Jablonka, P; Milvang-Jensen, B; Pellò, R; Rudnick, G; Saglia, R; White, S D M; Zaritsky, D

    2005-01-01

    We study how the proportion of star-forming galaxies evolves between z=0.8 and z=0 as a function of galaxy environment, using the [OII] line in emission as a signature of ongoing star formation. Our high-z dataset comprises 16 clusters, 10 groups and another 250 galaxies in poorer groups and the field at z=0.4-0.8 from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, plus another 9 massive clusters at similar redshifts. As a local comparison, we use samples of galaxy systems selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at 0.04< z < 0.08. At high-z most systems follow a broad anticorrelation between the fraction of star-forming galaxies and the system velocity dispersion. At face value, this suggests that at z=0.4-0.8 the mass of the system largely determines the proportion of galaxies with ongoing star formation. At these redshifts the strength of star formation (as measured by the [OII] equivalent width) in star-forming galaxies is also found to vary systematically with environment. Sloan clusters have much lower fractio...

  2. Activity Of T Tauri Type Stars And Objects Similar To Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibryamov, Sunay

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of the dissertation is on the basis of long-term light curves, to be classified the variability of 28 PMS stars and to be draw conclusions about the physical mechanisms initiating observed changes in their brightness. 22 of the investigated stars are located in the dense molecular cloud L935, known as 'Gulf of Mexico' (NGC 7000/IC 5070), and 6 stars are located in the vicinity of the reflection nebula NGC 7129. The multicolour photometric observations that we present were performed from 1993 to 2015 with the 2-m RCC, the 50/70-cm Schmidt and the 60-cm Cassegrain telescopes of the Rozhen NAO (Bulgaria) and the 1.3-m RC telescope of the Skinakas Observatory (Greece). All frames were taken through a standard Johnson-Cousins set of filters. The studied stars were classified as follows: V752 Cyg, V1539 Cyg, V1716 Cyg, FHO 26, FHO 29, LkHα 186, LkHα 187, LkHα 191, [KW97] 53-17, [KW97] 53-22, [KW97] 53-23, V391 Cep, NGC 7129 S V2 and 2MASS J21403576+6635000 show characteristics for classical T Tauri stars; V1538 Cyg, V1929 Cyg, [KW97] 53-20 and NGC 7129 S V1 are probably weak-line T Tauri stars; LkHα 189 and [KW97] 53-11 show characteristics for both type T Tauri stars and spectral observations are needed for their exact classification; V350 Cep shows indications for EXor and/or FUor-type variability; V521 Cyg, FHO 27, FHO 28 and NGC 7129 S V3 show characteristics for UXor-type variability; V1957 Cyg, V2051 Cyg and [KW97] 53-36 likely are evolved PMS stars or post-T Tauri stars. Periodicity was discovered for 3 of the investigated stars. V1716 Cyg indicates 4.15-day period, V1929 Cyg indicates 0.43-day period and LkHα 189 indicates 2.45-day period.

  3. $\\textit{Herschel}$-ATLAS:The connection between star formation and AGN activity in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurkan, G; Jarvis, M J; Smith, D J B; Bourne, N; Dunne, L; Maddox, S; Ivison, R J; Fritz, J

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationship between star formation and AGN activity by constructing matched samples of local ($0active galaxies are traced by [OIII] emission-line and radio luminosity, respectively. Star formation rates (SFRs) and specific star formation rates (SSFRs) were derived using $\\textit{Herschel}$ 250-$\\mu$m luminosity and stellar mass measurements from the SDSS$-$MPA-JHU catalogue. In the past, star formation studies of AGN have mostly focused on high-redshift sources to observe the thermal dust emission that peaks in the far-infrared, which limited the samples to powerful objects. However, with $\\textit{Herschel}$ we can expand this to low redshifts. Our stacking analyses show that SFRs and SSFRs of both radio-l...

  4. XUV-driven mass loss from extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chadney, J M; Unruh, Y C; Koskinen, T T; Sanz-Forcada, J

    2014-01-01

    Upper atmospheres of Hot Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation conditions that can result in rapid atmospheric escape. The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of these planets are affected by the high-energy spectrum of the host star. This emission depends on stellar type and age, which are thus important factors in understanding the behaviour of exoplanetary atmospheres. In this study, we focus on Extrasolar Giant Planets (EPGs) orbiting K and M dwarf stars. XUV spectra for three different stars - epsilon Eridani, AD Leonis and AU Microscopii - are constructed using a coronal model. Neutral density and temperature profiles in the upper atmosphere of hypothetical EGPs orbiting these stars are then obtained from a fluid model, incorporating atmospheric chemistry and taking atmospheric escape into account. We find that a simple scaling based solely on the host star's X-ray emission gives large errors in mass loss rates from planetary atmospheres and so we have derived a new method to scale th...

  5. Diffuse Matter from Star Forming Regions to Active Galaxies A Volume Honouring John Dyson

    CERN Document Server

    Hartquist, T W

    2006-01-01

    John Dyson has contributed to the study of the hydrodynamic processes that govern a wide variety of astrophysical sources which he has helped explain. In this volume dedicated to him, introductory reviews to a number of the key processes and to the sources themselves are given by leading experts. The mechanisms in which the multi-component natures of media affect their dynamics receive particular attention, but the roles of hydromagnetic effects are also highlighted. The importance of cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for cosmic ray moderation and mass transfer between different thermal phases for the evolution of flows are amongst the topics treated. The main types of regions considered include those where stars form, the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, the larger scale interstellar structures caused by the mass loss of stars, and those where the lines of AGNs form. The reviews complement one another and together provide a coherent introduction to the astro...

  6. Managing Challenging Behaviors of Dementia in Veterans: Identifying and Changing Activators and Consequences Using STAR-VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curyto, Kim J; McCurry, Sue M; Luci, Katherine; Karlin, Bradley E; Teri, Linda; Karel, Michele J

    2017-02-01

    One of the most challenging clinical issues for long-term care staff is the management of dementia-related behavioral symptoms. STAR-VA is an interdisciplinary intervention for managing challenging behaviors of Veterans with dementia in Community Living Centers (CLCs) within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The goals of the current article are to delineate categories of challenging behaviors found in CLCs, the context in which behaviors occurred, and the interventions used by CLC clinical teams when implementing STAR-VA. In 2013, 17 CLC teams completed STAR-VA training, enrolling 71 Veteran participants. Four independent raters identified common assessment and intervention themes for six behavior categories, coding activators, consequences, goal behaviors, and care plans for each category. Successful care plans included staff changes in communication approaches, incorporation of pleasant events into care, and individualized environmental modifications. Findings illustrate the range of interventions that CLC teams may apply as a result of systematic behavioral assessment informing an understanding of activators and consequences of dementia-related behaviors. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 33-43.].

  7. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  8. Effects of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation Based on Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrina Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages.

  9. A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type stars: chromospheric activity, rotation, kinematics, and age

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Santiago, J; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Crespo-Chacon, I; Martinez-Arnaiz, R M; Fernandez-Figueroa, M J; De Castro, E; Cornide, M

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We present a compilation of spectroscopic data from a survey of 144 chromospherically active young stars in the solar neighborhood which may be used to investigate different aspects of the formation and evolution of the solar neighborhood in terms of kinematics and stellar formation history. The data have already been used by us in several studies. With this paper, we make all these data accessible to the scientific community for future studies on different topics. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations with echelle spectrographs to cover the entirety of the optical spectral range simultaneously. Standard data reduction was performed with the IRAF ECHELLE package. We applied the spectral subtraction technique to reveal chromospheric emission in the stars of the sample. The equivalent width of chromospheric emission lines was measured in the subtracted spectra and then converted to fluxes using equivalent width-flux relationships. Radial and rotational velocities were determined by the cross-co...

  10. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z equals 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  11. Star Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared OR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  12. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multiwavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  13. The relationship between star formation activity and galaxy structural properties in CANDELS and a semi-analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ryan; Pandya, Viraj; Somerville, Rachel S.; Barro, Guillermo; Bluck, Asa F. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kurczynski, Peter; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Primack, Joel

    2017-02-01

    We study the correlation of galaxy structural properties with their location relative to the SFR-M* correlation, also known as the star formation `star-forming main sequence' (SFMS), in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey and in a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. We first study the distribution of median Sérsic index, effective radius, star formation rate (SFR) density and stellar mass density in the SFR-M* plane. We then define a redshift-dependent main sequence and examine the medians of these quantities as a function of distance from this main sequence, both above (higher SFRs) and below (lower SFRs). Finally, we examine the distributions of distance from the main sequence in bins of these quantities. We find strong correlations between all of these galaxy structural properties and the distance from the SFMS, such that as we move from galaxies above the SFMS to those below it, we see a nearly monotonic trend towards higher median Sérsic index, smaller radius, lower SFR density, and higher stellar density. In the SAM, bulge growth is driven by mergers and disc instabilities, and is accompanied by the growth of a supermassive black hole which can regulate or quench star formation via active galactic nucleus feedback. We find that our model qualitatively reproduces the trends described above, supporting a picture in which black holes and bulges co-evolve, and active galactic nucleus feedback plays a critical role in moving galaxies off of the SFMS.

  14. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M-dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through R'HK

    CERN Document Server

    Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Rameau, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, CaH&K lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca H&Kemission is traditionally quantified through the R'HK-index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M-dwarfs were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H&K emission to an R'HK exists to date. We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low and very low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the R'HK-index that extends to the realm of M-dwarfs, and by evaluating the relation between R'HK and the rot...

  15. Star formation and accretion in the circumnuclear disks of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wutschik, Stephanie; Palmer, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    We explore the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) centered in a circumnuclear disk (CND) as a function of the mass supply from the host galaxy and considering different star formation laws, which may give rise to a self-regulation via the injection of supernova-driven turbulence. A system of equations describing star formation, black hole accretion and angular momentum transport was solved for an axisymmetric disk in which the gravitational potential includes contributions from the black hole, the disk and the hosting galaxy. Our model extends the framework provided by Kawakatu et al. (2008) by separately considering the inner and outer part of the disk, and by introducing a potentially non-linear dependence of the star formation rate on the gas surface density and the turbulent velocity. The star formation recipes are calibrated using observational data for NGC 1097, while the accretion model is based on turbulent viscosity as a source of angular momentum transport in a thin viscous accretion disk....

  16. A dynamo model of magnetic activity in solar-like stars with different rotational velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2014-01-01

    We attempt to provide a quantitative theoretical explanation for the observations that Ca II H/K emission and X-ray emission from solar-like stars increase with decreasing Rossby number (i.e., with faster rotation). Assuming that these emissions are caused by magnetic cycles similar to the sunspot cycle, we construct flux transport dynamo models of $1M_{\\odot}$ stars rotating with different rotation periods. We first compute the differential rotation and the meridional circulation inside these stars from a mean-field hydrodynamics model. Then these are substituted in our dynamo code to produce periodic solutions. We find that the dimensionless amplitude $f_m$ of the toroidal flux through the star increases with decreasing Rossby number. The observational data can be matched if we assume the emissions to go as the power 3-4 of $f_m$. Assuming that the Babcock-Leighton mechanism saturates with increasing rotation, we can provide an explanation for the observed saturation of emission at low Rossby numbers. The m...

  17. 3C 273 with NuSTAR: Unveiling the Active Galactic Nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Fürst, Felix; Walton, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a 244 ks NuSTAR observation of 3C 273 obtained during a cross-calibration campaign with the Chandra, INTEGRAL, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton observatories. We show that the spectrum, when fit with a power-law model using data from all observatories except INTEGRAL over the...

  18. The LBT Panoramic View on the Recent Star-Formation Activity in IC2574

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, A; Rix, H -W; Walter, F; Herbst, T; Giallongo, E; Ragazzoni, R; Baruffolo, A; Speziali, R; Hill, J; Beccari, G; Bouche', N; Buschkamp, P; Kochanek, C; Skillman, E; Bechtold, J

    2008-01-01

    We present deep imaging of the star-forming dwarf galaxy IC2574 in the M81 group taken with the Large Binocular Telescope in order to study in detail the recent star-formation history of this galaxy and to constrain the stellar feedback on its HI gas. We identify the star-forming areas in the galaxy by removing a smooth disk component from the optical images. We construct pixel-by-pixel maps of stellar age and stellar mass surface density in these regions by comparing their observed colors with simple stellar populations synthesized with STARBURST99. We find that an older burst occurred about 100 Myr ago within the inner 4 kpc and that a younger burst happened in the last 10 Myr mostly at galactocentric radii between 4 and 8 kpc. We analyze the stellar populations residing in the known HI holes of IC2574. Our results indicate that, even at the remarkable photometric depth of the LBT data, there is no clear one-to-one association between the observed HI holes and the most recent bursts of star formation in IC2...

  19. Star formation activity in Balmer break galaxies at $z$ < 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tello, J Díaz; Padilla, N; Akiyama, M; Fujishiro, N; Yoshikawa, T; Hanami, H

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present a spectroscopic study of the properties of 64 Balmer break galaxies that show signs of star formation. The studied sample of star-forming galaxies spans a redshift range from 0.094 to 1.475 with stellar masses in the range 10$^{8}-$10$^{12}$ $M_{\\odot}$. The sample also includes eight broad emission line galaxies with redshifts between 1.5 $star formation rates (SFRs) from emission line luminosities and investigated the dependence of the SFR and specific SFR (SSFR) on the stellar mass and color. Furthermore, we investigated the evolution of these relations with the redshift. Results. We found that the SFR correlates with the stellar mass, our data is consistent with previous results from other authors in that there is a break in the correlation, which reveals the presence of massive galaxies with lower SFR values (i.e., decreasing star formation). We also note an anticorrelation for the SSFR with the stellar mass. Again in this case, our data is also consis...

  20. Active Phenomena in the Pre-main Sequence Star AB AUR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praderie, F.; Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A. M.; Felenbok, P.; Catala, C.; Czarny, J.; Talavera, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Herbig Ae star AB Aur presents short time scale variability in the Mg II and Ca II resonance lines. A qualitative model of the expanding envelope, involving fast and slow streams in a co-rotating structure, is proposed to explain the Mg II spectral variability.

  1. Star formation activity in a young galaxy cluster at z=0.866

    CERN Document Server

    Laganá, T F; Martins, L P; da Cunha, E

    2016-01-01

    The galaxy cluster RXJ1257$+$4738 at $z=0.866$ is one of the highest redshift clusters with a richness of multi-wavelength data, and thus a good target to study the star formation-density relation at early epochs. Using a sample of spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members, we derive the star formation rates of our galaxies using two methods, (I) the relation between SFR and total infrared luminosity extrapolated from the observed \\textit{Spitzer} MIPS 24$\\mu$m imaging data, and (II) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using the MAGPHYS code, including eight different bands. We show that, for this cluster, the SFR-density relation is very weak and seems to be dominated by the two central galaxies and the SFR presents a mild dependence on stellar mass, with more massive galaxies having higher SFR. However, the specific SFR (SSFR) decreases with stellar mass, meaning that more massive galaxies are forming less stars per unit of mass, and thus suggesting that the increase in star-forming members is driv...

  2. A hot Jupiter around the very active weak-line T Tauri star TAP 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Donati, J.-F.; Hébrard, E. M.; Moutou, C.; Malo, L.; Grankin, K.; Hussain, G.; Collier Cameron, A.; Vidotto, A. A.; Baruteau, C.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Takami, M.; Herczeg, G.; Gregory, S. G.; Jardine, M.; Morin, J.; Ménard, F.; Matysse Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of an extended spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star TAP 26, carried out within the MaTYSSE programme with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Applying Zeeman-Doppler Imaging to our observations, concentrating in 2015 November and 2016 January and spanning 72 d in total, 16 d in 2015 November and 13 d in 2016 January, we reconstruct surface brightness and magnetic field maps for both epochs and demonstrate that both distributions exhibit temporal evolution not explained by differential rotation alone. We report the detection of a hot Jupiter (hJ) around TAP 26 using three different methods, two using Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI) and one Gaussian-Process Regression (GPR), with a false-alarm probability smaller than 6 10-4. However, as a result of the aliasing related to the observing window, the orbital period cannot be uniquely determined; the orbital period with highest likelihood is 10.79±0.14 d followed by 8.99±0.09 d. Assuming the most likely period, and that the planet orbits in the stellar equatorial plane, we obtain that the planet has a minimum mass Msin i of 1.66±0.31 MJup and orbits at 0.0968±0.0032 au from its host star. This new detection suggests that disc type II migration is efficient at generating newborn hJs, and that hJs may be more frequent around young T Tauri stars than around mature stars (or that the MaTYSSE sample is biased towards hJ-hosting stars).

  3. A single cell level measurement of StAR expression and activity in adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Dong, Hui; Jefcoate, Colin

    2017-02-05

    The Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) directs mitochondrial cholesterol uptake through a C-terminal cholesterol binding domain (CBD) and a 62 amino acid N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) that contains an import sequence and conserved sites for inner membrane metalloproteases. Deletion of the NTD prevents mitochondrial import while maintaining steroidogenesis but with compromised cholesterol homeostasis. The rapid StAR-mediated cholesterol transfer in adrenal cells depends on concerted mRNA translation, p37 StAR phosphorylation and controlled NTD cleavage. The NTD controls this process with two cAMP-inducible modulators of, respectively, transcription and translation SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA resolves slow RNA splicing at the gene loci in cAMP-induced Y-1 cells and transfer of individual 3.5 kB mRNA molecules to mitochondria. StAR transcription depends on the CREB coactivator CRTC2 and PKA inhibition of the highly inducible suppressor kinase SIK1 and a basal counterpart SIK2. PKA-inducible TIS11b/Znf36l1 binds specifically to highly conserved elements in exon 7 thereby suppressing formation of mRNA and subsequent translation. Co-expression of SIK1, Znf36l1 with 3.5 kB StAR mRNA may limit responses to pulsatile signaling by ACTH while regulating the transition to more prolonged stress.

  4. DETERMINING THE COVERING FACTOR OF COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronoma, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M. [SNSF Ambizione Fellow, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); LaMassa, S. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2015-05-20

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N{sub H} > 1.5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N{sub H} measured from 10{sup 24} to 10{sup 26} cm{sup −2}, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f{sub c}, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity, L{sub X}, where f{sub c} = (−0.41 ± 0.13)log{sub 10}(L{sub X}/erg s{sup −1})+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L{sub X} (10{sup 41.5}–10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of L{sub X} as determined by studies of local AGNs with L{sub X} > 10{sup 42.5} erg s{sup −1}.

  5. Kepler Flares IV: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Activity of the dM4e Star GJ 1243

    CERN Document Server

    Silverberg, Steven M; Davenport, James R A; Wisniewski, John P; Hawley, Suzanne L; Hilton, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the active dM4e star GJ 1243. We use previous observations and ground-based echelle spectroscopy to determine that GJ 1243 is a member of the Argus association of field stars, suggesting it is $\\sim 30-50$ Myr old. We analyze eleven months of 1-minute cadence data from Kepler, presenting Kepler flare frequency distributions, as well as determining correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time. We find that the exponent $\\alpha$ of the power-law flare energy distribution varies in time, primarily due to completeness of sample and the low frequency of high-energy flares. We also find a deviation from a single power law at high energy. We use ground-based spectroscopic observations simultaneous with the Kepler data to provide simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic analysis of three low-energy flares, the lowest-energy dMe flares with detailed spectral analysis to date on any star. The spectroscopic data from these flares extend constraints for radi...

  6. Magnetically elevated accretion discs in active galactic nuclei: broad emission-line regions and associated star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We propose that the accretion discs fueling active galactic nuclei (AGN) are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ-direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disc dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ≳ 0.1R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disc model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission-line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disc models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disc models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission-line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disc of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ≳ 0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  7. Kepler Flares. IV. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Activity of the dM4e Star GJ 1243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven M.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Davenport, James R. A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the active dM4e star GJ 1243. We use previous observations and ground-based echelle spectroscopy to determine that GJ 1243 is a member of the Argus association of field stars, suggesting it is ∼ 30{--}50 {{Myr}} old. We analyze 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler, presenting Kepler flare frequency distributions, as well as determining correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time. We find that the exponent α of the power-law flare energy distribution varies in time, primarily due to completeness of sample and the low frequency of high-energy flares. We also find a deviation from a single power law at high energy. We use ground-based spectroscopic observations that were simultaneous with the Kepler data to provide simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic analysis of three low-energy flares, the lowest-energy dMe flares with detailed spectral analysis to date on any star. The spectroscopic data from these flares extend constraints for radiative hydrodynamic flare models to a lower energy regime than has previously been studied. We use this simultaneous spectroscopy and Kepler photometry to develop approximate conversions from the Kepler bandpass to the traditional U and B bands. This conversion will be a critical factor in comparing any Kepler flare analyses to the canon of previous ground-based flare studies.

  8. Differential rotation of the active G5V star Kappa1 Ceti: Photometry from the MOST satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Rucinski, S M; Matthews, J M; Kuschnig, R; Shkolnik, E; Marchenko, S; Bohlender, D A; Günther, D B; Moffat, A F J; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Walker, Gordon A.H.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Marchenko, Sergey; Bohlender, David A.; Moffat, Anthony F.J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    About 30.5 days of nearly uninterrupted broadband photometry of the solar-type star Kappa1 Ceti, obtained with the MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite, shows evidence for two large starspots with different rotation periods of 8.9 and approximately 9.3 days (DeltaOmega/Omega~4%). Ground based measurements in 2002 and 2003 of Ca II H & K emission reveal variations in chromospheric activity with a period of about 9.3 days. The data were obtained during the MOST commissioning phase. When the data are combined with historical observations, they indicate that the 9.3-day spot has been stable in its period for over 30 years. The photometry, with a sampling rate of approximately once per minute, was also used to search for acoustic (p-mode) oscillations in the star. We detect no clear evidence for p-modes in the Kappa1 Ceti photometry, with a noise level around 7-9 mu_mag at frequencies in the range 0.5-4 mHz (3-sigma detection limit of 21 - 27 mu_mag). There were no flares or planetary ...

  9. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  10. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.

  11. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  12. The gas metallicity gradient and the star formation activity of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sillero, Emanuel; Vilchez, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    We study oxygen abundance profiles of the gaseous disc components in simulated galaxies in a hierarchical universe. We analyse the disc metallicity gradients in relation to the stellar masses and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies. We find a trend for galaxies with low stellar masses to have steeper metallicity gradients than galaxies with high stellar masses at z ~0. We also detect that the gas-phase metallicity slopes and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our simulated disc galaxies are consistent with recently reported observations at z ~0. Simulated galaxies with high stellar masses reproduce the observed relationship at all analysed redshifts and have an increasing contribution of discs with positive metallicity slopes with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with low stellar masses a have larger fraction of negative metallicity gradients with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with positive or very negative metallicity slopes exhibit disturbed morphologies and/or have a clo...

  13. Star formation and nuclear activity in the blue early-type galaxy NGC 5373

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Alfvin, Erik; Martinkus, Charlotte; Molter, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical and X-ray observations of NGC 5373, an isolated star-forming elliptical that has a stellar mass of 7e10 solar and lies at a distance of 175 Mpc. Our B and R band Magellan IMACS imaging substantially improves on SDSS resolution and sensitivity, enabling accurate modeling of the galaxy surface brightness profile. As expected from its mass, NGC 5373 is a core galaxy with a best-fit Sersic profile of n~3.8; no prominent tidal tails or shells are found, although there are slight residual asymmetries. The H-alpha emission in the SDSS spectrum is narrow, and the line ratios confirm a star-forming classification in the BPT diagram, near the transition/composite line. The star formation rate is about 6 solar masses per year, making NGC 5373 an extreme outlier relative to typical local early-type galaxies of similar mass. Our 50 ks Chandra ACIS-S exposure provides a clear detection of a central X-ray source, with a hardness ratio consistent with a power-law photon index of 2.0+/-0.5. The unabsorbed luminosity is Lx = 2e40 erg/s over 0.3-8 keV. Comparison with a MARX simulated point spread function suggests the central source may be extended, for example due to contributions from one or more unresolved high-mass X-ray binaries, as might be present given the high star formation rate. For a black hole of 1.6e8 solar masses as predicted from scaling relations, Lx/Ledd is then around 1e-6 (or potentially lower).

  14. Miktoarm core-crosslinked star copolymers with biologically active moieties on peripheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Miktoarm core-crosslinked star (CCS) copolymers featuring hydrophobic inner compartment based on poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), and hydrophilic multivalent exterior consisting of L-lysine dendritic wedges and estradiol or ferrocene moieties have been synthesized. Ring-opening polymerization (R...... dimethacrylate (BDMA) results in miktoarm CCS copolymers. Elucidation of the structure and composition of the intermediate and final products demonstrates effectiveness, versatility, and high degree of control displayed by the proposed synthetic sequence....

  15. A multi-wavelength study of star formation activity in the S235 complex

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, L K; Luna, A; Anandarao, B G; Ninan, J P; Mallick, K K; Mayya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out an extensive multi-wavelength study to investigate the star formation process in the S235 complex. The S235 complex has a sphere-like shell appearance at wavelengths longer than 2 $\\mu$m and harbors an O9.5V type star approximately at its center. Near-infrared extinction map traces eight subregions (having A$_{V}$ $>$ 8 mag), and five of them appear to be distributed in an almost regularly spaced manner along the sphere-like shell surrounding the ionized emission. This picture is also supported by the integrated $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO intensity maps and by Bolocam 1.1 mm continuum emission. The position-velocity analysis of CO reveals an almost semi-ring like structure, suggesting an expanding H\\,{\\sc ii} region. We find that the Bolocam clump masses increase as we move away from the location of the ionizing star. This correlation is seen only for those clumps which are distributed near the edges of the shell. Photometric analysis reveals 435 young stellar objects (YSOs), 59\\% of which ar...

  16. Star formation activity in the Galactic H II region Sh2-297

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K K; Samal, M R; Pandey, A K; Bhatt, B C; Ghosh, S K; Dewangan, L K; Tamura, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm^-3 and 9.15 x 10^5 cm^-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and VLA archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~ 7.5' x 7.5' centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Halpha emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color (CC) and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H-K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~ 0.1 - 2 Msolar and ...

  17. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Masegosa, Josefa; Nordon, Raanan; Pérez, Enrique; Schoenell, William

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs at z = 0.04 - 0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them. We measured emission line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, AGN luminosities, and star-formation rates. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, in terms of extinction, and general similarity to star forming (SF) galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z ~ 0.3 by Tommasin et al. (2012). The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6 - 7 $\\times$ 10$^{10}$M$_{\\odot}$ which was found in previous work to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources ...

  18. Discovery of mHz QPOs and burst rate evolution in the active Terzan 5 neutron star transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, M.; Altamirano, D.; Watts, A.; van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Homan, J.; Casella, P.; Patruno, A.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Yang, Y.; Rea, N.

    2010-10-01

    We report on RXTE observations of the neutron star transient currently active in Terzan 5 (also known as IGR J17480-2446; ATels #2919, #2920, #2922, #2924, #2929, #2932, #2933, #2937, #2939, #2940, #2946), which has recently turned into a Z source (Altamirano et al., ATel #2952). The X-ray burst rate has increased gradually (see also ATels #2939, #2952) from October 13th (recurrence time of at least 55 min) to October 16th (recurrence time of 8 to 6 min), accompanied by a gradual increase in the persistent flux (2-16 keV intensity increasing from ~0.1 Crab to ~0.5 Crab).

  19. A Census of Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies: Coeval Star Formation and Rapid Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Fang, Jerome J; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D

    2012-01-01

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are used to dis- entangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid superm...

  20. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  1. OMEGA - OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2: II. - Environmental influence on integrated star formation properties and AGN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez del Pino, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Weinzirl, Tim; Bamford, Steven P.; Gray, Meghan E.; Böhm, Asmus; Wolf, Christian; Maltby, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and AGN activity for galaxies in the Abell 901/2 multi-cluster system at z ˜ 0.167 as part of the OMEGA survey. Using Tuneable Filter data obtained with the OSIRIS instrument at the GTC we produce spectra covering the Hα and [N II] spectral lines for more than 400 galaxies. Using optical emission-line diagnostics, we identify a significant number of galaxies hosting AGN, which tend to have high masses and a broad range of morphologies. Moreover, within the environmental densities probed by our study, we find no environmental dependence on the fraction of galaxies hosting AGN. The analysis of the integrated Hα emission shows that the specific star formation rates (SSFRs) of a majority of the cluster galaxies are below the field values for a given stellar mass. We interpret this result as evidence for a slow decrease in the star formation activity of star-forming galaxies as they fall into higher-density regions, contrary to some previous studies which suggested a rapid truncation of star formation. We find that most of the intermediate- and high-mass spiral galaxies go through a phase in which their star formation is suppressed but still retain significant star-formation activity. During this phase, these galaxies tend to retain their spiral morphology while their colours become redder. The presence of this type of galaxies in high density regions indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for suppressing star-formation affects mainly the gas component of the galaxies, suggesting that ram-pressure stripping or starvation are potentially responsible.

  2. EVIDENCE OF HOT HIGH VELOCITY PHOTOIONIZED PLASMA FALLING ON ACTIVELY ACCRETING T TAURI STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana Ines [Grupo de Investigación Complutense AEGORA and S.D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Fac. de CC Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    The He II (1640 Å) line and the resonance doublet of N V (UV1) provide a good diagnostic tool to constrain the excitation mechanism of hot (T{sub e} > 40,000 K) atmospheric/magnetospheric plasmas in T Tauri stars (TTSs). Making use of the data available in the Hubble Space Telescope archive, this work shows that there are at least two distinct physical components contributing to the radiation in these tracers: the accretion flow sliding on the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. The N V profiles in most sources are symmetric and at rest with respect to the star. The velocity dispersion of the profile increases from non-accreting (σ = 40 km s{sup –1}) to accreting (σ = 120 km s{sup –1}) TTSs, suggesting that the macroturbulence field in the line formation region decreases as the stars approach the main sequence. Evidence of the N V line being formed in a hot solar-like wind has been found in RW Aur, HN Tau, and AA Tau. The He II profile has a strong narrow component that dominates the line flux; the dispersion of this component ranges from 20 to 60 km s{sup –1}. Current data suggest that both accretion shocks and atmospheric emission might contribute to the line flux. In some sources, the He II line shows a broad and redward-shifted emission component often accompanied by semiforbidden O III] emission that has a critical electron density of ∼3.4 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup 3}. In spite of their different origins (inferred from the kinematics of the line formation region), N V and He II fluxes are strongly correlated, with only the possible exception of some of the heaviest accretors.

  3. Hyper-Spectral Synthesis of Active OB Stars Using GLaDoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N. R.; Townsend, R. H. D.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in using graphics processing units (GPUs) to perform scientific computations that have traditionally been handled by central processing units (CPUs). However, there is one area where the scientific potential of GPUs has been overlooked - computer graphics, the task they were originally designed for. Here we introduce GLaDoS, a hyper-spectral code which leverages the graphics capabilities of GPUs to synthesize spatially and spectrally resolved images of complex stellar systems. We demonstrate how GLaDoS can be applied to calculate observables for various classes of stars including systems with inhomogenous surface temperatures and contact binaries.

  4. The Search for Signatures Of Transient Mass Loss in Active Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Crosley, M K; Broderick, J W; Corbel, S; Eisloffel, J; Griessmeier, J -M; Leeuwen, J; Rowlinson, A; Zarka, P; Norman, C

    2016-01-01

    The habitability of an exoplanet depends on many factors. One such factor is the impact of stellar eruptive events on nearby exoplanets. Currently this is poorly constrained due to heavy reliance on solar scaling relationships and a lack of experimental evidence. Potential impacts of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), which are a large eruption of magnetic field and plasma from a star, are space weather and atmospheric stripping. A method for observing CMEs as they travel though the stellar atmosphere is the type II radio burst, and the new LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) provides a means for detection. We report on 15 hours of observation of YZ Canis Minoris (YZ CMi), a nearby M dwarf flare star, taken in LOFAR's beam-formed observation mode for the purposes of measuring transient frequency-dependent low frequency radio emission. The observations utilized Low-Band Antenna (10-90 MHz) or High-Band Antenna (110-190 MHz) for five three-hour observation periods. In this data set, there were no confirmed type II events i...

  5. High resolution spectroscopy of two young active late type stars within 20 parsecs of the Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Wang; Jian-Yan Wei

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution optical echell spectroscopy of HIP 544 and HIP 46843, two nearby solar like stars. The discovery of these young stars at such a close distance to the Sun is really a surprising phenomenon. It will help us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolutionary history of the Milky Way. The radial ve-locities (RV) of HIP 544 and HIP 46843 are measured to be -6.88±0.13km s-1 and 8.30±0.16km s-1, respectively, which are more accurate than before. The equivalent widths (EW) of the Li I 6707.8 A absorption line of HIP 544 and HIP 46843 are mea-sured to be 110±5mA and 195±5mA respectively. Based on these properties, HIP 544 is estimated to be 100-800Myr old and HIP 46843 30-100Myr old using three relatively creditable methods.

  6. The Search for Signatures Of Transient Mass Loss in Active Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, Michael Kevin; Osten, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand habitability of exoplanets, we must understand their environments and how their host star shapes them. Stellar eruptive events are an important factor when considering habitability. The lack of experimental evidence necessitates the heavy reliance on solar scaling relationships when determining the impact of stellar eruptive events. Typically, stellar eruptive events cannot be observed in the same manner as solar events. The research we are conducting is proposing a new method for detecting Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), which are a type of stellar eruptive event. As CMEs travel through the stellar atmosphere, they are able to produce a Type II radio burst. Observation of Type II radio burst is the best method to identify and categorize CMEs. The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) provides a means for detecting this event. Fifteen hours of observation on YZ Canis Minoris (YZ CMi), a nearby M dwarf flare star, was used to test this method. Ongoing research about jointly observed flares and CMEs is discussed to further expand the methodology. We explore using solar multi-wavelength observations to provide greater constraints on CMEs and further test the applicability of solar scaling relationships. We determine how well the velocity, mass, and CME kinetic energy can be constrained using the types of datasets available to stellar astronomers when compared to direct corona graphic solar observations.

  7. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M., E-mail: orianne.roos@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  8. Peculiar objects towards 3FGL J0133.3+5930: an eclipsing Be star and an active galactic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Paredes, Josep M.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Galindo, Daniel; Ribó, Marc; Marín-Felip, Víctor

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We aim to contribute to the identification of unassociated gamma-ray sources in the galactic plane to enlarge the currently known population of gamma-ray binaries and related systems, such as radio-emitting X-ray binaries and microquasars. These objects are currently regarded as excellent test beds for the understanding of high-energy phenomena in stellar systems. Methods: Potential targets of study are selected based on cross-identification of the third Fermi Large Area Telescope catalogue with historical catalogues of luminous stars that have often been found as optical counterparts in known cases. Follow-up observations and analysis of multi-wavelength archival data are later used to seek further proofs of association beyond the simple positional agreement. Results: Current results enable us to present here the case of the Fermi source 3FGL J0133.3+5930 where two peculiar objects have been discovered inside its region of uncertainty. One of them is the star TYC 3683-985-1 (LS I +59 79) whose eclipsing binary nature is reported in this work. The other is the X-ray source Swift J0132.9+5932, which we found to be a likely low-power active galactic nucleus at z = 0.1143 ± 0.0002. If this second object is of blazar type, it could easily account for the observed gamma-ray photon flux. However, this is not confirmed at present, thus rendering the star system TYC 3683-985-1 as a still possible alternative counterpart candidate to the Fermi source.

  9. The Evolution of Star formation Activity in Cluster Galaxies over 0.15 < z < 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cory R.; Courteau, Stéphane; Brodwin, Mark; Stanford, S. A.; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We explore 7.5 billion years of evolution in the star formation activity of massive ({M}\\star > {10}10.1 {M}ȯ ) cluster galaxies using a sample of 25 clusters over 0.15visually using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images. Using the spectral energy distribution fitting code Code Investigating GALaxy Emission, we measure star formation rates, stellar masses, and 4000 Å break strengths. The latter are used to separate quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). From z∼ 1.3 to z∼ 0.2, the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of cluster SFGs and quiescent galaxies decreases by factors of three and four, respectively. Over the same redshift range, the sSFR of the entire cluster population declines by a factor of 11, from 0.48+/- 0.06 {{Gyr}}-1 to 0.043+/- 0.009 {{Gyr}}-1. This strong overall sSFR evolution is driven by the growth of the quiescent population over time; the fraction of quiescent cluster galaxies increases from {28}-19+8 % to {88}-4+5 % over z ∼ 1.3 to 0.2. The majority of the growth occurs at z≳ 0.9, where the quiescent fraction increases by 0.41. While the sSFR of the majority of star-forming cluster galaxies is at the level of the field, a small subset of cluster SFGs have low field-relative star formation activity, suggestive of long-timescale quenching. The large increase in the fraction of quiescent galaxies above z∼ 0.9, coupled with the field-level sSFRs of cluster SFGs, suggests that higher-redshift cluster galaxies are likely being quenched quickly. Assessing those timescales will require more accurate stellar population ages and star formation histories.

  10. The Age-Mass-Metallicity-Activity relation of solar-type stars: Comparisons with asteroseismology and the NGC 188 open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Schiavon, Ricardo P

    2016-01-01

    The Mount Wilson Ca II index log$(R'_{\\rm HK})$ is the accepted standard metric of calibration for the chromospheric activity versus age relation of FGK stars. Recent results claim its inability to discern activity levels, and thus ages, for stars older than $\\sim$2 Gyr, which would severely hamper its application to date disk stars older than the Sun. We present a new activity-age calibration of the Mt. Wilson index explicitly taking into account mass and $[$Fe/H$]$ biases, implicit in samples of stars selected to have precise ages, that have so far gone unappreciated. We show that these selection biases tend to blur the activity-age relation for large age ranges. We calibrate the Mt. Wilson index for a sample of field FGK stars with precise ages, covering a wide range of mass and $[$Fe/H$]$, augmented with data from the Pleiades, Hyades, M67 clusters, and the Ursa Major moving group. We further test the calibration with extensive new Gemini/GMOS log$(R'_{\\rm HK})$ data of the old, solar $[$Fe/H$]$ clusters ...

  11. Star formation activity in the neighbourhood of W-R 1503-160L star in the mid-infrared bubble N46

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, L K; Ojha, D K; Janardhan, P; Ninan, J P; Luna, A; Zinchenko, I

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate star formation (SF) processes in extreme environments, we have carried out a multi-wavelength analysis of the mid-infrared bubble N46, which hosts a WN7 Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. We have used 13CO line data to trace an expanding shell surrounding the W-R star containing about five condensations within the molecular cloud associated with the bubble. The W-R star is associated with a powerful stellar wind having a mechanical luminosity of ~4 x 10^37 ergs/s. A deviation of the H-band starlight mean polarization angles around the bubble has also been traced, indicating the impact of stellar wind on the surroundings. The Herschel temperature map shows a temperature range of ~18 - 24 K toward the five molecular condensations. The photometric analysis reveals that these condensations are associated with the identified clusters of young stellar objects, revealing ongoing SF process. The densest among these five condensations (peak N(H_2) ~9.2 x 10^22 cm^-2 and A_V ~ 98 mag) is associated with a 6...

  12. Multi-wavelength GOALS Observations of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy IC 883

    CERN Document Server

    Modica, F; Evans, A S; Kim, D C; Mazzarella, J M; Iwasawa, K; Petric, A; Howell, J H; Surace, J A; Armus, L; Spoon, H W W; Sanders, D B; Barnes, J E

    2011-01-01

    New optical HST, Spitzer, GALEX, and Chandra observations of the single-nucleus, luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) merger IC 883 are presented. The galaxy is a member of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), and is of particular interest for a detailed examination of a luminous late-stage merger due to the richness of the optically-visible star clusters and the extended nature of the nuclear X-ray, mid-IR, CO and radio emission. In the HST ACS images, the galaxy is shown to contain 156 optically visible star clusters distributed throughout the nuclear regions and tidal tails of the merger, with a majority of visible clusters residing in an arc ~ 3-7 kpc from the position of the mid-infrared core of the galaxy. The luminosity functions of the clusters have an alpha_F435W ~ -2.17+/-0.22 and alpha_F814W ~ -2.01+/-0.21. Further, the colors and absolute magnitudes of the majority of the clusters are consistent with instantaneous burst population synthesis model ages in the range of a few x10^7 - 10^8 ...

  13. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  14. Herschel observed Stripe 82 quasars and their host galaxies: connections between the AGN activity and the host galaxy star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of $10^{46.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The redshift range of this sample is within $z<4$, with a mean value of $1.5\\pm0.78$. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, FIR luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 $M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and the mean gas mass is $\\sim 10^{11.3}$ $M_{\\odot}$. All these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Comparing with star format...

  15. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  16. The age-mass-metallicity-activity relation for solar-type stars: comparisons with asteroseismology and the NGC 188 open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Schiavon, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Mount Wilson Ca ii index log(R'_HK) is the accepted standard metric of calibration for the chromospheric activity versus age relation for FGK stars. Recent results claim its inability to discern activity levels, and thus ages, for stars older than ~2 Gyr, which would severely hamper its application to date disk stars older than the Sun. Aims: We present a new activity-age calibration of the Mt. Wilson index that explicitly takes mass and [Fe/H] biases into account; these biases are implicit in samples of stars selected to have precise ages, which have so far not been appreciated. Methods: We show that these selection biases tend to blur the activity-age relation for large age ranges. We calibrate the Mt. Wilson index for a sample of field FGK stars with precise ages, covering a wide range of mass and [Fe/H] , augmented with data from the Pleiades, Hyades, M 67 clusters, and the Ursa Major moving group. Results: We further test the calibration with extensive new Gemini/GMOS log ()R'HK) data of the old, solar [Fe/H] clusters, M 67 and NGC 188. The observed NGC 188 activity level is clearly lower than M 67. We correctly recover the isochronal age of both clusters and establish the viability of deriving usable chromospheric ages for solar-type stars up to at least ~6 Gyr, where average errors are ~0.14 dex provided that we explicitly account for the mass and [Fe/H] dimensions. We test our calibration against asteroseismological ages, finding excellent correlation (ρ = + 0.89). We show that our calibration improves the chromospheric age determination for a wide range of ages, masses, and metallicities in comparison to previous age-activity relations.

  17. The Search for Signatures of Transient Mass Loss in Active Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, M. K.; Osten, R. A.; Broderick, J. W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Rowlinson, A.; Zarka, P.; Norman, C.

    2016-10-01

    The habitability of an exoplanet depends on many factors. One such factor is the impact of stellar eruptive events on nearby exoplanets. Currently this is poorly constrained due to heavy reliance on solar scaling relationships and a lack of experimental evidence. Potential impacts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are the large eruption of magnetic field and plasma from a star, are space weather and atmospheric stripping. A method for observing CMEs as they travel though the stellar atmosphere is the type II radio burst, and the new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) provides a means of detection. We report on 15 hr of observation of YZ Canis Minoris (YZ CMi), a nearby M dwarf flare star, taken in LOFAR’s beam-formed observation mode for the purposes of measuring transient frequency-dependent low-frequency radio emission. The observations utilized the Low Band Antenna (10–90 MHz) or High Band Antenna (110–190 MHz) for five three-hour observation periods. In this data set, there were no confirmed type II events in this frequency range. We explore the range of parameter space for type II bursts constrained by our observations. Assuming the rate of shocks is a lower limit to the rate at which CMEs occur, no detections in a total of 15 hr of observation places a limit of {ν }{type{II}}\\lt 0.0667 shocks/hr ≤ ν CME for YZ CMi due to the stochastic nature of the events and the limits of observational sensitivity. We propose a methodology to interpret jointly observed flares and CMEs which will provide greater constraints to CMEs and test the applicability of solar scaling relations.

  18. CO-DARK Star Formation and Black Hole Activity in 3C 368 at Z = 1.131: Coeval Growth of Stellar and Supermassive Black Hole Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, C.; Stacey, G.; Brisbin, D.; Ferkinhoff, C.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Riechers, D.; Sharon, C. E.; Spoon, H.; Vishwas, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the detection of four far-infrared fine-structure oxygen lines, as well as strong upper limits for the CO(2–1) and [N ii] 205 μm lines, in 3C 368, a well-studied radio-loud galaxy at z = 1.131. These new oxygen lines, taken in conjunction with previously observed neon and carbon fine-structure lines, suggest a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN), accompanied by vigorous and extended star formation. A starburst dominated by O8 stars, with an age of ∼6.5 Myr, provides a good fit to the fine-structure line data. This estimated age of the starburst makes it nearly concurrent with the latest episode of AGN activity, suggesting a link between the growth of the supermassive black hole and stellar population in this source. We do not detect the CO(2–1) line, down to a level twelve times lower than the expected value for star-forming galaxies. This lack of CO line emission is consistent with recent star formation activity if the star-forming molecular gas has low metallicity, is highly fractionated (such that CO is photodissociated throughout much of the clouds), or is chemically very young (such that CO has not yet had time to form). It is also possible, although we argue it is unlikely, that the ensemble of fine-structure lines is emitted from the region heated by the AGN.

  19. THE ROLE OF GALAXY INTERACTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT z {approx_equal} 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ideue, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Kajisawa, M. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nagao, T. [The Hakubi Project, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Trump, J. R. [UCO/Lick, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Vergani, D. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bolona, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Iovino, A. [INSF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20159 Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Le Fevre, O. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseile, CNRS-Universite d' Aix-Marseille, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ilbert, O. [Observatoriore de Marseille-Provence, Pole de I' Etoile Site de Chiateau-Gombert, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Scoville, N. Z., E-mail: ideue@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, MS 105-24, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand environmental effects on star formation in high-redshift galaxies, we investigate the physical relationships between the star formation activity, stellar mass, and environment for z {approx_equal} 1.2 galaxies in the 2 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field. We estimate star formation using the [O II]{lambda}3727 emission line and environment from the local galaxy density. Our analysis shows that for massive galaxies (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }), the fraction of [O II] emitters in high-density environments ({Sigma}{sub 10th} {approx}> 3.9 Mpc{sup -2}) is 1.7 {+-} 0.4 times higher than in low-density environments ({Sigma}{sub 10th} {approx}< 1.5 Mpc{sup -2}), while the [O II] emitter fraction does not depend on environment for low-mass M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} galaxies. In order to understand what drives these trends, we investigate the role of companion galaxies in our sample. We find that the fraction of [O II] emitters in galaxies with companions is 2.4 {+-} 0.5 times as high as that in galaxies without companions at M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. In addition, massive galaxies are more likely to have companions in high-density environments. However, although the number of star-forming galaxies increases for massive galaxies with close companions and in dense environments, the average star formation rate of star-forming galaxies at a given mass is independent of environment and the presence/absence of a close companion. These results suggest that interactions and/or mergers in a high-density environment could induce star formation in massive galaxies at z {approx} 1.2, increasing the fraction of star-forming galaxies with M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }.

  20. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-forming Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M L; Black, C S; Hainline, K N; DiPompeo, M A; Goulding, A D

    2016-01-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test if an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work that suggests that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGN using a broad instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observe...

  1. Hysteresis Effect in the Activity Indices of the Atmospheres of the Sun and Solar-Type Stars During the Rising and Falling Phases of Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2016-09-01

    The hysteresis effect that shows up as a nonunique relationship among the emissions from the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona during the rising and falling phases of solar and stellar activity is analyzed. The following solar indices are analyzed and compared in different phases of the cycle: the radiative flux in the hydrogen Lyman alpha line FLα, radio emission at 10.7 cm F10.7, the sunspot number SSN, the radiative flux in the 530.0 nm green coronal line F530.3, the solar constant TSI, and the relative flux ratio c/w (ratio of the fluxes in the center and in the wings) for the 280 nm Mg II line. In stars with cycles, a hysteresis effect is observed between the CaII chromospheric S-activity index for stars in the Mount Wilson HK project and the photospheric flux Fph for these stars.

  2. Observation and modeling of main sequence star chromospheres. 3: Differential analysis of hydrogen lines versus activity level in M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Doyle, J. G.; Koscielecki, M.

    1995-02-01

    We use the constraints at the extremes in magnetic activity level to simulate the effect of varying magnetic non-thermal heating in dM and dMe chromospheres by varying the transition region pressure and temperature minimum. We built four grids of model atmospheres with temperature minimum either at 2,660 K or 3,000 K, and a range of transition region pressure. We found that when decreasing the transition region pressure (i.e. the chromospheric temperature gradient), the Balmer lines change rapidly from emission to strong absorption, then the profiles weaken and become narrower until they disappear totally (zero Halpha stars). The Paschen and Brackett series exhibit a qualitatively similar behavior, but the `emission domain' is at a higher column mass. The Brackett lines never really develop a strong absorption. In opposition with other series, the Lyman lines show a monotonous decrease and even change to absorption for very low density models. These differences are useful spectral diagnostics for M dwarf atmospheres. All hydrogen series, except the Lyman series for intermediate and high pressures, are sensitive to the temperature minimum when large changes are considered. We also investigated the effect of the temperature break zone and found it is important only for high pressure atmospheres. Our grids of models successfully reproduce all type of observed Halpha profiles: (1) high activity with strong emission and weak self-reversal, (2) filled in intermediate activity with inner wings in emission and the core in absorption, (3) intermediate activity with strong and broad absorption, (4) low activity with weak and narrow absorption, (5) `zero activity' with an undetectable profile. We discuss the line characteristics over this wide range of physical conditions. We analyze the ionization fraction and electron density for our series of chromospheres. Changes in the ionization fraction are important throughout the pressure range. Heavy elements are the main electron

  3. Strange Nonchaotic Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2015-08-01

    Exploiting the unprecedented capabilities of the planet-hunting Kepler space telescope, which stared at 150 000 stars for four years, we discuss recent evidence that certain stars dim and brighten in complex patterns with fractal features. Such stars pulsate at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the famous golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies is generically attracted toward a “strange” behavior that is geometrically fractal without displaying the “butterfly effect” of chaos. Strange nonchaotic attractors have been observed in laboratory experiments and have been hypothesized to describe the electrochemical activity of the brain, but a bluish white star 16 000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra may manifest, in the scale-free distribution of its minor frequency components, the first strange nonchaotic attractor observed in the wild. The recognition of stellar strange nonchaotic dynamics may improve the classification of these stars and refine the physical modeling of their interiors. We also discuss nonlinear analysis of other RR Lyrae stars in Kepler field of view and discuss some toy models for modeling these stars.References: 1) Hippke, Michael, et al. "Pulsation period variations in the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878." The Astrophysical Journal 798.1 (2015): 42.2) Lindner, John F., et al. "Strange nonchaotic stars." Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 054101 (2015)

  4. Photometric activity of UX Ori stars and related objects in the near infrared and visual. BF Ori, CQ Tau, WW Vul, and SV Cep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Grinin, V. P.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaja, A. N.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed the activity of four UX Ori stars in the near-IR ( JHKL) and visual ( V) using the results of long-term photometric observations. For comparison, we also obtained IR ( JHKLM) photometric observations of two visually quiet young stars of close spectral types (AB Aur and HD 190073). For the photometrically most active UX Ori stars BF Ori, CQ Tau, and WW Vul, the Algol-like declines of brightness in the visual, which are due to sporadic enhancements of the circumstellar extinction, are also observed (with decreasing amplitude) in the IR bands. A strict correlation between the V and J brightness variations is observed for all the stars except for SV Cep. For some of the UX Ori stars, a strong correlation between the visual and IR activity is observed up to L, where the main contribution to the emission is made by circumstellar dust. In the case of SV Cep, the visual variability is not correlated with the variability of the IR fluxes. On one occasion, a clear anti-correlation was even observed: a shallow, but prolonged decrease of the visual brightness was accompanied by an increase in the IR fluxes. This indicates that circumstellar clouds themselves can become powerful sources of IR emission. Our results provide evidence that the photometric activity of UX Ori stars is a consequence of instability of the deepest layers of their gas-dust accretion disks. In some cases (SV Cep), fluctuations of the density in this region are global, in the sense that they occur along a significant part of the circle marking the inner boundary of the dust disk. It is interesting that AB Aur, which is the quietest in the visual, appeared to be the most active in the IR. In contrast to UX Ori stars, the amplitude of its brightness variations increases from the J to the M band. It follows from analysis of the IR colors of this star that their variability cannot be described by models in which the variable IR emission has a temperature close to the sublimation temperature of

  5. The PEP Survey: evidence for intense star-forming activity in the majority of radio-selected AGN at z>~1

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocchetti, Manuela; Santini, Paola; Salvato, Mara; Popesso, Paola; Berta, Stefano; Pozzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the FIR properties of radio-active AGN, we have considered three different fields where both radio and FIR observations are the deepest to-date: GOODS-South, GOODS-North and the Lockman Hole. Out of a total of 92 radio-selected AGN, ~64% are found to have a counterpart in Herschel maps. The percentage is maximum in the GOODS-North (72%) and minimum (~50%) in the Lockman Hole, where FIR observations are shallower. Our study shows that in all cases FIR emission is associated to star-forming activity within the host galaxy. Such an activity can even be extremely intense, with star-forming rates as high as ~10^3-10^4 Msun/yr. AGN activity does not inhibit star formation in the host galaxy, just as on-site star-formation does not seem to affect AGN properties, at least those detected at radio wavelengths and for z>~1. Furthermore, physical properties such as the mass and age distributions of the galaxies hosting a radio-active AGN do not seem to be affected by the presence of an ongoing sta...

  6. The active W UMa type binary star V781 Tau revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai; Hu, Shaoming; Guo, Difu; Jiang, Yuoguo; Chen, Xu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new determined BVR_cI_c light curves and radial velocities of V781 Tau are presented. By analyzing the light curves and radial velocities simultaneously, we found that V781 Tau is a W-subtype medium contact binary star with a mass ratio of q=2.207+-0.005 and a contact degree of f=21.6(+-1.0)%. The difference between the two light maxima was explained by a dark spot on the less massive primary component. The orbital period change of V781 Tau was also investigated. A secular decrease at a rate of $-6.01(+-2.28)*10^{-8} d/yr and a cyclic modulation with a period of 44.8+-5.7 yr and an amplitude of 0.0064+-0.0011 day were discovered. The continuous period decrease may be caused by angular momentum loss due to magnetic stellar wind. Applegate mechanism failed to explain the cyclic modulation. It is highly possible that the cyclic oscillation is the result of the light travel time effect by a third companion.

  7. A SINFONI view of the nuclear activity and circum-nuclear star formation in NGC 4303

    CERN Document Server

    Riffel, Rogemar A; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Lopez, J Piqueras; Arribas, S; Riffel, R; Pastoriza, M; Sales, Dinalva A; Dametto, N Z; Labiano, A; Davies, R I

    2016-01-01

    We present new maps of emission-line flux distributions and kinematics in both ionized (traced by HI and [FeII] lines) and molecular (H2) gas of the inner 0.7x0.7kpc2 of the galaxy NGC4303, with a spatial resolution 40-80pc and velocity resolution 90-150 km/s obtained from near-IR integral field specroscopy using the VLT instrument SINFONI. The most promiment feature is a 200-250pc ring of circum-nuclear star-forming regions. The emission from ionized and molecular gas shows distinct flux distributions: while the strongest HI and [FeII] emission comes from regions in the west side of the ring (ages~4Myr), the H2 emission is strongest at the nucleus and in the east side of the ring (ages>10Myr). We find that regions of enhanced hot H2 emission are anti-correlated with those of enhanced [FeII] and HI emission, which can be attributed to post starburst regions that do not have ionizing photons anymore but still are hot enough (~2000K) to excite the H2 molecule. The line ratios are consistent with the presence of...

  8. Curious Variables Experiment (CURVE). RZ LMi - the most active SU UMa star

    CERN Document Server

    Olech, A; Zloczewski, K; Cook, L M; Mularczyk, K; Kedzierski, P

    2008-01-01

    We report extensive photometry of the frequently outbursting dwarf nova RZ Leo Minoris. During two seasons of observations we detected 12 superoutbursts and 7 normal outbursts. The V magnitude of the star varied in range from 16.5 to 13.9 mag. The superoutbursts occur quite regularly flashing every 19.07(4) days and lasting slightly over 10 days. The average interval between two successive normal outbursts is 4.027(3) days. The mean superhump period observed during the superoutbursts is 0.059396(4) days (85.530(6) min). The period of the superhumps was constant except for one superoutburst when it increased with a rate of $\\dot P/P_{\\rm sh} = 7.6(1.9)\\cdot 10^{-5}$. Our observations indicate that RZ LMi goes into long intervals of showing permanent superhumps which are observed both in superoutbursts and quiescence. This may indicate that decoupling of thermal and tidal instabilities play important role in ER UMa systems. No periodic light variations which can be connected with orbital period of the binary we...

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  10. The NuSTAR view of nearby compton-thick active galactic nuclei: the cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, AND IC 2560

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balokovic´, M.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral analyses for three Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560, observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV band. The high quality hard X-ray spectra allow detailed modeling of the Compton reflection component for the first time in these sources. Using...

  11. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.;

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband s...

  12. The Mid-infrared Emission of Narrow-Line Active Galactic Nuclei: Star-Formation, Nuclear Activity and two populations revealed by WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J; Davies, R I; Genzel, R; Lutz, D; Tacconi, L J

    2013-01-01

    We explore the nature of the long-wavelength mid-infrared (MIR) emission of a sample of 13000 local Type II (narrow-line) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using 12 and 22 micron photometry from the WISE all-sky survey. In combination with FIRST 1.4 GHz measurements, we show that AGNs divide into two relatively distinct populations or "branches" in the plane of MIR and radio luminosity. Seyfert galaxies lie almost exclusively on a MIR-bright branch (Branch A), while low-ionization nuclear emission line galaxies (LINERs) are split evenly into Branch A and the MIR-faint Branch B. We devise various tests to constrain the processes that define the branches, including a comparison to the properties of pure star-forming (SF) inactive galaxies on the MIR-Radio plane. We demonstrate that the total MIR emission of objects on Branch A, including most Seyfert galaxies, is governed primarily by host star-formation, with about 15% of the 22 micron luminosity coming from AGN-heated dust...

  13. Star-forming Activity in the H II Regions Associated with the IRAS 17160–3707 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 105 L ⊙. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M ⊙ and luminosity: 9–317 × 102 L ⊙ using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μm. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  14. Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  15. Ages of young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Soderblom, David R; Jeffries, Rob D; Mamajek, Eric E; Naylor, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Determining the sequence of events in the formation of stars and planetary systems and their time-scales is essential for understanding those processes, yet establishing ages is fundamentally difficult because we lack direct indicators. In this review we discuss the age challenge for young stars, specifically those less than ~100 Myr old. Most age determination methods that we discuss are primarily applicable to groups of stars but can be used to estimate the age of individual objects. A reliable age scale is established above 20 Myr from measurement of the Lithium Depletion Boundary (LDB) in young clusters, and consistency is shown between these ages and those from the upper main sequence and the main sequence turn-off -- if modest core convection and rotation is included in the models of higher-mass stars. Other available methods for age estimation include the kinematics of young groups, placing stars in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, pulsations and seismology, surface gravity measurement, rotation and activ...

  16. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: The Number Counts of Active Galactic Nuclei and the Resolved Fraction of the Cosmic X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, F A; Civano, F; Lansbury, G; Mullaney, J R; Ballantyne, D R; Alexander, D M; Stern, D; Ajello, M; Barret, D; Bauer, F E; Balokovic, M; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Del Moro, A; Forster, K; Gandhi, P; Giommi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R C; Hornstrup, A; Kitaguchi, T; Koglin, J; Luo, B; Madsen, K K; Mao, P H; Miyasaka, H; Mori, K; Perri, M; Pivovaroff, M; Puccetti, S; Rana, V; Treister, E; Walton, D; Westergaard, N J; Wik, D; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W W; Zoglauer, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the 3-8 keV and 8-24 keV number counts of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified in the NuSTAR extragalactic surveys. NuSTAR has now resolved approximately 35% of the X-ray background in the 8-24 keV band, directly identifying AGN with obscuring columns up to 1e25 / cm2. In the softer 3-8 keV band the number counts are in general agreement with those measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra over the flux range 5e-15 1e-11 erg/cm2/s, for any realistic AGN spectral model. The most natural explanation for the difference is an evolution in the AGN poulation between the very local objects seen by BAT and the more distant (0.5 < z < 1) NuSTAR sample that is not accounted for in the current models.

  17. ALMA observations of a z~3.1 Protocluster: Star Formation from Active Galactic Nuclei and Lyman-Alpha Blobs in an Overdense Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, D M; Harrison, C M; Mullaney, J R; Smail, I; Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Hine, N K; Karim, A; Kubo, M; Lehmer, B D; Matsuda, Y; Rosario, D J; Stanley, F; Swinbank, A M; Umehata, H; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We exploit ALMA 870um observations to measure the star-formation rates (SFRs) of eight X-ray detected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) in a z~3.1 protocluster, four of which reside in extended Ly-alpha haloes (often termed Ly-alpha blobs: LABs). Three of the AGNs are detected by ALMA and have implied SFRs of ~220-410~M_sun/yr; the non detection of the other five AGNs places SFR upper limits of 100 kpc) do not host more luminous star formation than the smaller LABs, despite being an order of magnitude brighter in Ly-alpha emission. We use these results to discuss star formation as the power source of LABs.

  18. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION, CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY, AND STAR-PLANET INTERACTIONS IN THE WASP-12 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haswell, C. A.; Fossati, L.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U. C.; Busuttil, R.; Carter, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ayres, T.; France, K.; Froning, C. S. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Street, R. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hebb, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cameron, A. Collier; Enoch, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Burwitz, V. [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rodriguez, J. [Observatori Astronomic de Mallorca, Cami de l' Observatori, E-07144 Costitx, Mallorca (Spain); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J., E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: cynthia.froning@colorado.edu, E-mail: leslie.hebb@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Extended gas clouds have been previously detected surrounding the brightest known close-in transiting hot Jupiter exoplanets, HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b; we observed the distant but more extreme close-in hot Jupiter system, WASP-12, with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Near-UV (NUV) transits up to three times deeper than the optical transit of WASP-12 b reveal extensive diffuse gas, extending well beyond the Roche lobe. The distribution of absorbing gas varies between visits. The deepest NUV transits are at wavelength ranges with strong stellar photospheric absorption, implying that the absorbing gas may have temperature and composition similar to those of the stellar photosphere. Our spectra reveal significantly enhanced absorption (greater than 3{sigma} below the median) at {approx}200 individual wavelengths on each of two HST visits; 65 of these wavelengths are consistent between the two visits, using a strict criterion for velocity matching that excludes matches with velocity shifts exceeding {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. Excess transit depths are robustly detected throughout the inner wings of the Mg II resonance lines independently on both HST visits. We detected absorption in Fe II {lambda}2586, the heaviest species yet detected in an exoplanet transit. The Mg II line cores have zero flux, emission cores exhibited by every other observed star of similar age and spectral type are conspicuously absent. WASP-12 probably produces normal Mg II profiles, but the inner portions of these strong resonance lines are likely affected by extrinsic absorption. The required Mg{sup +} column is an order of magnitude greater than expected from the interstellar medium, though we cannot completely dismiss that possibility. A more plausible source of absorption is gas lost by WASP-12 b. We show that planetary mass loss can produce the required column. Our Visit 2 NUV light curves show evidence for a stellar flare. We show that some of the possible transit detections in resonance

  19. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-01-01

    ), UV - bright star-forming galaxies, these galaxies' FIR emission will be generally undetected in submillimeter surveys, unless: (1) their bolometric luminosity is comparable to or larger than that of ultraluminous FIR galaxies and (2) their FIR SED contains a cool dust component.

  20. Nano-photo active cellulosic fabric through in situ phytosynthesis of star-like Ag/ZnO nanocomposites: Investigation and optimization of attributes associated with photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladpoosh, Razieh; Montazer, Majid

    2016-05-05

    In this study, nano-photo active cellulosic fabric was prepared through in situ phytosynthesis of star-like Ag/ZnO nanocomposites using the ashes of Seidlitzia rosmarinus plants so-called Keliab. This is provided alkali media as a vital condition for synthesis of nanocomposites, further increasing the reduce-ability of cellulosic chains by activation of hydroxyl groups. The intermolecular dehydrolysis of intermediates ions under thermal and alkaline conditions leads to formation of Ag/ZnO heterostructure. Various analytical techniques were employed to confirm Ag/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric. The surface morphology, crystal phase and chemical structure of the treated fabrics were characterized by field emission and scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Moreover, influence of precursors: silver nitrate, zinc acetate and Keliab solution on attributes associated with photocatalytic activities including self-cleaning, whiteness and wettability was investigated via central composite design (CCD). The treated cotton samples exhibited self-cleaning activities through methylene blue degradation under day-light exposure along with improved wettability and whiteness. The prepared sample in optimized conditions showed good antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with enhanced fabric tensile strength.

  1. Hot ammonia around young O-type stars. III. High-mass star formation and hot core activity in W51~Main

    CERN Document Server

    Goddi, Ciriaco; Zhang, Qizhou

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of ammonia multilevel imaging studies in well-known high-mass star forming regions. Using the JVLA, we have mapped the hot and dense molecular gas in W51 Main, with about 0.2 arcsec angular resolution, in five highly-excited metastable inversion transitions of ammonia (ammonia): (J,K)=(6,6), (7,7), (9,9), (10,10), and (13,13). We have identified and characterised two main centers of high-mass star formation in W51-Main: the W51e2 complex and the W51e8 core (6 arcsec southward of W51e2). The former breaks down into three further sub-cores: W51e2-W, which surrounds the well known HC HII region, where hot ammonia is observed in absorption, and two additional dusty cores, W51e2-E (~0.8" to the East) and W51e2-NW (~1" to the North), where hot ammonia is observed in emission. The velocity maps towards the HC HII region show a clear velocity gradient that may indicate rotation, though we do not directly observe a Keplerian velocity profile. The absence of outflow and/or maser acti...

  2. Stellar Activity on the Young Suns of Orion: COUP Observations of K5-7 Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wolk, S J; Micela, G; Favata, F; Glassgold, A E; Shang, H; Feigelson, E D

    2005-01-01

    In January 2003, the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) detected about 1400 young stars during a 13.2 day observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). This paper studies a well-defined sample of 28 solar-mass COUP sources to characterize the magnetic activity of analogs of the young Sun and thereby to improve understanding of the effects of solar X-rays on the solar nebula during the era of planet formation. We find that active young Suns spend 70% of their time in a characteristic state with relatively constant flux and magnetically confined plasma with temperatures kT_2 = 2.1 * kT_1. During characteristic periods, the 0.5-8 keV X-ray luminosity is about 0.03% of the bolometric luminosity. One or two powerful flares per week with peak luminosities logL_x ~ 30-32 erg/s are typically superposed on this characteristic emission accompanied by heating of the hot plasma component from ~2.4 keV to ~7 keV at the flare peak. The energy distribution of flares superposed on the characteristic emission level follo...

  3. The roles of star formation and AGN activity of IRS sources in the HerMES fields

    CERN Document Server

    Feltre, Anna; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Frtiz, Jacopo; Franceschini, Alberto; Bock, Jamie; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo A; Ibar, Edo; Isaak, Kate G; Faro, Barbara Lo; Marchetti, Lucia; Oliver, Seb J; Page, Mathew J; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Roseboom, Isaac G; Symeonidis, Myrto; Vaccari, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    In this work we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in these same galaxies. To do this we apply a multi-component, multi-band spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 micron selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, with IRS spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fit hot dust model (torus). We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate (SFR) derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, SFR_IR and SFR_PAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, L_PAH, with SFR_FIR taking higher values than SFR_PAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of L_PAH to that of the starburst co...

  4. The hot Jupiter of the magnetically-active weak-line T Tauri star V830 Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, J -F; Moutou, C; Cameron, A C; Malo, L; Grankin, K; Hébrard, E; Hussain, G A J; Vidotto, A A; Alencar, S H P; Haywood, R D; Bouvier, J; Petit, P; Takami, M; Herczeg, G J; Gregory, S G; Jardine, M M; Morin, J

    2016-01-01

    We report results of an extended spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star V830 Tau and its recently-detected newborn close-in giant planet. Our observations, carried out within the MaTYSSE programme, were spread over 91d, and involved the ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters linked to the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii, the 2m Bernard Lyot and the 8-m Gemini-North Telescopes. Using Zeeman-Doppler Imaging, we characterize the surface brightness distributions, magnetic topologies and surface differential rotation of V830 Tau at the time of our observations, and demonstrate that both distributions evolve with time beyond what is expected from differential rotation. We also report that near the end of our observations, V830 Tau triggered one major flare and two weaker precursors, showing up as enhanced red-shifted emission in multiple spectral activity proxies. With 3 different filtering techniques, we model the radial velocity (RV) activity jitter (of semi-amplitude 1.2km/s) tha...

  5. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  6. Chromospheric activity on late-type star DM UMa using high-resolution spectroscopic observations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, LiYun; Han, Xianming L; Chang, Liang; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We present new 14 high-resolution echelle spectra to discuss the level of chromospheric activity of DM UMa in {He I} D3, {Na I} D1, D2, Halpha, and {Ca II} infrared triplet lines (IRT). It is the first time to discover the emissions above the continuum in the {He I} D3 lines on 2015 February 9 and 10. The emission on February 9 is the strongest one ever detected for DM UMa. We analysed these chromospheric active indicators by employing the spectral subtraction technique. The subtracted spectra reveal weak emissions in the {Na I} D1, D2 lines, strong emission in the Halpha line, and clear excess emissions in the {Ca II} IRT lines. Our values for the EW8542/EW8498 ratio are on the low side, in the range of 1.0-1.7. There are also clear phase variations of the level of chromospheric activity in equivalent width (EW) light curves in these chromospheric active lines (especially the Halpha line). These phenomena might be explained by flare events or rotational modulations of the level of chromospheric activity.

  7. Starring role of toll-like receptor-4 activation in the gutliver axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone; Carotti; Michele; Pier; Luca; Guarino; Umberto; Vespasiani-Gentilucci; Sergio; Morini

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of the term "gut-liver axis", many studies have focused on the functional links of intestinal microbiota, barrier function and immune responses to liver physiology. Intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases alter microbiota composition and lead to dysbiosis, which aggravates impaired intestinal barrier function via increased lipopolysaccharide translocation. The subsequent increased passage of gut-derived product from the intestinal lumen to the organ wall and bloodstream affects gut motility and liver biology. The activation of the toll-like receptor 4(TLR-4) likely plays a key role in both cases. This review analyzed the most recent literature on the gut-liver axis, with a particular focus on the role of TLR-4 activation. Findings that linked liver disease with dysbiosis are evaluated, and links between dysbiosis and alterations of intestinal permeability and motility are discussed. We also examine the mechanisms of translocated gut bacteria and/or the bacterial product activation of liver inflammation and fibrogenesis via activity on different hepatic cell types.

  8. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Gettings, Daniel P; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mancone, Conor L; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F; Stanford, S Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2013-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z=0.3-1.5 using $Herschel$ SPIRE 250$\\mu$m imaging. We utilize 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Bootes field . This analysis allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific-SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M$_{\\star}$) of stellar mass-limited (M>1.3x10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z>1.2 in the cluster cores (r0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies...

  9. Identification of striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel calmodulin target by a newly developed genome-wide screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yusui; Denda, Miwako; Sakane, Kyohei; Ogusu, Tomoko; Takahashi, Sumio; Magari, Masaki; Kanayama, Naoki; Morishita, Ryo; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    To search for novel target(s) of the Ca(2+)-signaling transducer, calmodulin (CaM), we performed a newly developed genome-wide CaM interaction screening of 19,676 GST-fused proteins expressed in human. We identified striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel CaM target and characterized its CaM binding ability and found that the Ca(2+)/CaM complex interacted stoichiometrically with the N-terminal region (Ala13-Gln35) of STARS in vitro as well as in living cells. Mutagenesis studies identified Ile20 and Trp33 as the essential hydrophobic residues in CaM anchoring. Furthermore, the CaM binding deficient mutant (Ile20Ala, Trp33Ala) of STARS further enhanced its stimulatory effect on SRF-dependent transcriptional activation. These results suggest a connection between Ca(2+)-signaling via excitation-contraction coupling and the regulation of STARS-mediated gene expression in muscles.

  10. Four-colour photometry of EY Dra: a study of an ultra-fast rotating active dM1-2e star

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Kővári, Zs; Jurcsik, J; Sódor, Á; Váradi, M; Belucz, B; Dékány, I; Hurta, Zs; Nagy, I; Posztobányi, K

    2010-01-01

    We present more than 1000-day long photometry of EY Draconis in BV(RI)C passbands. The changes in the light curve are caused by the spottedness of the rotating surface. Modelling of the spotted surface shows that there are two large active regions present on the star on the opposite hemispheres. The evolution of the surface patterns suggests a flip-flop phenomenon. Using Fourier analysis, we detect a rotation period of P_rot=0.45875d, and an activity cycle with P~350d, similar to the 11-year long cycle of the Sun. This cycle with its year-long period is the shortest one ever detected on active stars. Two bright flares are also detected and analysed.

  11. Patrol of the short wavelength activity and flares of Sun as star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, I.; Avakyan, S.; Leonov, N.; Serova, A.; Voronin, N.

    Monitoring of the spectral range which most affects solar-terrestrial relationship - soft X-ray and extreme UV-radiations allows to solve ? problem of solar activity influence on all aspects of the Sun - Earth ties and to select the most important precursors of solar flares and the solar events related with a flare (such as proton events, high-velocity plasma streams in the solar wind, shock waves, coronal mass ejection and, the most important, the beginning of principal magnetic storms). Solar activity is constantly monitored at present (in the USA) only in two sections of the spectrum of ionizing radiation: 115 (119) nm. However, so far there has been no monitoring of the flux in the most geoeffective region of the spectrum (0.8-115 nm) from the entire disk of the sun; this region completely monitors the main part of the ionosphere of the earth and the ionosphere of the other planets of the solar system, including the formation and status of the main ionospheric maxima. This occurs solely because of technical and methodological difficulties in performing the measurements and calibration in this spectral range on spacecraft, because it is necessity to use only windowless optics. At the present the solar the optical - electronic equipment (OEE) is testing and there are plans to launch OEE of Space Solar Patrol (SSP) consisting of solar radiometers and spectrometers at the Russian Module of the International Space Station. So the solving the problem of the permanent monitoring-patrol of ionizing radiation from the full disk of the Sun appears in the main tasks of fundamental scientific studies in space. The results of this monitoring can be contribution in development of simultaneous studies in several sciences, such as: - solar astrophysics (state of all solar atmospheric regions), - meteorology, physics of atmosphere (the influence of solar activity on global changes, climate and weather including the effects of atmo s pheric electricity), - aeronomy, astronautics

  12. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Switzer, Eric R; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jonathan; Staggs, Suzanne; Swetz, Daniel; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14-1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two sub-populations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97% of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogs. When combined with flux densities from the Australian Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index of 3.7+0.62-0.86, and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshifts as great as 5.6. Dusty ...

  13. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crighton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D.; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Johnathan; Staggs, Suzanne; Swetz, Daniel; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 -1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A(sub 148-218), of 3.7 (+0.62 or -0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  14. Active Learning to Overcome Sample Selection Bias: Application to Photometric Variable Star Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joseph W; Brink, Henrik; Miller, Adam A; Bloom, Joshua S; Butler, Nathaniel R; James, J Berian; Long, James P; Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Despite the great promise of machine-learning algorithms to classify and predict astrophysical parameters for the vast numbers of astrophysical sources and transients observed in large-scale surveys, the peculiarities of the training data often manifest as strongly biased predictions on the data of interest. Typically, training sets are derived from historical surveys of brighter, more nearby objects than those from more extensive, deeper surveys (testing data). This sample selection bias can cause catastrophic errors in predictions on the testing data because a) standard assumptions for machine-learned model selection procedures break down and b) dense regions of testing space might be completely devoid of training data. We explore possible remedies to sample selection bias, including importance weighting (IW), co-training (CT), and active learning (AL). We argue that AL---where the data whose inclusion in the training set would most improve predictions on the testing set are queried for manual follow-up---i...

  15. Star Wreck

    OpenAIRE

    Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E.; Tinyakov, P. G.; Tkachev, Igor I.

    1998-01-01

    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the or...

  16. Star polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Riosa, Blažka

    2014-01-01

    In mathematics we often encounter polygons, such us triangle, square, hexagon, etc., but we hardly encounter star polygons. Despite the fact that we do not meet them so often in mathematics, in nature they can be traced almost on every step. In this paper the emphasis is on the geometric meaning of regular star polygons. Star polygon is a generalization of the concept of regular polygons. In star polygons also non-adjacent sides intersect. Up to similarity they are determined by Schläfli symb...

  17. Testing Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity and Star Formation in Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Faber, S. M.; McLean, Ian S.; Yan, Renbin; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Villar, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z ~ 1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in 2 hr exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional emission-line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [O III]/Hβ ratio is insufficient as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicator at z > 1. For the four X-ray-detected galaxies, the classic diagnostics ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα) remain consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that "composite" galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona fide AGNs. Nearly ~2/3 of the z ~ 1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or the classic diagnostics. Compared to the X-ray and line ratio classifications, the mass-excitation method remains effective at z > 1, but we show that the color-excitation method requires a new calibration to successfully identify AGNs at these redshifts. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation and operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California, and NASA.

  18. TESTING DIAGNOSTICS OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z > 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Konidaris, Nicholas P. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D.; Yan, Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Juneau, Stephanie [Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Villar, Victor [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-20

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z {approx} 1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in 2 hr exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional emission-line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [O III]/H{beta} ratio is insufficient as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicator at z > 1. For the four X-ray-detected galaxies, the classic diagnostics ([O III]/H{beta} versus [N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}) remain consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that 'composite' galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona fide AGNs. Nearly {approx}2/3 of the z {approx} 1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or the classic diagnostics. Compared to the X-ray and line ratio classifications, the mass-excitation method remains effective at z > 1, but we show that the color-excitation method requires a new calibration to successfully identify AGNs at these redshifts.

  19. MC$^2$: Boosted AGN and star-formation activity in CIZA J2242.8+5301, a massive post-merger cluster at z=0.19

    CERN Document Server

    Sobral, David; Dawson, William A; Wittman, David; Jee, James; Röttgering, Huub; van Weeren, Reinout J; Brüggen, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Cluster mergers may play a fundamental role in the formation and evolution of cluster galaxies. Stroe et al. (2014) revealed unexpected over-densities of candidate H$\\alpha$ emitters near the ~1 Mpc-wide shock fronts of the massive (~2x10$^{15}$M$_{\\odot}$) "Sausage" merging cluster, CIZA J2242.8+5301. We used Keck/DEIMOS and WHT/AF2 to confirm 83 H$\\alpha$ emitters in and around the merging cluster. We find that cluster star-forming galaxies in the hottest X-ray gas and/or in the cluster sub-cores (away from the shock fronts) show high [SII]6716/[SII]6761 and high [SII]6716/H$\\alpha$, implying very low electron densities (2.5 Mpc). This suggests that the shock front may have triggered remaining metal-rich gas which galaxies were able to retain into forming stars. Our observations show that the merger of impressively massive (~10$^{15}$M$_\\odot$) clusters can provide the conditions for significant star-formation and AGN activity, but, as we witness strong feedback by star-forming galaxies and AGN (and given h...

  20. The Biases of Optical Line-Ratio Selection for Active Galactic Nuclei, and the Intrinsic Relationship between Black Hole Accretion and Galaxy Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Zeimann, Gregory R; Luck, Cuyler; Bridge, Joanna S; Grier, Catherine J; Hagen, Alex; Juneau, Stephanie; Montero-Dorta, Antonio; Rosario, David J; Brandt, W Niel; Ciardullo, Robin; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    We use 317,000 emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate line-ratio selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In particular, we demonstrate that "star formation dilution" by HII regions causes a significant bias against AGN selection in low-mass, blue, star-forming, disk-dominated galaxies. This bias is responsible for the observed preference of AGNs among high-mass, green, moderately star-forming, bulge-dominated hosts. We account for the bias and simulate the intrinsic population of emission-line AGNs using a physically-motivated Eddington ratio distribution, intrinsic AGN narrow line region line ratios, a luminosity-dependent Lbol/L[OIII] bolometric correction, and the observed Mbh-sigma relation. These simulations indicate that, in massive (log(M*/Msun) > 10) galaxies, AGN accretion is correlated with specific star formation rate but is otherwise uniform with stellar mass. There is some hint of lower black hole occupation in low-mass (log(M*/Msun) < 10) hosts, although o...

  1. X-ray flux variability of active galactic nuclei observed using NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Priyanka; Stalin, C. S.; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2017-04-01

    We present results of a systematic study of flux variability on hourly time-scales in a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the 3-79 keV band using data from Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. Our sample consists of four BL Lac objects (BL Lacs), three flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) 24 Seyfert 1, 42 Seyfert 2 and eight narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies. We find that in the 3-79 keV band, about 65 per cent of the sources in our sample show significant variations on hourly time-scales. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we find no difference in the variability behaviour between Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies. The blazar sources (FSRQs and BL Lacs) in our sample are more variable than Seyfert galaxies that include Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 in the soft (3-10 keV), hard (10-79 keV) and total (3-79 keV) bands. NLSy1 galaxies show the highest duty cycle of variability (87 per cent), followed by BL Lacs (82 per cent), Seyfert galaxies (56 per cent) and FSRQs (23 per cent). We obtained flux doubling/halving time in the hard X-ray band less than 10 min in 11 sources. The flux variations between the hard and soft bands in all the sources in our sample are consistent with zero lag.

  2. Testing Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity and Star Formation in Galaxies at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D; Juneau, Stephanie; Weiner, Benjamin J; Faber, S M; McLean, Ian S; Yan, Renbin; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Villar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z~1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in two hour exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional "BPT" line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [OIII]/\\Hb ratio is insufficient as an AGN indicator at z>1. For the four X-ray detected galaxies, the classic BPT diagnostic ([OIII]/Hb vs. [NII]/Ha and [SII]/Ha) remains consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that "composite" galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona-fide AGNs. Nearly 2/3 of the z~1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or...

  3. STAR Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, W W, E-mail: jacobsw@indiana.ed [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility and Department of Physics, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington IN 47408 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The main STAR calorimeters comprise a full Barrel EMC and single Endcap EMC plus a Forward Meson Spectrometer. Together they give a nearly complete coverage over the range -1 < pseudorapidity < 4 and provide EM readout and triggering that help drive STAR physics capabilities. Their description, status, performance and operations (and a few physics anecdotes) are briefly presented and discussed.

  4. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  5. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  6. The distribution of satellites around massive galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in ZFOURGE/CANDELS: Dependence on star formation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Mehrtens, Nicola [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Spitler, Lee R.; Cowley, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl; Nanayakkara, Themiya [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Allen, Rebecca [Australian Astronomical Observatories, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hartley, W. G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Koo, David C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lu, Yu, E-mail: kawinwanichakij@physics.tamu.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others

    2014-09-10

    We study the statistical distribution of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies at 1 < z < 3 using imaging from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey and the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The deep near-IR data select satellites down to log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 9 at z < 3. The radial satellite distribution around centrals is consistent with a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile. Massive quiescent centrals, log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.78, have ∼2 times the number of satellites compared to star-forming centrals with a significance of 2.7σ even after accounting for differences in the centrals' stellar-mass distributions. We find no statistical difference in the satellite distributions of intermediate-mass quiescent and star-forming centrals, 10.48 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.78. Compared to the Guo et al. semi-analytic model, the excess number of satellites indicates that quiescent centrals have halo masses 0.3 dex larger than star-forming centrals, even when the stellar-mass distributions are fixed. We use a simple toy model that relates halo mass and quenching, which roughly reproduces the observed quenched fractions and the differences in halo mass between star-forming and quenched galaxies only if galaxies have a quenching probability that increases with halo mass from ∼0 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 11 to ∼1 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 13.5. A single halo-mass quenching threshold is unable to reproduce the quiescent fraction and satellite distribution of centrals. Therefore, while halo quenching may be an important mechanism, it is unlikely to be the only factor driving quenching. It remains unclear why a high fraction of centrals remain star-forming even in relatively massive halos.

  7. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  8. Study on the faint star extraction technology with MEMS gyro aided APS star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fei; Zhao, Borui; Sun, Ting; Xu, Wei; You, Zheng

    2013-08-01

    Star tracker is the most accurate attitude sensor for satellite. Generally speaking, the higher the accuracy, the fainter the star can be sensed by the star tracker. How to extract the faint star from a star image is becoming a critical technology in dynamic condition for star tracker, especially using the APS (Active Pixels Sensor) detector. A novel APS star tracker with MEMS Gyroscope aided system was proposed in this paper that could extremely improve the detection effect and capability for the faint stars. During the exposure time of star tracker, the trajectory of star projection on the detector maybe occupy more than ten pixels due to the satellite rotation. In this situation, the signal-to-noise ratio will decline sharply, and the traditional star extraction method for faint star will take no effect. As a result, the accuracy of star tracker would decline sharply, even more, couldn't work. Using the MEMS Gyroscope, the track of star projection can be predicated and measured, on the basis of which the deconvolution algorithm could be taken to recover the faint star signal. The accuracy of the star projection centroid could be improved obviously, and the dynamic performance of the star tracker would be improved by a magnitude. Meanwhile, the MEMS gyroscope has not less volume, mass and power consumption, which make it more suitable for the application of APS star tracker.

  9. The MIXR sample: AGN activity versus star formation across the cross-correlation of WISE, 3XMM, and FIRST/NVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, B.; Watson, M. G.; Rosen, S. R.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Ruiz, A.; Blain, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Mateos, S.; Pineau, F.-X.; Stewart, G. C.

    2016-11-01

    We cross-correlate the largest available mid-infrared (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer - WISE), X-ray (3XMM) and radio (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres+NRAO VLA Sky Survey) catalogues to define the MIXR sample of AGN and star-forming galaxies. We pre-classify the sources based on their positions on the WISE colour/colour plot, showing that the MIXR triple selection is extremely effective to diagnose the star formation and AGN activity of individual populations, even on a flux/magnitude basis, extending the diagnostics to objects with luminosities and redshifts from SDSS DR12. We recover the radio/mid-IR star formation correlation with great accuracy, and use it to classify our sources, based on their activity, as radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), low excitation radio galaxies/low ionization nuclear emission line regions, and non-AGN galaxies. These diagnostics can prove extremely useful for large AGN and galaxy samples, and help develop ways to efficiently triage sources when data from the next generation of instruments becomes available. We study bias in detail, and show that while the widely used WISE colour selections for AGN are very successful at cleanly selecting samples of luminous AGN, they miss or misclassify a substantial fraction of AGN at lower luminosities and/or higher redshifts. MIXR also allows us to test the relation between radiative and kinetic (jet) power in radio-loud AGN, for which a tight correlation is expected due to a mutual dependence on accretion. Our results highlight that long-term AGN variability, jet regulation, and other factors affecting the Q/Lbol relation, are introducing a vast amount of scatter in this relation, with dramatic potential consequences on our current understanding of AGN feedback and its effect on star formation.

  10. The MIXR sample: AGN activity versus star formation across the cross-correlation of WISE, 3XMM, and FIRST/NVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, B; Rosen, S R; Hardcastle, M J; Ruiz, A; Blain, A; Carrera, F J; Mateos, S; Pineau, F X; Stewart, G C

    2016-01-01

    We cross-correlate the largest available Mid-Infrared (WISE), X-ray (3XMM) and Radio (FIRST+NVSS) catalogues to define the MIXR sample of AGN and star-forming galaxies. We pre-classify the sources based on their positions on the WISE colour/colour plot, showing that the MIXR triple selection is extremely effective to diagnose the star formation and AGN activity of individual populations, even on a flux/magnitude basis, extending the diagnostics to objects with luminosities and redshifts from SDSS DR12. We recover the radio/mid-IR star formation correlation with great accuracy, and use it to classify our sources, based on their activity, as radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN, LERGs/LINERs, and non-AGN galaxies. These diagnostics can prove extremely useful for large AGN and galaxy samples, and help develop ways to efficiently triage sources when data from the next generation of instruments becomes available. We study bias in detail, and show that while the widely-used WISE colour selections for AGN are very success...

  11. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Baldwin, Jack A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: wangjm@mail.ihep.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the

  12. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  13. A multiwavelength photometric census of AGN and star formation activity in the brightest cluster galaxies of X-ray selected clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T. S.; Edge, A. C.; Stott, J. P.; Ebeling, H.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-09-01

    Despite their reputation as being `red and dead', the unique environment inhabited by brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) can often lead to a self-regulated feedback cycle between radiatively cooling intracluster gas and star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in the BCG. However the prevalence of `active' BCGs, and details of the feedback involved, are still uncertain. We have performed an optical, UV and mid-IR photometric analysis of the BCGs in 981 clusters at 0.03 AGN and/or star formation activity within the BCG. We find that whilst the majority of BCGs are consistent with being passive, at least 14 per cent of our BCGs show a significant colour offset from passivity in at least one colour index. And, where available, supplementary spectroscopy reveals the majority of these particular BCGs show strong optical emission lines. On comparing BCG `activity' with the X-ray luminosity of the host cluster, we find that BCGs showing a colour offset are preferentially found in the more X-ray luminous clusters, indicative of the connection between BCG `activity' and the intracluster medium.

  14. Rising Star

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Rising Star is a novel about appearances. Thailand Allen is a girl who thinks she understands what she sees. But when what she sees are cracks in her perfect world, maturation and new sight are not far off. Before growth can occur, Thailand must undergo a painful process of learning that carries with it embarrassment, sorrow, anger and confusion. Thailand lives with her mother in a small Texas town called Rising Star. Rising Star is like every other small town with its community gather...

  15. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  16. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  17. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  18. Effects of the STAR Intervention Program on Interactions between Campers with and without Disabilities during Inclusive Summer Day Camp Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Christina M.; Fraiman, Jeffrey L.; Hawkins, Kelly A.; Labin, Jennifer M.; Sutter, Mary Beth; Wahl, Meghan R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer intervention program designed to increase interactions between children with and without disabilities in an inclusive summer camp. A multiple probe single subject design was used to determine the effects of the STAR intervention on six dyads of campers aged five through ten over two…

  19. Hypoxia reduces testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells by inhibiting NRF1-activated StAR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueting; Pan, Longlu; Zou, Zhiran; Wang, Dan; Lu, Yapeng; Dong, Zhangji; Zhu, Li

    2017-01-27

    Male fertility disorders play a key role in half of all infertility cases. Reduction in testosterone induced by hypoxia might cause diseases in reproductive system and other organs. Hypoxic exposure caused a significant decrease of NRF1. Software analysis reported that the promoter region of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) contained NRF1 binding sites, indicating NRF1 promoted testicular steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine NRF1 is involved in testosterone synthesis; and under hypoxia, the decrease of testosterone synthesis is caused by lower expression of NRF1. We designed both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Under hypoxia, the expressions of NRF1 in Leydig cells and testosterone level were significantly decreased both in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression and interference NRF1 could induced StAR and testosterone increased and decreased respectively. ChIP results confirmed the binding of NRF1 to StAR promoter region. In conclusion, decline of NRF1 expression downregulated the level of StAR, which ultimately resulted in a reduction in testosterone synthesis.

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  1. STAR POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. von Ferber; Yu.Holovatch

    2002-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to present a collection of papers devoted to theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies in the field of star polymers. Since its introduction in the early 80-ies, this field has attracted increasing interest and has become an important part of contemporary polymer physics. While research papers in this field appear regularly in different physical and chemical journals, the present collection is an attempt to join together the studies of star polymers showing the...

  2. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  3. F stars: A challenge to stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Suchkov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Many main-sequence F and early G stars are too luminous for their effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition. These {\\it overluminous stars} have two curious properties. First, their kinematics as a function of age from stellar evolution modeling (isochrone fitting) is very different from that of normal stars. Second, while X-ray luminosity of normal stars declines with age, the X-ray luminosity of overluminous F stars changes in the opposite direction, being on average higher for older stars. These properties imply that, in defiance of standard models of stellar evolution, F stars of a given mass and chemical composition can evolve very differently. Assuming that the models correctly describe normal stars, for overluminous F stars they predict too young age and the X-ray emission evolving in the direction opposite to the actually observed trend. This discrepancy between modeling results and observational data suggests that standard stellar evolution models and models of stellar activity...

  4. The SpaceInn-SISMA database: characterization of a large sample of variable and active stars by means of HARPS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Rainer, M; Mistò, A; Panzera, R; Molinaro, M; Cepparo, F; Roth, M; Michel, E; Monteiro, M J P F G

    2016-01-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analysing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the CoRoT satellite. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph HARPS have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The remaining stars belong to the same variable classes of the CoRoT targets and were observed to better characterize the properties of such classes. Several useful variability indicators (mean line profiles; indices of differential rotation, activity and emission lines) together with vsini and radial velocity measurements have been extracted from the spectra. The atmospheric parameters Teff, logg and [Fe/H] have been computed following a homogeneous procedure. As a result, we fully characterize a sample of new and known variable stars by computing sev...

  5. The SpaceInn-SISMA Database: Characterization of a Large Sample of Variable and Active Stars by Means of Harps Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Mistò, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Molinaro, M.; Cepparo, F.; Roth, M.; Michel, E.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analyzing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) satellite. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph HARPS have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The remaining stars belong to the same variable classes of the CoRoT targets and were observed to better characterize the properties of such classes. Several useful variability indicators (mean line profiles, indices of differential rotation, activity and emission lines) together with v\\sin i and radial-velocity measurements have been extracted from the spectra. The atmospheric parameters {T}{eff},{log}g, and [Fe/H] have been computed following a homogeneous procedure. As a result, we fully characterize a sample of new and known variable stars by computing several spectroscopic indicators, also providing some cases of simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy.

  6. Multi-wavelength study of X-ray luminous clusters at z ~ 0.3 I. Star formation activity of cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Braglia, F G; Biviano, A; Böhringer, H

    2009-01-01

    The current paradigm of cosmic formation and evolution of galaxy clusters foresees growth mostly through merging. Galaxies in the infall region or in the core of a cluster undergo transformations owing to different environmental stresses. For two X-ray luminous clusters at redshift z ~ 0.3 with opposite X-ray morphologies, RXCJ0014.3-3022 and RXCJ2308.3-0211, we assess differences in galaxy populations as a function of cluster topography. Cluster large-scale structure and substructure are determined from the combined photometry in the B, V, and R bands, and from multi-object optical spectroscopy at low resolution. A spectral index analysis is performed, based on the [OII] and Hdelta features, and the D4000 break, available for more than 100 member galaxies per cluster. Combination of spectral indices and FUV-optical colours provides a picture of the star formation history in galaxies. In spite of the potential presence of a small fraction of galaxies with obscured star formation activity, the average star-for...

  7. Nebular excitation in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS and LUCI surveys: The influence of shocks and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buschkamp, Peter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Kurk, Jaron; Rosario, David; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gnat, Orly [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Osservatorio di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S., E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the 'composite' region of the z ∼ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ∼ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ∼ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ∼ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration.

  8. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mancone, Conor L.; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z = 0.3 to 1.5 using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver 250 μm imaging and utilizing 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). These clusters were selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Boötes field. This sample allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs (SSFR = SFR/M⋆) of stellar mass-limited (M ≥ 1.3 × 1010 M⊙), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star-forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z ≳ 1.2 in the cluster cores (r 0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies have systematically lower SSFRs than blue field galaxies, but otherwise show no strong differential evolution with respect to the field over our redshift range. This suggests that the cluster environment is both suppressing the SF in blue galaxies on long time-scales and rapidly transitioning some fraction of blue galaxies to the quiescent galaxy population on short time-scales. We argue that our results are consistent with both strangulation and ram pressure stripping acting in these clusters, with merger activity occurring in the cluster outskirts.

  9. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.;

    2016-01-01

    resolved X-rays above 2 keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures 3.1-4.4 MK and emission...... measures 1-8 × 1046 cm−3. We do not observe emission above 5 MK, but our short effective exposure times restrict the spectral dynamic range. With few counts above 6 keV, we can place constraints on the presence of an additional hotter component between 5 and 12 MK of∼1046 cm−3 and ∼1043cm−3, respectively...

  10. Constraining stellar physics from red-giant stars in binaries - stellar rotation, mixing processes and stellar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; Pavlovski, K; Palacios, A; Tkachenko, A; García, R A; Mathis, S; Corsaro, E; Johnston, C; Mosser, B; Ceillier, T; Nascimento, J -D do; Raskin, G

    2016-01-01

    The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seism...

  11. Stellar populations in star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Li-Cai

    2016-12-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star cluster formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ages. We present the history and progress of research in this active field, as well as some of the most recent improvements, including observational results and scenarios that have been proposed to explain the observations. Although our current ability to determine the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters is unsatisfactory, we propose a number of promising projects that may contribute to a significantly improved understanding of this subject.

  12. A closer view of the radio-FIR correlation: disentangling the contributions of star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Moric, Igor; Kimball, Amy; Riechers, Dominik A; Ivezic, Zeljko; Scoville, Nick

    2010-01-01

    We extend the Unified Radio Catalog, a catalog of sources detected by various (NVSS, FIRST, WENSS, GB6) radio surveys, and SDSS, to IR wavelengths by matching it to the IRAS Point and Faint Source catalogs. By fitting each NVSS-selected galaxy's NUV-NIR spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar population synthesis models we add to the catalog star formation rates, stellar masses, and attenuations.We further add information about optical emission line properties for NVSS-selected galaxies with available SDSS spectroscopy. Using an NVSS 20cm (F_{1.4GHz} ge 2.5mJy) selected sample, matched to the SDSS spectroscopic ("main" galaxy and quasar) catalogs and IRAS data (0.04star forming, iii) composite, iv) Seyfert, v) LINER and vi) absorption line galaxies using the standard optical spectroscopic diagnostic tools. We utilize SED-based star formation rates to independently qu...

  13. First stars evolution and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, 14131 Praha 4, (Czech Republic); Klapp, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)]. e-mail: bahen@hotmail.com

    2007-12-15

    The first stars in the universe were massive and luminous with typical masses M {>=} 100M. Metal-free stars have unique physical characteristics and exhibit high effective temperatures and small radii. These so called Population III stars were responsible for the initial enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements. In this work, we study the structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of 100, 200, 250 and 300M galactic and pregalactic Population III mass losing stars with metallicities Z 10{sup -6} and Z = 10{sup -9}, during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. Using a stellar evolution code, a system of 10 structure and evolution equations together with boundary conditions, and a set of 30 nuclear reactions, are solved simultaneously, obtaining the star's structure, evolution, isotopic abundances and their ratios. Motivated by recent stability analysis, almost all very massive star (VMS) calculations during the past few years have been performed with no mass loss. However, it has recently been claimed that VMS should have strong mass loss. We present in this work new VMS calculations that includes mass loss. The main difference between zero-metal and metal-enriched stars lies in the nuclear energy generation mechanism. For the first stars, nuclear burning proceeds in a non-standard way. Since Population III stars can reach high central temperatures, this leads to the first synthesis of primary carbon through the 3 {alpha} reaction activating the CNO-cycles. Zero-metal stars produce light elements, such as He, C, N and O. Thus, very massive pregalactic Population III stars experienced self-production of C, either at the zero-age main sequence or in later phases of central hydrogen burning. In advanced evolutionary phases, these stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium through supernova explosions. (Author)

  14. On the rarity of FK Com stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, W.; Stencel, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Very high-dispersion spectra (2.5 A/mm) were obtained of 31 southern late-type stars, predominantly early G giants, in an effort to find new rapidly rotating, active stars which would be FK Com-like. Measurements of linewidths and the strength of chromospheric Ca II K-line emission are presented, but no new star could be added to the class of 'rapid rotators'. Space densities and evolutionary lifetimes for FK Com stars are discussed.

  15. A Multi-Wavelength Photometric Census of AGN and Star Formation Activity in the Brightest Cluster Galaxies of X-ray Selected Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Green, T S; Stott, J P; Ebeling, H; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Metcalfe, N; Kaiser, N; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2016-01-01

    Despite their reputation as being "red and dead", the unique environment inhabited by Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) can often lead to a self-regulated feedback cycle between radiatively cooling intracluster gas and star formation and AGN activity in the BCG. However the prevalence of "active" BCGs, and details of the feedback involved, are still uncertain. We have performed an optical, UV and Mid-IR photometric analysis of the BCGs in 981 clusters at 0.03 < z < 0.5, selected from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Using Pan-STARRS PS1 3pi, GALEX and WISE survey data we look for BCGs with photometric colours which deviate from that of the bulk population of passive BCGs - indicative of AGN and/or star formation activity within the BCG. We find that whilst the majority of BCGs are consistent with being passive, at least 14% of our BCGs show a significant colour offset from passivity in at least one colour index. And, where available, supplementary spectroscopy reveals the majority of these particular BCGs show...

  16. A search for line intensity enhancements in the far-UV spectra of active late-type stars arising from opacity

    CERN Document Server

    Keenan, F P; Rose, S J; Mathioudakis, M

    2011-01-01

    Radiative transfer calculations have predicted intensity enhancements for optically thick emission lines, as opposed to the normal intensity reductions, for astrophysical plasmas under certain conditions. In particular, the results are predicted to be dependent both on the geometry of the emitting plasma and the orientation of the observer. Hence in principle the detection of intensity enhancement may provide a way of determining the geometry of an unresolved astronomical source. To investigate such enhancements we have analyzed a sample of active late-type stars observed in the far ultraviolet spectral region. Emission lines of O VI in the FUSE satellite spectra of epsilon Eri, II Peg and Prox Cen were searched for intensity enhancements due to opacity. We have found strong evidence for line intensity enhancements due to opacity during active or flare-like activity for all three stars. The O VI 1032/1038 line intensity ratios, predicted to have a value of 2.0 in the optically thin case, are found to be up to...

  17. Stars, Galaxies and Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the basics of stars, galaxies and Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs. In stars, the central pressure and temperature must be high in order to halt the stellar gravitational collapse. High temperature leads to thermonuclear fusion in the stellar core, releasing thereby enormous amount of nuclear energy, making the star shine brilliantly. On the other hand, the QSOs are very bright nuclei lying in the centres of some galaxies. Many of these active galactic nuclei, which appear star-like when observed through a telescope and  whose power output are more than 1011 times that of the Sun, exhibit rapid time variability in their X-ray emissions.  Rapid variability along with the existence of a maximum speed limit, c, provide a strong argument in favour of a compact central engine model for QSOs in which a thick disc of hot gas going around a supermassive blackhole is what makes a QSO appear like a bright point source. Hence, unlike stars, QSOs are powered by gravitational potential energy.

  18. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  19. Morning Star

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Morning Star comprises a group of paintings and drawings whose imagery derives from photographs of 1960s American hippie communes. The paintings are made using oil paint on linen. Their dimensions vary between 180 x 120, and 228 x 217 centimetres. The drawings are in pencil on watercolour paper and are all 56 x 76 centimetres. The work has been exhibited in conventional form, hanging on gallery walls. For Morning Star I made pencil drawings and oil paintings derived from images in Dick Fa...

  20. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars I: The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Ribas, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures, metallicity, and gravities avoiding the degeneracy present in photo...

  1. Accurate positions of SiO masers in active star-forming regions - Orion-KL, W51-IRS2, and Sagittarius-B2 MD5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Ukita, Nobuharu; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Ishiguro, Masato

    1992-08-01

    Accurate positional measurements of SiO J = 1-0 masers in active star-forming regions, Orion-KL, W51-IRS2, and Sgr-B2 MD5, were made with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Absolute positional accuracies of 0.12-0.6 arcsec were achieved. The SiO maser in W51-IRS2 is located within 0.4 arcsec (0.5 x 10 exp 17 cm at the distance of W51-IRS2) of the strongest H2O masers. In Sgr-B2 MD5, the SiO maser coincides with the strongest H2O masers, most of the strong OH masers, and the peak of radio continuum emission from the ultracompact H II region within 0.7 arcsec (0.8 x 10 exp 17 cm at the distance of Sgr-B2). Peaks of the emission from hot NH3 were found to exist within about 1 arcsec of the SiO masers in both regions. The precise positional coincidence confirms our former conclusion that the SiO masers in W51-IRS2 and Sgr-B2 MD5 are actually associated with the ongoing activity of star formation, as is the case of Orion-KL.

  2. Stars Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Leyder

    1996-01-01

    An imaginary voyage in time where we were witness of the birth of the universe itself, the time of the Big-Bang 15 billion years ago. Particules from the very first moments of time : protons, neutrons and electrons, and also much more energetic one. These particules are preparing to interact collider and generating others which will be the birth to the stars ........

  3. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  4. STAR Highlights

    OpenAIRE

    Masui, Hiroshi; collaboration, for the STAR

    2011-01-01

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  5. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  6. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  7. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  8. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  9. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  10. SHARDS: A global view of the star formation activity at z~0.84 and z~1.23

    CERN Document Server

    Cava, Antonio; Eliche-Moral, M Carmen; Ricciardelli, Elena; Vidal-Garcia, Alba; Alcalde-Pampliega, Belen; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Barro, Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolas; Cenarro, A Javier; Charlot, Stephane; Daddi, Emanuele; Dessauges-Zavatsky, Miroslava; Sanchez, Helena Dominguez; Espino-Briones, Nestor; Esquej, Pilar; Gallego, Jesus; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Huertas-Company, Marc; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose M; Rodriguez-Munoz, Lucia; Schaerer, Daniel; Tresse, Laurence; Villar, Victor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at intermediate redshifts (z~1). We combine the ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric data from the SHARDS survey with deep UV-to-FIR observations in the GOODS-N field to build and characterize a complete sample of SFGs at z~0.84 and z~1.23. Exploiting two of the 25 SHARDS medium-band filters, F687W17 and F823W17, we select [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) at z~0.84 and z~1.23 and characterize their physical properties. Their rest-frame equivalent widths (EWrf([OII])), line fluxes, luminosities, star formation rates (SFRs) and dust attenuation properties are investigated. The evolution of the EWrf([OII]) closely follows the SFR density evolution of the Universe, with a EWrf([OII])$\\propto$(1+z)$^3$ trend up to redshift z~1, followed by a possible flattening. The SF properties of the galaxies selected on the basis of their [OII] emission are compared with complementary samples of SFGs selected by their MIR and FIR emission, ...

  11. Peculiar objects towards 3FGL J0133.3+5930: an eclipsing Be star and an active galactic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, Josep; Paredes, Josep M; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Galindo, Daniel; Ribó, Marc; Marín-Felip, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to contribute to the identification of unassociated gamma-ray sources in the galactic plane in order to enlarge the currently known population of gamma-ray binaries and related systems, such as radio emitting X-ray binaries and microquasars. These objects are currently regarded as excellent test beds for the understanding of high energy phenomena in stellar systems. Methods. Potential targets of study are selected based on cross-identification of the 3rd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalogue with historical catalogues of luminous stars often found as optical counterparts in known cases. Follow-up observations and analysis of multi-wavelength archival data are later used to seek further proofs of association beyond the simple positional agreement. Results. Current results enable us to present here the case of the Fermi source 3FGL J0133.3+5930 where two peculiar objects have been discovered inside its region of uncertainty. One of them is the star TYC 3683-985-1 (LS I +59 79) whose eclipsing binary...

  12. Photometric Study on Stellar Magnetic Activity: I. Flare Variability of Red Dwarf Stars in the Open Cluster M37

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, S -W; Hartman, J D

    2015-01-01

    Based on one-month long MMT time-series observations of the open cluster M37, we monitored light variations of nearly 2500 red dwarfs and successfully identified 420 flare events from 312 cluster M dwarf stars. For each flare light curve, we derived observational and physical parameters, such as flare shape, peak amplitude, duration, energy, and peak luminosity. We show that cool stars produce serendipitous flares energetic enough to be observed in the $r$-band, and their temporal and peak characteristics are almost the same as those in traditional $U$-band observations. We also found many large-amplitude flares with inferred $\\Delta u > 6$ mag in the cluster sample which had been rarely reported in previous ground-based observations. Following the ergodic hypothesis, we investigate in detail statistical properties of flare parameters over a range of energy ($E_{r}$ $\\simeq$ $10^{31}-10^{34}$ erg). As expected, there are no statistical differences in the distributions of flare timescales, energies, and freque...

  13. The Relationship Between Star-formation Activity and Galaxy Structural Properties in CANDELS and a Semi-analytic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Bluck, Asa F L; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra; Ferguson, Henry C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Kurczynski, Peter; McIntosh, Daniel H; Newman, Jeffrey A; Primack, Joel

    2016-01-01

    We study the correlation of galaxy structural properties with their location relative to the SFR-M* correlation, also known as the star formation "main sequence" (SFMS), in the CANDELS and GAMA surveys and in a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. We first study the distribution of median Sersic index, effective radius, star formation rate (SFR) density and stellar mass density in the SFR-M* plane. We then define a redshift dependent main sequence and examine the medians of these quantities as a function of distance from this main sequence, both above (higher SFRs) and below (lower SFRs). Finally, we examine the distributions of distance from the main sequence in bins of these quantities. We find strong correlations between all of these galaxy structural properties and the distance from the SFMS, such that as we move from galaxies above the SFMS to those below it, we see a nearly monotonic trend towards higher median Sersic index, smaller radius, lower SFR density, and higher stellar density. In the...

  14. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  15. Star Formation Activity in the Molecular Cloud G35.20–0.74: Onset of Cloud–Cloud Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, L. K.

    2017-03-01

    To probe star formation (SF) processes, we present results of an analysis of the molecular cloud G35.20‑0.74 (hereafter MCG35.2) using multi-frequency observations. The MCG35.2 is depicted in a velocity range of 30–40 km s‑1. An almost horseshoe-like structure embedded within the MCG35.2 is evident in the infrared and millimeter images and harbors the previously known sites, ultra-compact/hyper-compact G35.20‑0.74N H ii region, Ap2-1, and Mercer 14 at its base. The site, Ap2-1, is found to be excited by a radio spectral type of B0.5V star where the distribution of 20 cm and Hα emission is surrounded by the extended molecular hydrogen emission. Using the Herschel 160–500 μm and photometric 1–24 μm data analysis, several embedded clumps and clusters of young stellar objects (YSOs) are investigated within the MCG35.2, revealing the SF activities. A majority of the YSOs clusters and massive clumps (500–4250 {M}ȯ ) are seen toward the horseshoe-like structure. The position–velocity analysis of 13CO emission shows a blueshifted peak (at 33 km s‑1) and a redshifted peak (at 37 km s‑1) interconnected by lower intensity intermediate velocity emission, tracing a broad bridge feature. The presence of such a broad bridge feature suggests the onset of a collision between molecular components in the MCG35.2. A noticeable change in the H-band starlight mean polarization angles has also been observed in the MCG35.2, probably tracing the interaction between molecular components. Taken together, it seems that the cloud–cloud collision process has influenced the birth of massive stars and YSOs clusters in the MCG35.2.

  16. Stars For Citizens With Urban Star Parks and Lighting Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-08-01

    General contextOne hundred years ago, almost nobody imagine a life without stars every night even in the urban areas. Now, to see a starry sky is a special event for urban citizens.It is possible to see the stars even inside cities? Yes, but for that we need star parks and lighting specialists as partners.Educational aspectThe citizens must be able to identify the planets, constellations and other celestial objects in their urban residence. This is part of a basic education. The number of the people living in the urban area who never see the main constellations or important stars increase every year. We must do something for our urban community.What is an urban star park?An urban public park where we can see the main constellations can be considered an urban star park. There can be organized a lot of activities as practical lessons of astronomy, star parties, etc.Classification of the urban star parksA proposal for classification of the urban star parks taking in consideration the quality of the sky and the number of the city inhabitants:Two categories:- city star parks for cities with inhabitants- metropolis star parks for cities with > 100.000 inhabitantsFive levels of quality:- 1* level = can see stars of at least 1 magnitude with the naked eyes- 2* level = at least 2 mag- 3* level = at least 3 mag- 4* level= at least 4 mag- 5* level = at least 5 magThe urban star urban park structure and lighting systemA possible structure of a urban star park and sky-friend lighting including non-electric illumination are descripted.The International Commission on IlluminationA description of this structure which has as members national commissions from all over the world.Dark-sky activists - lighting specialistsNational Commissions on Illumination organize courses of lighting specialist. Dark-sky activists can become lighting specialists. The author shows his experience in this aspect as a recent lighting specialist and his cooperation with the Romanian National Commission on

  17. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE CANDIDATE IN NGC 5643

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Moro, A. Del [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Puccetti, S. [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Ricci, C. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼0.5–100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X–1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X–1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of N{sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}. The range of 2–10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L{sub 2–10,int} = (0.8–1.7) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X–1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ∼ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3–8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X–1.

  18. X-rays from the youngest stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray properties of classical and weak-lined T Tauri stars are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent results from the ROSAT satellite and prospects for ASCA. The interpretation of the high level of T Tauri X-rays as enhanced solar-type magnetic activity is discussed and criticized. The census of X-ray emitters is significantly increasing estimates of galactic star formation efficiency, and X-ray emission may be important for self-regulation of star formation. ASCA images will detect star formation regions out to several kiloparsecs and will study the magnetically heated plasma around T Tauri stars. However, images will often suffer from crowding effects.

  19. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  20. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Galaxy Clusters from $z=1-2$: a Multi-wavelength Analysis Featuring $Herschel$/PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Chung, Sun Mi; Cybulski, Ryan; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony; Jannuzi, Buell; Stanford, S Adam; Snyder, Gregory; Stern, Daniel; Zeimann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed, multi-wavelength study of star formation (SF) and AGN activity in 11 near-infrared (IR) selected, spectroscopically confirmed, massive ($\\gtrsim10^{14}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) galaxy clusters at $1star-forming fraction, dust-obscured SF rates (SFRs), and specific-SFRs for cluster galaxies as a function of cluster-centric radius and redshift. In good agreement with previous studies, we find that SF in cluster galaxies at $z\\gtrsim1.4$ is largely consistent with field galaxies at similar epochs, indicating an era before significant quenching in the cluster cores ($r<0.5\\,$Mpc). This is followed by a ...

  1. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission II. CoRoT-Exo-2b: A transiting planet around an active G star

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R; Baglin, A; Ollivier, M; Moutou, C; Rouan, D; Deeg, H J; Aigrain, S; Almenara, J M; Barbieri, M; Barge, P; Benz, W; Bordé, P; Bouchy, F; De la Reza, R; Deleuil, M; Dvorak, R; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Gillon, M; Gondoin, P; Guillot, T; Hatzes, A; Hébrard, G; Kabath, P; Jorda, L; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Llebaria, A; Loeillet, B; Magain, P; Mayor, M; Mazeh, T; Pätzold, M; Pepe, F; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Rauer, H; Shporer, A; Schneider, J; Stecklum, B; Udry, S; Wuchterl, G

    2008-01-01

    Context. The CoRoT mission, a pioneer in exoplanet searches from space, has completed its first 150 days of continuous observations of ~12000 stars in the galactic plane. An analysis of the raw data identifies the most promising candidates and triggers the ground-based follow-up. Aims. We report on the discovery of the transiting planet CoRoT-Exo-2b, with a period of 1.743 days, and characterize its main parameters. Methods. We filter the CoRoT raw light curve of cosmic impacts, orbital residuals, and low frequency signals from the star. The folded light curve of 78 transits is fitted to a model to obtain the main parameters. Radial velocity data obtained with the SOPHIE, CORALIE and HARPS spectro-graphs are combined to characterize the system. The 2.5 min binned phase-folded light curve is affected by the effect of sucessive occultations of stellar active regions by the planet, and the dispersion in the out of transit part reaches a level of 1.09x10-4 in flux units. Results. We derive a radius for the planet...

  2. A multi-wavelength census of star formation activity in the young embedded cluster around Serpens/G3-G6

    CERN Document Server

    Djupvik, A A; Bontemps, S; Motte, F; Olofsson, G; Gaalfalk, M; Floren, H G; Andre, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this paper is to characterise the star formation activity in the poorly studied embedded cluster Serpens/G3-G6, located ~ 45' (3 pc) to the south of the Serpens Cloud Core, and to determine the luminosity and mass functions of its population of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Methods. Multi-wavelength broadband photometry was obtained to sample the near and mid-IR spectral energy distributions to separate YSOs from field stars and classify the YSO evolutionary stage. ISOCAM mapping in the two filters LW2 (5-8.5 um) and LW3 (12-18 um) of a 19' x 16' field was combined with JHKs data from 2MASS, Ks data from Arnica/NOT, and L' data from SIRCA/NOT. Continuum emission at 1.3 mm (IRAM) and 3.6 cm (VLA) was mapped to study the cloud structure and the coldest/youngest sources. Deep narrow band imaging at the 2.12 um S(1) line of H2 from NOTCam/NOT was obtained to search for signs of bipolar outflows. Results. We have strong evidence for a stellar population of 31 Class II sources, 5 flat-spectrum sour...

  3. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    CERN Document Server

    Annuar, A; Alexander, D M; Lansbury, G B; Arévalo, P; Ballantyne, D R; Baloković, M; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Del Moro, A; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Hickox, R C; Matt, G; Puccetti, S; Ricci, C; Rigby, J R; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present two NuSTAR observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy ($\\sim$0.5-100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line-of-sight. However, the lack of high-quality $\\gtrsim$ 10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X-1, had left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X-1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of $N_{\\rm{H}}$ $\\gtrsim$ 5 $\\times$ 10$^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$. The range of 2-10 ...

  4. Herschel Observed Stripe 82 Quasars and Their Host Galaxies: Connections between AGN Activity and host Galaxy Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high-luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of 1046.4 erg s-1. The redshift range of this sample is within z luminosity, far-IR (FIR) luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 M ⊙ yr-1 and the mean gas mass is ˜1011.3 M ⊙. All of these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Compared with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. This supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to z = 2. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where {L}{{FIR}}\\propto {L}{{Bol}}0.46+/- 0.03. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between L FIR and L Bol has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The M BH/M * ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the M BH-M * scaling relation.

  5. Planck stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  6. Striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is a PGC-1α/oestrogen-related receptor-α target gene and is upregulated in human skeletal muscle after endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Marita A; Hock, M Benjamin; Hazen, Bethany C; Kralli, Anastasia; Snow, Rod J; Russell, Aaron P

    2011-04-15

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is an actin-binding protein specifically expressed in cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle. STARS has been suggested to provide an important link between the transduction of external stress signals to intracellular signalling pathways controlling genes involved in the maintenance of muscle function. The aims of this study were firstly, to establish if STARS, as well as members of its downstream signalling pathway, are upregulated following acute endurance cycling exercise; and secondly, to determine if STARS is a transcriptional target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) and oestrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα). When measured 3 h post-exercise, STARS mRNA and protein levels as well as MRTF-A and serum response factor (SRF) nuclear protein content, were significantly increased by 140, 40, 40 and 40%, respectively. Known SRF target genes, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1β (CPT-1β) and jun B proto-oncogene (JUNB), as well as the exercise-responsive genes PGC-1α mRNA and ERRα were increased by 2.3-, 1.8-, 4.5- and 2.7-fold, 3 h post-exercise. Infection of C2C12 myotubes with an adenovirus-expressing human PGC-1α resulted in a 3-fold increase in Stars mRNA, a response that was abolished following the suppression of endogenous ERRα. Over-expression of PGC-1α also increased Cpt-1β, Cox4 and Vegf mRNA by 6.2-, 2.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively. Suppression of endogenous STARS reduced basal Cpt-1β levels by 8.2-fold and inhibited the PGC-1α-induced increase in Cpt-1β mRNA. Our results show for the first time that the STARS signalling pathway is upregulated in response to acute endurance exercise. Additionally, we show in C2C12 myotubes that the STARS gene is a PGC-1α/ERRα transcriptional target. Furthermore, our results suggest a novel role of STARS in the co-ordination of PGC-1α-induced upregulation of the fat oxidative gene, CPT-1β.

  7. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2004-01-01

    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  8. When stars collide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.

    2007-01-01

    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have perfor

  9. Measure of the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henbest, N.

    1984-12-13

    The paper concerns the Hertzsprung-Russel (H-R) diagram, which is graph relating the brightness to the surface temperature of the stars. The diagram provides a deep insight into the fundamental properties of the stars. Evolution of the stars; the death of a star; distances; and dating star clusters, are all briefly discussed with reference to the H-R diagram.

  10. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  11. Cooling and Heating Solid Quark Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Meng

    2009-01-01

    We present here a phenomenological solid quark star pulsar model to interpret the observed thermal X-ray emission of isolated pulsars. The heat capacity for solid quark stars was found to be quite small, so that the residual internal stellar heat gained at the birth of the star could be dissipated in an extremely short timescale. However, the bombardment induced by backflowing plasma at the poles of solid quark stars would get the stars be reheated, so that long term soft X-ray emission can be sustained. Such a scenario could be used for those X-ray pulsars with significant magnetospheric activities, and their cooling processes would thus be established. Dim X-ray isolated neutron stars (XDINs) as well as compact central objects (CCOs) have been observed with dominant soft X-ray radiation combined with little magnetospheric manifestations. Such sources could be solid quark stars accreting in the propeller regime.

  12. Coronet: A Star-Formation Neighbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    While perhaps not quite as well known as its star-formation cousin Orion, the Corona Australis region (containing, at its heart, the Coronet cluster) is one of the nearest and most active regions of ongoing star formation. At only about 420 light-years away, the Coronet is over three times closer than the Orion nebula is to Earth. The Coronet contains a loose cluster of a few dozen young stars with a wide range of masses and at various stages of evolution, giving astronomers an opportunity to observe embryonic stars simultaneously in several wavelengths. This composite image shows the Coronet in X-rays from Chandra (purple) and infrared from Spitzer (orange, green, and cyan). The Spitzer data show young stars plus diffuse emission from dust. Due to the host of young stars in different life stages in the Coronet, astronomers can use these data to pinpoint details of how the youngest stars evolve.

  13. Energetic activity in a star-forming molecular cloud core - A disk constrained bipolar outflow in NGC 2071

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, J.

    1982-10-01

    The discovery of an extended, high-velocity molecular outflow associated with the IR sources in NGC 2071 is reported. High-velocity CO emission from this star-forming molecular cloud core can be traced over a region 4 arcmin in diameter and detected over a velocity range of 70 km/sec. The flow is bipolar; the blueshifted CO emission is displaced to the northeast, while the redshifted emission is displaced to the southwest. Observations in the 98 GHz transition of CS reveal a ridge of dense gas oriented orthogonal to the high-velocity flow axis. A systematic velocity gradient seen in the CS line core suggests that the ridge is a dense, rotating disk centered on the IR source. The disk may be responsible for collimating a spherically symmetric wind originating near the IR source into the bipolar flow observed in the high-velocity CO line wings. The high-velocity CO line wings are modeled as beam diluted emission from clumps or filaments with C-12O optical depths close to unity and a small filling factor. The clumps may be either objects ejected from the vicinity of the central infrared source or shocked gas at the front where a higher velocity but invisible flow encounters ambient cloud material.

  14. Properties of active galactic star-forming regions probed by imaging spectroscopy with the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) onboard AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Yoko; Murakami, Noriko; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yasuda, Akiko; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kataza, Hirokazu; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) and identify the location of possible embedded excitation sources from far-infrared (FIR) line and mid-infrared continuum emission maps. We carried out imaging spectroscopic observations of four giant Galactic star-forming regions with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) onboard AKARI. We obtained [OIII] 88 micron and [CII] 158 micron line intensity maps of all the regions: G3.270-0.101, G333.6-0.2, NGC3603, and M17. For G3.270-0.101, we obtained high-spatial-resolution [OIII] 88 micron line-emission maps and a FIR continuum map for the first time, which imply that [OIII] 88 micron emission identifies the excitation sources more clearly than the radio continuum emission. In G333.6-0.2, we found a local [OIII] 88 micron emission peak, which is indicative of an excitation source. This is supported by the 18 micron continuum emission, which is considered to trace the hot dust distribution. For all regions, the [CII] 158 micron emission is distrib...

  15. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.;

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical...

  16. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  17. The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloković, M.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F. A.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Luo, B.; Madejski, G. M.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Markwardt, C. B.; Puccetti, S.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Rivers, E.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-09-30

    We present X-ray spectral analyses for three Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei, NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560, observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV band. The high quality hard X-ray spectra allow detailed modeling of the Compton reflection component for the first time in these sources. Using quasi-simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift/XRT data, as well as archival XMM-Newton data, we find that all three nuclei are obscured by Compton-thick material with column densities in excess of ~ 5 x 1024 cm-2, and that their X-ray spectra above 3 keV are dominated by reflection of the intrinsic continuum on Compton-thick material. Due to the very high obscuration, absorbed intrinsic continuum components are not formally required by the data in any of the sources. We constrain the intrinsic photon indices and the column density of the reflecting medium through the shape of the reflection spectra. Using archival multi-wavelength data we recover the intrinsic X-ray luminosities consistent with the broadband spectral energy distributions. Our results are consistent with the reflecting medium being an edge-on clumpy torus with a relatively large global covering factor and overall reflection efficiency of the order of 1%. Given the unambiguous confirmation of the Compton-thick nature of the sources, we investigate whether similar sources are likely to be missed by commonly used selection criteria for Compton-thick AGN, and explore the possibility of finding their high-redshift counterparts.

  18. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brammer, G., E-mail: forster@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) z ∼ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS{sup 3D}spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ∼450-5300 km s{sup –1}), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ∼ 1 and ∼2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  19. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: First Direct Measurements of the Greater Than Or Similar To 10 Kev X-Ray Luminosity Function For Active Galactic Nuclei At z > 0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.;

    2015-01-01

    number of sources in our sample, leading to small, systematic differences in our binned estimates of the XLF. Adopting a model with a lower intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick sources and a larger population of sources with column densities NH ∼1023-24 cm-2 or a model with stronger Compton reflection......We present the first direct measurements of the rest-frame 10-40 keV X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a sample of 94 sources at 0.1 sources in the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) extragalactic survey...... component (with a relative normalization of R ∼ 2 at all luminosities) can bring extrapolations of the XLF from 2-10 keV into agreement with our NuSTAR sample. Ultimately, X-ray spectral analysis of the NuSTAR sources is required to break this degeneracy between the distribution of absorbing column...

  20. Are Coronae of Magnetically Active Stars Heated by Flares? II. EUV and X-Ray Flare Statistics and the Differential Emission Measure Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M; Kashyap, V L; Drake, J J; Guinan, E F; Guedel, Manuel; Audard, Marc; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Guinan, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate the EUV and X-ray flare rate distribution in radiated energy of the late-type active star AD Leo using long EUVE and BeppoSAX observations. We compare the observed light curves with light curves synthesized from model flares that are distributed in energy according to a power law with selectable index alpha (dN/dE ~ E^{-alpha}). Two methods are applied, the first comparing flux distributions of the binned data, and the second using the distributions of photon arrival time differences in the unbinned data. We find acceptable alpha values between 2.0-2.5 for the EUVE DS and the BeppoSAX LECS data. The BeppoSAX MECS data indicate a somewhat shallower energy distribution than the LECS data, which is attributed to the harder range of sensitivity of the MECS detector and the increasing peak temperatures of flares with increasing total (radiative) energy. The results suggest that flares can play an important role in the energy release of this active corona. We discuss caveats related to tim...

  1. Can strange stars mimic dark energy stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Debabrata; Guha, B K; Ray, Saibal

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of strange stars mixed with dark energy to be one of candidates for dark energy stars is the main issue of the present study. Our investigation shows that quark matter is acting as dark energy after certain yet unknown critical condition inside the quark stars. Our proposed model reveals that strange stars mixed with dark energy feature not only a physically acceptable stable model but also mimic characteristics of dark energy stars. The plausible connections are shown through the mass-radius relation as well as the entropy and temperature. We particulary note that two-fluid distribution is the major reason for anisotropic nature of the spherical stellar system.

  2. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  3. The STAR PXL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, G.

    2016-12-01

    The PiXeL detector (PXL) of the STAR experiment at RHIC is the first application of the state-of-the-art thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technology in a collider environment. Designed to extend the STAR measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, it took data in Au+Au collisions, p+p and p+Au collisions at 0√sNN=20 GeV at RHIC, during the period 2014-2016. The PXL detector is based on 50 μm-thin MAPS sensors with a pitch of 20.7 μm. Each sensor includes an array of nearly 1 million pixels, read out in rolling shutter mode in 185.6 μs. The 170 mW/cm2 power dissipation allows for air cooling and contributes to reduce the global material budget to 0.4% radiation length on the innermost layer. Experience and lessons learned from construction and operations will be presented in this paper. Detector performance and results from 2014 Au+Au data analysis, demonstrating the STAR capabilities of charm reconstruction, will be shown.

  4. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  5. Evolution in the Black Hole - Galaxy Scaling Relations and the Duty Cycle of Nuclear Activity in Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Mouyuan; Brandt, W N; Luo, B; Alexander, David M; Jahnke, Knud; Rosario, D J; Wang, Sharon X; Xue, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    We measure the location and evolutionary vectors of 69 Herschel-detected broad-line active galactic nuclei (BLAGNs) in the M_BH-M_* plane. BLAGNs are selected from the COSMOS and CDF-S fields, and span the redshift range 0.21).

  6. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Armond, Tina; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located around the known LkHalpha 185-189 group of stars, which includes the recently erupting FUor HBC 722.

  7. The Stars behind the Curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ESO is releasing a magnificent VLT image of the giant stellar nursery surrounding NGC 3603, in which stars are continuously being born. Embedded in this scenic nebula is one of the most luminous and most compact clusters of young, massive stars in our Milky Way, which therefore serves as an excellent "local" analogue of very active star-forming regions in other galaxies. The cluster also hosts the most massive star to be "weighed" so far. NGC 3603 is a starburst region: a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust. Located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun, it is the closest region of this kind known in our galaxy, providing astronomers with a local test bed for studying intense star formation processes, very common in other galaxies, but hard to observe in detail because of their great distance from us. The nebula owes its shape to the intense light and winds coming from the young, massive stars which lift the curtains of gas and clouds revealing a multitude of glowing suns. The central cluster of stars inside NGC 3603 harbours thousands of stars of all sorts (eso9946): the majority have masses similar to or less than that of our Sun, but most spectacular are several of the very massive stars that are close to the end of their lives. Several blue supergiant stars crowd into a volume of less than a cubic light-year, along with three so-called Wolf-Rayet stars - extremely bright and massive stars that are ejecting vast amounts of material before finishing off in glorious explosions known as supernovae. Using another recent set of observations performed with the SINFONI instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have confirmed that one of these stars is about 120 times more massive than our Sun, standing out as the most massive star known so far in the Milky Way [1]. The clouds of NGC 3603 provide us with a family picture of stars in different stages of their life, with gaseous structures that are

  8. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars. I. The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dutra-Ferreira, L.; Ribas, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. Aims: The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines, λλ 8498, 8542, and 8662) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. Methods: We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures (Teff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and gravities (log g) avoiding the degeneracy usually present in photometric continuum calibrations based solely on color indices. Results: The internal uncertainties achieved for continuum absolute flux calculations are ≈2% of the solar chromospheric flux, one order of magnitude lower than for photometric calibrations. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we gauge the impact of observational errors on the final chromospheric fluxes due to the absolute continuum flux calibration and find that Teffuncertainties are properly mitigated by the photospheric correction leaving [Fe/H] as the dominating factor in the chromospheric flux uncertainty. Conclusions: Across the FGK spectral types, the Ca II IRT lines are sensitive to chromospheric activity. The reduced internal uncertainties reported here enable us to build a new chromospheric absolute flux scale and explore the age-activity relation from the active regime down to very low activity levels and

  9. Star wars and strategic defense initiatives: work activity and health symptoms of unionized bank tellers during work reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A M; Messing, K; Dumais, L

    1997-01-01

    Work activity and health symptoms of bank tellers whose work was undergoing reorganization were examined during a university-union study of the health effects of work in women's traditional jobs. Data were gathered through collective and individual interviews, analysis of work activity, and a questionnaire administered to 305 tellers. Employees worked in a standing posture over 80 percent of the time. More than two-thirds frequently suffered pain in back, legs, and feet. The average teller had been involved in 3.7 robberies as a direct victim and six as a witness. Work required feats of memory and concentration. In order to meet job demands, tellers engaged in supportive activities and teamwork. The introduction of individualized objectives threatened the employees' ability to collaborate and induced distress. More than twice as many tellers as other female workers in Québec experience psychological distress (Ilfeld scale), related to: robbery during the past two years (odds ratio = 1.7; confidence interval = 1.0-2.9); difficult relations with superiors (O.R. = 2.6; C.I. = 1.3-5.3); and full-time work (O.R. = 2.3; C.I. = 1.3-3.9). Diverse methods enriched the analysis, and union participation allowed the proposal of concrete correction measures.

  10. Modeling Gyrosynchrotron Coronae of Radio-Loud Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Fast gyrosynchrotron codes are used to model the emission in close, active binary star systems. Multiple magnetic field topologies, plasma densities, and scale heights for the emitting plasma are tested for in an attempt to duplicate the emission characteristics detected using high-resolution VLBI imaging of the close active binaries UX Arietis and Algol. Also included are effects of occlusion by the companion star. It is found that a co-orbiting coronal loop oriented toward the companion star with its feet anchored on the poles of the active star is consistent with the observed emission from these two radio-loud stars.

  11. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  12. A molecular outflow evidencing star formation activity in the vicinity of the HII region G034.8-0.7 and the SNR W44

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Rubio, M; Dubner, G

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at investigating the molecular gas component in the vicinity of two young stellar object (YSO) candidates identified at the border of the HII region G034.8-0.7 that is evolving within a molecular cloud shocked by the SNR W44. The purpose is to explore signatures of star forming activity in this complex region. We performed a near and mid infrared study towards the border of the HII region G034.8-0.7 and observed a 90" X 90" region near 18h 56m 48s, +01d 18' 45" (J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in the 12CO J=3--2, 13CO J=3--2, HCO+ J=4--3 and CS J=7--6 lines with an angular resolution of 22". Based on the infrared study we propose that the source 2MASS 18564827+0118471 (IR1 in this work) is a YSO candidate. We discovered a bipolar 12CO outflow in the direction of the line of sight and a HCO+ clump towards IR1, confirming that it is a YSO. From the detection of the CS J=7--6 line we infer the presence of high density (>10^7 cm^-3) and warm (>60 K) gas towards IR...

  13. Biofluorescent Worlds: Biological fluorescence as a temporal biosignature for flare star worlds

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Habitability for planets orbiting active stars has been questioned. Especially, planets in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of M-stars, like our closest star Proxima Centauri, experience temporal high-ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The high fraction of M-stars (75%) within the solar neighborhood, the high occurrence rate of rocky planets around M-stars, and the favorable contrast ratio between the star and a potentially habitable rocky planet, makes such planets interesting targets for upcoming observati...

  14. 棒对星系核区恒星形成活动的影响%The Effect of Bar on Nuclear Star-forming Activities in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪潋

    2009-01-01

    利用SDSS光谱,研究了IRAS卫星亮红外源星表中的盘状星系中的恒星形成性质,并着重探讨了棒对星系核区恒星形成活动的影响.利用星族合成的方法得到了每个样本星系核区的恒星组成性质、恒星形成活动的强度等信息,并比较了星系整体和核区恒星形成性质的差异.得到的结论:除去相互作用,样本中的棒星系显示出比非棒旋星系更强的核区恒星形成活动和更多的年轻星族成分.%By using SDSS spectra, we have studied nuclear star-forming properties of nearby spiral galaxies selected from Infrared Revised Bright Galaxy Sample, and try to find the effect of bar structure on star-forming activities in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies. The composition of stellar population and the strength of star formation activities in the sample galaxies are acquired by using stellar population synthesis code ?STARLIGHT, and the star formation properties in nuclear regions are compared with that of the whole galaxies. We find that the star formation in barred spiral galaxies is more intensive than non-barred ones and barred spirals show much younger stellar populations.

  15. Star formation rates from [C II] 158 μm and mid-infrared emission lines for starbursts and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, L.; Lebouteiller, V.; Weedman, D.; Barry, D.; Spoon, H. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Samsonyan, A. [Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Byurakan 0213 (Armenia); Bernard-Salas, J. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Houck, J., E-mail: sargsyan@isc.astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: dweedman@isc.astro.cornell.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    A summary is presented for 130 galaxies observed with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument to measure fluxes for the [C II] 158 μm emission line. Sources cover a wide range of active galactic nucleus to starburst classifications, as derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon strength measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Redshifts from [C II] and line to continuum strengths (equivalent width (EW) of [C II]) are given for the full sample, which includes 18 new [C II] flux measures. Calibration of L([C II)]) as a star formation rate (SFR) indicator is determined by comparing [C II] luminosities with mid-infrared [Ne II] and [Ne III] emission line luminosities; this gives the same result as determining SFR using bolometric luminosities of reradiating dust from starbursts: log SFR = log L([C II)]) – 7.0, for SFR in M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and L([C II]) in L{sub ☉}. We conclude that L([C II]) can be used to measure SFR in any source to a precision of ∼50%, even if total source luminosities are dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) component. The line to continuum ratio at 158 μm, EW([C II]), is not significantly greater for starbursts (median EW([C II]) = 1.0 μm) compared to composites and AGNs (median EW([C II]) = 0.7 μm), showing that the far-infrared continuum at 158 μm scales with [C II] regardless of classification. This indicates that the continuum at 158 μm also arises primarily from the starburst component within any source, giving log SFR = log νL{sub ν}(158 μm) – 42.8 for SFR in M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and νL{sub ν}(158 μm) in erg s{sup –1}.

  16. A CANDELS WFC3 GRISM STUDY OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: A MIX OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Yesuf, Hassen [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Laird, Elise S.; Rangel, Cyprian [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yan Renbin [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dunlop, James S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >1{sigma} detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically {approx}7 times less massive (median M{sub *} = 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) than previously studied z {approx} 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O III]/H{beta} ratios which are very similar to previously studied z {approx} 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H{beta} emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L{sub [OIII]}/L{sub 0.5-10keV} ratio is intermediate between typical z {approx} 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  17. Star Formation in Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, C M; Funes, J G; Ribeiro, M B

    2006-01-01

    We present narrow-band observations of the H$\\alpha$ emission in a sample of 31 satellite orbiting isolated giant spiral galaxies. The sample studied spans the range $-19star formation rates are 0.68 and 3.66 M$_\\sun$ yr$^{-1}$ respectively. Maps of the spatial distribution of ionized gas are presented. The star-forming regions show a rich structure in which frequently discrete complexes are imposed over more diffuse structures. In general, the current star formation rates are smaller that the mean values in the past obtained from the current stellar content; this probably indicates a declining rhythm with time in the generation of new stars. However, the reserve of gas is enough to continue fueling the current levels of star formation activity for at least another Hubble time. Four of the o...

  18. Star Formation Beyond the Solar Circle: A Survey of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerton, Charles R.

    2013-06-01

    This talk will review and distill the results of major radio, infrared, and combined radio/IR, surveys that have focused on the identification and characterization of active regions of star formation in the outer Galaxy. These surveys reveal that, in terms of star formation activity, the Milky Way beyond the solar circle is not a vast wasteland, but rather it is an area containing numerous regions of star formation well placed for detailed individual study, for large-scale studies of star formation within spiral arms, and for comparative studies with star formation occurring in different environments such as the inner Galaxy and Galactic center.

  19. Stars with Extended Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.

    2002-12-01

    This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  3. Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    . In fact, this is one of the most `perfect' bow shocks of parabolic form ever observed around an OB-runaway. Moreover, the orientation of the bow shock indicates that the system is moving towards the north; its origin must therefore lie somewhere south of its present position in the sky. It also turns out that the accordingly deduced path of HD77581 crosses a well-known OB-association with the designation Vel OB1 . At the measured distance of Vel OB1 of about 6000 lightyears, the observed proper motion and radial velocity of HD77581 indicate a space velocity of 90 km/sec. With this velocity, it would have taken HD77581 and its compact companion about 2.5 million years to travel the distance between Vel OB1 and its present position. This corresponds exactly to the expected time that has passed since the supernova explosion of the progenitor star of Vela~X-1, as deduced from the observed properties of the binary system. The puzzle comes together Now everything fits! The observation of a bow shock around the OB star HD77581 and its compact companion Vela X-1 supports the scenario originally proposed by Blaauw to create OB-runaway stars by the supernova explosion of the binary companion. Following back the path of the system resulted in the discovery of the place where it was born and from where it escaped after the violent supernova explosion which produced the neutron star that now manifests itself as the strong X-ray source known as Vela X-1. More information about this research project This research project is described in ESO Preprint no.~1199 and will appear shortly as a Letter to the Editor in `Astrophysical Journal' (ApJ 475, L37-L40). Notes: [1] Professor Adriaan Blaauw is a well-known Dutch astronomer (Leiden and Groningen). He participated very actively in the build-up of ESO in the 1950's and 60's and he was ESO Director General from 1970 - 1974. He is the author of ` ESO's Early History - The European Southern Observatory from concept to reality ' (1991). [2

  4. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  5. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  6. Star operations and Pullbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Marco; Park, Mi Hee

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the star operations on a pullback of integral domains. In particular, we characterize the star operations of a domain arising from a pullback of ``a general type'' by introducing new techniques for ``projecting'' and ``lifting'' star operations under surjective homomorphisms of integral domains. We study the transfer in a pullback (or with respect to a surjective homomorphism) of some relevant classes or distinguished properties of star operations such as $v-, t-, w-, b...

  7. Magnetic activity and hot Jupiters of young Suns: the weak-line T Tauri stars V819 Tau and V830 Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, JF; Hussain, G; Moutou, C; Malo, L; Grankin, K; Vidotto, AA; Alencar, SHP; Gregory, SG; Jardine, MM; Herczeg, G; Morin, J; Fares, R; Ménard, F; Bouvier, J; Delfosse, X; Doyon, R; Takami, M; Figueira, P; Petit, P; Boisse, I

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTSs) V819 Tau and V830 Tau within the MaTYSSE programme, involving the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. At ~3 Myr, both stars dissipated their discs recently and are interesting objects for probing star and planet formation. Profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly-polarized lines, whose rotational modulation we modelled using tomographic imaging, yielding brightness and magnetic maps for both stars. We find that the large-scale magnetic fields of V819 Tau and V830 Tau are mostly poloidal and can be approximated at large radii by 350-400 G dipoles tilted at ~30 degrees to the rotation axis. They are significantly weaker than the field of GQ Lup, an accreting classical T Tauri star (cTTS) with similar mass and age which can be used to compare the magnetic properties of wTTSs and cTTSs. The reconstructed brightness maps of both ...

  8. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Exploring the Effect of AGN Activity on the Relationships Between Molecular Gas, Dust, and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Aretxaga, Itziar; Armus, Lee; Calzetti, Daniela; Helou, George; Montana, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F Peter; Shi, Yong; Vega, Olga; Yun, Min

    2014-01-01

    The molecular gas, H$_2$, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of $L_{\\rm IR}$ to $L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ is an observational estimation of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous AGN has on the ratio $L_{\\rm IR}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to $L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm tot}$ results in a mean $L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm SF}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ for our entire sample consistent with the mean $L_{\\rm IR}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies fro...

  9. Shooting Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    reality and onscreen fictionality. And then proceeds by asking whether a different explanation might be possible if we begin to seriously consider the role of the gameplayer’s body in learning to play and the role of corporeal-locomotive gameplay in embodied gameplay activity and experience. Maybe being...

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  11. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  12. Magnetism in massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Stars with mass more than 8 solar masses end their lives as neutron stars, which we mostly observe as highly magnetized objects. Where does this magnetic field come from? Such a field could be formed during the collapse, or is a (modified) remnant of a fossil field since the birth of the star, or ot

  13. Managing the star performer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas.

  14. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  15. To rescue a star

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Massless neutrinos are exchanged in a neutron star, leading to long range interactions. Many body forces of this type follow and we resum them. Their net contribution to the total energy is negligible as compared to the star mass. The stability of the star is not in danger, contrary to recent assertions.

  16. Superflare G and K Stars and the Lithium abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Katsova, M M; Mishenina, T V; Nizamov, B A

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed here the connection of superflares and the lithium abundance in G and K stars based on Li abundance determinations conducted with the echelle spectra of a full set of 280 stars obtained with the ELODIE spectrograph. For high-active stars we show a definite correlation between $\\log A(Li)$ and the chromosphere activity. We show that sets of stars with high Li abundance and having superflares possess common properties. It relates, firstly, to stars with activity saturation. We consider the X-ray data for G, K, and M stars separately, and show that transition from a saturation mode to solar-type activity takes place at values of rotation periods 1.1, 3.3, and 7.2 days for G2, K4 and M3 spectral types, respectively. We discuss bimodal distribution of a number of G and K main-sequence stars versus an axial rotation and location of superflare stars with respect to other Kepler stars. We conclude that superflare G and K stars are mainly fast rotating young objects, but some of them belong to stars with s...

  17. A multifrequency study of the active star-forming complex NGC 6357 - I. Interstellar structures linked to the open cluster Pis 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, C. E.; Barbá, R.; Duronea, N. U.; Vasquez, J.; Arnal, E. M.; Goss, W. M.; Fernández Lajús, E.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the distribution of gas (ionized, neutral atomic and molecular) and interstellar dust in the complex star-forming region NGC 6357 with the goal of studying the interplay between the massive stars in the open cluster Pis 24 and the surrounding interstellar matter. Our study of the distribution of the ionized gas is based on narrow-band Hα, [S II]and [O III] images obtained with the Curtis-Schmidt Camera at CTIO, Chile, and on radio continuum observations at 1465 MHz taken with the VLA with a synthesized beam of 40 arcsec. The distribution of the molecular gas is analysed using 12CO(1-0) data obtained with the NANTEN radiotelescope, Chile (angular resolution = 2.7 arcmin). The interstellar dust distribution was studied using mid-infrared data from the GLIMPSE survey and far-infrared observations from IRAS. NGC 6357 consists of a large ionized shell and a number of smaller optical nebulosities. The optical, radio continuum, and near- and mid-IR images delineate the distributions of the ionized gas and interstellar dust in the H II regions and in previously unknown wind-blown bubbles linked to the massive stars in Pis 24 revealing surrounding photodissociation regions. The CO line observations allowed us to identify the molecular counterparts of the ionized structures in the complex and to confirm the presence of photodissociation regions. The action of the WR star HD 157504 on the surrounding gas was also investigated. The molecular mass in the complex is estimated to be (4 ± 2) × 105 M⊙. The mean electron densities derived from the radio data suggest electron densities >200 cm-3, indicating that NGC 6357 is a complex formed in a region of high ambient density. The known massive stars in Pis 24 and a number of newly inferred massive stars are mainly responsible for the excitation and photodissociation of the parental molecular cloud.

  18. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  19. Magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemically peculiar (CP) stars are main-sequence A and B stars with abnormally strong or weak lines for certain elements. They generally have magnetic fields and all observables tend to vary with the same period. Chemically peculiar stars provide a wealth of information; they are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. After a brief historical overview, we discuss the general properties of the magnetic fields in CP stars, describe the oblique rotator model, explain the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation, and concentrate at the end on HgMn stars.

  20. Variable Star Astronomy Education & Public Outreach Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donna L.

    2008-05-01

    The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) published a comprehensive variable star curriculum, "Hands-On Astrophysics, Variable Stars in Science, Math, and Computer Education" in 1997. The curriculum, funded by the National Science Foundation, was developed for a comprehensive audience -- amateur astronomers, classroom educators, science fair projects, astronomy clubs, family learning, and anyone interested in learning about variable stars. Some of the activities from the Hands-On Astrophysics curriculum have been incorporated into the educational materials for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's Educational and Public Outreach (EPO) Office. On two occasions, in 2000 and 2001, triggered by alerts from amateur astronomers, Chandra observed the outburst of the dwarf nova SS Cygni. The cooperation of amateur variable star astronomers and Chandra X-Ray scientists provided proof that the collaboration of amateur and professional astronomers is a powerful tool to study cosmic phenomena. Once again, the Chandra and AAVSO have teamed up -- this time to promote variable star education. The Hands-On Astrophysics curriculum is being re-designed and updated from the original materials to a web-based format. The new version, re-named Variable Star Astronomy, will provide formal and informal educators, and especially amateur astronomers, educational materials to help promote interest in and knowledge of variable stars.

  1. THE FIRST STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whalen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pop III stars are the key to the character of primeval galaxies, the first heavy elements, the onset of cosmological reionization, and the seeds of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their increasing sophistication, numerical models of Pop III star formation cannot yet predict the masses of the first stars. Because they also lie at the edge of the observable universe, individual Pop III stars will remain beyond the reach of observatories for decades to come, and so their properties are unknown. However, it will soon be possible to constrain their masses by direct detection of their supernovae, and by reconciling their nucleosynthetic yields to the chemical abundances measured in ancient metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, some of which may bear the ashes of the first stars. Here, I review the state of the art in numerical simulations of primordial stars and attempts to directly and indirectly constrain their properties.

  2. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 years of active accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Reynolds, M T; Wijnands, R; Page, D

    2016-01-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ~10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ~180 d into quiescence we detect the source at a luminosity of ~4.5E31 (D/4.7 kpc)^2 erg/s (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ~54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a <98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (<2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger i...

  3. Modelling the magnetic activity & filtering radial velocity curves of young Suns: the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, J -F; Hussain, G; Moutou, C; Grankin, K; Boisse, I; Morin, J; Gregory, S G; Vidotto, A A; Bouvier, J; Alencar, S H P; Delfosse, X; Doyon, R; Takami, M; Jardine, M M; Fares, R; Cameron, A C; Menard, F; Dougados, C; Herczeg, G

    2014-01-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa4 within the MaTYSSE programme, involving ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Despite an age of only 2Myr and a similarity with prototypical classical T Tauri stars, LkCa4 shows no evidence for accretion and probes an interesting transition stage for star and planet formation. Large profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly-polarized lines of LkCa4 using Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), indicating the presence of brightness inhomogeneities and magnetic fields at the surface of LkCa4. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct brightness and magnetic maps of LkCa4 from sets of unpolarized and circularly-polarized LSD profiles. The large-scale field is strong and mainly axisymmetric, featuring a ~2kG poloidal component and a ~1kG toroidal component encircling the star at equatorial latitudes - the latter making LkCa4 markedly different from classical...

  4. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 yr of active accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L. S.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Page, D.

    2017-02-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ≃10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ≃180 d into quiescence, we detect the source at a luminosity of ≃4.5 × 1031 (D/4.7 kpc)2 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ≃54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a ≲98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (≲2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger if further cooling were to occur.

  5. Radio emission from rapidly-rotating cool giant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Walter, Frederick M.; Florkowski, David R.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a VLA program are reported to examine the radio continuum emission from 11 rapidly-rotating cool giant stars, all of which were originally believed to be single stars. Six of the 11 stars were detected as radio sources, including FK Com and HR 9024, for which there exist multifrequency observations. HD 199178, UZ Lib (now known to be a binary system), and HD 82558, for which there is only 6-cm data. The radio properties of these stars are compared with those of the active, rapidly rotating evolved stars found in the RS CVn binary systems.

  6. VERY-LOW-MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. III. A SHORT-PERIOD BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE AROUND AN ACTIVE G0IV SUBGIANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Bo; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Wang Ji [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, G. F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: boma@astro.ufl.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5903 {+-} 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 {+-} 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 {+-} 0.041 km s{sup -1}, period P = 9.0090 {+-} 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 {+-} 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 {+-} 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 {+-} 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the {approx}1% level with a period of {approx}13.16 {+-} 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 {+-} 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M{sub Sun} if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v{sub rot}sin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T{sub eff}. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  7. Very-low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from Marvels. III. A Short-period Brown Dwarf Candidate around an Active G0IV Subgiant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, Jian; Barnes, Rory; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hebb, Leslie; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Lee, Brian L.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Gary, Bruce; Jiang, Peng; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T eff = 5903 ± 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 ± 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 ± 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 ± 0.041 km s-1, period P = 9.0090 ± 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 ± 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 ± 0.11 M ⊙ for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 ± 2.5 M Jup. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 ± 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the ~1% level with a period of ~13.16 ± 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 ± 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M ⊙ if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v rotsin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T eff. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  8. Disrupted Stars in Unusual Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star passes a little too close to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Tidal forces from the black hole cause the passing star to be torn apart, resulting in a brief flare of radiation as the stars material accretes onto the black hole. A recent study asks the following question: do TDEs occur most frequently in an unusual type of galaxy?A Trend in DisruptionsSo far, we have data from eight candidate TDEs that peaked in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. The spectra from these observations have shown an intriguing trend: many of these TDEs host galaxies exhibit weak line emission (indicating little or no current star-formation activity), and yet they show strong Balmer absorption lines (indicating star formation activity occurred within the last Gyr). These quiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies likely underwent a period of intense star formation that recently ended.To determine if TDEs are overrepresented in such galaxies, a team of scientists led by Decker French (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) has quantified the fraction of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that exhibit similar properties to those of TDE hosts.Quantifying OverrepresentationSpectral characteristics of SDSS galaxies (gray) and TDE candidate host galaxies (colored points): line emission vs. Balmer absorption. The lower right-hand box identifies thequiescent, Balmer-strong galaxies which contain most TDE events, yet are uncommon among the galaxy sample as a whole. Click for a better look! [French et al. 2016]French and collaborators compare the optical spectra of the TDE host galaxies to those of nearly 600,000 SDSS galaxies, using two different cutoffs for the Balmer absorption the indicator of past star formation. Their strictest cut, filtering for very high Balmer absorption, selected only 0.2% of the SDSS galaxies, yet 38% of the TDEs are hosted in such galaxies. Using a more relaxed cutoff selects 2.3% of

  9. Star Formation in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armond, Tina; Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We present an optical/infrared study of the dense molecular cloud, L935, dubbed "The Gulf of Mexico", which separates the North America and the Pelican nebulae, and we demonstrate that this area is a very active star forming region. A wide-field imaging study with interference filters has revealed 35 new Herbig-Haro objects in the Gulf of Mexico. A grism survey has identified 41 Halpha emission-line stars, 30 of them new. A small cluster of partly embedded pre-main sequence stars is located a...

  10. Star Clusters within FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  11. Multiplicity of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, T; Zinnecker, H; Preibisch, Thomas; Weigelt, Gerd; Zinnecker, Hans

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the observed multiplicity of massive stars and implications on theories of massive star formation. After a short summary of the literature on massive star multiplicity, we focus on the O- and B-type stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, which constitute a homogenous sample of very young massive stars. 13 of these stars have recently been the targets of a bispectrum speckle interferometry survey for companions. Considering the visual and also the known spectroscopic companions of these stars, the total number of companions is at least 14. Extrapolation with correction for the unresolved systems suggests that there are at least 1.5 and perhaps as much as 4 companions per primary star on average. This number is clearly higher than the mean number of about 0.5 companions per primary star found for the low-mass stars in the general field population and also in the Orion Nebula cluster. This suggests that a different mechanism is at work in the formation of high-mass multiple systems in the dense Orion Nebu...

  12. Very Low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from Marvels III: A Short-Period Brown Dwarf Candidate Around An Active G0Iv Subgiant

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo; Barnes, Rory; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hebb, Leslie; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; Lee, Brian L; de Mello, G F Porto; Stassun, Keivan G; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Eastman, Jason D; Gary, Bruce; Jiang, Peng; Kane, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; van Eyken, J C; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A; Zhao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T_eff = 5903+/-42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07+/-0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23+/-0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K=3.571+/-0.041 km/s, period P=9.0090+/-0.0004 days, and eccentricity e=0.226+/-0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16+/-0.11 Msun for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0+/-2.5 M_Jup. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090+/-0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the \\sim1% level with a period of \\sim13.16+/-0.01 days, indicating that the host sta...

  13. Dark stars: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  14. Dark stars: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  15. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  16. Touchstone Stars: Highlights from the Cool Stars 18 Splinter Session

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Andrew W; Boyajian, Tabetha; Gaidos, Eric; von Braun, Kaspar; Feiden, Gregory A; Metcalfe, Travis; Swift, Jonathan J; Curtis, Jason L; Deacon, Niall R; Filippazzo, Joseph C; Gillen, Ed; Hejazi, Neda; Newton, Elisabeth R

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary of the splinter session on "touchstone stars" -- stars with directly measured parameters -- that was organized as part of the Cool Stars 18 conference. We discuss several methods to precisely determine cool star properties such as masses and radii from eclipsing binaries, and radii and effective temperatures from interferometry. We highlight recent results in identifying and measuring parameters for touchstone stars, and ongoing efforts to use touchstone stars to determine parameters for other stars. We conclude by comparing the results of touchstone stars with cool star models, noting some unusual patterns in the differences.

  17. STAR in CTO PCI: When is STAR not a star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-04-01

    Subintimal tracking and reentry (STAR) has been used as a bailout strategy and involves an uncontrolled dissection and recanalization into the distal lumen to reestablish vessel patency. In the current study, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 was the only variable which they found to be significantly associated with restenosis and reocclusion after stent placement. It may be reasonable to consider second generation drug eluting stent placement in patients receiving STAR that have TIMI 3 flow, however, this should only be done if there is no compromise of major side branches. If unsure, we recommend to perform balloon angioplasty without stenting.

  18. The First Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.

  19. StarGuides Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields. This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas. The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on. Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, energetics, environment, geodesy, geophysics, information handling, management, mathematics, meteorology, optics, physics, remote sensing, and so on, are also covered where appropriate. After some thirty years in continuous compilation, verification and updating, StarGuides Plus currently gathers together some 6,000 entries from 100 countries. The information is presented in a clear, uncluttered manner for direct and easy use. For each entry, all practical data are listed: city, postal and electronic-mail addresses, telephone and fax numbers, URLs for WWW access, foundation years, numbers of members and/or numbers of staff, main activities, publications titles (with frequencies, ISS-Numbers and circulations), names and geographical coordinates of observing sites, names of planetariums, awards (prizes and/or distinctions) granted, etc. The entries are listed alphabetically in each country. An exhaustive index gives a breakdown not only by different designations and

  20. Structure and Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Norbert S; Bautz, Mark W; Canizares, Claude C; Davis, John; Dewey, Dan; Huenemoerder, David P; Heilmann, Ralf; Houck, John; Marshall, Herman L; Nowak, Mike; Schattenburg, Mark; Audard, Marc; Drake, Jeremy; Gagne, Marc; Kastner, Joel; Kallman, Tim; Lautenegger, Maurice; Lee, Julia; Miller, Jon; Montmerle, Thierry; Mukai, Koji; Osten, Rachel; Parerels, Frits; Pollock, Andy; Preibisch, Thomas; Raymond, John; Reale, Fabio; Smith, Randall; Testa, Paola; Weintraub, David

    2009-01-01

    Low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars are strong and variable X-ray emitters, as has been well established by EINSTEIN and ROSAT observatories. It was originally believed that this emission was of thermal nature and primarily originated from coronal activity (magnetically confined loops, in analogy with Solar activity) on contracting young stars. Broadband spectral analysis showed that the emission was not isothermal and that elemental abundances were non-Solar. The resolving power of the Chandra and XMM X-ray gratings spectrometers have provided the first, tantalizing details concerning the physical conditions such as temperatures, densities, and abundances that characterize the X-ray emitting regions of young star. These existing high resolution spectrometers, however, simply do not have the effective area to measure diagnostic lines for a large number of PMS stars over required to answer global questions such as: how does magnetic activity in PMS stars differ from that of main sequence stars, how do they ...

  1. Strange nonchaotic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented light curves of the Kepler space telescope document how the brightness of some stars pulsates at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear dynamical system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies generically exhibits a strange but nonchaotic attractor. For Kepler's "golden" stars, we present evidence of the first observation of strange nonchaotic dynamics in nature outside the laboratory. This discovery could aid the classification and detailed modeling of variable stars.

  2. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  3. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  4. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  5. Structure, Evolution and Nucleosynthesis of Primordial Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siess, L; Lattanzio, J C; Siess, Lionel; Livio, Mario; Lattanzio, John

    2002-01-01

    (abridge version) The evolution of population III stars (Z=0) is followed from the pre-main sequence phase up to the AGB phase for intermediate-mass stars and up to C ignition in more massive stars...We find that, thanks to the development of mixing episodes (carbon injections) at the beginning of the AGB phase, the carbon abundance of the 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5Mo models is significantly increased in the envelope. This process then allows low- and intermediate-mass stars to achieve a ``standard'' thermally pulsing AGB phase... In the 7Mo model, the CNO envelope abundance following the second dredge-up is so large that the star does not experience the carbon injection episode and follows a more standard thermally pulsing AGB evolution. Our computations also indicate that, thanks to a small overshooting at the base of the convective envelope, the third dredge-up is already operating in stars with M >~1.5 Mo after a few pulses, and that by the end of our modeling, hot bottom burning is activated in stars more mas...

  6. Star Trek in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes specific educational programs for using the Star Trek TV program from kindergarten through college. For each grade level lesson plans, ideas for incorporating Star Trek into future classes, and reports of specific programs utilizing Star Trek are provided. (SL)

  7. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  8. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars. Thes

  9. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  10. Star formation history in forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.; Kravchuk, S. G.

    The processes of formation and evolution of isolated dwarf galaxies over the Hubble timescale is followed by means of SPH techniques. As an initial protogalaxy perturbation we consider an isolated, uniform, solid -- body rotated sphere involved into the Hubble flow and made of dark and baryonic matter in a 10:1 ratio. The simulations are carried out for the set of models having spin parameters lambda in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 and the total mass of dark matter 1011 M_odot . Our model includes gasdynamics, radiative processes, star formation, supernova feedback and simplified chemistry. The application of modified star formation criterion which accounts for chaotic motions and the time lag between initial development of suitable conditions for star formation and star formation itself (Berczik P.P, Kravchuk S.G. 1997, Ap.Sp.Sci.) provides the realistic description of the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Two parameters: total mass and initial angular momentum of the dwarf protogalaxy play the crucial role in its star formation activity. After the 15 Gyr of the evolution the rapidly rotated dwarf galaxies manifest themselves as an extremly gasrich, heavy element deficient objects showing the initial burst of star formation activity in several spatially separated regions. Slowly rotating objects manifest themselves finally as typical evolved dwarf galaxies.

  11. Gaia and Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A; Skowron, D M; Skowron, J; Pietrukowicz, P; Mróz, P; Poleski, R; Szymański, M K; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparison of the Gaia DR1 samples of pulsating variable stars - Cepheids and RR Lyrae type - with the OGLE Collection of Variable Stars aiming at the characterization of the Gaia mission performance in the stellar variability domain. Out of 575 Cepheids and 2322 RR Lyrae candidates from the Gaia DR1 samples located in the OGLE footprint in the sky, 559 Cepheids and 2302 RR Lyrae stars are genuine pulsators of these types. The number of misclassified stars is low indicating reliable performance of the Gaia data pipeline. The completeness of the Gaia DR1 samples of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars is at the level of 60-75% as compared to the OGLE Collection dataset. This level of completeness is moderate and may limit the applicability of the Gaia data in many projects.

  12. Revised Anatomy of Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, M; Dubin, Maurice; Soberman, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Stars accrete near invisible hydrogen dominated agglomerates. This population, the `dark matter,' effects the nature of stars. Measurements show plasma streams impacting Earth, planets, Sun and stars. This mass-energy source contradicts nebula collapse model for stars. The visual derived model, to which later discoveries (e.g., fusion) were appended, is confounded and contradicted by new observations. Discovery of a quantity of beryllium 7 (53 day half-life) in the Earth's upper atmosphere, fusion produced, hence from the solar outer zone, proves core fusion wrong. Magnetically pinched plasmas from aggregates impact stars at hundreds of km/s, create impulsive conditions for nuclear explosions below the surface. Disks with planets aid cluster capture. Planets modulate the influx varying fusion, hence luminosity (e.g., solar cycle). This population, with no assumptions or ad hoc physics, explains mysterious phenomena, e.g., luminosity/wind variation, sunspots, high temperature corona, CMEs, etc. Standard explan...

  13. Mira Symbiotic Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Lü; Chun-Hua Zhu; Zhan-Wen Han

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of Mira symbiotic stars by means of a population synthesis code. We estimate the number of Mira symbiotic stars in the Galaxy as 1700 - 3100 and the Galactic occurrence rate of Mira symbiotic novae as from ~ 0.9 to 6.0 yr-1,depending on the model assumptions. The distributions of the orbital periods, the masses of the components, mass-loss rates of cool components, mass-accretion rates of hot components and Mira pulsation periods in Mira symbiotic stars are simulated. By a comparison of the number ratio of Mira symbiotic stars to all symbiotic stars, we find the model with the stellar wind model of Winters et al. to be reasonable.

  14. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  15. The Carbon Star Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robert F.

    2000-06-01

    The atmospheres of many stars have chemical compositions that are significantly different from that of the interstellar medium from which they are formed. This symposium considered all kinds of late-type stars showing altered compositions, the carbon stars being simply the best-known of these. All stages of stellar evolution from the main sequence to the ejection of a planetary nebula were considered, with emphasis on the changes that occur on the asymptotic giant branch. The spectroscopic properties of the photospheres and circumstellar envelopes of chemically-peculiar red giant stars, their origins via single-star evolution or mass transfer in binary systems, and the methods currently used to study them were all discussed in detail. This volume includes the full texts of papers given orally at the symposium and abstracts of the posters. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6347-7

  16. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  18. Progress report on the monitoring active late-type stars in 2005/2006 and the analysis of V523 Cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboril M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the light curve analysis of late-type binary V523 Cas for the season 2005. The spot has been revealed on the secondary. According to theoretical considerations, the spot appeared to be hotter than the surrounding photosphere and located at middle latitudes (the radius 40º and latitude 48º. The light curves for other stars in the observational list (many of them again with O'Connell effect, for the same season, have been made electronically available. These objects are SV Cam, IV Dra, BI Vul, DD Com, 12 Cam and II Peg.

  19. Catch a Star!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  20. Physical Galaxy Pairs and Their Effects on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, I M; Bendary, R

    2014-01-01

    We present 776 truly physical galaxy pairs, 569 of them are close pairs and 208 false pairs from Karachentsev (1972) and Reduzzi & Rampazzo (1995) catalogues, which contains 1012 galaxy pairs. Also we carried out star formation activity through the far-infrared emission (FIR) in physical (truly) interacting galaxies in some galaxy pairs and compared them with projection (optical) interacting galaxy pairs. We focused on the triggering of star formation by interactions and analyzed the enhancement of star formation activity in terms of truly physical galaxy pairs. The large fraction of star formation activity is probably due to the activity in the exchange of matter between the truly companions. The star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies in truly galaxy pairs is found to be more enhanced than the apparent pairs.

  1. HerMES: dust attenuation and star formation activity in UV-selected samples from z~4 to z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Heinis, S; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Conley, A; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Ilbert, O; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Oliver, S J; Rigopoulou, D; Roehlly, Y; Schulz, B; Symeonidis, M; Viero, M; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the link between observed ultraviolet luminosity, stellar mass, and dust attenuation within rest-frame UV-selected samples at z~ 4, 3, and 1.5. We measure by stacking at 250, 350, and 500 um in the Herschel/SPIRE images from the HerMES program the average infrared luminosity as a function of stellar mass and UV luminosity. We find that dust attenuation is mostly correlated with stellar mass. There is also a secondary dependence with UV luminosity: at a given UV luminosity, dust attenuation increases with stellar mass, while at a given stellar mass it decreases with UV luminosity. We provide new empirical recipes to correct for dust attenuation given the observed UV luminosity and the stellar mass. Our results also enable us to put new constraints on the average relation between star formation rate and stellar mass at z~ 4, 3, and 1.5. The star formation rate-stellar mass relations are well described by power laws (SFR~ M^0.7), with the amplitudes being similar at z~4 and z~3, and decreasing by a fact...

  2. The dependence of star formation activity on environment and stellar-mass at z~1 from the HiZELS H-alpha survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sobral, David; Smail, Ian; Geach, James; Cirasuolo, Michele; Garn, Timothy; Dalton, Gavin B

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) This paper presents an environment and stellar mass study of a large sample of star-forming (SF) galaxies at z=0.84 from the HiZELS survey, over 1.3 deg^2 in the COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields. By taking advantage of a truly panoramic coverage, from the field to a rich cluster, it is shown that both mass and environment play crucial roles in determining the properties of SF galaxies. The median specific SFR declines with mass in all environments, and the fraction of galaxies forming stars declines from ~40%, for M~10^10M_sun to effectively zero at M>10^11.5M_sun, confirming that mass-downsizing is generally in place by z~1. The fraction of SF galaxies also falls as a function of local environmental density from ~40% in the field to approaching zero at rich group/cluster densities. When SF does occur in high density regions, it is merger-dominated and, if only non-merging SF galaxies are considered, then the environment and mass trends are even stronger and largely independent, as in the local Univers...

  3. Photometric Variability in Kepler Target Stars: The Sun Among Stars -- A First Look

    CERN Document Server

    Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Gilliland, Ronald L; Jenkins, Jon; Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Caldwell, Doug; Dupree, Andrea K; Latham, David W; Meibom, Soeren; Howell, Steve; Brown, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission provides an exciting opportunity to study the lightcurves of stars with unprecedented precision and continuity of coverage. This is the first look at a large sample of stars with photometric data of a quality that has heretofore been only available for our Sun. It provides the first opportunity to compare the irradiance variations of our Sun to a large cohort of stars ranging from vary similar to rather different stellar properties, at a wide variety of ages. Although Kepler data is in an early phase of maturity, and we only analyze the first month of coverage, it is sufficient to garner the first meaningful measurements of our Sun's variability in the context of a large cohort of main sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. We find that nearly half of the full sample is more active than the active Sun, although most of them are not more than twice as active. The active fraction is closer to a third for the stars most similar to the Sun, and rises to well more than half for stars cooler t...

  4. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  5. Dense Axion Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure.If the axion mass energy is $mc^2= 10^{-4}$ eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about $10^{-14} M_\\odot$. We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If $mc^2 = 10^{-4}$ eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mas...

  6. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  7. Dense Axion Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  8. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  9. A Novel Approach for Star Extraction from Star Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGSheng; LIUJian; TIANJinwen; YANGRuijuan

    2005-01-01

    Star acquisition is one of the most timeconsuming routines in star tracker operation. One star Point spread function (PSF) forms a near Gaussian distribution in the star image, the star image can be regarded as 2-D intensity surface, and every pixel is the sampled point. The star cluster grouping is to find the highes tintensity pixel among the PSFs and collect the adjacent pixels and group them. The possible highest intensity pixels are the maximum extremum points of the 2-D intensity surface. To efficiently extract star from the star image, a novel star acquisition approach, which uses the simplified least squares support vector machines regression algorithm to find the optimal intensity surface function and predictthe maximum extremum points, is proposed. Comput erexperiments are carried out for the simulated star images.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a lot of advantages, including the high efficiency and good robustness over a wide range of sensor noise.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  11. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  12. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  13. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Viganò, Daniele; Miralles, Juan A; Rea, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  14. Hesiod's calendar and the star Spica

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, Elio

    2013-01-01

    In Hesiod's calendar, circa 8th century BCE, the harvest times of cereals were indicated by the heliacal rising of Pleiades (harvest) and by that of Orion (thresh). We tried to verify which risings and settings of the brightest stars could have been used as indicators in the previous millennia, taking into account the precession and the dependence of the heliacal dates on the latitude. In the second half of the 9th millennium BCE there was essentially one bright star that could have been used both for the harvest (heliacal setting of the star) and for the thresh (heliacal rising of the star): Spica, i.e. ear (in Latin) of cereals. According to archaeologists, the domestication of barley and wheat occurred in Near East at the end of the 9th millennium BCE. Given the importance of the bright stars and asterisms for ancient farming activities, we have therefore proposed that the identification of the star alpha Virginis with an ear should date back to the beginning of Neolithic, possibly well before the identifi...

  15. Massive Stars in the W33 Giant Molecular Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Messineo, Maria; Figer, Donald F; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, R Michael; Menten, Karl M; Ivanov, Valentin D; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C -H Rosie; Davies, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Rich in HII regions, giant molecular clouds are natural laboratories to study massive stars and sequential star formation. The Galactic star forming complex W33 is located at l=~12.8deg and at a distance of 2.4 kpc, has a size of ~10 pc and a total mass of (~0.8 - ~8.0) X 10^5 Msun. The integrated radio and IR luminosity of W33 - when combined with the direct detection of methanol masers, the protostellar object W33A, and protocluster embedded within the radio source W33 main - mark the region out as a site of vigorous ongoing star formation. In order to assess the long term star formation history, we performed an infrared spectroscopic search for massive stars, detecting for the first time fourteen early-type stars, including one WN6 star and four O4-7 stars. The distribution of spectral types suggests that this population formed during the last ~2-4 Myr, while the absence of red supergiants precludes extensive star formation at ages 6-30 Myr. This activity appears distributed throughout the region and does ...

  16. Lithium Abundance Of The Solar-Type Superflare Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoshi; Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-07-01

    We performed the high dispersion spectroscopy of solar-type superflare stars by Subaru/HDS, and estimate the stellar parameters and lithium abundance of the stars to compare with the Sun. Our spectroscopic analysis of superflare stars show more than half of targets have no evidence of binary system and the stellar parameters are in the range of solar-type stars (Notsu et al. 2015a&b). We also investigate the correlations of Lithium abundance with stellar atmospheric parameters, rotational velocity, and superflare activities to understand the nature of superflare stars and the possibility of the nucleosynthesis of lithium by superflares. The derived lithium abundance in superflare stars do not show the correlation with stellar parameters. As compared with the lithium abundance in Hyades cluster which is younger than the sun, it is suggested that half of observed stars are young. However, there are some objects which show the low lithium and slowly rotate from the estimated v sin(i) and period of brightness variation. These results indicate that the superflare stars are not only young stars but also old stars like our sun. In our observations, we could not find the any evidence of lithium productions by superflare.

  17. The Neutron Star Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  18. Felix de Roy: a life of variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shears, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Felix de Roy (1883-1942), an internationality recognised amateur astronomer, made significant contributions to variable star research. As an active observer, he made some 91,000 visual estimates of a number of different variable stars. A Belgian national, he took refuge in England during World War 1. While there, de Roy became well enough known to later serve as Director of the BAA Variable Star Section for seventeen years. Through this office, and his connections with other organisations around the world, he encouraged others to pursue the observation of variable stars. Not merely content to accumulate observational data, de Roy also analysed the data and published numerous papers.

  19. Young stars of low mass in the Gum nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. A.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations are presented for four recently formed stars in the vicinity of the Gum nebula which are heavily obscured by surrounding dust and are associated with small reflection nebulae. HH46 is the only currently active star of the sample, and it is found to have a spectral type in the range of late G-early K, with superimposed emission lines of H-alpha, Ca II, Fe I, Fe II, and weak He I at near zero velocities. It is suggested that the observed scenario of low-mass stars in an older massive star environment may be analogous to the circumstances surrounding the birth of the sun.

  20. OMEGA -- OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2: I.-- Survey description, data analysis, and star formation and AGN activity in the highest density regions

    CERN Document Server

    Chies-Santos, Ana L; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Bamford, Steven P; Gray, Meghan E; Wolf, Christian; Böhm, Asmus; Maltby, David T; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Sánchez-Portal, Miguel; Weinzirl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of and first results from the OMEGA survey: the OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in the multi-cluster system A901/2. The ultimate goal of this project is to study star formation and AGN activity across a broad range of environments at a single redshift. Using the tuneable-filter mode of the OSIRIS instrument on GTC, we target Halpha and [NII] emission lines over a ~0.5 X 0.5 deg2 region containing the z~0.167 multi-cluster system A901/2. In this paper we describe the design of the survey, the observations and the data analysis techniques developed. We then present early results from two OSIRIS pointings centred on the cores of the A901a and A902 clusters. AGN and star-forming (SF) objects are identified using the [NII]/Halpha vs. W_Halpha (WHAN) diagnostic diagram. The AGN hosts are brighter, more massive, and possess earlier-type morphologies than SF galaxies. Both populations tend to be located towards the outskirts of the high density regions we study. The typical Halpha lumi...