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Sample records for active interrogation environment

  1. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  2. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  3. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  4. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greene, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hogan, Gary E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makela, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mariam, Fesseha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milner, Edward C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murray, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spaulding, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waters, Laurie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wysocki, Frederick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  5. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  6. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  7. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  8. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to

  9. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  10. Active Interrogation of Sensitive Nuclear Material Using Laser Driven Neutron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of the viability of a laser-driven neutron source for active interrogation is reported. The need is for a fast, movable, operationally safe neutron source which is energy tunable and has high-intensity, directional neutron production. Reasons for the choice of neutrons and lasers are set forth. Results from the interrogation of an enriched U sample are shown.

  11. INL Active Interrogation Testing In Support of the GNEP Safeguards Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester

    2008-04-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. Work at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the area of active interrogation, using neutron and photon sources, has been under way for many years to develop methods for detecting and quantifying nuclear material for national and homeland security research areas. This research knowledge base is now being extended to address nuclear safeguards and process monitoring issues related to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). As a first step in this area preliminary scoping studies have been performed to investigate the usefulness of using active neutron interrogation, with a low-power electronic neutron generator, to assay Department of Transportation 6M shipping drums containing uranium oxide fuel rodlets from INL’s zero power physics reactor. Using the paired-counting technique during the die-away time period of interrogation, a lower detection limit of approximately 4.2 grams of enriched uranium (40% 235U) was calculated for a 40 minute measurement using a field portable 2.5 MeV neutron source and an array of 16 moderated helium-3 neutron tubes. Future work in this area, including the use of a more powerful neutron source and a better tailored detector array, would likely improve this limit to a much lower level. Further development work at INL will explore the applicability of active interrogation in association with the nuclear safeguards and process monitoring needs of the advanced GNEP facilities under consideration. This work, which will include both analyses and field demonstrations, will be performed in collaboration with colleagues at INL and elsewhere that have expertise in nuclear fuel reprocessing as well as active interrogation and its use for nuclear material analyses.

  12. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 2. Investigation of active neutron and active gamma interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of this report describes the theoretical and experimental work carried out at Harwell on active neutron and active gamma interrogation of 500 litre cemented intermediate level waste drums. The design of a suitable neutron generating target in conjunction with a LINAC was established. Following theoretical predictions of likely neutron responses, an experimental assay assembly was built. Responses were measured for simulated drums of ILW, based on CAGR, Magnox and PCM wastes. Good correlations were established between quantities of 235-U, nat-U and D2O contained in the drums, and the neutron signals. Expected sensitivities are -1g of fissile actinide and -100g of total actinide. A measure of spatial distribution is obtainable. The neutron time spectra obtained during neutron interrogation were more complex than expected, and more analysis is needed. Another area of discrepancy is the difference between predicted and measured thermal neutron flux in the drum. Clusters of small 3He proportional counters were found to be much superior for fast neutron detection than larger diameter counters. It is necessary to ensure constancy of electron beam position relative to target(s) and drum, and prudent to measure the target neutron or gamma output as appropriate. 59 refs., 77 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Phase Interrogation Used for a Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor in an 800 °C High-Temperature Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Huixin Zhang; Yingping Hong; Ting Liang; Hairui Zhang; Qiulin Tan; Chenyang Xue; Jun Liu; Wendong Zhang; Jijun Xiong

    2015-01-01

    A wireless passive pressure measurement system for an 800 °C high-temperature environment is proposed and the impedance variation caused by the mutual coupling between a read antenna and a LC resonant sensor is analyzed. The system consists of a ceramic-based LC resonant sensor, a readout device for impedance phase interrogation, heat insulating material, and a composite temperature-pressure test platform. Performances of the pressure sensor are measured by the measurement system sufficiently...

  14. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.B., E-mail: prose6@gatech.edu; Erickson, A.S., E-mail: anna.erickson@me.gatech.edu

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in {sup 11}B(d,n-γ){sup 12}C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example {sup 232}Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  15. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linac) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope.

  16. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope.

  17. Active neutron and active gamma interrogation of 500 litre drums of cement-encapsulated intermediate level waste using an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work carried out on linac-driven active neutron and active gamma interrogation of 500 litre cement encapsulated ILW drums at Harwell Laboratory, as part of a three year research programme on the development of an integrated radioactive waste package assay facility. Active neutron interrogation is sensitive to the fissile inventory and active gamma interrogation is sensitive to the total actinide inventory of the drum. Techniques for the calculation of neutron energy spectra and yields from a linac neutron target were developed and validated by comparison with published and new measurements. Existing Monte Carlo neutron transport codes and extensions of computer codes previously developed for active gamma interrogation work were also used. A facility for operation in either neutron or gamma interrogation mode was constructed in the Low Energy Cell of the Harwell linac HELIOS and was furnished with a bremsstrahlung target, a neutron target (for use in neutron interrogation mode), a variety of fast and thermal neutron detectors, and a flexible computer-controlled data acquisition system. Measurements were made of the system response in both interrogation modes for three 500 litre drums of simulated cemented CAGR, Magnox and PCM ILW each provided with a series of vertical sample holes into which samples of 235U (for active neutron interrogation) or natU and D2O (for active gamma interrogation) were placed. Measurements were made of the system response as a function of position and as a function of mass of the samples. In general the measurements confirmed the feasibility of the interrogation method. (author)

  18. Phase interrogation used for a wireless passive pressure sensor in an 800 °C high-temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixin; Hong, Yingping; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Hairui; Tan, Qiulin; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-23

    A wireless passive pressure measurement system for an 800 °C high-temperature environment is proposed and the impedance variation caused by the mutual coupling between a read antenna and a LC resonant sensor is analyzed. The system consists of a ceramic-based LC resonant sensor, a readout device for impedance phase interrogation, heat insulating material, and a composite temperature-pressure test platform. Performances of the pressure sensor are measured by the measurement system sufficiently, including pressure sensitivity at room temperature, zero drift from room temperature to 800 °C, and the pressure sensitivity under the 800 °C high temperature environment. The results show that the linearity of sensor is 0.93%, the repeatability is 6.6%, the hysteretic error is 1.67%, and the sensor sensitivity is 374 KHz/bar. The proposed measurement system, with high engineering value, demonstrates good pressure sensing performance in a high temperature environment.

  19. Fast fiber Bragg grating interrogation system with scalability to support monitoring of large structures in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Edwards, Elizabeth H.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Vahid

    2014-04-01

    Fiber optic sensor systems can alleviate certain challenges faced by electronics sensors faced when monitoring structures subject to marine and other harsh environments. Challenges in implementation of such systems include scalability, interconnection and cabling. We describe a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system architecture based that is scalable to support over 1000 electromagnetic interference immune sensors at high sampling rates for harsh environment applications. A key enabler is a high performance FBG interrogator supporting subsection sampling rates ranging from kHz to MHz. Results are presented for fast dynamic switching between multiple structural sections and the use of this sensing system for dynamic load monitoring as well as the potential for acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring on materials ranging from aluminum and composites to concrete subject to severe environments.

  20. Active Neutron Interrogation and Delayed Neutron Counting (AIDNEC) for assay of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for non destructive assay of 235U using active neutron interrogation followed by delayed neutron counting (AIDNEC) system. The neutrons from a plasma focus (PF) device were used to bombard the samples containing low enriched uranium ranging from 13 mg to 5 g. The PF device generates (1.2±0.3) x109 D-D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six 3He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 1000 cps per gram over the accumulation time of 25 seconds per neutron pulse of ∼109. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U. (author)

  1. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  2. A wearable passive force sensor/active interrogator intended for intra-splint use for the detection and recording of bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzáles, C.; Diaz Lantada, Andres

    2009-01-01

    A wearable bite force sensing system proto type made up of a passive force sensor and an active interrogator/reader is described. The system is aimed a* bite sensing using a wireless link between the passive sensor to be located in (lie moutb and the external interrogator that can record the evolution of detected force. The interrogator generates a magnetic field that energizes the passive sensor which is also used as the information transmission earlier. The passive farce sensor does not nee...

  3. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  4. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  5. Field Prototype of the ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation Device for the Detection of Dirty Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cherubini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation (NAI device is a tool designed to improve CBRNE defense. It is designed to uncover radioactive and nuclear threats including those in the form of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, the so-called “dirty bombs”. The NAI device, at its current development stage, allows to detect 6 g of 235U hidden in a package. It is easily transportable, light in weight, and with a real-time response. Its working principle is based on two stages: (1 an “active” stage in which neutrons are emitted by a neutron generator to interact with the item under inspection, and (2 a “passive” stage in which secondary neutrons are detected originating a signal that, once processed, allows recognition of the offence. In particular, a clear indication of the potential threat is obtained by a dedicated software based on the Differential Die-Away Time Analysis method.

  6. Application of active neutronic interrogation method to the line analysis in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a reprocessing plant of irradiated spent fuels, the knowledge in real time (line analysis) of uranium and plutonium quantities present in solutions is an extremely important parameter to control the proceeding and for the apparatus safety. The active neutronic analysis give a nondestructive non intrusive and quick measure to know the concentrations. This method consists in inducing fissions in nuclides with a neutron source and then to detect the particles which come from

  7. Non-destructive assay of fissile materials through active neutron interrogation technique using pulsed neutron (plasma focus) device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed neutrons emitted from a plasma focus (PF) device have been used for the first time for the non-destructive assay of 235U content in different chemical forms (oxide and metal). The PF device generates (1.2±0.3)×109 D–D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The method involves the measurement of delayed neutrons from an irradiated sample 50 ms after exposure to the neutron pulse for a time of about 100 s in the multichannel scaling (MCS) mode. The calibration of the active interrogation delayed neutron counter (AIDNEC) system was carried out by irradiating U3O8 samples of varying amounts (0.1–40 g) containing enriched 235U (14.8%) in the device. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six 3He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 100 counts/s/g over the accumulation time of 25 s per neutron pulse of ∼109. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U. The system can be suitably modified for applications toward non-destructive assay of fissile content in waste packets. -- Highlights: ► Plasma focus device has been used for the first time for non-destructive assay of 235U. ► Delayed neutron counting in the multichannel scaling mode is used for the determination of 235U. ► The total time taken for the measurement is about 100 s. ► The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U

  8. Non-destructive assay of fissile materials through active neutron interrogation technique using pulsed neutron (plasma focus) device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, B.S., E-mail: bstomar@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, T.C.; Andola, Sanjay; Ramniranjan,; Rout, R.K. [Multidisciplinary Research Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D.B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, S.C.; Sinha, R.K. [Multidisciplinary Research Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed neutrons emitted from a plasma focus (PF) device have been used for the first time for the non-destructive assay of {sup 235}U content in different chemical forms (oxide and metal). The PF device generates (1.2±0.3)×10{sup 9} D–D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The method involves the measurement of delayed neutrons from an irradiated sample 50 ms after exposure to the neutron pulse for a time of about 100 s in the multichannel scaling (MCS) mode. The calibration of the active interrogation delayed neutron counter (AIDNEC) system was carried out by irradiating U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples of varying amounts (0.1–40 g) containing enriched {sup 235}U (14.8%) in the device. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six {sup 3}He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 100 counts/s/g over the accumulation time of 25 s per neutron pulse of ∼10{sup 9}. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of {sup 235}U. The system can be suitably modified for applications toward non-destructive assay of fissile content in waste packets. -- Highlights: ► Plasma focus device has been used for the first time for non-destructive assay of {sup 235}U. ► Delayed neutron counting in the multichannel scaling mode is used for the determination of {sup 235}U. ► The total time taken for the measurement is about 100 s. ► The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of {sup 235}U.

  9. Malay Interrogative Knowledge Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Sidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth in the number of documents written in Malay language is enormously available on the web and intranets. There is a need to identify the information in the Malay documents that contain knowledge. This triggers the need to investigate the availability of knowledge in them. Approach: This study uses interrogative theory to identify knowledge from documents or texts. Results: The results are expected to lead towards establishment of new set of interrogative rules for Malay corpus. Conclusions/Recommendations: This study contributes the interrogative knowledge identification thru the development of Malay Interrogative Knowledge Corpus (MalayIKCorpus. It facilitates to explicitly capture and make available Malay knowledge representation in a knowledge-base system.

  10. Evaluation of a flag-based explosives detection algorithm based on active neutron interrogation for use in sea land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly explosive materials smuggled in sea land cargo containers are a security concern. An algorithm based on neutron and photon measurements during active neutron interrogation with 14.1 MeV neutrons was developed. The detection algorithm has now been evaluated for effectiveness over a wide range of explosive sizes, positions, and cargo configurations. Various sources of uncertainty were also studied. An estimate of the false positive and false negative rates was completed for various measurement conditions. Results showed that, although minimum detectable mass depends on the surrounding cargo, explosive position, and cargo configuration, 200 kg RDX could be reliably detected. (author)

  11. Leisure activities, time and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2007-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to explore the relationships between leisure activities and the environment. Most research on leisure is unrelated to environmental issues, but when this research is “read” through environmental “glasses”, it provides relevant inputs for environmental studies....... The paper thus investigates the leisure literature in order to identify some of the environmentally interesting trends in the development of leisure activities. As leisure is usually conceived in terms of a specific segment of time or in terms of a certain selection of activities, the paper focuses on time...

  12. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  13. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  14. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry; Etude et developpement d'une technique de dosage des actinides dans les colis de dechets radioactifs par interrogation photonique ou neutronique active et spectrometrie des gamma retardes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrel, F

    2007-10-15

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ({sup 239}Pu in fission, {sup 235}U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  15. Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

    2011-04-26

    We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

  16. Self-interrogation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the assay of spent-fuel assemblies has been developed that eliminates the need for external isotopic neutron sources, yet retains the advantages of an active interrogation system. The assay is accomplished by changing the reactivity of the system and correlating the measurements to burnup

  17. Life activities in space environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    This review summarized biological life activities in space environment for investigating which many experiments had been done in spacecraft's. The space is characterized by a good view, high vacuum, scarce gravity and cosmic ray of which exposure dose in the craft at 4,000 km height is around 1,000 times higher than the dose on the ground. In humans, reductions of bone content, muscle strength, immune function are known as well as space intoxication and eye-flash. Authors carried out 17 experiments in American and Russian space stations from 1992. The experiments concerned DNA breakage by cosmic ray where they first visualized the DNA damage by the ray with autoradiographic method with [{sup 3}H]dATP in HMV1 cells; cell differentiation and morphogenesis in the space with the use of radio-sensitive cellular slime mold of {gamma}s13 strain; influences of the scarce gravity on the repair of broken artificially prepared double-strand DNA and on the induced-mutation in E. coli and yeast; and stress proteins which were shown to be accumulated in the space. The space experiments are concluded to be useful for radiation biology further in future. (K.H.)

  18. Interrogating Placedness: Tasmanian Disconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Norman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to interrogate Tasmanianness and its placemaking. The cultural landscape and social realities lived out in Tasmania are constructed around contested and contentious imaginings of place and the histories, the stories, that belong to it. In the end the question hanging in the air is to do with place and culture and ‘culture’s role’ in shaping ‘place’ – landscapes, artmaking, museums, etc. Tasmania, ringed as it is with water offers a model of containment that allows for the kind of prodding and poking not easily done elsewhere. Also, it has a history of a kind that is not easily found elsewhere. Nonetheless, like places elsewhere Tasmania has idiosyncratic stories that seem to wet everything all at once and all the time.

  19. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  20. Control of radioactive wastes and coupling of neutron/gamma measurements: use of radiative capture for the correction of matrix effects that penalize the fissile mass measurement by active neutron interrogation; Controle des dechets radioactifs et couplage de mesures neutron/gamma: exploitation de la capture radiative pour corriger les effets de matrice penalisant la mesure de la masse fissile par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loche, F

    2006-10-15

    In the framework of radioactive waste drums control, difficulties arise in the nondestructive measurement of fissile mass ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu..) by Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI), when dealing with matrices containing materials (Cl, H...) influencing the neutron flux. The idea is to use the neutron capture reaction (n,{gamma}) to determine the matrix composition to adjust the ANI calibration coefficient value. This study, dealing with 118 litres, homogeneous drums of density less than 0,4 and composed of chlorinated and/or hydrogenated materials, leads to build abacus linking the {gamma} ray peak areas to the ANI calibration coefficient. Validation assays of these abacus show a very good agreement between the corrected and true fissile masses for hydrogenated matrices (max. relative standard deviation: 23 %) and quite good for chlorinated and hydrogenated matrices (58 %). The developed correction method improves the measured values. It may be extended to 0,45 density, heterogeneous drums. (author)

  1. The Coordination of Talk and Typing in Police Interrogations

    OpenAIRE

    van Charldorp, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I examine the conduct and coordination of two activities that are relevant in the Dutch police interrogation: talking and typing. By taking a closer look at these activities, I can see how the police record is mutually constructed by officers and suspects and begin to understand what kind of orientation is required for these dual activities. Additionally, I explore how participants orient to and coordinate talking and typing during interrogations and explicate what this tells...

  2. Determination of the plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly by passive and active interrogation using a differential die-away instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzl, V.; Croft, S.; Richard, J.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Tobin, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to estimating the total plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly (SFA) that is based on combining information from a passive measurement of the total neutron count rate (PN) of the assayed SFA and a measure of its multiplication. While PN can be measured essentially with any non-destructive assay (NDA) technique capable of neutron detection, the measure of multiplication is, in our approach, determined by means of active interrogation using an instrument based on the Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). The DDA is a NDA technique developed within the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) project focused on the utilization of NDA techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in commercial nuclear SFA's [1]. This approach was adopted since DDA also allows determination of other SFA characteristics, such as burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time, and also allows for detection of certain types of diversion of nuclear material. The quantification of total plutonium is obtained using an analytical correlation function in terms of the observed PN and active multiplication. Although somewhat similar approaches relating Pu content with PN have been adopted in the past, we demonstrate by extensive simulation of the fuel irradiation and NDA process that our analytical method is independent of explicit knowledge of the initial enrichment, burnup, and an absolute value of the SFA's reactivity (i.e. multiplication factor). We show that when tested with MCNPX™ simulations comprising the 64 SFA NGSI Spent Fuel Library-1 we were able to determine elemental plutonium content, using just a few calibration parameters, with an average variation in the prediction of around 1-2% across the wide dynamic range of irradiation history parameters used, namely initial enrichment (IE=2-5%), burnup (BU=15-60 GWd/tU) and cooling time (CT=1-80 y). In this paper we describe the basic approach and the

  3. Determination of the plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly by passive and active interrogation using a differential die-away instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, V., E-mail: henzl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Croft, S.; Richard, J.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Tobin, S.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to estimating the total plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly (SFA) that is based on combining information from a passive measurement of the total neutron count rate (PN) of the assayed SFA and a measure of its multiplication. While PN can be measured essentially with any non-destructive assay (NDA) technique capable of neutron detection, the measure of multiplication is, in our approach, determined by means of active interrogation using an instrument based on the Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). The DDA is a NDA technique developed within the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) project focused on the utilization of NDA techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in commercial nuclear SFA's [1]. This approach was adopted since DDA also allows determination of other SFA characteristics, such as burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time, and also allows for detection of certain types of diversion of nuclear material. The quantification of total plutonium is obtained using an analytical correlation function in terms of the observed PN and active multiplication. Although somewhat similar approaches relating Pu content with PN have been adopted in the past, we demonstrate by extensive simulation of the fuel irradiation and NDA process that our analytical method is independent of explicit knowledge of the initial enrichment, burnup, and an absolute value of the SFA's reactivity (i.e. multiplication factor). We show that when tested with MCNPX{sup ™} simulations comprising the 64 SFA NGSI Spent Fuel Library-1 we were able to determine elemental plutonium content, using just a few calibration parameters, with an average variation in the prediction of around 1–2% across the wide dynamic range of irradiation history parameters used, namely initial enrichment (IE=2–5%), burnup (BU=15–60 GWd/tU) and cooling time (CT=1–80 y). In this paper we

  4. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coop, K.L.; Hollas, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described.

  5. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described

  6. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  7. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  8. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996). and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites). This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a reti...

  9. Water activation in a fusion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is activated in a fusion environment by the 16O(n,p)16N reaction. In this work nuclear responses in the magnets, induced by gamma rays from the activated cooling water, for the current design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), are calculated with a detailed Monte Carlo model of the chimney region through which the cooling pipes leave the machine. It is found that, despite a significant dose, the nuclear responses induced by these gamma-rays do not pose an obvious threat to the operation of the magnets. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Control of radioactive wastes and coupling of neutron/gamma measurements: use of radiative capture for the correction of matrix effects that penalize the fissile mass measurement by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of radioactive waste drums control, difficulties arise in the nondestructive measurement of fissile mass (235U, 239Pu..) by Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI), when dealing with matrices containing materials (Cl, H...) influencing the neutron flux. The idea is to use the neutron capture reaction (n,γ) to determine the matrix composition to adjust the ANI calibration coefficient value. This study, dealing with 118 litres, homogeneous drums of density less than 0,4 and composed of chlorinated and/or hydrogenated materials, leads to build abacus linking the γ ray peak areas to the ANI calibration coefficient. Validation assays of these abacus show a very good agreement between the corrected and true fissile masses for hydrogenated matrices (max. relative standard deviation: 23 %) and quite good for chlorinated and hydrogenated matrices (58 %). The developed correction method improves the measured values. It may be extended to 0,45 density, heterogeneous drums. (author)

  11. Are thermophilic microorganisms active in cold environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Cousins, Claire; Wilkinson, Paul T.; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Rozitis, Ben

    2015-07-01

    The mean air temperature of the Icelandic interior is below 10 °C. However, we have previously observed 16S rDNA sequences associated with thermophilic lineages in Icelandic basalts. Measurements of the temperatures of igneous rocks in Iceland showed that solar insolation of these low albedo substrates achieved a peak surface temperature of 44.5 °C. We isolated seven thermophilic Geobacillus species from basalt with optimal growth temperatures of ~65 °C. The minimum growth temperature of these organisms was ~36 °C, suggesting that they could be active in the rock environment. Basalt dissolution rates at 40 °C were increased in the presence of one of the isolates compared to abiotic controls, showing its potential to be involved in active biogeochemistry at environmental temperatures. These data raise the possibility of transient active thermophilic growth in macroclimatically cold rocky environments, implying that the biogeographical distribution of active thermophiles might be greater than previously understood. These data show that temperatures measured or predicted over large scales on a planet are not in themselves adequate to assess niches available to extremophiles at micron scales.

  12. Towards a Flexible Database Interrogation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Fayech

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in the use of domain ontologies as a semantic enrichment for traditional databases. Our first aim is to help the user in his search when his initial query doesn’t return any result. So, we propose a solution based on two different approaches allowing the user to express his interrogation in a relatively free way. The first approach detects and resolves naming and schematic conflicts. It is an ontological approach for SQL query expansion generating a set of queries. The second one is a join detection approach to eventually add all missed constraints in each generated query.

  13. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  15. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  16. Dynamic interrogation of wireless antenna sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tjuatja, S.; Huang, H.; Sanders, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic interrogation of a wireless antenna sensor for mechanical vibration monitoring. In order to interrogate the antenna resonant frequency at sufficient high speeds, a wireless interrogator that consists of a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) synthesizer, a signal demodulation unit, and a real-time digital signal processing program was developed. The principle of operation of the dynamic wireless sensing system is first described, followed by the description of the design and implementation of the antenna sensor and the wireless interrogator. After calibrate the antenna sensor response using static tensile tests, dynamic interrogation of the wireless antenna sensor was carried out by subjecting the test specimen to a sinusoidal tensile load. The resonant frequency shifts of the antenna sensor were compared with the strains calculated from the applied loads. A good agreement between the antenna sensor readings and the strain values were achieved. A sampling rate of up to 50 Hz was demonstrated.

  17. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  18. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  19. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  20. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires -- one-dimensional nanoscale structures -- have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices, resulting in perfectly ordered arrays of both opaque (Silicon) and transparent (Silicon dioxide) nanowires with user defined structural profile, densities, and overall patterns, as well as high sample consistency and large scale production. The high-precision and well-controlled fabrication method in conjunction with additional technologies laid the foundation for the generation of highly specialized platforms for imaging, electrochemical interrogation, and molecular biology. Next, we utilized nanowires as the fundamental structure in the development of integrated nanoelectronic platforms to directly interrogate the electrical activity of biological systems. Initially, we generated a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that allows for parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Our prototype device consisted of 16 individually addressable stimulation/recording sites, each containing an array of 9 electrically active silicon nanowires. We showed that these vertical nanowire electrode arrays could intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons similar to patch clamp electrodes. In addition, we used our intracellular electrode platform to measure multiple individual synaptic connections, which enables the reconstruction of the functional connectivity maps of neuronal circuits. In order to expand and improve the capability of this functional prototype device we designed

  1. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelashvili, I., E-mail: israelashvili@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Pedersen, B. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Beck, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J.M. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-06-11

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  3. Criteria For Specifikation Of The Indoor Environment Of Active House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Duer, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    The Active House Alliance has been formed by companies and organisations in the building design, components and construction industry to with the intention to improve the quality of the built environment through a balanced focus on indoor environment, energy and environment – and where the aspects...... of human health and wellbeing will be specifically considered. This paper presents the first version of the Active House specification for indoor environment for residential buildings (where specifications for energy and environment also exist). It is based on the EN 15251 philosophy, and with specific...... requirements to daylight, thermal environment, IAQ and acoustics. Requirements have been tightened compared to EN 15251, and will necessitate performance simulations....

  4. Active Sound Localization in a Symmetric Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Brindza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Localization for humanoid robots becomes difficult when events that disrupt robot positioning information occur. This holds especially true in symmetric environments because landmark data may not be sufficient to determine orientation. We propose a system of localizing humanoid robots in a known, symmetric environment using a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter and a sound localization system. This system was used in the RoboCup Standard Platform League, and has been found to reduce the amount of own-goals scored as compared with the previously used localization system without sound.

  5. Death during police interrogation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasijević Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of criminal suspects in presence of police always have special forensic medical approach. Often, such deaths are preceded by a state of extreme psychophysical activity (excitated delirium of suspects, when they may injure themselves. Police attempts to prevent that can inevitably lead to struggle. Immediately after the struggle ends (but also during a struggle, they abruptly become unresponsive, and develop cardiopulmonary arrest and death. Presence of drugs significantly intensifies the harmful effect of such state and leads to death. Case outline. We present a case of death of a young man brought into custody during police interrogation. Autopsy showed injuries and presence of MDMA, with suspicion that death was preceded by the state of excitated delirium. After thorough analysis of the case (complete autopsy, toxicological screening, microscopic survey of all organs, circumstances of death etc., our conclusion is that death was related to drug consumption - ecstasy. Concentration of ecstasy found in kidneys is the minimum concentration possible that could lead to heart malfunction and death. Conclusion. Our opinion is that there are no medical data by which we could determine if, and in what dosage, undesirable effects of ecstasy were enhanced by the circumstances of the case. .

  6. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  7. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  8. Micro elements for interrogating magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports a new approach for interrogating a magnetoelastic sensor\\'s resonant frequency. Previously, the frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor was measured by using a large-scale solenoid coil of at least some millimeters both in diameter and length. Planar structures of straight-line and rectangular spiral coil are designed, fabricated and tested to interrogate the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor. A sensor of 4 mm length is measured to have a resonant frequency of 551 kHz in air. The ability to interrogate a magnetoelastic sensor with such microscale elements is a step towards the miniaturization of a magnetoelastic sensor system and integration of such a system in a microfluidics device. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Adolescents’ use of the built environment for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Perrin, James M; Robinson, Alyssa I; Locascio, Joseph J.; Blossom, Jeff; Chen, Minghua L; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Field, Alison E.; Green, Chloe; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, but few adolescents achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Understanding how adolescents use different built environment spaces for physical activity and activity varies by location could help in designing effective interventions to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe the locations where adolescents engage in physical activity and compare tra...

  10. Adolescents’ use of the built environment for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Perrin, James M; Robinson, Alyssa I; Locascio, Joseph J.; Blossom, Jeff; Chen, Minghua L; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Field, Alison E.; Green, Chloe; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, but few adolescents achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Understanding how adolescents use different built environment spaces for physical activity and activity varies by location could help in designing effective interventions to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe the locations where adolescents engage in physical activity and compare trad...

  11. Record of undergraduates’ activities in virtual learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Paulo; Miranda, Luí sa; Morais, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual learning environments (VLEs) have witnessed a high evolution, namely regarding their potentialities, the tools and the activities they provide. VLEs enable us to access large quantities of data resulting from both students and teachers’ activities developed in those environments. Monitoring undergraduates’ activities in VLEs is important as it allows us to showcase, in a structured way, a number of indicators which may be taken into account to understand the learning process more deep...

  12. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A

    2004-05-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise. It includes the energy expended walking to work, typing, performing yard work, undertaking agricultural tasks, and fidgeting. NEAT can be measured by one of two approaches. The first is to measure or estimate total NEAT. Here, total daily energy expenditure is measured, and from it "basal metabolic rate-plus-thermic effect of food" is subtracted. The second is the factoral approach, whereby the components of NEAT are quantified, and total NEAT is calculated by summing these components. The amount of NEAT that humans perform represents the product of the amount and types of physical activities and the thermogenic cost of each activity. The factors that impact a human's NEAT are readily divisible into environmental factors, such as occupation or dwelling within a "concrete jungle," and biological factors such as weight, gender, and body composition. The combined impact of these factors explains the substantial variance in human NEAT. The variability in NEAT might be viewed as random, but human and animal data contradict this. It appears that changes in NEAT subtly accompany experimentally induced changes in energy balance and are important in the physiology of weight change. Inadequate modulation of NEAT plus a sedentary lifestyle may thus be important in obesity. It then becomes intriguing to dissect mechanistic studies that delineate how NEAT is regulated into neural, peripheral, and humoral factors. A scheme is described in this review in which NEAT corresponds to a carefully regulated "tank" of physical activity that is crucial for weight control. PMID:15102614

  13. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  14. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  15. Time-dependent delayed signatures from energetic photon interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods

  16. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures from Energetic Photon Interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in the pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon- inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods

  17. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Matteo; Ianiro, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-02-01

    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  18. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and ge

  19. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  20. Interrogating education of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Willis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports students’ responses to a curriculum focused on integrating critical approaches, and evidence-based knowledge, with an education of the heart pedagogy. A focus group was conducted with 12 student representatives from a large first year undergraduate sociology of health and illness topic taught to a number of health professional students. Discussion centred on student views and feelings about the emotional or lived experience components of the topic portrayed through films, plays and poetry as well as the arts-based assessment exercise. Student responses indicate that they found the arts-based portrayals of the lived experience insightful for developing their own theory of care, but this was tempered by feelings of insecurity in completing these forms of assessment in the competitive environment where grades are important for achieving transfer to their program of choice. 

  1. A Platform for Interrogating Cancer-Associated p53 Alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Brot, Alejandro; Kurtz, Paula; Regan, Erin; Jakubowski, Brandon; Abrams, John M

    2016-01-01

    p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Compelling evidence argues that full transformation involves loss of growth suppression encoded by wild-type p53 together with poorly understood oncogenic activity encoded by missense mutations. Furthermore, distinguishing disease alleles from natural polymorphisms is an important clinical challenge. To interrogate the genetic activity of human p53 variants, we leveraged the Drosophila model as an in vivo platform. We engineered strains that replace the fly p53 gene with human alleles, producing a collection of stocks that are, in effect, ‘humanized’ for p53 variants. Like the fly counterpart, human p53 transcriptionally activated a biosensor and induced apoptosis after DNA damage. However, all humanized strains representing common alleles found in cancer patients failed to complement in these assays. Surprisingly, stimulus-dependent activation of hp53 occurred without stabilization, demonstrating that these two processes can be uncoupled. Like its fly counterpart, hp53 formed prominent nuclear foci in germline cells but cancer-associated p53 variants did not. Moreover, these same mutant alleles disrupted hp53 foci and inhibited biosensor activity, suggesting that these properties are functionally linked. Together these findings establish a functional platform for interrogating human p53 alleles and suggest that simple phenotypes could be used to stratify disease variants. PMID:26996664

  2. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived......, lending support for international recommendations for designing PA-friendly built environments.This is an open access article distributed under the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly...

  3. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a...

  4. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Olkowska; Marek Ruman; Żaneta Polkowska

    2014-01-01

    Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household). After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs) are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases), where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation) and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be acc...

  5. Health enhancing physical activity, sociodemographic factors and the neighbourhood environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A physically active lifestyle is beneficial for good health. Despite this, it seems that many people are not sufficiently active. Attempts to promote the population levels of physical activity have not been successful. This has led researchers to find new ways to tackle the problem. Ecological models place more emphasis on the physical environment s potential influence on physical activity behaviour than other behavioural models do, but a greater understanding of...

  6. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic.

  7. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  8. Plastics in Our Environment: A Jigsaw Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Elaine; Wallace, Mary Ann; Lee, Wen-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this lesson, a ready-to-teach cooperative reading activity, students learn about the effects of plastics in our environment, specifically that certain petrochemicals act as artificial estrogens and impact hormonal activities. Much of the content in this lesson was synthesized from recent medical research about the impact of xenoestrogens and…

  9. Do optional activities matter in virtual learning environments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruipérez-Valiente, José A.; Muñoz-Merino, Pedro J.; Delgado Kloos, Carlos; Niemann, Katja; Scheffel, Maren

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) provide students with activi-ties to improve their learning (e.g., reading texts, watching videos or solving exercises). But VLEs usually also provide optional activities (e.g., changing an avatar profile or setting goals). Some of these have a connection with th

  10. Adolescents' and young adults' physical activity related to built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cocca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analyse physical activity (PA levels of high school and university students; to estimate their perception of built environment with regard to physical PA; and to assess the relation between PA and built environment. Methods. A sociological cross-sectional study with non-experimental design was applied. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Built Environment Characteristics Questionnaire were filled in by a sample of 1.862 students from high schools and the university in Granada, Spain. Results. High school students were significantly more active than university students, the latter reaching insufficient levels of PA. Nevertheless, they consider Granada as a good context for carrying out outdoor exercise. No relations were found between PA levels and built environment. Conclusion. The discrepant outcomes for PA levels and perceived built environment suggest the need of interventions focused on making youth aware of the possibilities that an environment provides to them for exercising. Consequently, environment could have an impact on their health at the same time as youth learn to respect it.

  11. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  12. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  13. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive (∼100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications

  14. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room.

  15. iMarine - Virtual research environments activity report

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenbroek, Anton; Candela, Leonardo; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR)

    2013-01-01

    Virtual Research Environments are among the main products the iMarine project is requested to deliver in order to serve the needs of the Ecosystem Approach Community of Practice. The deployment and operation of a Virtual Research Environment is a task involving the exploitation of technologies that have been developed as well as the development of new technologies aiming at offering new facilities. This report describes the set of activities performed to provide the Ecosystem Approach Communi...

  16. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxi Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment—the neighbo...

  17. Architecture for Collaborative Learning Activities in Hybrid Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, María Blanca; Maroto, David; García Rueda, José Jesús; Leony, Derick; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    3D virtual worlds are recognized as collaborative learning environments. However, the underlying technology is not sufficiently mature and the virtual worlds look cartoonish, unlinked to reality. Thus, it is important to enrich them with elements from the real world to enhance student engagement in learning activities. Our approach is to build learning environments where participants can either be in the real world or in its mirror world while sharing the same hybrid space in a collaborative ...

  18. 1988 activity report of the Atmospheric and Aquatic Environment Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 activity report of the Atmospheric and Aquatic Environment Department of EDF (Electricity of France) is presented. The activities are focused on the following subjects: development studies in the fields of hydraulic, hydrobiology, meteorology and atmospheric polluants physico-chemistry; application studies involving data analysis from operating or under development power systems; actions concerning cooperation with the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of the Industry. The investigations related to water and atmosphere are reported, as well as congress communications and papers

  19. Large scale environments of z<0.4 active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lietzen, H; Nurmi, P; Liivamägi, L J; Saar, E; Tago, E; Takalo, L O; Einasto, M

    2011-01-01

    Properties of galaxies depend on their large-scale environment. As the influence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in galaxy evolution is becoming more evident, their large scale environments may help us understand the evolutionary processes leading to activity. The effect of activity can be seen particularly by showing if different types of active galaxies are formed by similar mechanisms. Our aim is to study the supercluster-scale environments of active galaxies up to redshift 0.4. Our data includes quasars, BL Lac objects, Seyfert and radio galaxies. We use a three-dimensional low-resolution luminosity-density field constructed of a sample of luminous red galaxies in the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We calculate the average density of this field in a volume of a 3\\,$h^{-1}$Mpc sphere around each AGN for estimating the environmental density levels of different types of AGN. This analysis gives us the distribution of AGN in the global environment of superclusters, filaments, and voids....

  20. An Active RFID Accountability System (RAS) for Constrained Wireless Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Hanson, Gregory R [ORNL; Sexton, Angela Kay [ORNL; Jones Jr, J P [ORNL; Freer, Eva B [ORNL; Sjoreen, Andrea L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an RFID Accountability System (RAS) that allows items with active RFID tags to be tracked in environments where tags may not be able to transmit their location continuously. The system uses activators that transmit a short range signal. Active RFID tags are in a sleep state until they encounter an activator. Then they transmit a signal that is picked up by the antennas installed throughout the building. This paper presents the theory of operation, application areas, lessons learned, and key features developed over the course of seven years of development and use.

  1. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  2. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  3. The Benefits of Natural Environments for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Franco, Lara; Lin, Brenda B; Gaston, Kevin J; Fuller, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Urbanisation has a profound effect on both people and the environment, as levels of physical activity decline and many natural ecosystems become lost or degraded. Here we draw on emerging research to examine the role of green spaces in providing a venue for outdoor physical activity, and in enhancing the benefit of a given amount of physical activity for urban residents. We identify critical knowledge gaps, including (1) whether (and for whom) levels of physical activity increase as new green spaces are introduced or old spaces reinvigorated; (2) which characteristics of nature promote physical activity; (3) the extent to which barriers to outdoor physical activity are environmental or social; and (4) whether the benefits of physical activity and experiences of nature accrue separately or synergistically. A clear understanding of these issues will help guide effective investment in green space provision, ecological enhancement and green exercise promotion. PMID:26886475

  4. Attributes, Environment Factors and Women Entrepreneurial Activity: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Isidore Ekpe; Norsiah Mat; Razli Che Razak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of individual attributes and business environment factors on the entrepreneurial activity of women entrepreneurs. Individual attributes such as education, working experience, attitude towards risk-taking, affect women entrepreneurial activity. Economic constraints such as lack of credit due to lack of asset collaterals and socio-cultural barriers, lack of savings due to low household income, and lack of labour skills due to low educa...

  5. Hand Held Device for Wireless Powering and Interrogation of Biomems Sensors and Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix Antonio (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A compact, hand-held device for wireless powering, interrogation and data retrieval from at least one implanted sensor. The hand-held device includes an antenna for powering an implanted sensor and for receiving data from the implanted sensor to the hand-held device for at least one of storage, display or analysis. The hand-held device establishes electromagnetic coupling with a low radiating radio frequency power inductor in the implanted sensor at a predefined separation and the antenna geometry allows for the antenna to power, interrogate and retrieve data from the implanted sensor without strapping the hand-held device to a human body housing the implanted sensor The hand-held device optionally allows for activation of the implanted sensor only during interrogation and data retrieval.

  6. Five Classroom Activities for Sustaining a Spiritual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellous, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines five activities that provide an environment conducive to the wholeness of each child and the health of a group: including, attending, embracing, releasing and remaining. Including is hospitality offered to difference, so that each child shows up; attending is a just distribution of attention, so children learn meaningfully;…

  7. Environment and properties of obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, M.; Bornancini, C.

    We analyze the properties of obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei selected using mid-infrared colors in the redshift range 1 < z < 3. We find that obscured objects are located in a denser local galaxy environment compared to the unobscured sample.

  8. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD data are presented.

  9. Towards isozyme-selective HDAC inhibitors for interrogating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C; Iyer, Abishek; Sweet, Matthew J; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have emerged as promising targets for the treatment of a wide range of human diseases, including cancers, inflammatory and metabolic disorders, immunological, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases. At present, such applications are limited by the lack of selective inhibitors available for each of the eighteen HDAC enzymes, with most currently available HDAC inhibitors having broad-spectrum activity against multiple HDAC enzymes. Such broad-spectrum activity maybe useful in treating some diseases like cancers, but can be detrimental due to cytotoxic side effects that accompany prolonged treatment of chronic diseased states. Here we summarize progress towards the design and discovery of HDAC inhibitors that are selective for some of the eleven zinc-containing classical HDAC enzymes, and identify opportunities to use such isozyme-selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogating the biological roles of individual HDAC enzymes in diseases.

  10. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern John H; Halpern Abraham L; Doherty Sean B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very agg...

  11. High efficiency Nondistortion Quantum Interrogation of atoms in quantum superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Feldman, Marc J.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the nondistortion quantum interrogation (NQI) of an atom prepared in a quantum superposition. By manipulating the polarization of the probe photon and making connections to interaction free measurements of opaque objects, we show that nondistortion interrogation of an atom in a quantum superposition can be done with efficiency approaching unity. However, if any component of the atom's superposition is completely transparent to the probe wave function, a nondistortion interrogation...

  12. Multiplexed reflective-matched optical fiber grating interrogation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yage Zhan; Shaolin Xue; Qinyu Yang

    2007-01-01

    The multiplexed-reflective matched fiber grating interrogation technique was presented in this paper.The interrogation technique was based on the use of two (or more) wavelength-matched fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to receive the reflected signal from the sensing FBG. The two (or more) matched gratings were arranged parallelly and used as filters to convert wavelength into intensity encoded information for interrogation. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that the interrogation system is immune to the source fluctuation and cross-sensitivity effect between temperature and strain, and also can enlarge the dynamic range.

  13. Effects of active navigation on object recognition in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Jinsun; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Seung-Lark; Kim, Sei-Young; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Jang-Han

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the importance and efficiency of active and passive exploration on the recognition of objects in a variety of virtual environments (VEs). In this study, 54 participants were randomly allocated into one of active and passive navigation conditions. Active navigation was performed by allowing participants to self-pace and control their own navigation, but passive navigation was conducted by forced navigation. After navigating VEs, participants were asked to recognize the objects that had been in the VEs. Active navigation condition had a significantly higher percentage of hit responses (t (52) = 4.000, p object recognition than the passive condition. These results suggest that active navigation plays an important role in spatial cognition as well as providing an explanation for the efficiency of learning in a 3D-based program. PMID:17474852

  14. Activities of CEZ Inc. and improvement of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindl, I.V. [Czech Power Co. (CEZ), Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    All highly developed nations round the world have gradually assumed the responsibility for the quality of the environment at their respective territories by creating the preconditions (by setting forth concepts, and the legislative, economic and institutional framework as well as the educational information and resources systems) stimulating both individuals and corporate bodies to take care of the environment. Damaging the environment is punished. The approach has been successful in most of the countries. Companies and individuals have begun to recognize the correlations existing between their production and consumption activities and the environment and their direct responsibility for the environmental conditions, realizing that to remove a source of environmental damage or to minimis the damage caused by it in both necessary and more beneficial than being penalized (up to ban of operation) both economically and in broader social terms for failing to comply with the relevant laws. Since 1990 a number of the so-called {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} laws, formerly sorely lacking, have been enacted, such as the Environment Act, the Environmental Effects Assessment Act, and the Wastes Act, and the Clean Air Act has been fundamentally amended so that to meet again the requirements of effective protection of the atmosphere from pollutants. In the area of economic tools, the duty of the waste producer to pay for the waste produced was introduced, the fines for air pollution were raised significantly and the polluted waste water discharge fines were amended to keep pace with the devaluation of the local currency.

  15. Creating stimulative environment for development of theater activities in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šimnic, Ajda

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis presents a stimulating environment as an important factor in child's development. In the theoretical part, a play is presented as a basic activity of a child through which he spontaneously passes on a role-playing game which is the basis of theatre activity. The child becomes accustomed to the roles in drama play or in puppet-show created by his spontaneous play. The adults recognize this spontaneous play and add the elements of theatre play to it. It is important to foc...

  16. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  17. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  18. 论侦查讯问中的环境因素%On Environmental Factors in Interrogation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启明; 陈欣

    2012-01-01

    侦查讯问是侦查员与犯罪嫌疑人在特定的环境中以面对面的方式进行的一种特殊的侦查措施,其目的在于获取犯罪嫌疑人的言词证据和线索。特定的环境和面对面的方式是侦查讯问的突出特点。单从环境因素的角度,其可分解为时空环境因素、人际环境因素和语言环境因素。不同的环境因素会对侦查讯问产生不同的影响。%Interrogation is a special measure of investigation in which investigators face suspects in a specific environment in order to get verbal evidence and clues from the suspects. A specific environment and face to face are striking features of an interrogation. Environment of an interrogation can be divided into time - space environment, interpersonal environment and linguistic context. Different factors of environment have different influence on interrogation.

  19. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  20. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs. PMID:27026634

  1. Some Semantic Properties of Romanian Interrogatives: "Care" and "Cine."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, E.

    The aim of this paper is to account for some semantic properties of Romanian interrogatives "ce" and "cine" by establishing some definite correlations between various contextual restrictions governing the use of these interrogative particles and the "meaning" which might be assigned to each of these particles in any context their occurrence is…

  2. The impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Fleming, Z. L.; Hughes, K. A.; Ainley, D. G.; Convey, P.; Moreno, C. A.; Pfeiffer, S.; Scott, J.; Snape, I.

    2009-04-01

    An overview of a recently published review of the scientific literature from the past decade on the impacts of human activities on the Antarctic environment is presented. An assessment of the cumulative effects of scientists and accompanying base construction, tourists and fishery activities in Antarctica is timely given a decade since the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1998 and the increasing attention given to and human presence in Antarctica during this 2007-2009 IPY. A range of impacts has been identified at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Chemical contamination and sewage disposal on the continent have been found to be long-lived, with contemporary sewage management practices at many coastal stations insufficient to prevent local contamination. Human activities, particularly construction and transport, have affected Antarctic flora and fauna and a small number of non-indigenous plant and animal species has become established on some of the Antarctic Peninsula and sub Antarctic islands. There is little indication of recovery of overexploited fish stocks, and ramifications of fishing activity on bycatch species and the ecosystem could also be far-reaching. The Antarctic Treaty System and its instruments, in particular the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the Environmental Protocol, provide a framework within which management of human activities take place. In order to ensure comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment, including its intrinsic, wilderness and scientific values in the face of the continuing expansion of human activities in Antarctica, a more effective implementation of a wide range of measures is essential. These include effective environmental impact assessments, long-term monitoring, mitigation measures for non-indigenous species, ecosystem-based management of living resources, and increased regulation of National Antarctic

  3. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A.; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1AG can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1AG promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1AG mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1AG is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  4. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  5. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Olkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household. After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases, where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation, what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium. They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties, areas of use, their presence, and behavior in the environment.

  6. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment—the neighborhood form and street form—on residents’ active travel. Methods: Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. Results: The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke’s ρ2, increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. Conclusions: In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions.

  7. How warm is the molecular gas in active environments?

    CERN Document Server

    Mühle, S; de Maio, T; Seaquist, E R

    2011-01-01

    The question whether or not the initial mass function is universal, i.e. the same in all kinds of environments, is of critical importance for the theory of star formation and still intensely debated. A top-heavy initial mass function may be the result of star formation out of dense molecular clouds with a temperature of ~ 100 K. Such a molecular gas phase is not commonly found in the Galactic plane, but may be present in active environments like cores of starburst galaxies or AGN. Unfortunately, the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas in external galaxies is often not well constrained. Having proven the diagnostic power of selected formaldehyde lines as tracers of the properties of the molecular gas in external galaxies, we have engaged in observing these diagnostic lines in a number of starburst galaxies or near AGN. This contribution presents the latest results of these studies.

  8. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Bradley S [ORNL; Alcala, Benjamin S [ORNL; Alcala, Scott [ORNL; Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Weil, Logan B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  9. Interrogating transcriptional regulatory sequences in Tol2-mediated Xenopus transgenics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G Loots

    Full Text Available Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in vertebrates remains a significant challenge. It is now recognized that transcriptional regulatory sequences are critical in orchestrating dynamic controls of tissue-specific gene expression during vertebrate development and in adult tissues, and that these elements can be positioned at great distances in relation to the promoters of the genes they control. While significant progress has been made in mapping DNA binding regions by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing, functional validation remains a limiting step in improving our ability to correlate in silico predictions with biological function. We recently developed a computational method that synergistically combines genome-wide gene-expression profiling, vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding-site analysis to predict tissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this method to 270 genes highly expressed in skeletal muscle and predicted 190 putative cis-regulatory modules. Furthermore, we optimized Tol2 transgenic constructs in Xenopus laevis to interrogate 20 of these elements for their ability to function as skeletal muscle-specific transcriptional enhancers during embryonic development. We found 45% of these elements expressed only in the fast muscle fibers that are oriented in highly organized chevrons in the Xenopus laevis tadpole. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified >2 Mef2/MyoD sites within ~200 bp regions in 6 of the validated enhancers, and systematic mutagenesis of these sites revealed that they are critical for the enhancer function. The data described herein introduces a new reporter system suitable for interrogating tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements which allows monitoring of enhancer activity in real time, throughout early stages of embryonic development, in Xenopus.

  10. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  11. Aquarius Active-Passive RFI Environment at L-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David M.; De Matthaeis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Active/Passive instrument combinations (i.e., radiometer and radar) are being developed at L-band for remote sensing of sea surface salinity and soil moisture. Aquarius is already in orbit and SMAP is planned for launch in the Fall of 2014. Aquarius has provided for the first time a simultaneous look at the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) environment from space for both active and passive instruments. The RFI environment for the radiometer observations is now reasonably well known and examples from Aquarius are presented in this manuscript that show that RFI is an important consideration for the scatterometer as well. In particular, extensive areas of the USA, Europe and Asia exhibit strong RFI in both the radiometer band at 1.41 GHz and in the band at 1.26 GHz employed by the Aquarius scatterometer. Furthermore, in areas such as the USA, where RFI at 1.4 GHz is relatively well controlled, RFI in the scatterometer band maybe the limiting consideration for the operation of combination active/passive instruments.

  12. Active Debris Removal and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 7 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in technology development, engineering, and operations. This paper outlines the fundamental rationale for considering active debris removal and addresses the two possible objectives of the operations -- removing large debris to stabilize the environment and removing small debris to reduce the threat to operational spacecraft. Technological and engineering challenges associated with the two different objectives are also discussed.

  13. Multi-channel monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Zongjian

    2011-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a mature sensing technology for the measurement of strain, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion. It has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. The most prominent advantages of FBG are: small size and light weight, distributed array of FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. However, a major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art FBG interrogation system is typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are typically assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the industrial need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver™) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables monolithic integration of all functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator system, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2 cm×5 cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  14. Active microrheology of a model of the nuclear micromechanical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Henry; Kilfoil, Maria

    2014-03-01

    In order to successfully complete the final stages of chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells require the motor enzyme topoisomerase II, which can resolve topological constraints between entangled strands of duplex DNA. We created an in vitro model of a close approximation of the nuclear micromechanical environment in terms of DNA mass and entanglement density, and investigated the influence of this motor enzyme on the DNA mechanics. Topoisomerase II is a non-processive ATPase which we found significantly increases the motions of embedded microspheres in the DNA network. Because of this activity, we study the mechanical properties of our model system by active microrheology by optical trapping. We test the limits of fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT) under this type of activity by comparing the active microrheology to passive measurements, where thermal motion alone drives the beads. We can relate any departure from FDT to the timescale of topoisomerase II activity in the DNA network. These experiments provide insight into the physical necessity of this motor enzyme in the cell.

  15. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD's International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  16. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  17. Tests of an Induced Activity Monitor in a magnetic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Pangallo, M; Perrot, Anne Laure; Vincke, H; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    The Induced Activity Monitors (IAM) dedicated to measure the gamma ambient dose equivalent rate (due to the photons from the activated materials) will be installed inside the LHC accelerator and in the experimental caverns. Some of these IAM detectors (plastic ionization chambers) will be located in areas were magnetic fields will be present. Therefore the response of such radiation detectors in a magnetic field environment has been experimentally and theoretically studied and the results are reported in this note. The tests were performed at CERN in the CMS H2 experimental area with conventional and superconductor magnets. The response of the IAM was studied for different orientations of its chamber with respect to the magnetic field lines and for different magnetic field intensities up to 3T. Moreover, FLUKA Monte Carlo Simulations were performed to fully understand the physical effects responsible for the various measurement results. The conclusions of this study will permit to choose the proper orientatio...

  18. Relating Built Environment to Physical Activity: Two Failures to Validate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Schopflocher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Irvine-Minnesota Inventory (IMI is an audit tool used to record properties of built environments. It was designed to explore the relationships between environmental features and physical activity. As published, the IMI does not provide scoring to support this use. Two papers have since been published recommending methods to form scales from IMI items. This study examined these scoring procedures in new settings. IMI data were collected in two urban settings in Alberta in 2008. Scale scores were calculated using the methods presented in previous papers and used to test whether the relationships between IMI scales and walking behaviors were consistent with previously reported results. The scales from previous work did not show expected relationships with walking behavior. The scale construction techniques from previous work were repeated but scales formed in this way showed little similarity to previous scales. The IMI has great potential to contribute to understanding relationships between built environment and physical activity. However, constructing reliable and valid scales from IMI items will require further research.

  19. Adaptive activity and environment recognition for mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Jussi; Bojja, Jayaprasad; Collin, Jussi; Leppänen, Jussi; Eronen, Antti

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  20. Adaptive Activity and Environment Recognition for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Parviainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  1. Interrogative Utterances in Surah Al-Baqarah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Bayoumy AIi Oteify

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The Qur’an is singularly distinctive in its style compared to any human composition. Human eloquence, with its remarkable history in the composition of poetry, has failed to compose even a single verse like that of the Qur'an. The Qur'anic composition is a living challenge for human beings to imitate its miraculous style. This inimitable aspect of the Qur'an, among other things, proves that it was revealed by Allah (SWT to Prophet Muhammad (SAAS. In addition, the miracle of its linguistic composition was a means to declare the faith based on monotheism and the introduction of a new order and a theo-centric guidance that was meant to unite humanity. Adopting the monotheistic faith gave rise to a new community, the Muslim ummah that was able to bridge the differences between human beings in culture, race, colour and geographical boundaries. Consequently, the unique style of the Qur’an deserves a careful study. The present study investigates the use of interrogative utterances in surah al-Baqarah and their contribution to the Qur'an's rhetorical style. Hopefully, the results of this study will be useful in later investigations of other parts of the Qur' an...

  2. ZnO-coated SMS structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X. Y.; Huang, J.; Xiao, H.; Yang, M. H.

    2014-11-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated single mode-multimode-single mode fiber (SMS) structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser has been developed as a chemical sensor. Response to relative humidity (RH) and ethanol volatilization was evaluated by tracking the wavelength shifts of the output laser line in different moisture environments and ethanol solutions, respectively. For humidity sensing a linear response with a measurement range of 4-96% RH, and a sensitivity of 0.06 nm per %RH were obtained. As for ethanol volatilization sensing obvious wavelength blue shift was observed for the sensor immersed in 50% and 62% ethanol solution, while no variation could be detected in pure ethanol solution (purity larger than 97%). With the advantages of low cost, ease of fabrication and sensitive response, ZnO-coated SMS interrogated with a fiber ring laser was demonstrated to be an effective sensor for humidity and ethanol volatilization sensing.

  3. ZnO-coated SMS structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser for chemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated single mode–multimode–single mode fiber (SMS) structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser has been developed as a chemical sensor. Response to relative humidity (RH) and ethanol volatilization was evaluated by tracking the wavelength shifts of the output laser line in different moisture environments and ethanol solutions, respectively. For humidity sensing a linear response with a measurement range of 4–96% RH, and a sensitivity of 0.06 nm per %RH were obtained. As for ethanol volatilization sensing obvious wavelength blue shift was observed for the sensor immersed in 50% and 62% ethanol solution, while no variation could be detected in pure ethanol solution (purity larger than 97%). With the advantages of low cost, ease of fabrication and sensitive response, ZnO-coated SMS interrogated with a fiber ring laser was demonstrated to be an effective sensor for humidity and ethanol volatilization sensing. (paper)

  4. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell’s environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell’s internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a “correct” model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology. PMID:27367445

  5. The interrogative model of inquiry and inquiry learning

    OpenAIRE

    Genot, Emmanuel; Gulz, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Hakkarainen and Sintonen (2002) praise the descriptive adequacy of Hintikka's Interrogative Model of Inquiry (imi) to describe children's practices in an inquiry-based learning context. They further propose to use the imi as a starting point for developing new pedagogical methods and designing new didactic tools. We assess this proposal in the light of the formal results that in the imi characterize interrogative learning strategies. We nd that these results actually reveal a deep ...

  6. Interrogations, confessions, and guilty pleas among serious adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we examined (a) the prevalence and characteristics of youths' true and false admissions (confessions and guilty pleas), (b) youths' interrogation experiences with police and lawyers, and (c) whether youths' interrogation experiences serve as situational risk factors for true and false admissions. We interviewed 193 14- to 17-year-old males (M = 16.4) incarcerated for serious crimes. Over 1/3 of the sample (35.2%) claimed to have made a false admission to legal authorities (17.1% false confession; 18.1% false guilty plea), and 2/3 claimed to have made a true admission (28.5% true confession; 37.3% true guilty plea). The majority of youth said that they had experienced high-pressure interrogations (e.g., threats), especially with police officers. Youth who mentioned experiencing "police refusals" (e.g., of a break to rest) were more likely to report having made both true and false confessions to police, whereas only false confessions were associated with claims of long interrogations (>2 hr) and being questioned in the presence of a friend. The number of self-reported high-pressure lawyer tactics was associated with false, but not true, guilty pleas. Results suggest the importance of conducting specialized trainings for those who interrogate youth, recording interrogations, placing limits on lengthy and manipulative techniques, and exploring alternative procedures for questioning juvenile suspects. PMID:24127891

  7. Wireless SAW Interrogator and Sensor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW), Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) temperature sensors, operating in a multi-sensor environment, developed at the...

  8. PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Wesley K; Sassano, Maria F; Huang, Xi-Ping; Lansu, Katherine; McCorvy, John D; Giguère, Patrick M; Sciaky, Noah; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome. PMID:25895059

  9. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-01

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  10. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  11. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies.

  12. Obesity and the environment briefing: Increasing physical activity and active travel

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health England

    2013-01-01

    This briefing has been written in conjunction with the Local Government Association (LGA). It is aimed at those who work in or represent local authorities. It addresses the issue of taking action to create environments where people are more likely to walk or cycle for short journeys. It summarises the importance of action on obesity and a specific focus on active travel, and outlines the regulatory and policy approaches that can be taken.

  13. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  14. Uncharted Microbial World: Microbes and Their Activities in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline; Buckley, Merry.

    2007-12-31

    Microbes are the foundation for all of life. From the air we breathe to the soil we rely on for farming to the water we drink, everything humans need to survive is intimately coupled with the activities of microbes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of disease and the use of microorganisms in the industrial production of drugs, food products and wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of many complicated microbial environments (the gut and teeth), soil fertility, and biogeochemical cycles of the elements is lagging behind due to their enormous complexity. Inadequate technology and limited resources have stymied many lines of investigation. Today, most environmental microorganisms have yet to be isolated and identified, let alone rigorously studied. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium in Seattle, Washington, in February 2007, to deliberate the way forward in the study of microorganisms and microbial activities in the environment. Researchers in microbiology, marine science, pathobiology, evolutionary biology, medicine, engineering, and other fields discussed ways to build on and extend recent successes in microbiology. The participants made specific recommendations for targeting future research, improving methodologies and techniques, and enhancing training and collaboration in the field. Microbiology has made a great deal of progress in the past 100 years, and the useful applications for these new discoveries are numerous. Microorganisms and microbial products are now used in industrial capacities ranging from bioremediation of toxic chemicals to probiotic therapies for humans and livestock. On the medical front, studies of microbial communities have revealed, among other things, new ways for controlling human pathogens. The immediate future for research in this field is extremely promising. In order to optimize the effectiveness of community research efforts in the future, scientists should include manageable

  15. Erosion risk assessment of active coastal cliffs in temperate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Laura; Gracia, F. Javier

    2009-11-01

    The potentially negative consequences resulting from cliff recession are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. The assessment of such processes has traditionally been performed by calculating average cliff recession rates and projecting them into the future, without taking into consideration the diverse factors affecting cliff dynamics and stability. In this work a new, practical method is presented to evaluate cliff erosion risk in temperate environments, by analysing the main factors responsible for both the physical and the socioeconomic aspects of erosion, representing cliff loss potential and damage potential, respectively. For this purpose an integration of 11 physical variables (such as cliff lithology, beach characteristics or rainfall regime) and 6 socioeconomic variables (such as land use type or population density) is proposed. These variables are weighted and combined into a Hazard Index and an Impact Index, which in turn are merged into a composite Risk Index where the resulting values are normalized and expressed as a percentage of the maximum theoretical risk. The method is tested and validated by using data about cliff retreat rates and mass movement processes in the coast of Cádiz province (SW Spain). The proposed approach allows the zoning of coastal cliffs according to the risk, hazard and/or impact levels, including the recognition of critical areas where specific intervention strategies should be adopted. The method presented in this work is deemed both practical and scientifically valid, without requiring extensive and detailed surveys of the area where it is to be applied. This way, it constitutes an easy to use, valuable tool for decision-making regarding land use planning and management strategies for active coastal cliffs.

  16. Uncharted Microbial World: Microbes and Their Activities in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline; Buckley, Merry.

    2007-12-31

    Microbes are the foundation for all of life. From the air we breathe to the soil we rely on for farming to the water we drink, everything humans need to survive is intimately coupled with the activities of microbes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of disease and the use of microorganisms in the industrial production of drugs, food products and wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of many complicated microbial environments (the gut and teeth), soil fertility, and biogeochemical cycles of the elements is lagging behind due to their enormous complexity. Inadequate technology and limited resources have stymied many lines of investigation. Today, most environmental microorganisms have yet to be isolated and identified, let alone rigorously studied. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium in Seattle, Washington, in February 2007, to deliberate the way forward in the study of microorganisms and microbial activities in the environment. Researchers in microbiology, marine science, pathobiology, evolutionary biology, medicine, engineering, and other fields discussed ways to build on and extend recent successes in microbiology. The participants made specific recommendations for targeting future research, improving methodologies and techniques, and enhancing training and collaboration in the field. Microbiology has made a great deal of progress in the past 100 years, and the useful applications for these new discoveries are numerous. Microorganisms and microbial products are now used in industrial capacities ranging from bioremediation of toxic chemicals to probiotic therapies for humans and livestock. On the medical front, studies of microbial communities have revealed, among other things, new ways for controlling human pathogens. The immediate future for research in this field is extremely promising. In order to optimize the effectiveness of community research efforts in the future, scientists should include manageable

  17. Heat-activated Plasmonic Chemical Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Michael [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Oh, Sang-Hyun [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A passive plasmonics based chemical sensing system to be used in harsh operating environments was investigated and developed within this program. The initial proposed technology was based on combining technologies developed at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and at the University of Minnesota (UM). Specifically, a passive wireless technique developed at UM was to utilize a heat-activated plasmonic design to passively harvest the thermal energy from within a combustion emission stream and convert this into a narrowly focused light source. This plasmonic device was based on a bullseye design patterned into a gold film using focused ion beam methods (FIB). Critical to the design was the use of thermal stabilizing under and overlayers surrounding the gold film. These stabilizing layers were based on both atomic layer deposited films as well as metal laminate layers developed by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS). While the bullseye design was never able to be thermally stabilized for operating temperatures of 500oC or higher, an alternative energy harvesting design was developed by CNSE within this program. With this new development, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The method was further improved by patterning rods which harvested energy in the near infrared, which led to a factor of 10 decrease in data acquisition times as well as demonstrated selectivity with a reduced wavelength data set. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting

  18. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

    OpenAIRE

    Schantz Peter; Wahlgren Lina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning ...

  19. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  20. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern John H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  1. Interrogating Our Practices of Integrating Spirituality into Workplace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Leona M.; Fenwick, Tara J.; Parsons, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Workplace education's interest in spirituality is examined, with an emphasis placed on why this interest might be increasing and what challenges it presents. This article interrogates commonplace strategies to integrate spirituality in workplace education,--providing holistic education, creating sacred spaces and mentoring--questions each approach…

  2. Data publication activities in the Natural Environment Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A.; Callaghan, S.; Lowry, R.; Moncoiffé, G.; Donnegan, S.; Pepler, S.; Cunningham, N.; Kirsch, P.; Ault, L.; Bell, P.; Bowie, R.; Harrison, K.; Smith-Haddon, B.; Wetherby, A.; Wright, D.; Thorley, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is implementing its Science Information Strategy in order to provide a world class service to deliver integrated data for earth system science. One project within this strategy is Data Citation and Publication, which aims to put the promotion and recognition stages of the data lifecycle into place alongside the traditional data management activities of NERC's Environmental Data Centres (EDCs). The NERC EDCs have made a distinction between the serving of data and its publication. Data serving is defined in this case as the day-to-day data management tasks of: • acquiring data and metadata from the originating scientists; • metadata and format harmonisation prior to database ingestion; • ensuring the metadata is adequate and accurate and that the data are available in appropriate file formats; • and making the data available for interested parties. Whereas publication: • requires the assignment of a digital object identifier to a dataset which guarantees that an EDC has assessed the quality of the metadata and the file format and will maintain an unchanged version of the data for the foreseeable future • requires the peer-review of the scientific quality of the data by a scientist with knowledge of the scientific domain in which the data were collected, using a framework for peer-review of datasets such as that developed by the CLADDIER project. • requires collaboration with journal publishers who have access to a well established peer-review system The first of these requirements can be managed in-house by the EDCs, while the remainder require collaboration with the wider scientific and publishing communities. It is anticipated that a scientist may achieve a lower level of academic credit for a dataset which is assigned a DOI but does not follow through to the scientific peer-review stage, similar to publication in a report or other non-peer reviewed publication normally described as grey literature, or

  3. Risk assessment: A regulatory strategy for stimulating working environment activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2001-01-01

    modify this picture by showing how attention has been focussed on physical working environment problems whilst wider psycho-social problems have been ignored. The paper claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that workplace assessment - even though positively...

  4. CONSTRUCTION ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY FOR CHILDREN PRE-SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  5. Active Learning through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrose, James

    2012-01-01

    Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) has seen explosive growth over the last decade. Immersive VR attempts to give users the sensation of being fully immersed in a synthetic environment by providing them with 3D hardware, and allowing them to interact with objects in virtual worlds. The technology is extremely effective for learning and exploration, and…

  6. Visualizing learner activities with a virtual learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents how to gain insights into children’s navigation of an interactive virtual learning environment and how that would benefit their educators. A prototype for logging user information as quantifiable data has been developed and deployed in an in-situ evaluation of the system...

  7. Avatars Go to Class: A Virtual Environment Soil Science Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, M.; Namuth-Covert, D.; Guru, A.; Nugent, G.; Phillips, L.; Sandall, L.; Kettler, T.; McCallister, D.

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology is expanding rapidly from social and gaming uses into the educational applications. Specifically, the multi-user virtual environment (MUVE), such as SecondLife, allows educators to fill the gap of first-hand experience by creating simulated realistic evolving problems/games. In a pilot study, a team of educators at the…

  8. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  9. Co-creating Emotionally Safe Environments at Camp: Training Staff To Facilitate Adventure Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Matt; Yerkes, Rita

    2003-01-01

    An emotionally safe environment helps campers participate in adventure activities. Staff development tips for creating a safe environment include using cooperative goal setting; using parallel training processes; developing working lesson plans that outline facilitation techniques for creating emotionally safe environments; and using co-created…

  10. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation. PMID:27625595

  11. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system for use in aerospace and automotive health monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Panahi, Allan; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) have gained rapid acceptance in aerospace and automotive structural health monitoring applications for the measurement of strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky and heavy bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  12. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  13. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  14. Data driven modeling of the simultaneous activities in ambient environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resident of a smart home, who may be an old person or an Alzheimer patient needing permanent assistance, actuates the world by realizing activities, which are...

  15. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity. the increasing economioc development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one billion people...

  16. Active Class Composed with Mechanical Engineering and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Shuichi; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Ohshima, Yasutaka; Ariyoshi, Kouji

    This paper reports that the learning experience for a group working disassembling and assembling an internal combustion engine is constructed for a group working. At the same time, the environment education combined with basic studies is introduced with the aid of a Diesel engine running with biofuel. It is found that (1) the leaning experience enhances the leaning motivation and problem solution ability for students, (2) a group working disassembling and assembling an internal combustion engine is effective for greediness for learning, and (3) the environmental study attracts student.

  17. Jeanette Winterson: interrogating masculinity with violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Makinen, Merja

    2011-01-01

    Jeanette Winterson is known for the way she questions gender categories and confounds expectations of the feminine, from Villanelle’s active swashbuckling to the Dog Woman’s casual violence, from the unknown narrator of Written on the Body who rejects gendered identity to the fluid interplay of the narrator of The PowerBook shuffling between masculine and feminine via the engorged tulip, Winterson is someone we look to for texts that can unpack gender stereotypes. Her self-reflexive post mod...

  18. Multiple-Coincidence Active Neutron Interrogation of Fissionable Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinsley, J.R., Hurley, J.P., Trainham, R., Keegan, R.P.

    2008-11-14

    In an extension of the Associated Particle Imaging technique that is used for the detection and imaging of hidden explosives, the present measurements use a beam of tagged 14.1 MeV neutrons in coincidence with two or more gammas to probe for the presence of fissionable materials. We have measured neutron-gamma-gamma coincidences with targets of depleted uranium, tungsten, lead, iron, and carbon and will present results that show the multiple-coincidence counting rate for the depleted uranium is substantially higher than any of the non-fissionable materials. In addition, the presence of coincidences involving delayed particle spectra provides a signature for fissionable materials that is distinct from that for non-fissionable ones. Information from the tagged neutron involved in the coincidence event is used to compute the position of the fissionable material in all three dimensions. The result is an imaging probe for fissionable materials that is compact and portable, and produces relatively low levels of background radiation. Simultaneous measurements on packages of interest for both explosives and fissionable materials are now feasible.

  19. Proposals for risk management in environments with activities involving nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Renato Balbão Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The handling of nanomaterials presents enormous challenges for risk management in research and production of new materials. However, data on the impacts of these new materials on human health and the environment need to be expanded. Several efforts have been made to mitigate the hardships and offer guidelines for the management of risks associated with nanomaterials. This article aims to provide a broad and comparing view of the main proposals in the literature. The methodology was systematic analysis encompassing 17 proposed risk management with nanomaterials. The results indicate that, although there is no consensus on the metrics used to characterize the risks of na-nomaterials, the adoption of the Precautionary Principle, the control banding approach and stakeholder involvement stands out among the documents analyzed.

  20. Danish activities concerning noise in the environment (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Fritz

    1982-01-01

    the country in international collaboration. It is claimed that noise abatement will be diffuse and weak, if it is not based on a national strategy. The discussion of noise in the environment covers: external industrial noise, road traffic noise, and air traffic noise. The principles on which the maximum...... permissible Danish noise exposure levels are based will be explained. ISO 1996, 1st edition 1971, has played a decisive part. The maximum permissible Danish noise exposure levels for external industrial noise are strict and enforced for new plants and in connection with enlargement of existing plants....... The regulations concerning road traffic noise are based on results of extensive interviews of persons living in areas with various exposure levels. The results of these interviews will be reported as well as the conclusions drawn....

  1. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Anne F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment. All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment.

  2. Optical Stabilization of a Microwave Oscillator for Fountain Clock Interrogation

    CERN Document Server

    Lipphardt, Burghard; Weyers, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We describe an optical frequency stabilization scheme of a microwave oscillator that is used for the interrogation of primary caesium fountain clocks. Because of its superior phase noise properties, the new scheme, which is based on an ultrastable laser and a femtosecond laser frequency comb, overcomes the fountain clock frequency instability limitations given by the previously utilized quartz oscillator based frequency synthesis. The presented scheme combines the transfer of the short-term frequency instability of an optical cavity and the long-term frequency instability of a hydrogen maser to the microwave oscillator and is designed to provide continuous long-term operation for extended measurement periods of weeks. The utilization of the twofold stabilization scheme on the one hand ensures referencing of the fountain frequency to the hydrogen maser frequency and on the other hand results in a phase noise level of the fountain interrogation signal, which enables quantum projection noise limited fountain fre...

  3. Youth perceptions of how neighborhood physical environment and peers affect physical activity: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alan L.; Troped, Philip J; McDonough, Meghan H; DeFreese, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is need for a youth-informed conceptualization of how environmental and social neighborhood contexts influence physical activity. We assessed youths’ perceptions of their neighborhood physical and peer environments as affecting physical activity. Methods Thirty-three students (20 girls; ages 12-14 years) participated in focus groups about the physical environment and peers within their neighborhoods, and their understanding of how they affect physical activity. Results Inducti...

  4. Interrogating trees as archives of sulphur deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, P. M.; Loader, N. J.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    A principal driver of climatic variability over the past 1,000 years and essential forcing mechanism for climate, are the changes in atmospheric composition resulting from sulphur aerosols. Natural and anthropogenic aerosols released into the atmosphere disrupt the radiative balance through backscattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation and increase cloud albedo by acting as condensation nuclei. Understanding the impact of sulphur emissions upon climate beyond the last few hundred years however is not straightforward and natural archives of environmental information must be explored. Tree-rings represent one such archive as they are widely distributed and preserve environmental information within a precisely dateable, annually resolved timescale. Until recently the sulphur contained within tree-rings has largely remained beyond the reach of environmental scientists and climate modelers owing to difficulties associated with the extraction of a robust signal and uncertainties regarding post-depositional mobility. Our recent work using synchrotron radiation has established that the majority of non-labile sulphur in two conifer species is preserved within the cellular structure of the woody tissue after uptake and demonstrates an increasing trend in sulphur concentration during the 20th century and during known volcanic events. Due to the clear isotopic distinction between marine (+21), geological (+10 to +30), atmospheric pollution (-3 to +9 ) and volcanic sources of sulphur (0 to +5), isotopic ratios provide a diagnostic tool with which changes in the source of atmospheric sulphur can be detected in a more reliable fashion than concentration alone. Sulphur isotopes should thereby provide a fingerprint of short lived events including volcanic activity when extracted at high resolution and in conjunction with high resolution S concentrations defining the event. Here we present methodologies associated with extracting the sulphur isotopic signal from tree

  5. Activity of the CIRIAS as regards energy and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIRIAS an interdisciplinary research facility – theoretical and applied – of the University of Palermo, offening its services to the territory, proposes to conduct studies and research, teach highly technical and scientific skills, develop seminars and conferences, and manage databanks in collaboration with public or private institutions. Currently adhering to the Centre are scholars covering various areas of specialization (Economics, Engineering, Agriculture, Psychology. Through its specialists it is therefore able to develop and validate complex systems of industrial automation, industrial robotics, underwater robotics and, socio-economic systems that govern not only industrial production but also the sector of transport, telecommunications and environmental pollution; to carry out studies on predictive models related to the area, activities related to the new economy and tourism or other activities that the development of science and technology offer; to carry out training and consultancy in the field of automation for companies that operate in the territory.

  6. Activation and radiation damage in the environment of hadron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A component which suffers radiation damage usually also becomes radioactive, since the source of activation and radiation damage is the interaction of the material with particles from an accelerator or with reaction products. However, the underlying mechanisms of the two phenomena are different. These mechanisms are described here. Activation and radiation damage can have far-reaching consequences. Components such as targets, collimators, and beam dumps are the first candidates for failure as a result of radiation damage. This means that they have to be replaced or repaired. This takes time, during which personnel accumulate dose. If the dose to personnel at work would exceed permitted limits, remote handling becomes necessary. The remaining material has to be disposed of as radioactive waste, for which an elaborate procedure acceptable to the authorities is required. One of the requirements of the authorities is a complete nuclide inventory. The methods used for calculation of such inventories are presented,...

  7. Interrogational Neuroimaging: The Missing Element in Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, governments have waged a global campaign against terrorists groups in order to ensure national security. A crucial part of this campaign has been intelligence gathering with different methods of interrogation in order to extract allegedly necessary information from suspected terrorists. Similarly, it is not surprising that intelligence personnel have started recognizing that neuroimaging technologies—in particular, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI addresses this fundamental lack within the realm of scientific scrutiny. The current research introduces a first step towards developing a novel experimental interrogation paradigm that aims to apply a number of reliable and practical applications of fMRI within a rule of law and human rights framework. This prototype is applied in such a way that implications of interrogative methodologies will become a reality for mining of knowledge from potential suspects. The ultimate goal of our innovative methodology is the implementation of fMRI in real life situations that may serve the cause of human rights by providing an innocent person the means to scientifically prove his/her innocence. This truth verification tool has potential to replace torture and aggressive existing interrogation strategies. However, we discuss that there are still human rights and privacy concerns that must be addressed prior to moving this technology to real-world application. Similarly, this paper will recommend best practices and guidelines to address scientific, social, ethical, privacy and general public concerns. The future of law enforcement agencies may very well be under construction with this new line of attack that could revolutionize police work and likely to provide significant benefits to society.

  8. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women.

  9. Hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS from different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.B.; Wex, H.; Nekat, B.;

    2012-01-01

    hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of water extracts (WE) and HULIS extracted from particulate matter (PM) collected at a polluted urban site (Copenhagen, Denmark), a rural site (Melpitz, Germany) and the remote site Storm Peak Laboratory (Colorado, USA) were investigated. Measurements of inorganic ions......, elemental carbon, organic carbon and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) within the PM confirmed that the sources of aerosol particles most likely differed for the three samples. The hygroscopic properties of the filtered WE were characterized by hygroscopicity parameters for subsaturated conditions (k...

  10. Associations between built environment and active transport in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars

    km school buffer (euclidean)’1). Vehicular Traffic Exposure: ‘Length of larger roads (>6 meters wide)’ / ’minor roads (... or cycle every day to and from school) and a summed rank-score between 14-36 (index). 86 % reported a safe or very safe cycle route to school. The OR for all-day active commuting was 1.05(p=0.09) for the three component index in the single factor model and 1.02 (0.47) in the adjusted model. The OR for all...

  11. The mechanical environment modulates intracellular calcium oscillation activities of myofibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Godbout

    Full Text Available Myofibroblast contraction is fundamental in the excessive tissue remodeling that is characteristic of fibrotic tissue contractures. Tissue remodeling during development of fibrosis leads to gradually increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix. We propose that this increased stiffness positively feeds back on the contractile activities of myofibroblasts. We have previously shown that cycles of contraction directly correlate with periodic intracellular calcium oscillations in cultured myofibroblasts. We analyze cytosolic calcium dynamics using fluorescent calcium indicators to evaluate the possible impact of mechanical stress on myofibroblast contractile activity. To modulate extracellular mechanics, we seeded primary rat subcutaneous myofibroblasts on silicone substrates and into collagen gels of different elastic modulus. We modulated cell stress by cell growth on differently adhesive culture substrates, by restricting cell spreading area on micro-printed adhesive islands, and depolymerizing actin with Cytochalasin D. In general, calcium oscillation frequencies in myofibroblasts increased with increasing mechanical challenge. These results provide new insight on how changing mechanical conditions for myofibroblasts are encoded in calcium oscillations and possibly explain how reparative cells adapt their contractile behavior to the stresses occurring in normal and pathological tissue repair.

  12. The Developing of Meaningful Activity in Artificial Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsbæk, Jonas

    to Demographic changes in the EU and the rest of the world, the ageing population is in growth as well as incidence of chronically Illnesses as dementia. Health systems around the world are looking for solutions, which can save manpower and provide quality. One of the trusted solutions for this challenge....... The experience of Flow can be hard to achieve or maintain for people with Dementia due to their loss of skills over time. Objectives: The purpose of this project was to develop a platform that supports People with Dementia in performing physical activity, meaningfulness and the experience of Flow. Method......: Innovative methods such as: Workshops, Observations, Focus Groups and Interviews of; spouses, formal careers, Occupational Therapists students, Technical engineer students and people with Dementia. The data was put together with specialized qualification and the innovative method Living lab/user panel...

  13. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  14. Evaluation of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T. Trindade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate dehydrogenase is a citosolic enzyme involved in reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate. It participates in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle and red blood cells, in liver gluconeogenesis and in aerobic metabolism of heart muscle. The determination of its activity helps in the diagnosis of various diseases, because it is increased in serum of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis, muscular dystrophy and cancer. This paper presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which contains the simulation of the laboratory determination serum lactate dehydrogenase activity measured by the spectrophotometric method, based in the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. Materials and Methods: Initially, pictures and videos were obtained recording the procedure of the methodology. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the tool Adobe ® Flash ® CS3. The validation of the object was performed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the second semester of 2009 and both of 2010. Results and Discussion: The analysis of students' answers revealed that 80% attributed the excellence of the navigation program, the display format and to aid in learning. Conclusion: Therefore, this software can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www6.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/LDH

  15. The Effect of the Home Environment on Physical Activity and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Østbye, Truls; Malhotra, Rahul; Stroo, Marissa; Lovelady, Cheryl; Brouwer, Rebecca; Zucker, Nancy; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. Purpose To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Methods Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time...

  16. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These presentations present the conclusions of a parliamentary report concerning the nuclear wastes management. It shows the necessity of a law on the nuclear wastes management not to leave exclusively this high risks activity to the manufacturers. (A.L.B.)

  17. Popularization activities for young children of the scientific activity in the field of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Research projects now rely on various pillars which include of course high level science and equipments, and also communication, outreach and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for young children and present activities that aim at helping them (and their parents!) to grasp some of the complex underlying scientific issues in the field of environment. More generally it helps children to get familiarized with science and scientists, with the hope of enhancing scientific culture and promoting careers in this field. The activities which are part of the popularization effort of the NEW Interreg IV RainGain project (www.raingain.eu) : - Experiments led in classrooms of kinder garden to design and test a disdrometer made of a plate and flour or oil to observe the diversity of rain drop sizes. It simply consists in putting a bit (roughly 1 mm depth) of flour or oil in a plate. The features of the devices based either flour or oil were first studied inside with artificial drops. Then it was tested outside under actual rain. - The writing of scientific book with and for children aged 8-9 years with the help of the editor of the collection. The process leading to the final book is splat in three main successive steps: (i) A 1.5 h interactive session with the researcher and a class of 8-9 year children. They are simply given the general topic of the book few hours before and ask all the questions they have on it and get some answers; (ii) The researcher writes a book in which all the questions raised by children are answered (at least partially). The scientific elements should be inserted in a lively story with few characters. The story should be more than a simple dialogue; a genuine fiction should take place and come first so that children do not even notice they are understanding and learning; (iii) Once children have read the book, there is a second session to get some feedback and possibly edit the manuscript (altering a character, adding some

  18. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  19. Implementing an Active Learning Environment to Influence Students' Motivation in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuto, Camila Aparecida Tolentino; Torres, Bayardo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The Biochemistry: Biomolecules Structure and Metabolism course's goal is to promote meaningful learning through an active learning environment. Thus, study periods (SP) and discussion groups (DG) are used as a substitute for lecture classes. The goal of this study was to evaluate how this learning environment influences students' motivation (n =…

  20. Influence of Home Environment on Participation in Home Activities of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Sood OTD, OTR/L; Patti LaVesser Ph.D., OTR; Caren Schranz DrOT, MS, OTR/L

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the key physical and social factors within the home environment that influence the participation of children with an ASD in home activities. Method: Step 1 used a correlational research design to identify relationships between the home environment and participation patterns of children with ASD. Twenty-two children, ages 3 to 6 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated. Data were collected using the Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS), Home Observation for...

  1. Coordination environment of the active-site metal ion of liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Makinen, M W; Yim, M B

    1981-01-01

    The coordination environment of the catalytically active metal ion of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) has been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods with use of the active-site-specific Co2+-reconstituted enzyme. The EPR absorption spectrum of the metal-substituted enzyme is characteristic of a rhombically distorted environment. The spectrum of the enzyme--NAD+ complex shows approximate axial symmetry of the metal ion site, i...

  2. Spatial learning in virtual environments by children and adults after active or passive experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sandamas, George

    2006-01-01

    Theories of spatial learning, such as those of Siegal and White (1975) and Piaget and Inhelder (1967) have considered active exploration of environments to be beneficial or essential for the development of specific spatial knowledge. Real world empirical research in the form of both laboratory experimental and broader environmental studies tends to support this suggestion, demonstrating that active exploration of an environment, in both children and adults, gives better spatial learning than ...

  3. The impact of anthropogenic activities on components of the natural environment of the Titu Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BOGAN; Doina STAN; Daniela VĂRVĂRUC

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic activities on the environment cause topographic changes that have strong repercussions, some positive (afforestation, embankments) but other negative (deforestation, soil erosion, inning). The present study aims to analyze the current situation of the main anthropogenic activities in the area of Titu Plain, to highlight the negative impacts on the quality of the environment, and at the same time it proposes ways of reducing their adverse effect. Thus, there were studied the ...

  4. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of...

  5. System design considerations for fast-neutron interrogation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Curry, B.P.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1993-10-01

    Nonintrusive interrogation techniques that employ fast neutrons are of interest because of their sensitivity to light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The primary requirement of a fast-neutron inspection system is to determine the value of atomic densities, or their ratios, over a volumetric grid superimposed on the object being interrogated. There are a wide variety of fast-neutron techniques that can provide this information. The differences between the various nuclear systems can be considered in light of the trade-offs relative to the performance requirements for each system`s components. Given a set of performance criteria, the operational requirements of the proposed nuclear systems may also differ. For instance, resolution standards will drive scanning times and tomographic requirements, both of which vary for the different approaches. We are modelling a number of the fast-neutron interrogation techniques currently under consideration, to include Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS), Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA), and its variant, 14-MeV Associated Particle Imaging (API). The goals of this effort are to determine the component requirements for each technique, identify trade-offs that system performance standards impose upon those component requirements, and assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. In determining the component requirements, we will consider how they are driven by system performance standards, such as image resolution, scanning time, and statistical uncertainty. In considering the trade-offs between system components, we concentrate primarily on those which are common to all approaches, for example: source characteristics versus detector array requirements. We will then use the analysis to propose some figures-of-merit that enable performance comparisons between the various fast-neutron systems under consideration. The status of this ongoing effort is presented.

  6. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  7. The impact of anthropogenic activities on components of the natural environment of the Titu Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BOGAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic activities on the environment cause topographic changes that have strong repercussions, some positive (afforestation, embankments but other negative (deforestation, soil erosion, inning. The present study aims to analyze the current situation of the main anthropogenic activities in the area of Titu Plain, to highlight the negative impacts on the quality of the environment, and at the same time it proposes ways of reducing their adverse effect. Thus, there were studied the three essential components: water, air and soil, and were established the main problems that they currently acts as a result of the work carried out in this geographical area. It is also highlighted the human concern for the conservation and improvement of the quality of the environment, because the man begins to become more aware of the negative impacts of his activities on the environment

  8. On the Design of Smart Homes: A Framework for Activity Recognition in Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Franco; Fortino, Giancarlo; Giordano, Andrea; Guerrieri, Antonio; Spezzano, Giandomenico; Vinci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A smart home is a home environment enriched with sensing, actuation, communication and computation capabilities which permits to adapt it to inhabitants preferences and requirements. Establishing a proper strategy of actuation on the home environment can require complex computational tasks on the sensed data. This is the case of activity recognition, which consists in retrieving high-level knowledge about what occurs in the home environment and about the behaviour of the inhabitants. The inherent complexity of this application domain asks for tools able to properly support the design and implementation phases. This paper proposes a framework for the design and implementation of smart home applications focused on activity recognition in home environments. The framework mainly relies on the Cloud-assisted Agent-based Smart home Environment (CASE) architecture offering basic abstraction entities which easily allow to design and implement Smart Home applications. CASE is a three layered architecture which exploits the distributed multi-agent paradigm and the cloud technology for offering analytics services. Details about how to implement activity recognition onto the CASE architecture are supplied focusing on the low-level technological issues as well as the algorithms and the methodologies useful for the activity recognition. The effectiveness of the framework is shown through a case study consisting of a daily activity recognition of a person in a home environment. PMID:27468841

  9. On the Design of Smart Homes: A Framework for Activity Recognition in Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Franco; Fortino, Giancarlo; Giordano, Andrea; Guerrieri, Antonio; Spezzano, Giandomenico; Vinci, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A smart home is a home environment enriched with sensing, actuation, communication and computation capabilities which permits to adapt it to inhabitants preferences and requirements. Establishing a proper strategy of actuation on the home environment can require complex computational tasks on the sensed data. This is the case of activity recognition, which consists in retrieving high-level knowledge about what occurs in the home environment and about the behaviour of the inhabitants. The inherent complexity of this application domain asks for tools able to properly support the design and implementation phases. This paper proposes a framework for the design and implementation of smart home applications focused on activity recognition in home environments. The framework mainly relies on the Cloud-assisted Agent-based Smart home Environment (CASE) architecture offering basic abstraction entities which easily allow to design and implement Smart Home applications. CASE is a three layered architecture which exploits the distributed multi-agent paradigm and the cloud technology for offering analytics services. Details about how to implement activity recognition onto the CASE architecture are supplied focusing on the low-level technological issues as well as the algorithms and the methodologies useful for the activity recognition. The effectiveness of the framework is shown through a case study consisting of a daily activity recognition of a person in a home environment.

  10. Do attributes in the physical environment influence children's physical activity? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Catherine T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many youth today are physically inactive. Recent attention linking the physical or built environment to physical activity in adults suggests an investigation into the relationship between the built environment and physical activity in children could guide appropriate intervention strategies. Method Thirty three quantitative studies that assessed associations between the physical environment (perceived or objectively measured and physical activity among children (ages 3 to 18-years and fulfilled selection criteria were reviewed. Findings were categorized and discussed according to three dimensions of the physical environment including recreational infrastructure, transport infrastructure, and local conditions. Results Results across the various studies showed that children's participation in physical activity is positively associated with publicly provided recreational infrastructure (access to recreational facilities and schools and transport infrastructure (presence of sidewalks and controlled intersections, access to destinations and public transportation. At the same time, transport infrastructure (number of roads to cross and traffic density/speed and local conditions (crime, area deprivation are negatively associated with children's participation in physical activity. Conclusion Results highlight links between the physical environment and children's physical activity. Additional research using a transdisciplinary approach and assessing moderating and mediating variables is necessary to appropriately inform policy efforts.

  11. Flexibility in use: Switching behaviour and satisfaction in activity-based work environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard; De Been, Iris; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Mobach, Mark P.; Albers, Casper J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Despite their growing popularity among organisations, satisfaction with Activity-Based Work (ABW) environments is found to be below expectations. Research also suggests that workers typically do not switch frequently, or not at all, between different activity settings. Hence, in the presen

  12. The importance of the social environment for physically active lifestyle: results from an international study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, T.; Rütten, A.; Nutbeam, D.; Bauman, A.; Kannas, L.; Abel, T.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles are regularly associated with improved health and quality of life. Differences in lifestyles in society can partly be understood through the differences in the social and physical environment. This study examines the relationships between reported physical activity, and

  13. Understanding Player Activity in a Game-Based Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, David Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This study examines player activity in a game-based virtual learning environment as a means toward evaluating instructional and game design. By determining the goals embedded in project development and the availability and structure of in-game activities, the first part of this research highlights opportunities for players to engage with learning…

  14. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  15. INL Neutron Interrogation R&D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. Wharton; S. M. Watson

    2010-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product – fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products – fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling and simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this

  16. Playability: Built and Social Environment Features That Promote Physical Activity Within Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Reid, Jacqueline; Veitch, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    The role of neighbourhood built and social environments in shaping children's physical activity has received increasing interest over the past 10 years. We reviewed recent evidence published between 2011 and 2014. Most of the recent evidence continues to be cross-sectional. Few macro-level neighbourhood attributes were consistently associated with physical activity in the expected direction. The strongest evidence for associations between neighbourhood attributes and physical activity with was for the transportation environment, particularly in relation to proximity to school and transport-related physical activity. There was intermediate evidence that neighbourhood walking/cycling infrastructure and pedestrian safety structures are associated with transport-related PA. Recent evidence on associations between the neighbourhood built and social environment and children's PA is modest. Stronger study designs and greater attention to conceptual-matching and specificity of measures are critical to advance the evidence base.

  17. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about 'resource-scarce settings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-07-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks-as it should-why some settings are 'resource-scarce' and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  18. An implantable pressure sensing system with electromechanical interrogation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Powell, C R; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of an implantable pressure sensing system that is powered by mechanical vibrations in the audible acoustic frequency range. This technique significantly enhances interrogation range, alleviates the misalignment issues commonly encountered with inductive powering, and simplifies the external receiver circuitry. The interrogation scheme consists of two phases: a mechanical vibration phase and an electrical radiation phase. During the first phase, a piezoelectric cantilever acts as an acoustic receiver and charges a capacitor by converting sound vibration harmonics occurring at its resonant frequency into electrical power. In the subsequent electrical phase, when the cantilever is not vibrating, the stored electric charge is discharged across an LC tank whose inductor is pressure sensitive; hence, when the LC tank oscillates at its natural resonant frequency, it radiates a high-frequency signal that is detectable using an external receiver and its frequency corresponds to the measured pressure. The pressure sensitive inductor consists of a planar coil (single loop of wire) with a ferrite core whose distance to the coil varies with applied pressure. A prototype of the implantable pressure sensor is fabricated and tested, both in vitro and in vivo (swine bladder). A pressure sensitivity of 1 kHz/cm H2O is achieved with minimal misalignment sensitivity (26% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and acoustic source; 60% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and RF receiver coil). PMID:24800754

  19. Remote fiber optic switch powered by light for robust interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a remote fiber optic switch powered by light is demonstrated experimentally. This fiber optic switch is powered by a photovoltaic power converter illuminated by a Raman laser. The switch can operate at distances up to 100 km. This switch is used to develop a remote resilient fiber Bragg grating (FBG) multiplexing network interrogated by a commercial FBG interrogator. In the proposed set-up the switch selects the branch of the FBG network located 50 km away from the interrogation unit in order to enable a two-way interrogation path for each sensor to prevent connection failures or fiber breakages. (paper)

  20. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  1. Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Matthews, Stephen A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and weight-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants' movement was tracked for 7 days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors.

  2. Perceived characteristics of the environment associated with active travel: development and testing of a new scale

    OpenAIRE

    Mutrie Nanette; Mitchell Richard; Ogilvie David; Petticrew Mark; Platt Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity. However, the development of instruments to measure perceived characteristics of the local environment is still at a comparatively early stage, and published instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings. We therefore developed and established the test-retest reliability of a new scale for use in a study of the correlates of active travel and overall physical activ...

  3. Psychosocial work environment and leisure-time physical activity: the Stormont Study

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, Jonathan; Clemes, S.; Munir, F.; Wilson, K.; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research findings are equivocal on relations between the psychosocial work environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). This might be partly due to studies having focused on a restricted set of psychosocial dimensions, thereby failing to capture all relevant domains. Aims: First, to examine cross-sectional associations between seven psychosocial work environment domains and LTPA in a large sample of UK civil servants. Second, to profile LTPA and consider this in rel...

  4. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES in a metropolitan setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schantz Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379 and street-recruited (n = 93, responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24 responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings

  5. Influence of Home Environment on Participation in Home Activities of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sood OTD, OTR/L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study explored the key physical and social factors within the home environment that influence the participation of children with an ASD in home activities. Method: Step 1 used a correlational research design to identify relationships between the home environment and participation patterns of children with ASD. Twenty-two children, ages 3 to 6 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated. Data were collected using the Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (HOME, Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, and Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Status (ISS. In Step 2, an electronic survey gathered information from 20 occupational therapists, attempting to identify their perceptions related to factors within the home environment that influence the participation of children with ASD. Results: Significant correlations were found among parenting stress, the availability of learning materials, and parent responsiveness toward the child and the participation patterns of children in home activities. Themes relating to designated play areas for children at home, parents’ awareness of the needs of the child, and parents’ responsiveness toward their child emerged from the occupational therapists’ qualitative survey data. Conclusion: The results indicated that home environments do contribute to a child’s ability to participate in home activities.

  6. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Boone-Heinonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI throughout early adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993 followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011; 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score. We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th to 75(th percentile predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2 [estimate (95% CI: -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01 to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2 in men [estimate (95% CI range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06 to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions

  7. A Project Based CS/IS-1 Course with an Active Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Suvineetha Herath

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High level programming languages use system defined data types and the user defined data types in computations. We have developed a project-based CS/IS-1 course to substitute the traditional lecture based classroom to help students design and use at least two user defined data types in their computations to solve real world problems. Abstract data types and basic programming constructs are introduced efficiently to the students in an active learning environment using games. To assess and evaluate the changes made we distributed the course module among our students and other instructors. This paper describes our experience in developing the project based active learning environment.

  8. D-optimal Bayesian Interrogation for Parameter and Noise Identification of Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Poczos, Barnabas

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel online Bayesian method for the identification of a family of noisy recurrent neural networks (RNNs). We develop Bayesian active learning technique in order to optimize the interrogating stimuli given past experiences. In particular, we consider the unknown parameters as stochastic variables and use the D-optimality principle, also known as `\\emph{infomax method}', to choose optimal stimuli. We apply a greedy technique to maximize the information gain concerning network parameters at each time step. We also derive the D-optimal estimation of the additive noise that perturbs the dynamical system of the RNN. Our analytical results are approximation-free. The analytic derivation gives rise to attractive quadratic update rules.

  9. Gaseous environment of plants and activity of enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the action of hypoxia and high CO2 concentration in the atmosphere on activity of phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glucose phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.), corn scutella (Zea mays L.), and hemp cotyledons (Cannabis sativa L.). The first 4-12h of hypoxia witnessed suppression of enzymes of the initial stages of glycolysis (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase)and activation of enzymes of its final stages (alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) and enzymes linking glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). An excess of CO2 in the environment accelerated and amplified this effect. At the end of a 24-h period of anaerobic incubation, deviations of enzyme activity from the control were leveled in both gaseous environments. An exception was observed in the case of phosphofructokinase, whose activity increased markedly at this time in plants exposed to CO2. Changes in activity of the enzymes were coupled with changes in their kinetic parameters (apparent Km and Vmax values). The activity of isocitrate lyase was suppressed in both variants of hypoxic gaseous environments, a finding that does not agree with the hypothesis as to participation of the glyoxylate cycle in the metabolic response of plants to oxygen stress. Thus, temporary inhibition of the system of glycolysis and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway constituted the initial response of the plants to O2stress, and CO2 intensified this metabolic response

  10. Human enhancement from ethical interrogations to legal (un)certainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies are paving the way for future revolutionary advances in science that may open the possibility to change the very anthropological definition of human being. This mere possibility has lead to ethical interrogations concerning the nature and boundaries of human nature and our...... relationship with science and technology. Meanwhile the Law has faced the challenge of reflecting on the legitimacy to legislate and whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the ethical concerns that emerging technologies bring fourth. It is a delicate balancing act between human dignity......, autonomy, non-discrimination, equality, and justice. Anchored in this background, this work is a reflection on the role of European Patent Law in this debate. The European Patent system contains rules designed to prevent the grant of patents concerning inventions that do not conform to the prevailing...

  11. Single chip interrogation system for a smart shoe wireless transponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Shahrzad; Roshan, Meisam; Huang, Haiying; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Henderson, Rashaunda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a wireless transponder for antenna-based sensors that can be used to simultaneously measure shear and pressure forces for diabetic foot diagnosis. The transponder will be placed on the top surface of a shoe and consists of sensor antennas and an identification system that transmits information to a receiver by modulating the signal reflected by the antennas sensor in the insole. The identification system includes an energy harvester, a crystal oscillator and a passive mixer. A single chip interrogation circuit has been designed in IBM130 nm CMOS technology to reduce size. The identification system including bond pads has a size of 1.2 mm × 0.8 mm. PMID:25570659

  12. An Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor Using RF Interrogation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Choi, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Keum Soo; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel non-contact optical fiber displacement sensor. It uses a radio frequency (RF) interrogation technique which is based on bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). The displacement is measured from the free spectral range (FSR) which is determined by the dip frequencies of the modulated MZ-EOM transfer function. In experiments, the proposed sensor showed a sensitivity of 456 kHz/mm or 1.043 kHz/V in a measurement range of 7 mm. The displacement resolution of the proposed sensor depends on the linewidth and the power of the optical source. Resolution better than 0.05 μm would be achieved if an optical source which has a linewidth narrower than 1.5 nm and a received power larger than -36 dBm is used. Also, the multiplexing characteristic of the proposed sensor was experimentally validated. PMID:26927098

  13. Scoping studies - photon and low energy neutron interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.; Harker, Y.; Jones, J. [LMITCo, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harmon, F. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    High energy photon interrogation of waste containers, with the aim of producing photo nuclear reactions, in specific materials, holds the potential of good penetration and rapid analysis. Compact high energy ({le} 10 MeV) photon sources in the form of electron linacs producing bremstrahlung radiation are readily available. Work with the Varitron variable energy accelerator at ISU will be described. Advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. Using positive ion induced neutron producing reactions, it is possible to generate neutrons in a specific energy range. By this means, variable penetration and specific reactions can be excited in the assayed material. Examples using the {sup 3}H(p,n) and {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions as neutron sources will be discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Single chip interrogation system for a smart shoe wireless transponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Shahrzad; Roshan, Meisam; Huang, Haiying; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Henderson, Rashaunda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a wireless transponder for antenna-based sensors that can be used to simultaneously measure shear and pressure forces for diabetic foot diagnosis. The transponder will be placed on the top surface of a shoe and consists of sensor antennas and an identification system that transmits information to a receiver by modulating the signal reflected by the antennas sensor in the insole. The identification system includes an energy harvester, a crystal oscillator and a passive mixer. A single chip interrogation circuit has been designed in IBM130 nm CMOS technology to reduce size. The identification system including bond pads has a size of 1.2 mm × 0.8 mm.

  15. "Active" and "passive" learning of three-dimensional object structure within an immersive virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K H; Humphrey, G K; Vilis, T; Corrie, B; Baddour, R; Goodale, M A

    2002-08-01

    We used a fully immersive virtual reality environment to study whether actively interacting with objects would effect subsequent recognition, when compared with passively observing the same objects. We found that when participants learned object structure by actively rotating the objects, the objects were recognized faster during a subsequent recognition task than when object structure was learned through passive observation. We also found that participants focused their study time during active exploration on a limited number of object views, while ignoring other views. Overall, our results suggest that allowing active exploration of an object during initial learning can facilitate recognition of that object, perhaps owing to the control that the participant has over the object views upon which they can focus. The virtual reality environment is ideal for studying such processes, allowing realistic interaction with objects while maintaining experimenter control. PMID:12395554

  16. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallis, James F; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity......, in an international sample of adults. METHODS: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic......'s residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models...

  17. Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP, a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP. WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP, Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  

  18. Learning activities in a political context - development of the working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledskov, Annette

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses a learning approach as a method for developing new strategies for managing work environment. On the basis of interviews in two companies an analysis of how actors involved in the management of work environment act concerning their task and role is conducted. Two roles...... are identified – ‘the politically actors’ and ‘the translator’. When facilitating learning activities in the management of work environment it is necessary to be aware of this political nature of the actions .In understanding learning in the management of work environment it is beneficial to look at the concept...... of “communities of practice”, to understand under which conditions the actors are learning and developing new methods....

  19. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...: The definition of ``interrogation of detainees'' was derived from the definition for ``intelligence... DoD published an interim rule at 75 FR 67632 on November 3, 2010, to implement section 1038 of the..., DoD Intelligence Interrogations, Detainee Debriefings, and Tactical Questioning...

  20. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  1. Validity and reliability of a home environment inventory for physical activity and media equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Mark A; Nelson Melissa C; Sirard John R; Lytle Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about how the home environmental supports physical activity and screen media usage. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of a self-report instrument to comprehensively reflect the availability and accessibility of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment. Methods Ten families participated in the initial field testing to provide feedback for instrument development. Thirty one adult partici...

  2. The application of experimental design in an activity-based environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Graham R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to carry out research into the application of experimental design in an activity-based environment; specifically into the methodology and potential application of experimental design and analysis as an activity-based management decision support tool in the general manufacturing, systems engineering and logistics engineering fields. This thesis will detail the author's research into the decision support framework that will be introduced in Chapte...

  3. Impact of Mining Activities upon Environment in Panzhihua Region, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Mining activities have left huge uncovered slopes, large areas of gangue ground and extensive railings dams. In this paper, we studied some impacts of mining activities upon environment in Panzhihua region, southwestern China. The environmental impacts include ecological destruction, geological disasters, environmental pollution, land damage, solid waste and occupational health effect in study area. The author suggested that local government should take some measure to reduce environmental impact in Pan...

  4. Different Head Environments in Tarantula Thick Filaments Support a Cooperative Activation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Biasutto, Antonio; Alamo, Lorenzo; Riggs, Claire; Pinto, Antonio; Méndez, Franklin; Craig, Roger; Padrón, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Myosin filaments from many muscles are activated by phosphorylation of their regulatory light chains (RLCs). Structural analysis of relaxed tarantula thick filaments shows that the RLCs of the interacting free and blocked myosin heads are in different environments. This and other data suggested a phosphorylation mechanism in which Ser-35 of the free head is exposed and constitutively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, whereas the blocked head is hidden and unphosphorylated; on activation, my...

  5. Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Williams, John; Moore, Antoni; Hopkins, Debbie; Flaherty, Charlotte; Wilson, Gordon; García Bengoechea, Enrique; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Active transport to school (ATS) is a convenient way to increase physical activity and undertake an environmentally sustainable travel practice. The Built Environment and Active Transport to School (BEATS) Study examines ATS in adolescents in Dunedin, New Zealand, using ecological models for active transport that account for individual, social, environmental and policy factors. The study objectives are to: (1) understand the reasons behind adolescents and their parents' choice of transport mode to school; (2) examine the interaction between the transport choices, built environment, physical activity and weight status in adolescents; and (3) identify policies that promote or hinder ATS in adolescents. Methods and analysis The study will use a mixed-method approach incorporating both quantitative (surveys, anthropometry, accelerometers, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, mapping) and qualitative methods (focus groups, interviews) to gather data from students, parents, teachers and school principals. The core data will include accelerometer-measured physical activity, anthropometry, GIS measures of the built environment and the use of maps indicating route to school (students)/work (parents) and perceived safe/unsafe areas along the route. To provide comprehensive data for understanding how to change the infrastructure to support ATS, the study will also examine complementary variables such as individual, family and social factors, including student and parental perceptions of walking and cycling to school, parental perceptions of different modes of transport to school, perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, route to school (students)/work (parents), perceptions of driving, use of information communication technology, reasons for choosing a particular school and student and parental physical activity habits, screen time and weight status. The study has achieved a 100% school recruitment rate (12 secondary schools). Ethics and

  6. "Active Science": Integrating Physical Activity and Science Learning into the Afterschool Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs offer significant opportunities to increase physical activity levels and improve academic performance of children. Purpose: This study assessed an innovative approach to embed physical activity into science lessons in an afterschool community setting. Methods: Participants were 47 boys and girls (age = 10.8 ± 0.7…

  7. Supportive environments for physical activity and the local government agenda: a South Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin; Wright, Cheryl; Atkinson, Rick

    2002-01-01

    In the promotion of moderate physical activity it is increasingly argued that a supportive physical environment is a key factor, and that local government is ideally placed to play an important role. This study reports on the factors that led one local government to take such a leading role. A semi-structured interview was conducted to find out why a chief executive officer of a local government decided that the creation of supportive environments for physical activity was the core business of council. The results show that key ingredients were that local government should take a strategic rather than an operational focus on the issue, that there should be open organisational structures to allow the various functions of local government to work together, and that there must be appropriate leadership. The findings suggest ways for engaging local government as a key partner in promoting supportive environments that are consistent with literature on policy, organisational structure and leadership theory. PMID:12046147

  8. From the impacts of human activities on our climate and environment to the mysteries of titan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutron, C. [Grenoble-1 Univ., Institut Universitaire de France/CNRS, 38 (France)

    2002-11-01

    This volume is the fifth in the series. After an introductory chapter in which Paul Crutzen propounds to name 'anthropocene' the present period characterized by the ever increasing impacts of human activities on our environment, it contains nineteen chapters surveying various topics 'From the impacts of human activities on our climate and environment to the mysteries of Titan'. Particular emphasis is given to the origin of life on Earth, climate change, atmosphere modelling, climate-vegetation interaction, deep sea records of past climate variability, the last glacial maximum, halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer, the role and fate of trace elements in the environment, mercury as a global pollutant, atmospheric aerosols, emissions of pollutants in Europe, the effect of atmospheric pollution on building materials, air quality assessment, transport phenomena in the atmosphere, the solar energetic flux, the atmosphere of Saturn's satellite Titan, cometary research, molecules and the process of star formation. (author)

  9. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias;

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research on stress recovery in natural environments is limited, as is study of the effect of sounds of nature. After inducing stress by means of a virtual stress test, we explored physiological recovery in two different virtual natural environments (with and without exposure to sounds...... of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings....... The group that recovered in virtual nature without sound and the control group displayed no particular autonomic activation or deactivation. The results demonstrate a potential mechanistic link between nature, the sounds of nature, and stress recovery, and suggest the potential importance of virtual reality...

  10. The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullen Chris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to integrate perceived and built environmental and individual factors into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to better understand adolescents' physical activity. Methods Participants (n = 110 aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55 were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities. Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling. Results The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph. Unique and individual contribution was made by intention. Conclusion Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Using Activity Theory to Understand Learning Design Requirements of Patient Self-Management Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Scott P.; Reyes, Lisette; Kim, Hannah; Collins, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Learning designs aimed at supporting transformational change could significantly benefit from the adoption of socio-historical and socio-cultural analysis approaches. Such systemic perspectives are gaining more importance in education as they facilitate understanding of complex interactions between learning environments and human activity. The…

  12. Cross Space: The Exploration of SNS-Based Writing Activities in a Multimodal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Bong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the positive learning effect of formulating English sentences via Social Network Service (SNS; "Kakao-Talk") on less proficient L2 university students' (LPSs') writing, when the application is utilized as a tool to link in and out-of class activities in a multimodal-learning environment. Its objective is also to…

  13. The Association Between the Physical Environment of Primary Schools and Active School Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kann, D.H.H. van; Kremers, S.P.J.; Gubbels, J.S.; Bartelink, N.H.M.; Vries, S.I. de; Vries, N.K. de; Jansen, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the physical environment characteristics of primary schools and active school transport among 3,438 5- to 12-year-old primary school children in the Netherlands. The environmental characteristics were categorized into four theory-based clusters (function,

  14. An Electronic Library-Based Learning Environment for Supporting Web-Based Problem-Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop an electronic library-based learning environment to support teachers in developing web-based problem-solving activities and analyzing the online problem-solving behaviors of students. Two experiments were performed in this study. In study 1, an experiment on 103 elementary and high school teachers (the learning activity…

  15. Developing Preservice Science Teachers' Self-Determined Motivation toward Environment through Environmental Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop pre-service science teachers' self-determined motivation toward environment before, after and five months following the environmental course activities guided by self-determination theory. The sample of the study was 33 pre-service science teachers who participated in an environmental science course. This…

  16. OpenSim-Supported Virtual Learning Environment: Transformative Content Representation, Facilitation, and Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesung; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    The pedagogical and design considerations for the use of a virtual reality (VR) learning environment are important for prospective and current teachers. However, empirical research investigating how preservice teachers interact with transformative content representation, facilitation, and learning activities in a VR educational simulation is still…

  17. Place Disparities in Supportive Environments for Extracurricular Physical Activity in North Carolina Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael B.; Bocarro, Jason N.; Kanters, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged rural youth may be especially at risk for obesity and poorer health due to physical inactivity. Research suggests that extracurricular school programs can increase physical activity for this population. This study sought to determine whether local differences existed in the availability of supportive environments for extracurricular…

  18. Mother-Child Interactions during Shared Literacy Activities: Education in a Fractured Bilingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers scaffold the literacy skills of their children when jointly engaged in literacy-related activities in monolingual families (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2001). Yet little is known about the linguistic environment of English language learners in the USA, a group at high risk for reading difficulties if they are only taught…

  19. Lie-detection biases among male police interrogators, prisoners, and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaad, Eitan

    2009-12-01

    Beliefs of 28 male police interrogators, 30 male prisoners, and 30 male laypersons about their skill in detecting lies and truths told by others, and in telling lies and truths convincingly themselves, were compared. As predicted, police interrogators overestimated their lie-detection skills. In fact, they were affected by stereotypical beliefs about verbal and nonverbal cues to deception. Prisoners were similarly affected by stereotypical misconceptions about deceptive behaviors but were able to identify that lying is related to pupil dilation. They assessed their lie-detection skill as similar to that of laypersons, but less than that of police interrogators. In contrast to interrogators, prisoners tended to rate lower their lie-telling skill than did the other groups. Results were explained in terms of anchoring and self-assessment bias. Practical aspects of the results for criminal interrogation were discussed.

  20. Global Indicators Analysis and Consultancy Experience Insights into Correlation between Entrepreneurial Activities and Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Krivokapić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researches and practical experiences clearly indicate the existence of a strong relationship between entrepreneurial activities and the business environment in which these activities are initiated. Although this topic has been quite ignored until the late twentieth century, a lot of studies and consulting practice have contributed to the fact that there are now a number of theories concerning mentioned correlation. These theories aim to offer a model that would provide better utilization of the possibilities from the business environment which could be very important for the development from both macroeconomic and microeconomic aspects. An increasing number of articles on this topic says enough about its importance, and numerous researches by many reputable globally recognized institutions go in favor of this claim. There are many indicators that observe the economic situation in a country or a region from different aspects, so the analyses of these indicators make it possible to determine the specific relationships between entrepreneurial activities and the local and the global business environment. Given the complexity of these relations, the impact cannot be observed partially, without taking into consideration other important factors, but more detailed analyses, however, result in some useful conclusions, which in the proper context can have a positive impact on many economic factors. It is very important to emphasize the fact that the correlation between the business environment and entrepreneurial activities is bidirectional, since this influence is mutual, so that changes in one of these factors can and usually cause some modifications in the other. Frequent series of such iterations actually lead to changes in the business environment, while entrepreneurial activity changes its shape and affects the economy of a country or a region, which is of particular importance for its competitiveness in the era of globalization.

  1. A Practical Method for UHF RFID Interrogation Area Measurement Using Battery Assisted Passive Tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsugi, Jin; Tokumasu, Osamu

    For the success of a large deployment of UHF RFID, easyto-use and low-cost engineering tools to facilitate the performance evaluation are demanded particularly in installations and for trouble shooting. The measurement of interrogation area is one of the most typical industrial demands to establish the stable readability of UHF RFID. Exhaustive repetition of tag position change with a read operation and a usage of expensive measurement equipment or special interrogators are common practices to measure the interrogation area. In this paper, a practical method to measure the interrogation area of a UHF RFID by using a battery assisted passive tag (BAP) is presented. After introducing the fundamental design and performances of the BAP that we have developed, we introduce the measurement method. In the method, the target tag in the target installation is continuously traversed either manually or automatically while it is subjected to a repetitive read of a commercial interrogator. During the target tag traversal, the interrogator's commands are continuously monitored by a BAP. With an extensive analysis on interrogator commands, the BAP can differentiate between its own read timings and those of the target tag. The read timings of the target tag collected by the BAP are recorded synchronously with the target tag position, yielding a map of the interrogation area. The present method does not entail a measurement burden. It is also independent of the choice of interrogator and tag. The method is demonstrated in a practical UHF RFID installation to show that the method can measure a 40mm resolution interrogation area measurement just by traversing the target tag at a slow walking speed, 300mm/sec.

  2. Can simple interactions capture complex features of neural activity underlying behavior in a virtual reality environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Leenoy; Gauthier, Jeffrey; Brody, Carlos; Tank, David; Bialek, William

    The complex neural interactions which are abundant in most recordings of neural activity are relatively poorly understood. A prime example of such interactions can be found in the in vivo neural activity which underlies complex behaviors of mice, imaged in brain regions such as hippocampus and parietal cortex. Experimental techniques now allow us to accurately follow these neural interactions in the simultaneous activity of large neuronal populations of awake behaving animals. Here, we demonstrate that pairwise maximum entropy models can predict a surprising number of properties of the neural activity. The models, that are constrained with activity rates and interactions between pairs of neurons, are well fit to the activity `states' in the hippocampus and cortex of mice performing cognitive tasks while navigating in a virtual reality environment.

  3. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population. PMID:27293889

  4. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  5. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96 indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  6. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population. PMID:27293889

  7. Built Environment Influences of Children's Physical Activity: Examining Differences by Neighbourhood Size and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine A; Clark, Andrew F; Gilliland, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child's neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9-14 years) in London (ON, Canada). As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child's neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m) around each child's home. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (cluster) were used to analyze the relationship between built environment characteristics and average daily MVPA during non-school hours on weekdays. Sex-stratified models assessed sex-specific relationships. When accounting for individual and neighbourhood socio-demographic variables, park space and multi-use path space were found to influence children's MVPA. Sex-stratified models found significant associations between MVPA and park space, with the 800 m buffer best explaining boys' MVPA and the 500 m buffer best explaining girls' MVPA. Findings emphasize that, when designing built environments, programs, and policies to facilitate physical activity, it is important to consider that the size of the neighbourhood influencing a child's physical activity may differ according to sex. PMID:26784212

  8. Community Lenses Revealing the Role of Sociocultural Environment on Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify perceptions of how sociocultural environment enabled and hindered physical activity (PA) participation. Design Community-based participatory research. Setting Two semirural and two urban communities located in Alberta, Canada. Participants Thirty-five people (74.3% females, 71.4% aged 25–64 years) across the four communities. Method PhotoVoice activities occurred over 3 months during the spring of 2009. Participants were asked to document perceived environmental attributes that might foster or inhibit PA in their community. Photographs and narratives were shared in one-on-one interviews. Line-by-line coding of the transcripts was independently conducted by two researchers using an inductive approach. Codes were arranged into themes and subthemes, which were then organized into the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Results Six main themes (accompanied by subthemes) emerged: sociocultural aesthetics, safety, social involvement, PA motivation, cultural ideas of recreation, and car culture. Representative quotes and photographs illustrate enablers and obstacles identified by participants. Conclusion This PhotoVoice study revealed how aspects of participants’ sociocultural environments shaped their decisions to be physically active. Providing more PA resources is only one step in the promotion of supportive environments. Strategies should also account for the beautification and maintenance of communities, increasing feelings of safety, enhancement of social support among community members, popularization of PA, and mitigating car culture, among others. PMID:25973966

  9. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  10. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J.F.; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is either 'active' (

  11. Validity and reliability of a home environment inventory for physical activity and media equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how the home environmental supports physical activity and screen media usage. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of a self-report instrument to comprehensively reflect the availability and accessibility of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment. Methods Ten families participated in the initial field testing to provide feedback for instrument development. Thirty one adult participants, each of whom had at least one child 10–17 years old, completed two Physical Activity and Media Inventory (PAMI instruments. The first PAMI was completed simultaneously, but independently, with a research assistant to assess validity. A second PAMI was completed by the participant one week later to assess reliability. Results The adult participants were mostly mothers/female guardians, mean age 38 ± 7.2 years, mostly Caucasian (52%, college educated (65%, living in single family homes (74%. Test-retest reliability was acceptable to strong for all summary variables (physical activity equipment, ICC = 0.76 to 0.99; media equipment, ICC = 0.72 to 0.96. For validation, reports from participants and research assistants were strongly correlated (physical activity, 0.67 – 0.98; media, 0.79 – 0.96. Compared to participants, research assistants reported a greater percentage of physical activity equipment as "in plain view and easy to get to" and a smaller percentage of items as "put away and difficult to get to". Conclusion Our results indicate strong evidence for the reliability and validity of the variables calculated from the PAMI. This self report inventory may be useful in assessing the availability of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment and could be used in conjunction with other home assessment tools (food availability, parenting styles and feeding practices to identify obesogenic home environments.

  12. The Influence of the Characteristics of Mathematical Outdoor Activities in Mobile Environments on Students' Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to find out how the characteristics of outdoor activities carried out with the mobile phone influence students' emotions. The research findings point at the following components related to the activity as influencing students' emotions: The activity novelty, the activity theme (related to everyday life, related to a new subject related to the students themselves or to an issue or a subject that the students like to do, etc., the activity conditions (its physical part is easy/uneasy to perform, resources are available, etc., the outer environment conditions (hot, warm, cold, etc., the roles which the activity enables (these roles may or may not satisfy a student, the learning method enabled in the activity (exploring mathematical ideas independently, exploring mathematics collaboratively, etc., the challenge or competition associated with the activity (it needs persistence, attention, etc.. These components show that taking care of students' leaning emotions in outdoor mathematical activities can be achieved through paying attention to different aspects of the activity which are outlined above.

  13. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  14. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical activity (PA adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410 completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1 and Time 2 (T2; environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184 = 7.82, p = .006, but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women.

  15. The Evolution of Galaxies (via SF activity and gas content) versus Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Ryan; Yun, Min Su

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation work concerns the accurate mapping of the large-scale structure (LSS), traced by galaxies, and the assessment of the dependence of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. star-formation activity, color, and gas content) on their environment. Mapping of the LSS is done with two complementary techniques, and together they provide both a local measure of the density field and a more global characterization of the environment of a galaxy, thereby allowing for a more complete measure of a galaxy's environment. I have applied this LSS mapping technique to the entire Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic galaxy sample at zdivided into multiple redshift bins, to explore the environmental dependence on galaxy evolution over a significant volume and a large dynamic range of environments. I will also present a more focused study looking at the molecular gas content of galaxies in two clusters at z~0.2, based on a program I am leading with the Large Millimeter Telescope that has obtained CO spectroscopy for ~70 galaxies with a range of stellar masses, atomic gas masses, and different parts of projected phase space around the two clusters. This molecular gas study provides a detailed statistical look at how the molecular and atomic gas contents of galaxies are affected by the environmental processes in their host clusters. I will summarize all of my results in these various aspects of my dissertation, with the overall theme of how galaxies are affected by their environment.

  16. INTERRELATIONSHIP S BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Drabo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.

  17. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wahlgren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery, as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  18. A Framework for Constructing Real-time Immersive Environments for Training Physical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hack Jung

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a framework for constructing a three-dimensional immersive environment that can be used for training physical activities. The system is designed to capture three dimensional full-body human motion in real time and visualize the data either locally or remotely through three- dimensional display system so that the data can be viewed from arbitrary viewpoints. In the proposed system, an immersive environment is constructed through realistic reconstruction of a scene by applying a stereo algorithm on a set of images that is captured from multiple viewpoints. Specifically, twelve camera clusters that consist of four camera quadruples are used to capture the scene, where each camera cluster is processed by a pc independently and synchronously so that partial reconstructions from each viewpoint are merged to form a complete 3D description of the scene. This paper discusses in detail system architectures that enable synchronous operations across multiple computers while achieving parallel computations within each multi-processor system. A set of experiments is performed to learn tai-chi lessons in this environment where students are instructed to follow pre-recorded teacher’s movements while observing both their own motions and the teacher in real-time. The effect of learning in the virtual environment is discussed by comparing the performance of the trainee groups under different control environments.

  19. Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation using an electron accelerator in order to quantify actinides in encapsulated radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring out alpha emitters, such as (234,235,236,238U 238,239,240,242,244Pu, 237Np 241,243Am...), in solid radioactive waste, allows us to quantify the alpha activity in a drum and then to classify it. The SIMPHONIE (SIMultaneous PHOton and Neutron Interrogation Experiment) method, developed in this Ph.D. work, combines both the Active Neutron Interrogation and the Induced Photofission Interrogation techniques simultaneously. Its purpose is to quantify in only one measurement, fissile (235U, 239,241Pu...) and fertile (236,238U, 238,240Pu...) elements separately. In the first chapter of this Ph.D. report, we present the principle of the Radioactive Waste Management in France. The second chapter deals with the physical properties of neutron fission and of photofission. These two nuclear reactions are the basis of the SIMPHONIE method. Moreover, one of our purposes was to develop the ELEPHANT (ELEctron PHoton And Neutron Transport) code in view to simulate the electron, photon and neutron transport, including the (γ, n), (γ, 2n) and (γ, f) photonuclear reactions that are not taken into account in the MCNP4 (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code. The simulation codes developed and used in this work are detailed in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter gives the experimental results of SIMPHONIE obtained by using the DGA/ETCA electron linear accelerators located at Arcueil, France. Fissile (235U, 239Pu) and fertile (238U) samples were studied. Furthermore, comparisons between experimental results and calculated data of photoneutron production in tungsten, copper, praseodymium and beryllium by using an electron LINear Accelerator (LINAC) are given. This allows us to evaluate the validity degree of the ELEPHANT code, and finally the feasibility of the SIMPHONIE method. (author)

  20. Communication in Joint Activity : Investigating Teams’ Communication Pattern in a Dynamic Decision Making Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Baroutsi, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    The complexity in the world is continuously increasing. Teams are faced with imperfect information in uncertain, dynamic, and time critical environments as they strive to make the right decisions, not just as individuals, but as a team. In this joint activity the members choreograph their actions and synchronize their behavior through the use of communication. Communication is the predominant form of interaction within teams – it is not only a window into team cognition – it is an externalize...

  1. Effects of anthropogenic activities on snow distribution, and melt in an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Bernt Viggo

    2004-01-01

    In many parts of the world snow melt runoff influence discharge from combined sewer overflows (CSO) and flooding in urban drainage systems. Despite this, urban snow hydrology is a field that has received little attention from the urban drainage community. The objectives of this research were to better understand urban snow hydrology and through field work and hydrological modelling quantify effects of anthropogenic activities (AA) on snow distribution, and melt in an urban environment. This m...

  2. Specifying and verifying active vision-based robotic systems with the Signal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, E; Rutten, Éric; Marchand, Hervé; Chaumette, François

    1998-01-01

    International audience Active vision-based robot design involves a variety of techniques and formalisms, from kinematics to control theory, signal processing and computer science. The programming of such systems therefore requires environments with many different functionalities, in a very integrated fashion in order to ensure consistency of the different parts. In significant applications, the correct specification of the global controller is not simple to achieve, as it mixes different l...

  3. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most...... and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework...

  4. Outdoor Built Environment Barriers and Facilitators to Activity among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Huang, Deborah L.; Simonovich, Shannon D.; Belza, Basia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain better understanding of how the built environment impacts neighborhood-based physical activity among midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Design and methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 adults over age 50, which used an assistive device and lived in King County, Washington, U.S. In addition, participants wore Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices for 3 days prior to the interview. The GPS maps were used as prompts during the interviews. Open co...

  5. Residents’ Environmental Conservation Behaviors at Tourist Sites: Broadening the Norm Activation Framework by Adopting Environment Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Yuling Zhang; Jie Zhang; Yuyao Ye; Qitao Wu; Lixia Jin; Hongou Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect residents’ environmental conservation behaviors help in managing the environment of tourist sites. This research provides an integrative understanding of how residents near tourist sites form their environmental conservation behaviors by merging the norm-activation model and cognitive-affective model into one theoretical framework. Results of the structural analysis from a sample of 642 residents showed that this study’s proposed composite model includes ...

  6. Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities. Affecting the Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Figure 1.1) constitute a unique ecosystem with high biological diversity. Their natural resources provide a substantial economic support for the region: in addition to the fishery industry, which has ensured food security to many people of the region and created jobs for others, tourism is an ever growing and increasingly important industry for commerce and other economic activities. Hence, the marine environment should be well protecte...

  7. Perceptions of the Built Environment and Active Travel in Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Gahan, Rose-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Overview: Active transport is on the decline in children and young people. Research suggests that people‟s perceptions of the neighbourhood and built environment can affect this. The purpose of this study was to investigate children, young people and their parents opinions of barriers to walking and cycling, their freedom to travel independently, on foot or by bike and how their perceptions of their neighbourhood affected this. Methodology: This is a mixed methods study that uses questionn...

  8. Interrogating a Fiber Bragg Grating Vibration Sensor by Narrow Line Width Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chang; Dian-Heng Huo; Liang-Zhu Ma; Xiao-Hui Liu; Tong-Yu Liu; Chang Wang

    2008-01-01

    A method to interrogate fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light is demonstrated. The interrogation scheme takes advantage of the intensity modulation of narrow spectral bandwidth light, such as distributed feedback laser, when a reflection or transmission spectrum curve of an fiber Bragg grating (FBG) moves due to the strain which is applied on the sensor. The sensor's response to accelerating frequency and amplitude is measured by experiment. The factors which have impacts on the sensitivity of the interrogation system are also discussed.

  9. DIRECT WH-QUESTIONS INTRODUCED BY SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS IN FRENCH AND ITS EQUIVALENTS IN SERBIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Radusin-Bardić

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our work was to determine the equivalent forms in Serbian of the direct WH- questions introduced by simple interrogative pronouns in French. In Serbian, the interrogative pronouns for human animates ko and for generally non-human subjects šta have six different case forms. They usually occupy the initial position in the sentence which has the neutral stylistic value. The analyse of the direct WH-questions introduced by simple interrogative pronouns in French and Serbian is based on the normative and descriptive literature, as well as on the analyse of the selected theatrical works in French and Serbian and its published translations in both of these languages.

  10. Simulation of path delay multiplexing-based Fourier transform spectrometer for fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie

    2015-10-20

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.

  11. Terahertz Multiparameter Sensor using Fiber-Interrogated Frequency Selective Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose using THz frequency selective surfaces interrogated with THz subwavelength optical fibers as sensors for monitoring of the optical properties of thick films that are brought in contact with such surfaces. Changes in the test film thickness and absorption losses can be measured simultaneously by interpreting variations in the spectral resonant features in the fiber transmission and reflection spectra. Particularly, changes in the film thickness induce strong shifts in the fiber transmission peaks, while changes in the film absorption induce notable amplitude variations in the fiber reflection peaks. When applied to the problem of monitoring of thickness and humidity content in the paper sheets, the proposed system shows sensitivity of 1.5 GHz / 10 um to changes in the paper thickness, and sensitivity of 0.6 / (% of water by volume) to changes in the paper humidity. We estimate the detection limit of our device to be 10 um for the paper thickness variation and 0.02% (of water by volume) for the paper...

  12. Molecular techniques to interrogate and edit the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkerson, Robert E; Jonikas, Martin C

    2015-05-01

    The success of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism is to a large extent due to the wide range of molecular techniques that are available for its characterization. Here, we review some of the techniques currently used to modify and interrogate the C. reinhardtii nuclear genome and explore several technologies under development. Nuclear mutants can be generated with ultraviolet (UV) light and chemical mutagens, or by insertional mutagenesis. Nuclear transformation methods include biolistic delivery, agitation with glass beads, and electroporation. Transforming DNA integrates into the genome at random sites, and multiple strategies exist for mapping insertion sites. A limited number of studies have demonstrated targeted modification of the nuclear genome by approaches such as zinc-finger nucleases and homologous recombination. RNA interference is widely used to knock down expression levels of nuclear genes. A wide assortment of transgenes has been successfully expressed in the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome, including transformation markers, fluorescent proteins, reporter genes, epitope tagged proteins, and even therapeutic proteins. Optimized expression constructs and strains help transgene expression. Emerging technologies such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system, high-throughput mutant identification, and a whole-genome knockout library are being developed for this organism. We discuss how these advances will propel future investigations.

  13. Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eZhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate represents a large portion of carbon reservoir and is used commercially for a variety of applications. Microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP, a by-product of microbial activities, plays an important metal coprecipitation and cementation role in natural systems. This natural process occurring in various geological settings can be mimicked and used for a number of biotechnology such as metal remediation, carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery and construction restoration. In this study, different metabolic activities leading to calcium carbonate precipitation, their native environment, and potential applications and challenges are reviewed.

  14. CLINICAL SURFACES -- Activity-Based Computing for Distributed Multi-Display Environments in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan; Doryab, Afsaneh;

    2009-01-01

    A multi-display environment (MDE) is made up of co-located and networked personal and public devices that form an integrated workspace enabling co-located group work. Traditionally, MDEs have, however, mainly been designed to support a single “smart room”, and have had little sense of the tasks and...... activities that the MDE is being used for. This paper presents a novel approach to support activity-based computing in distributed MDEs, where displays are physically distributed across a large building. CLINICAL SURFACES was designed for clinical work in hospitals, and enables context-sensitive retrieval...

  15. Effect of local and large-scale environments on nuclear activity and star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Argudo-Fernández, M; Sabater, J; Puertas, S Duarte; Verley, S; Yang, X

    2016-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of the main drivers for transition from star-forming disk to passive spheroidal galaxies. However, the role of large-scale environment versus one-on-one interactions in triggering different types of AGN is still uncertain. We present a statistical study of the prevalence of the nuclear activity in isolated galaxies and physically bound isolated pairs. For the purpose of this study we considered optically and radio selected nuclear activity types. We aim to assess the effect of one-on-one interaction on the fraction of AGN and the role of their large-scale environment. To study the effect of one-on-one interaction on the fraction of AGN in isolated galaxy pairs, we compare with a sample of isolated galaxies homogeneously selected under the same isolation criterion. We examine the effect of the large-scale environment by comparing with control samples of single galaxies and galaxy pairs. In general we found no difference in the prevalence of optical AGN for the considered sam...

  16. Adolescents' social environment and depression: social networks, extracurricular activity, and family relationship influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p social network (beta = .107, p relationships (beta = -.368, p social environment plays in adolescent depression, as well as yields new insights into socially-based intervention targets that may ameliorate adolescent depression. These intervention targets may be gender-specific, include positive social network skills training, increase adolescents' engagement in organized activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.

  17. Activities of microorganisms and enzymes in water-restricted environments: biological activities in aqueous compartments at micron scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppert, Michael; Mlejnek, Klaus; Seiffert, Beatrix; Mayer, Frank

    1997-07-01

    In water-in-oil microemulsions, microdroplets of water, surrounded by a layer of surfactant molecules (reversed micelles), are dispersed in an organic solvent. Various microorganisms (unicellular algae and cyanobacteria) and isolated enzymes were dispersed in microemulsions without loss of biological activity. Each biological system needed a defined quantity of water in the microemulsion for maximum activity. Under optimum conditions, microbial enzymes for various sources (hydrogenases, dehydrogenases) exhibited, besides ten-fold increase in specific activity, a temperature optimum up to 16 degree(s)C higher as compared to aqueous solutions. These experimental findings, together with theoretical considerations, imply that water structure inside reversed micelles is very different from free water, but similar to water in narrow compartments with polar or ionic surfaces. These compartments may represent a model system for environments, where (liquid) water is not available in bulk amounts, but embedded in an anhydrous matrix.

  18. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, i.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  19. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  20. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  1. Measuring the performance of two stationary interrogation systems for detecting downstream and upstream movement of PIT-tagged salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P.J.; Jezorek, I.G.; Martens, K.D.; Prentice, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the performance of two stationary interrogation systems designed for detecting the movement of fish with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. These systems allowed us to determine the direction of fish movement with high detection efficiency and high precision in a dynamic stream environment. We describe an indirect method for deriving an estimate for detection efficiency and the associated variance that does not rely on a known number of fish passing the system. By using six antennas arranged in a longitudinal series of three arrays, we attained detection efficiencies for downstream- and upstream-moving fish exceeding 96% during high-flow periods and approached 100% during low-flow periods for the two interrogation systems we tested. Because these systems did not rely on structural components, such as bridges or culverts, they were readily adaptable to remote, natural stream sites. Because of built-in redundancy, these systems were able to perform even with a loss of one or more antennas owing to dislodgement or electrical failure. However, the reduction in redundancy resulted in decreased efficiency and precision and the potential loss of ability to determine the direction of fish movement. What we learned about these systems should be applicable to a wide variety of other antenna configurations and to other types of PIT tags and transceivers.

  2. LEVEL OF PRESENCE IN TEAM-BUILDING ACTIVITIES: GAMING COMPONENT IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca De Leo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who reported less negative effects such as feeling tired, dizzy, or experiencing eye strain during the team-building activity reached a higher level of sense of presence.

  3. Ionospheric disturbances generated by different natural processes and by human activity in Earth plasma environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Blecki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere subsystem is strongly coupled via the electric field, particle precipitation, heat flows and small scale interaction. Satellites in situ measurements and ground based complex diagnostics can provide comprehensive coverage of both time and geomagnetic place effects. Human activity also can perturb Earth s environment, but few are connected with controlled experiments in the ionosphere and are transient. Most of them are related to industrial activity and have increased in recent years. The most important power sources are broadcasting transmitters, power stations, power lines and heavy industry. At ionospheric altitude some disturbances and physical processes are related to seismic activity, thunderstorm activity and some global changes in the Earth environment such as ozone holes. Various natural and artificial indicators can affect satellite telecommunication quality. The aim of this presentation is to report progress in understanding the physical processes in the ionosphere described above and to assess the application of these considerations to the study of plasma effects on Earth-space and satellite-to-satellite communication.

  4. STEPP: A Grounded Model to Assure the Quality of Instructional Activities in e-Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy AHMED ABDELAZIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present theoretical paper aims to develop a grounded model for designing instructional activities appropriate to e-learning and online learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning principles to help online learners constructing meaningful experiences and moving from knowledge acquisition to knowledge creation process. The proposed model consists of five dynamic and grounded domains that assure the quality of designing and using e-learning activities: Ø Social Domain; Ø Technological Domain; Ø Epistemological Domain; Ø Psychological domain; and Ø Pedagogical Domain. Each of these domains needs four types of presences to reflect the design and the application process of e-learning activities. These four presences are: Ø cognitive presence, Ø human presence, Ø psychological presence and Ø mental presence. Applying the proposed model (STEPP throughout all online and adaptive e-learning environments may improve the process of designing and developing e-learning activities to be used as mindtools for current and future learners.

  5. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nanoscale bio-platforms for living cell interrogation: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Hu, Jiaming; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Shi, Junfeng; Yang, Zhaogang; Li, Yiwen; Lee, Ly James

    2016-02-01

    The living cell is a complex entity that dynamically responds to both intracellular and extracellular environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the understanding intracellular functions orchestrated with mRNAs and proteins in investigation of the fate of a single-cell, including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, differentiation and mutations. The rapid development of modern cellular analysis techniques (e.g. PCR, western blotting, immunochemistry, etc.) offers new opportunities in quantitative analysis of RNA/protein expression up to a single cell level. The recent entries of nanoscale platforms that include kinds of methodologies with high spatial and temporal resolution have been widely employed to probe the living cells. In this tutorial review paper, we give insight into background introduction and technical innovation of currently reported nanoscale platforms for living cell interrogation. These highlighted technologies are documented in details within four categories, including nano-biosensors for label-free detection of living cells, nanodevices for living cell probing by intracellular marker delivery, high-throughput platforms towards clinical current, and the progress of microscopic imaging platforms for cell/tissue tracking in vitro and in vivo. Perspectives for system improvement were also discussed to solve the limitations remains in current techniques, for the purpose of clinical use in future.

  7. Nanoscale bio-platforms for living cell interrogation: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Hu, Jiaming; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Shi, Junfeng; Yang, Zhaogang; Li, Yiwen; Lee, Ly James

    2016-02-14

    The living cell is a complex entity that dynamically responds to both intracellular and extracellular environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the understanding intracellular functions orchestrated with mRNAs and proteins in investigation of the fate of a single-cell, including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, differentiation and mutations. The rapid development of modern cellular analysis techniques (e.g. PCR, western blotting, immunochemistry, etc.) offers new opportunities in quantitative analysis of RNA/protein expression up to a single cell level. The recent entries of nanoscale platforms that include kinds of methodologies with high spatial and temporal resolution have been widely employed to probe the living cells. In this tutorial review paper, we give insight into background introduction and technical innovation of currently reported nanoscale platforms for living cell interrogation. These highlighted technologies are documented in details within four categories, including nano-biosensors for label-free detection of living cells, nanodevices for living cell probing by intracellular marker delivery, high-throughput platforms towards clinical current, and the progress of microscopic imaging platforms for cell/tissue tracking in vitro and in vivo. Perspectives for system improvement were also discussed to solve the limitations remains in current techniques, for the purpose of clinical use in future.

  8. Social observation enhances cross-environment activation of hippocampal place cell patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xiang; Ji, Daoyun

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals frequently learn through observing or interacting with others. The local enhancement theory proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates other subjects' understanding of the environment. To explore the neural basis of this theory, we examined hippocampal place cells, which represent spatial information, in rats as they stayed in a small box while a demonstrator rat running on a separate, nearby linear track, and as they ran on the same track themselves. We found that place cell firing sequences during self-running on the track also appeared in the box. This cross-environment activation occurred even prior to any self-running experience on the track and was absent without a demonstrator. Our data thus suggest that social observation can facilitate the observer’s spatial representation of an environment without actual self-exploration. This finding may contribute to neural mechanisms of local enhancement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18022.001

  9. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  10. Psycho-linguistic study of interrogation videos: problems and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagina O.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problems of studying the investigation video to establish credibility of the evidence, to specify emotional state, individual psychological characteristics and the psychological impact on the person being interrogated. These problems are mostly caused by the lack of a single scientifically-based methodological approach while сurrently used approaches are not developed sufficiently. We propose a fundamentally new scientifically-based psycho-linguistic approach to the study of investigation video, including the analysis of voice and sounding speech, linguistic analysis (the content and form of speech and psychological analysis. We considered value, subject, object, and objectives of interrogation videos examination. Study of interrogation videos using the current approach is significant from the point of view of criminal law because of admissibility of evidence by the investigators. The expert concept of suggestive interrogate was operationalized on the basis of linguistic and psychological classifications.

  11. Adaptive image interrogation for PIV: application to compressible flows and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, R.

    2010-01-01

    As an experimental tool, Particle Image Velocimetry has quickly superseded traditional point-wise measurements. The inherent image processing has become standardized though the performances are strongly dependent on user experience. Moreover, the arduously selected image interrogation parameters are

  12. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Owen D. Waygood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  13. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  14. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely 90Sr and 137Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of 90Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of 137Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of 90Sr through diet was 0.42 μSv year-1 for the vegetarian population and 0.32 μSv year-1 for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of 137Cs was found to be 0.34 μSv year-1 and 0.26 μSv year-1 respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  15. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  16. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  17. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, R S; Krone-Martins, A; Cameron, E; Coelho, P; Hattab, M W; de Val-Borro, M; Hilbe, J M; Elliott, J; Hagen, A

    2016-01-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, $M_{200}$, and the normalized cluster centric distance, $r/r_{200}$. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control for the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within a HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g., whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, i.e. as a...

  18. Diffusion dynamics in external noise-activated non-equilibrium open system-reservoir coupling environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Yang

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion process in an extemal noise-activated non-equilibrium open system-reservoir coupling environment is studied by analytically solving the generalized Langevin equation.The dynamical property of the system near the barrier top is investigated in detail by numerically calculating the quantities such as mean diffusion path,invariance,barrier passing probability,and so on.It is found that,comparing with the unfavorable effect of internal fluctuations,the external noise activation is sometimes beneficial to the diffusion process.An optimal strength of external activation or correlation time of the internal fluctuation is expected for the diffusing particle to have a maximal probability to escape from the potential well.

  19. ADAPTIVE AND ACTIVE COMPUTING PARADIGM FOR PERSONALIZED INFORMATION SERVICE IN DISTRIBUTED HETERONGEOUS ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆丰; 冯博琴

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem that traditional pull-based information service can't meet the demand of long-term users getting domain information timely and properly, an adaptive and active computing paradigm (AACP) for personalized information service in heterogeneous environment is proposed to provide user-centered, push-based higsh quality information service timely in a proper way, the motivation of which is generalized as R4 Service: the right information at the right time in the right way to the right person, upon which formalized algorithms framework of adaptive user profile management, incremental information retrieval, information filtering, and active delivery mechanism are discussed in details. The AACP paradigm serves users in a push-based, event-driven, interest-related, adaptive and active information service mode, which is useful and promising for long-term user to gain fresh information instead of polling from kinds of information sources.

  20. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats.

  1. On velocity space interrogation regions of fast-ion collective Thomson scattering at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic proposed for ITER is designed to measure projected 1D fast-ion velocity distribution functions at several spatial locations simultaneously. The frequency shift of scattered radiation and the scattering geometry place fast ions that caused...... the interrogation regions, and we show typical interrogation regions of the proposed ITER CTS system. The backscattering system with receivers on the low-field side is sensitive to fast ions with pitch |p| = |v/v|

  2. Close encounters : the role of culture in interrogation and questioning in the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Tobia , Simona

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role of interrogation in intelligence during the Second World War, and it focuses on the importance of culture in the collection of Human Intelligence in the European theatre of operation. It argues that cultural issues, including but not limited to language knowledge, provided an added value to interrogation, interviewing and questioning during and after the Second World War, for example through the employment of native speakers, in particular former refugees and e...

  3. Enhanced sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor by phase interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Tien; Chen, How-foo; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2011-05-01

    We proposed an innovative phase interrogation method for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) detection. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of LSPR biosensor by phase interrogation. LSPR is realized as the plasmonic resonance within confined metal nanoparticle. Nanoparticle couples the light by means of a non-radiative inter-band absorption, and a scattering from surface plasmon oscillation, the total contribution is the optical extinction of nanoparticles. Due to the variety of resonance types, LSPR is extensively studied in the field of biological sensing, imaging, and medical therapeutics. Generally, LSPR is probed by optical intensity variation of continuous wavelength, in other words, wavelength interrogation. LSPR sensitivity probed by this method is ranged from several tens nm/RIU to less than 1000nm/RIU depending on the nanostructure and metal species, which at least an order of magnitude less than conventional SPR biosensor in wavelength interrogation. In this work, an innovative common-path phase interrogation system is applied for LSPR detection. Phase difference in our home-made system is simply extracted through the correlation of optical intensity under different polarization without any heterodyne optical modulator or piezoelectric transducer, and thus low down the cost and complexity in optical setup. In addition, signal-to-noise ratio is substantially reduced since the signal wave and reference wave share the common path. In our preliminary results, LSPR resolution of Au nanodisk array is 1.74 x 10-4 RIU by wavelength interrogation; on the other side, LSPR resolution of Au nanodisk array is 2.02x10-6 RIU in phase interrogation. LSPR sensitivity is around one order of magnitude enhanced. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LSPR sensitivity can be further enhanced by phase interrogation.

  4. Interrogating resilience: toward a typology to improve its operationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. Davidson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of accelerated global change, the concept of resilience, with its roots in ecological theory and complex adaptive systems, has emerged as the favored framework for understanding and responding to the dynamics of change. Its transfer from ecological to social contexts, however, has led to the concept being interpreted in multiple ways across numerous disciplines causing significant challenges for its practical application. The aim of this paper is to improve conceptual clarity within resilience thinking so that resilience can be interpreted and articulated in ways that enhance its utility and explanatory power, not only theoretically but also operationally. We argue that the current confusion and ambiguity within resilience thinking is problematic for operationalizing the concept within policy making. To achieve our aim, we interrogate resilience interpretations used within a number of academic and practice domains in the forefront of contending with the disruptive and sometimes catastrophic effects of global change (primarily due to climate change on ecological and human-nature systems. We demonstrate evolution and convergence among disciplines in the interpretations and theoretical underpinnings of resilience and in engagement with cross-scale considerations. From our analysis, we identify core conceptual elements to be considered in policy responses if resilience is to fulfill its potential in improving decision making for change. We offer an original classification of resilience definitions in current use and a typology of resilience interpretations. We conclude that resilience thinking must be open to alternative traditions and interpretations if it is to become a theoretically and operationally powerful paradigm.

  5. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  6. Massively parallel interrogation of aptamer sequence, structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas O Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and inter-chip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  7. The Role of Culture, Environment, and Religion in the Promotion of Physical Activity Among Arab Israelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Katz, MD, MPH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDespite low levels of physical activity among Arabs in Israel, interventions designed to increase physical activity in this population have been scarce. To improve our understanding of the cultural, religious, and environmental barriers and enablers to physical activity, we conducted a qualitative study among Arab Israeli college students in Israel.MethodsA total of 45 students participated in 8 focus groups. Purposeful sampling was used to capture the diverse characteristics of participants. Two researchers analyzed the data independently guided by grounded theory. Peer-debriefing sessions were held to group preliminary categories into larger themes. Generally, consensus between researchers was high, and minor differences were resolved.ResultsParticipants recognized the importance of physical activity in chronic disease prevention, yet most were not regularly physically active. This contradiction could be explained by the fact that many participants lived in an extended-family setting that deemphasized the importance of physical activity. Women often found themselves exercising at odd hours so that they would not be noticed by neighbors. Religion, in comparison, was considered a facilitating factor because the scriptures supported physical activity. Furthermore, an urban environment was an enabling factor because it provided exercise facilities, sidewalks, and a socially acceptable venue for activity. Participants felt resources were not allocated by the government to accommodate physical activity.ConclusionIncreasing Arab Israelis’ access to safe and culturally appropriate exercise facilities should become a priority. Thus, policy changes in allocating appropriate funds to promote physical activity must be considered, along with using multiple health promotion strategies.

  8. Measurement of neutron spectra in varied environments by the foil-activation method with arbitrary trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron spectra have been measured by the foil-activation method in 13 different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor, the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor. The spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner that was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial-dependent methods. For some of the configurations, studies have also been made of how well the solution is determined in each energy region. The experimental methods and the techniques used in the analyses are thoroughly explained. 34 refs., 51 figs., 40 tabs

  9. Voice Activity Detection in Noisy Environments Based on Double-Combined Fourier Transform and Line Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  10. Effect of Pharmaceutically Active Compound Nitroxoline on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in an Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ganapathi Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nitroxoline, antibiotic drug, was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel (MS in an acidic environment by chemical method (mass loss measurement and electrochemical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. The surface morphology of mild steel was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy techniques. From the chemical and electrochemical methods, the resistance of corrosion was increased with the addition of Nitroxoline concentration. Tafel curves indicate that the pharmaceutically active compound is a cathodic type inhibitor. An adsorption of Nitroxoline on the surface of mild steel was obeyed by Langmuir isotherm. SEM, EDX, and AFM techniques prove the adsorption process. All the obtained results confirmed that the investigated compound Nitroxoline acts as a good inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in an acidic environment.

  11. Vigorous physical activity and the neighborhood school environment: cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    Purpose: To investigate the association between likelihood of frequent vigorous physical activity (VPA) outside of school hours and aspects of the built environment that support exercise. Methods: Self-reported VPA measured in 6046 boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level logistic regression...... analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between frequency of VPA and objective exercise resources within 2 km from each school. Results: Total walking paths was the strongest built environment correlate of frequent VPA. Boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds or attending schools with little...... socioeconomic backgrounds attending schools with little urban green space (OR = 0.47 and 0.16 respectively). The cumulative effect of paths, street intersections, and number of sports facilities showed boys and girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds attending schools with low exposure were least likely...

  12. Adolescent vigorous physical activity and the neighborhood school environment: examinations by family social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...... logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between daily VPA and objective exercise resources within 2 km from each school. Results: Total length of walking and cycling paths was the strongest built environment correlate of daily VPA. Overall, girls were significantly less...... likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling...

  13. Neighborhood environments and its influence on physical activity in Olomouc and neighboring villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kohout

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modern society with development of new technologies greatly facilitates the activities of daily life and thus substantially eliminates human motion. This fact, together with a sedentary behavior is associated with considerable health risks, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus (type II, hypertension etc. A large part of the population is not aware of the negative consequences of physical inactivity, which may cause serious health problems. And this circumstance should be the main motivational factor to change lifestyle, including the environment. AIM: This study examines differences in the structure of physical activity in adults in Olomouc and neighboring villages within 15 km distance around Olomouc. The main objective was to determine how neighborhood environments affect physical activity of selected population groups. METHODS: All respondents were visited in person by authors and asked to participate in a research study using a Czech version of the questionnaire ANEWS. Data collection was carried out in May and June 2012 and data were obtained from 43 respondents aged 24-61 living in Olomouc and neighboring. RESULTS: The results showed that residents of urban areas are more physically active than nonurban residents. In the active area residents with higher walkability were associated with higher physical activity in urban residents, while the rural residents indicated higher physical activity in lower walkability areas. We found a significant difference in energy expenditure among respondents living in areas with higher and lower walkability in favor of the more walkable areas [H (1, 43 = 26.184, p ≤ .000]. CONCLUSIONS: Highest levels of physical activity represent men living in single-family houses and women living in multiple family houses. Participating respondents most frequently engaged in moderate physical activities. They spent more time sitting during work than sitting outside the workplace. Most frequently used

  14. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  15. Radioecological studies of activation products released from a nuclear power plant into the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Mattsson, S.; Holm, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Barseback nuclear power plant, located on the Oresund sound between Denmark and Sweden, consists of two boiling water reactors. The release of radionuclides, mainly activation products, is quite low during normal operation. During the summer, when annual overhaul and partial refuelling take place, the discharge is much higher. Samples of seaweeds and crustaceans collected along the coast were analyzed for radionuclides. Seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus, F. Serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum and Cladophora glomerata) and crustaceans (Idothea and Gammarus) proved to be excellent bioindicators for radioactive corrosion products released from the nuclear power plant into the marine environment. These bioindicators have been used to map the spatial and temporal distribution of the released radioactivity. The activity has been followed up to 150 km from the power plant, and the decrease in activity concentration in the bioindicators with distance can be expressed by a power function. The variation with time of activity concentration reflects the amount of activity discharged from the power plant, with good resolution in time. The bioindicators exhibit different uptake patterns of the radionuclides detected. The crustacean Idothea showed variations in the Co/sup 60/ activity concentration between winter and summer. 9 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, Gianluca; Radici, Elena; Secrhist, Scott R; Mastaglio, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who repor...

  17. Associations between home environment and after-school physical activity and sedentary time among 6th grade children

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Y. Lau; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Dowda, Marsha; Forthofer, Melinda; Saunders, Ruth P.; Russell R. Pate

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 sixth-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children’s after-school total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associatio...

  18. The Impact of Mining Activity upon the Aquatic Environment in the Southern Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Apuseni Mountains, mining activities have taken place since Antiquity, leaving their marks upon the natural environment, the aquatic one inclusively. If the traditional technologies had a low impact upon the aquatic environment, the ones in the modern period have affected it up to the “dead water” level. It is about the disorganization of the hydrographical basins and especially about aggressive pollution of surface waters with some of the most toxic chemical substances such as cyanides, as well as by an increase in the contents of metallic ions, chlorides, sulphides, sulphates, suspensions and fixed residuum. The decrease in pH, and implicitly the acidification of waters, is also remarkable. It must be mentioned that no systematic studies of the impact of mining activities upon the aquatic environment have been conducted in the area in the last years. In these conditions, the data about water quality have been taken over from the studies conducted by author between 1996 and 1998. The cause of the lack of concern in the field is no other but the cease in ore valorization activities in the majority of the mining objectives in the area. As none of the tailings settling ponds has guard canals, the direct pluvial waters and the ones drained from the slopes transport tailings with noxes which they subsequently discharge in the local pluvial network. In these conditions, both the quality of the mine waters which run freely into the emissary and of the ones that flow from the waste dumps remain mainly in the qualitative parameters analyzed and presented in the study.

  19. Changes in the perceived neighborhood environment in relation to changes in physical activity: A longitudinal study from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; De Meester, Femke; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to investigate how physical activity and the perceived neighborhood environment in children change when they enter adolescence. Also the relation between changes in the perceived environment and changes in children's physical activity was investigated. In total, 321 children and one of their parents filled out a physical activity questionnaire and the NEWS-Y at two time points (last grade of elementary school and 2 years later). Children also wore an activity monitor. Changes in children's physical activity were dependent on the physical activity domain. Only less than half of children's perceived neighborhood factors changed and about half of the parental perceived neighborhood factors changed. Most of these factors changed towards higher activity friendliness. Changes in the perceived environment were only limitedly related to changes in children's physical activity. PMID:25840351

  20. Features of the UK childcare environment and associations with preschooler's in-care physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, Kathryn R; Esther M F van Sluijs

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Features of the childcare environment may influence children's in-care physical activity (PA). We assessed the association between UK preschool care-provider, environmental and policy factors and 3-4-year-olds' average daily in-care sedentary behaviour (SED) and PA. METHODS: In 2013, we used accelerometers to measure the in-care SED/ PA of 201 3-4-year-old children (51% female) in 30 preschools in Cambridgeshire, UK, (average wear time: (mean ± SD) 4.2 ± 1.3 week-days). We assessed...

  1. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  2. Residents’ Environmental Conservation Behaviors at Tourist Sites: Broadening the Norm Activation Framework by Adopting Environment Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect residents’ environmental conservation behaviors help in managing the environment of tourist sites. This research provides an integrative understanding of how residents near tourist sites form their environmental conservation behaviors by merging the norm-activation model and cognitive-affective model into one theoretical framework. Results of the structural analysis from a sample of 642 residents showed that this study’s proposed composite model includes a satisfactory level of predictive power for environmental conservation behaviors. The findings identify the following two dimensions of awareness of environmental consequences as having a key role in predicting environmental conservation behaviors: (1 awareness of positive consequences of environmental protection; and (2 awareness of disaster consequences. Results also show that environment attachment and personal norms about environmentalism played a mediating role between awareness of environmental consequences and environmental conservation behaviors, and that personal norms about environmentalism were the most powerful factor in predicting behaviors. Several practical implications were derived from the research findings that can contribute to environment management policy both within and outside the field of tourism, mostly notably: (1 how the effective promotion of these factors can encourage environmental conservation behaviors for residents; and (2 how governments can develop and implement environmental management measures to improve locals’ awareness of positive consequences of environmental protection.

  3. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal for LEO Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the currently existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.

  4. The mechanisms and effects off the plant-activations of chemicals in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Michael J.

    1993-12-01

    Plants can activate promutagens into stable mutagens and these genotoxic agents may be hazardous to the environment and to the public health. Plant systems have been widely employed in classical and environmental mutagenesis. However, the environmental and human health impact of plants exposed to environmental xenobiotics were not well recognized until the presence of pesticide contaminants in food supplies caused alarm. The capability of plants to bioconcentrate environmental agents and activate promutagens into toxic metabolites is significant when one realizes the immense diversity of xenobiotics to which plants are intentionally and unintentionally exposed. Finally, we all must be attentive to the effects that toxic agents may have on the biosphere and the grave global consequences that would result in a disruption in the carbon cycle.

  5. Off-the-shelf mobile handset environments for deploying accelerometer based gait and activity analysis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Martin; Wang, Han; Kilmartin, Liam

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been substantial research interest in the application of accelerometry data for many forms of automated gait and activity analysis algorithms. This paper introduces a summary of new "of-the-shelf" mobile phone handset platforms containing embedded accelerometers which support the development of custom software to implement real time analysis of the accelerometer data. An overview of the main software programming environments which support the development of such software, including Java ME based JSR 256 API, C++ based Motion Sensor API and the Python based "aXYZ" module, is provided. Finally, a sample application is introduced and its performance evaluated in order to illustrate how a standard mobile phone can be used to detect gait activity using such a non-intrusive and easily accepted sensing platform. PMID:19964383

  6. Methods for Characterization of Batteries Using Acoustic Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shoham

    Batteries are a ubiquitous form of electrochemical energy storage, but thus far the methods for measuring the mechanical properties of batteries and their component materials in operando have lagged far behind the methods for measuring the corresponding electrical properties. In this thesis, I demonstrate methods for determining the changes in materials properties of an electrochemical energy storage cell both ex situ and in operando.. I begin by establishing the impact of micro-scale morphology changes on the macro-scale dynamic mechanical response in commercial alkaline AA cells. Using a bounce test, the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the cell is shown to increase non-linearly as a function of state of charge (SOC). I show that the reason for the increase in the COR stems from the spatially-dependent oxidation of the Zn anode, with an initial increase corresponding to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO-clad Zn particles spanning the radius of the anode. The subsequent saturation of the COR is shown to result from the ultimate solidification and desiccation of the Zn anode. Building from this, I present a generalized in operando solution for materials characterization in batteries using ultrasonic interrogation. The materials properties of battery components change during charge and discharge, resulting in a change in the sound speed of the materials. By attaching transducers to a battery during cycling and sending ultrasonic pulses through each cell I observe the changes in the time of flight (ToF) of the pulses, both in reflection and transmission. I show that the changes in ToF correspond to both SOC and state of health (SOH) in a variety of battery chemistries and geometries, and detail a corresponding acoustic conservation law model framework. Finally, I perform these electrochemical acoustic time of flight (EAToF) experiments on commercial alkaline AA cells. By correlating the results with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) data and

  7. The Relationship of Active Galactic Nuclei & Quasars With Their Local Galaxy Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Natalie Erin

    2009-01-01

    We explore how the local environment is related to properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of various luminosities. Recent simulations and observations are converging on the view that the extreme luminosity of quasars, the brightest of AGNs, is fueled in major mergers of gas-rich galaxies. In such a picture, quasars, the highest luminosity AGNs, are expected to be located in regions with a higher density of galaxies on small scales where mergers are more likely to take place. However, in this picture, the activity observed in low-luminosity AGNs is due to secular processes that are less dependent on the local galaxy density. To test this hypothesis, we compare the local photometric galaxy density on kiloparsec scales around spectroscopic type I and type II quasars to the local density around lower-luminosity spectroscopic type I and type II AGNs. To minimize projection effects and evolution in the photometric galaxy sample we use to characterize AGN environments, we place our random control sample at the ...

  8. Human activities and threats of chronic epidemics in a fragile geologic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhuwa, D. C. W.

    The quality of groundwater in the Lusaka aquifer is becoming matter of great concern to the city’s inhabitants. Access to good quality water in sufficient quantities to support life is becoming increasingly scarce, while waterborne diseases are becoming rife and on the increase. As a result of rapid urbanisation and a proportionate increase in human activities, there has been increased use of the ground to dispose of different types of solid and liquid wastes. Usually, this has been with no due consideration of the underlying geology. Such unsatisfactory management of wastes over a fragile geologic environment has heightened threats of aquifer pollution through unhindered access of components of the wastes to the groundwater store. Consumption of such water may be responsible for the near-endemic outbreaks of diarrhoeal and dysentery cases in parts of the city. As the demand for water continues to heighten, current trends of aquifer pollution of the meagre available water resources threaten to exacerbate this scenario. Consequently, this will impose further restrictions on the city environment’s ability to sustain human life. This paper highlights some of Lusaka’s typical and pertinent water supply problems. It also implicitly expresses the urgent need for reconciliation between human activities and the underlying geology and hydrogeology in order to preserve an environment that promotes and perpetuates good human health.

  9. Controlling the Short-Range Propagation Environment Using Active Frequency Selective Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Subrt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new approach to the control of the propagation environment in indoor scenarios using intelligent walls. The intelligent wall is a conventional wall situated inside a building, but equipped with an active frequency selective surface and sensors. The intelligent wall can be designed as a self-configuring and self-optimizing autonomous part of a collaborative infrastructure working within a high-capacity mobile radio system. The paper shows how such surfaces can be used to adjust the electromagnetic characteristics of the wall in response to changes in traffic demand, monitored using a network of sensors, thereby controlling the propagation environment inside the building. Some of the potential problems (mainly controlling coverage and interference relating to an increased usage of wireless systems both inside and outside buildings are discussed and possible solutions using intelligent walls with the active FSS are suggested. The positive influence of intelligent walls on system performance is shown and results obtained from the simulations are shown and discussed.

  10. Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Melody; Doherty, Aiden R.; Kelly, Paul; Badland, Hannah M; Mavoa, Suzanne; Shepherd, Janine; Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Active transport can contribute to physical activity accumulation and improved health in adults. The built environment is an established associate of active transport behaviours; however, assessment of environmental features encountered during journeys remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of wearable cameras to objectively audit and quantify environmental features along work-related walking and ...

  11. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-03-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9-guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9-RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9-RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). Non-target DNA binding affinity scales with PAM density, and sequences fully complementary to the guide RNA but lacking a nearby PAM are ignored by Cas9-RNA. Competition assays provide evidence that DNA strand separation and RNA-DNA heteroduplex formation initiate at the PAM and proceed directionally towards the distal end of the target sequence. Furthermore, PAM interactions trigger Cas9 catalytic activity. These results reveal how Cas9 uses PAM recognition to quickly identify potential target sites while scanning large DNA molecules, and to regulate scission of double-stranded DNA.

  12. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Zeitler; Laurie Buys; Rosemary Aird; Evonne Miller

    2012-01-01

    Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel di...

  13. Neighbourhood Environment Correlates of Physical Activity: A Study of Eight Czech Regional Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Sigmundová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate amount of physical activity (PA is a key factor that is associated with good health. This study assessed socio-environmental factors associated with meeting the health recommendations for PA (achieving 10,000 steps per day. In total, 1,653 respondents randomly selected from across eight regional towns (each >90,000 inhabitants in the Czech Republic participated in the study. The ANEWS questionnaire assessed the environment in neighbourhoods, and participants’ weekly PA was objectively monitored (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer. About 24% of participants were sufficiently active, 27% were highly active; 28% participants were overweight and 5% were obese. Although BMI was significantly inversely associated with the daily step counts achieved only in females, for both genders, BMI was generally not significantly associated with the criterion of achieving 10,000 steps per day during the week. Increased BMI in both genders was accompanied with a decline in participation in organized PA and with increasing age. As regards to the demographic/lifestyle factors, for females, more participation in organized PA was significantly positively correlated with the achieved daily step counts. In contrast, older age and higher BMI (for females and smoking (for males were significantly negatively correlated with the achieved daily step counts. In terms of the environmental aspects, pleasant environments were significantly positively correlated to daily step counts for both genders. Additionally, for males, better residencies (more family homes rather than apartment blocks in the neighbourhood were significantly positively correlated with their daily step counts. For females, less accessibility of shops and non-sport facilities (depending on walking distance in minutes were significantly negatively correlated to the achieved daily step counts. Individuals who lived in pleasant neighbourhoods, with better access to shops and who participated in

  14. Environment- and activity-dependent dopamine neurotransmitter plasticity in the adult substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, Tim D

    2016-04-01

    The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2

  15. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nathan

    active video gaming environment, the results could be incorporated into game play to more accurately control the energy expenditure requirements.

  16. Biocatalyst activity in nonaqueous environments correlates with centisecond-range protein motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Ross K; Hudson, Elton P; Chase, Shannon D; Dordick, Jonathan S; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Clark, Douglas S

    2008-10-14

    Recent studies exploring the relationship between enzymatic catalysis and protein dynamics in the aqueous phase have yielded evidence that dynamics and enzyme activity are strongly correlated. Given that protein dynamics are significantly attenuated in organic solvents and that proteins exhibit a wide range of motions depending on the specific solvent environment, the nonaqueous milieu provides a unique opportunity to examine the role of protein dynamics in enzyme activity. Variable-temperature kinetic measurements, X-band electron spin resonance spectroscopy, (1)H NMR relaxation, and (19)F NMR spectroscopy experiments were performed on subtilisin Carlsberg colyophilized with several inorganic salts and suspended in organic solvents. The results indicate that salt activation induces a greater degree of transition-state flexibility, reflected by a more positive DeltaDeltaS(dagger), for the more active biocatalyst preparations in organic solvents. In contrast, DeltaDeltaH(dagger) was negligible regardless of salt type or salt content. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy and (1)H NMR relaxation measurements, including spin-lattice relaxation, spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame, and longitudinal magnetization exchange, revealed that the enzyme's turnover number (k(cat)) was strongly correlated with protein motions in the centisecond time regime, weakly correlated with protein motions in the millisecond regime, and uncorrelated with protein motions on the piconanosecond timescale. In addition, (19)F chemical shift measurements and hyperfine tensor measurements of biocatalyst formulations inhibited with 4-fluorobenzenesulfonyl fluoride and 4-ethoxyfluorophosphinyl-oxy-TEMPO, respectively, suggest that enzyme activation was only weakly affected by changes in active-site polarity. PMID:18840689

  17. Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an Exergaming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q.; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  18. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David; Huynh, Du Q; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks). Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the active video gaming

  19. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zeitler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age.

  20. When Are Powerful Learning Environments Effective? The Role of Learner Activities and of Students' Conceptions of Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjets, Peter H.; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to outline a theoretical and empirical perspective on how learners' conceptions of educational technology might influence their learning activities and thereby determine the power of computer-based learning environments. Starting with an introduction to the concept of powerful learning environments we outline how recent…

  1. USE OF 137CS ACTIVITY TO INVESTIGATE SEDIMENT MOVEMENT AND TRANSPORT MODELING IN RIVER COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Toriman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human and environment always triggered to sedimentation and erosion problems within the coastal areas, Therefore understanding sediment transport processes in a river estuary and coastal waters was important when studying sediment transport and mobility within the river coastal environment. This article aims to investigate the sediment transport and mobility of the Kemaman River estuary, Terengganu Malaysia. In this article, it was demonstrated that anthropogenic activities within a watershed, such as agriculture and urbanization affected the sediment yield from the watershed. Over four months observation (November 2008-February 2009, the delivery of suspended sediment from the Kemaman River to the Kemaman Estuary had increased by about 25%. Based on the in-situ measurement of 137Cs activity, the measure activity ranged between 5638-22421 cpm for backshore while for foreshore was between 2655-13354 cpm. The mean values for backshore and foreshore were 15153 and 6261 cpm respectively with suspended sediment concentration, recorded from 17 November to 10 February was between 110.5-218.8 mg L-1. Using flow and suspended sediment discharge data provided by the Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID revealed were possible increasing trend in suspended sediment discharge and concentration, particularly during the monsoon season. Temporal analysis indicates that the trend of sediment yield was increased during the monsoon season resulting over sediment supply adjacent to the river mouth and causing difficulty for fisherman to navigate the boats. In a broader context, this study can underscores the need to address the anthropogenic impacts and flood monsoon on sediment yield in the Kemaman-Chendor estuary system.

  2. Surveillance of Obesity-Related Policies in Multiple Environments: The Missouri Obesity, Nutrition, and Activity Policy Database, 2007-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Elliott, Michael; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Taricone, Elsa; Green, Scoie; Brownson, Ross C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to develop the Missouri Obesity, Nutrition, and Activity Policy Database, a geographically representative baseline of Missouri's existing obesity-related local policies on healthy eating and physical activity. The database is organized to reflect 7 local environments (government, community, health care, worksite, school, after school, and child care) and to describe the prevalence of obesity-related policies in these environments. Methods We employ...

  3. Sequential interrogation of multiple FBG sensors using LPG modulation and an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrogating multiple fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) requires highly sensitive spectrum scanning equipment such as optical spectrum analyzers, tunable filters, acousto-optic tunable filters etc, which are expensive, bulky and time consuming. In this paper, we present a new approach for multiple FBG sensor interrogation using long-period gratings and an artificial neural network. The reflection spectra of the multiplexed FBGs are modulated by two long period gratings separately and the modulated optical intensities were detected by two photodetectors. The outputs of the detectors are then used as input in a previously trained artificial neural network to interrogate the FBG sensors. Simulations have been performed to determine the strain and wavelength shift using two and four sensors. The interrogation system has also been demonstrated experimentally for two sensors using simply supported beams in the range of 0–350 μstrain. The proposed interrogation scheme has been found to identify the perturbed FBG, and to determine strain and wavelength shift with reasonable accuracy. (paper)

  4. Development of an Optical Fiber Sensor Interrogation System for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Lamberti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of dynamic optical fiber sensor interrogation systems on the market it has become possible to perform vibration measurements at frequencies up to a few kHz. Nevertheless, the use of these sensors in vibration analysis has not become a standard practice yet. This is mainly caused by the fact that interrogators are stand-alone systems which focus on strain measurements while other types of signals are also required for vibration analysis (e.g., force signals. In this paper, we present a fiber Bragg grating (FBG interrogation system that enables accurate strain measurement simultaneously with other signals (e.g., excitation forces. The system is based on a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL and can easily be assembled with relatively low-cost off-the-shelf components. Dynamic measurements up to a few tens of kHz with a dynamic precision of around 3 nanostrain per square-root Hz can be performed. We evaluate the proposed system on two measurement examples: a steel beam with FBG sensors glued on top and a composite test specimen with a fiber sensor integrated within the material. We show that in the latter case the results of the interrogation system are superior in quality compared to a state-of-the-art commercially available interrogation system.

  5. Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) temperature sensors, which can operate in a multi-sensor environment, have recently been successfully demonstrated. A...

  6. Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Wireless, passive, SAW sensor system operates in a multi-sensor environment with a range in excess of 45 feet. This proposed system offers unique...

  7. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler Flitton, Mariana Kay; Mizia, Ronald Eugene; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner

    2002-04-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.

  8. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler Flitton, M.K; Mizia, R.E.; Bishop, C.W.

    2001-10-24

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.

  9. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies.

  10. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. PMID:25084562

  11. Does the survivorship of activated resting stages in toxic environments provide cues for ballast water treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Makrushin, Andrey; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of three inorganic metals (Cu, Cr, Hg), three organic (phenol, formalin, ammonium) chemicals, ozone-enriched water and peroxides (H2O2) on embryonic development were tested in 8 species from the Porifera, Bryozoa and Crustacea. Toxicants with lower molecular weight showed stronger negative impacts on post-diapause embryos than chemicals with higher molecular weight if related to the toxicity of the chemicals to active adult stages. Only few embryos of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa and none of the cladoceran Wlassicsia pannonica treated with peroxides at concentration 0.3% developed further. Ozone-enriched water had no significant effect on post-diapause embryonic development in cladocerans. Ammonium (the product of NH4OH dissociation) in concentration 100 mg/l and higher killed all embryos of M. macrocopa inside protective membranes. Peroxides and ammonium are suggested for the purification of ship ballast waters as effective, non-expensive and non-persistent toxic chemicals. Resting stages of invertebrates including at least Crustaceans, Porifera and Bryozoa seem to allow not only dispersal among toxic industrial environments such as ship ballast compartments, but may also endure serious pollution events common in seaports and estuaries. Artemia cysts due to their strong protection against different toxic substances are recommended as a model for studies of toxic effects in diapausing stages in polluted estuaries and marine environments. PMID:20356608

  12. Rich environments for active learning in action: problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Grabinger

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's complex world of rapid change, of increasing innovation and of proliferating knowledge, employers and employees must be able to apply tools and knowledge to new situations with increasing frequency to remain productive and competitive (see Nash, 1994. Because we face an environment in which knowledge and skills become rapidly obsolete, people need to know how to be involved in a continual process of 'retooling' their knowledge and skill base (see Swanson et al, 1993. Consequently, learning to think critically, to analyse and synthesize information to solve technical, social, economic, political, and scientific problems, and to engage in lifelong learning, are crucial for successful and fulfilling participation in our competitive society. Learning environments which prepare learners for the complexities of the professional world utilize instructional activities reflecting the problemsolving and challenge-meeting process professionals use on their jobs. Learners need to: • determine for themselves what issues need to be addressed when facing a new problem; • identify knowledge and skills they already possess that can be applied to the situation; • determine which skill and knowledge areas are deficient, arid create learning plans to address those deficiencies; • create timelines, manage resources, and monitor their progress; • apply what they know to problems that may change substantially from one moment to another; and • assess their performance and make changes in personal processes for use to meet subsequent challenges.

  13. Photo-transformation of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aqueous environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuwen; Song, Weihua

    2014-04-01

    In the past few years, the fate and transportation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in aqueous environments have raised significant concerns among the public, scientists and regulatory groups. Photodegradation is an important removal process in surface waters. This review summarizes the last 10 years (2003-2013) of studies on the solar or solar-simulated photodegradation of PhACs in aqueous environments. The PhACs covered include: beta-blockers, antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), histamine H₂-receptor antagonists, lipid regulators, carbamazepine, steroid hormones, and X-ray contrast media compounds. Kinetic studies, degradation mechanisms and toxicity removal are the three major topics involved in this review. The quantum yield for the direct photolysis of PhACs and the bimolecular reaction rate constants of PhACs with reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the ˙OH radical and singlet oxygen, are also summarized. This information is not only important to predict the PhAC photodegradation fate, but also is very useful for advanced treatment technologies, such as ozone or advanced oxidation processes.

  14. Voice communications in the cockpit noise environment: The role of active noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Peter David

    The topic of voice communications in the cockpit noise environment of modern fast-jet aircraft and helicopters is addressed, and in particular, research undertaken in support of the development of a system for reducing the noise level at the operators' ear is described by acoustic cancellation within the ear defender, known as active noise reduction (ANR). The internal noise spectra of today's high performance fast-jet aircraft and military helicopters is described, and the complex interaction of acoustic noise transmission, speech, and microphone noise pick-up, which produces the total acoustic environment at the aircrews' ears, is discussed. Means of mathematically modelling the audio channel, quantifying the components identified above, and identifying areas of shortfall in performance are derived, leading to a procedure for the development of attenuation requirements, described as the communications audit. A model of the electroacoustic characteristics of the ANR ear defender assembly is presented and the sound field distribution within the ear defender/ear cavity, and its effect upon cancellation performance, is discussed. The extensive laboratory and flight testing of the ANR system that was undertaken is reviewed, paying particular attention to the measurement and analysis techniques employed in such testing. Finally, the performance characteristics of ANR are discussed and compared with the requirements previously established. Design limitations placed upon the system by the constraints of its area of application are described, and the scope for future improvements is considered.

  15. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Ari J S

    2014-06-12

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world\\'s oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  16. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: a pathways approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  17. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari J S Ferreira

    Full Text Available Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  18. Students as active co-designers in an online learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    question they would pose in order to invite co-students to take part in the online dialogue. Thus in contrast to the traditional understanding of the teacher as sole designer of the learning environment, the students were involved as active co-designers. They constantly engaged in dialogue both with fellow......This paper is based on an online seminar on ICT and Learning in Organizations where the traditional practice of using online discussions was challenged by expecting the students not only individually to take part in online discussions but also on a group basis to discuss what kind of opening...... group members and other participating students. Drawing on theories of dialogic digital communication and collaborative learning, the paper will analyze students´ participation in dialogically organized online seminars and reflect on the challenges for students as independent and interconnected learners...

  19. Assessment of an active liquid cooling garment intended for use in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowiak, Grazyna; Dabrowska, Anna; Marszalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a designed active liquid cooling garment (LCG) that has been developed in order to reduce thermal discomfort of persons working in hot environments. It consists of clothing with a tube system distributing a cooling liquid, a sensor measuring the microclimate under the clothing, and a portable cooling unit with a module controlling the temperature of the cooling liquid depending on the microclimate temperature under the clothing. The LCG was validated through tests on volunteers in a climatic chamber at 30 °C, a relative humidity of 40%, and an air movement rate of 0.4 m/s. The obtained test results confirmed the beneficial effects of the cooling system used on mean weighted skin temperature, the physical parameters of the microclimate under the clothing, and the participants' subjective assessments, as well as confirmed that the functioning of the control system regulating liquid temperature in the LCG was correct. PMID:27633212

  20. Synchronization of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways through adaptive environment-mediated coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomsi, P. Guemkam; Moukam Kakmeni, F. M.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report the synchronized dynamics of cells with activator-inhibitor pathways via an adaptive environment-mediated coupling scheme with feedbacks and control mechanisms. The adaptive character of the extracellular medium is modeled via its damping parameter as a physiological response aiming at annihilating the cellular differentiation existing between the chaotic biochemical pathways of the cells, in order to preserve homeostasis. We perform an investigation on the existence and stability of the synchronization manifold of the coupled system under the proposed coupling pattern. Both mathematical and computational tools suggest the accessibility of conducive prerequisites (conditions) for the emergence of a robust synchronous regime. The relevance of a phase-synchronized dynamics is appraised and several numerical indicators advocate for the prevalence of this fascinating phenomenon among the interacting cells in the phase space.

  1. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, G. [LANL; Sandberg, R. L. [LANL; Lalone, B. M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. R. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Udd, E. [Columbia Gorge Research

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  2. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  3. Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Hamsa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School. This study aimed to describe the form, function, and questioning strategies teachers in teacher-student interrogation in Bahasa Indonesia learning in elementary school. Data sourced from four teacher of elementary school, SDN Tamangapa and SD Inpres Tamangapa. Data were obtained by (1 recording, (2 documentation, (3 field notes, (4 interview. The results showed that: (1 the form of questioning the teacher in the teacher-student interaction in Bahasa Indonesia learning in primary schools generally examined the low-level thinking skills, (2 functions of teacher questions are generally intended to check student understanding, and (3 teachers utilize a variety of strategies in addressing student answers correctly and the apparent hesitation. Some disadvantages are indicated teachers in providing interrogation.

  4. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using tapered hollow Bragg waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C; Allen, T W; Azar, A; Melnyk, A; Dennison, C R; DeCorby, R G

    2014-10-15

    We describe an integrated system for wavelength interrogation, which uses tapered hollow Bragg waveguides coupled to an image sensor. Spectral shifts are extracted from the wavelength dependence of the light radiated at mode cutoff. Wavelength shifts as small as ~10  pm were resolved by employing a simple peak detection algorithm. Si/SiO₂-based cladding mirrors enable a potential operational range of several hundred nanometers in the 1550 nm wavelength region for a taper length of ~1  mm. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished using a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, and potential for single-chip interrogation of multiplexed sensor arrays is demonstrated. PMID:25361125

  5. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  6. Toward a harmonized approach for environmental assessment of human activities in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; de Vries, Pepijn; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Lagerveld, Sander; Jak, Robbert G; Karman, Chris C; Van der Wal, Jan Tjalling; Slijkerman, Diana Me; Klok, Chris

    2016-10-01

    With a foreseen increase in maritime activities, and driven by new policies and conventions aiming at sustainable management of the marine ecosystem, spatial management at sea is of growing importance. Spatial management should ensure that the collective pressures caused by anthropogenic activities on the marine ecosystem are kept within acceptable levels. A multitude of approaches to environmental assessment are available to provide insight for sustainable management, and there is a need for a harmonized and integrated environmental assessment approach that can be used for different purposes and variable levels of detail. This article first provides an overview of the main types of environmental assessments: "environmental impact assessment" (EIA), "strategic environmental assessment" (SEA), "cumulative effect assessment" (CEA), and "environmental (or ecological) risk assessment" (ERA). Addressing the need for a conceptual "umbrella" for the fragmented approaches, a generic framework for environmental assessment is proposed: cumulative effects of offshore activities (CUMULEO). CUMULEO builds on the principle that activities cause pressures that may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Basic elements and variables are defined that can be used consistently throughout sequential decision-making levels and diverse methodological implementations. This enables environmental assessment to start at a high strategic level (i.e., plan and/or program level), resulting in early environmental awareness and subsequently more informed, efficient, and focused project-level assessments, which has clear benefits for both industry and government. Its main strengths are simplicity, transparency, flexibility (allowing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data), and visualization, making it a powerful framework to support discussions with experts, stakeholders, and policymakers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:632-642. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Neutron interrogation of actinides with a 17 MeV electron accelerator and first results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, A., E-mail: adrien.sari@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Carrel, F.; Lainé, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of neutron interrogation using the conversion target of a 17 MeV linear electron accelerator as a neutron generator. Signals from prompt neutrons, delayed neutrons, and delayed gamma-rays, emitted by both uranium and plutonium samples were analyzed. First results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination are also reported in this paper. Feasibility of this technique is shown in the frame of the measurement of uranium enrichment. The latter was carried out by combining detection of prompt neutrons from thermal fission and delayed neutrons from photofission, and by combining delayed gamma-rays from thermal fission and delayed gamma-rays from photofission.

  8. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  9. Human Activity Recognition in Real-Times Environments using Skeleton Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, we proposed a most effective noble approach for Human activity recognition in real-time environments. We recognize several distinct dynamic human activity actions using kinect. A 3D skeleton data is processed from real-time video gesture to sequence of frames and getter skeleton joints (Energy Joints, orientation, rotations of joint angles from selected setof frames. We are using joint angle and orientations, rotations information from Kinect therefore less computation required. However, after extracting the set of frames we implemented several classification techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA with several distance based classifiers and Artificial Neural Network (ANN respectively with some variants for classify our all different gesture models. However, we conclude that use very less number of frame (10-15% for train our system efficiently from the entire set of gesture frames. Moreover, after successfully completion of our classification methods we clinch an excellent overall accuracy 94%, 96% and 98% respectively. We finally observe that our proposed system is more useful than comparing to other existing system, therefore our model is best suitable for real-time application such as in video games for player action/gesture recognition.

  10. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  11. A Calibration Method Based on Linear InGaAs in Fiber Grating Sensors Interrogation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jun; ZHANG Xia

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the characteristics of wavelength shift detection in fiber grating sensor interrogation system, the wavelength interrogation system which uses linear InGaAs as the spectrum receiver is proposed. Orientation of optic spectrum line affects the silt of volume phase grating and size of InGaAs photosensitive unit, thus the calibration method is needed. Based on an analysis of InGaAs imaging model, least square curve fitting method is proposed to detect spectrum wavelength and InGaAs photosensitive unit position. The experimental results show that the methods are effective and the demodulation system precision is improved.

  12. Greener living environment healthier people? Exploring green space, physical activity and health in the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picavet, H.S.J.; Milder, Ivon; Kruize, Hanneke; Vries, de Sjerp; Hermans, Tia; Wendel-Vos, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence is emerging that more green space in the living environment is associated with better health, partly via the pathway of physical activity. Objectives: We explored the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between green space and physical activity and several health in

  13. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curnow Fiona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Methods Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Results Parental physical activity (p = 0.03–0.008, size of backyard (p = 0.001 and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003 were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p Conclusion Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  14. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  15. Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.

  16. Impact of Mining Activity upon Environment in Roşia Montană

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Roşia Montană is the greatest gold ore in Romania and one of the greatest in Europe, and its exploitation has been carried out since Antiquity up to nowadays. If the traditional extraction and processing technologies had a minimal impact upon environment, the ones adopted in modern times have affected all the components of the natural environment. In the perspective of capitalizing the gold ore through the programme elaborated by the Canadian company, Gold Corporation, the zonal geographical space will be degraded up to the level of industrial dessert over an area of 100 km2 and in case of damage, the affected area can extend enormously. The environmental problems are related both to the specific nature of such an industrial activity and, especially, to the use of enormous quantities of sodium cyanide directly on the preparation flux from the industrial plant. Few such cases are known worldwide, in several economically less developed countries. Usually, cyanides are used for treating the gold concentrations, operation done in conditions of maximum security, in closed spaces, situated in isolated zones and the neutralization (detoxification of cyanides is done in situ. The treatment of cyanides in open spaces has always generated environmental problems. Moreover, none of the cyanide treatment technologies eliminates entirely their toxic effect (less toxic chemical products are obtained. In order to avoid the production of an environmental disaster and to preserve the local patrimony values (in this place there lies the richest mining archeological site in Europe, we elaborated several recommendations we consider feasible as they allow both the capitalization of ore, which is a socio-economic necessity of the area, and the ecological reconstruction of the affected geographical space.

  17. Perceived characteristics of the environment associated with active travel: development and testing of a new scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity. However, the development of instruments to measure perceived characteristics of the local environment is still at a comparatively early stage, and published instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings. We therefore developed and established the test-retest reliability of a new scale for use in a study of the correlates of active travel and overall physical activity in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods We developed and piloted a 14-item scale based on seven constructs identified from the literature (aesthetics, green space, access to amenities, convenience of routes, traffic, road safety and personal safety. We administered the scale to all participants in a random postal survey (n = 1322 and readministered the scale to a subset of original respondents (n = 125 six months later. We used principal components analysis and Varimax rotation to identify three principal components (factors and derived summary scores for subscales based on these factors. We examined the internal consistency of these subscales using Cronbach's alpha and examined the test-retest reliability of the individual items, the subscale summary scores and an overall summary neighbourhood score using a combination of correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa with and without weighting. Results Public transport and proximity to shops were the items most likely to be rated positively, whereas traffic volume, traffic noise and road safety for cyclists were most likely to be rated negatively. Three principal components – 'safe and pleasant surroundings', 'low traffic' and 'convenience for walking' – together explained 45% of the total variance. The test-retest reliability of individual items was comparable with that of items in other published scales (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs 0.34–0.70; weighted Cohen

  18. Silence and table manners : When environments activate norms (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joly, Janneke F.; Stapel, Diederik A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e. g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e. g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there

  19. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  20. Visitor Perceptions on the Impacts of Tourism Activities, Development and Infrastructure on the Environment of Perhentian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdas M.; Mohamed B.

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is one of the leading contributors to service industry in Malaysia and is gradually growing. The growth of this industry brings impact towards the environment, specifically islands. This study views into the tourists’ perception on the impact of tourism activities, development and infrastructure to the environment of Perhentian Islands. A total number of 258 questionnaires were distributed to tourists in Perhentian Islands which is a popular tourist island destination in Malaysia. The...

  1. Investigation of Pollution from Land Based Sources and Activities and their Impacts on the Marine Environment: the Caroni River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbadon, P.; Banjoo, D.; Bullock, C; Norville, W.; Sookbir, S.; Lloyd, G.; Ragbirsingh, Y.; Juman, R.; Chin, X.; Souza, G.; Lall, R; Rambarath-Parasram, V.; O'Brien-Delpesh, C.

    2006-01-01

    "The Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) is investigating the impacts of pollution from land-based sources and activities of the Caroni River Basin (CRB) on the marine environment... The project will investigate the types, sources, levels of pollution, fate of pollutants, and potential impacts on the marine environment. In addition, the project will investigate the impacts of physical alterations of habitats caused by land uses in the Caroni River Basin."

  2. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  3. Aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activation kinetics in a boreal forest environment during the 2007 EUCAARI campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Cerully

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, subsaturated hygroscopic growth, size distribution, and chemical composition were collected from March through May, 2007, in the remote Boreal forests of Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI campaign. Hygroscopicity parameter, κ, distributions were derived independently from Continuous Flow-Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC and Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA measurements. CFSTGC-derived κ values for 40, 60, and 80 nm particles range mostly between 0.10 and 0.40 with an average of 0.20 ± 0.10; this is characteristic of highly oxidized organics and reflect their dominant influence in this environment. HTDMA-derived κ were generally 30 % lower. Diurnal trends of κ show a minimum at sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon; this trend covaries with inorganic mass fraction and the m/z 44 organic mass fraction given by a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, further illustrating the importance of ageing on aerosol hygroscopicity. The chemical dispersion inferred from the observed κ distributions indicates that while 60 and 80 nm dispersion increases around midday, 40 nm dispersion remains constant. Additionally, 80 nm particles show a markedly higher level of chemical dispersion than both 40 and 60 nm particles. An analysis of droplet activation kinetics for the sizes considered indicates that the CCN activate as rapidly as (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol.

  4. Aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activation kinetics in a boreal forest environment during the 2007 EUCAARI campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Cerully

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations, subsaturated hygroscopic growth, size distribution, and chemical composition were collected from March through May, 2007, in the remote Boreal forests of Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI campaign. Hygroscopicity parameter, κ, distributions were derived independently from Continuous Flow-Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC and Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA measurements. CFSTGC-derived κ values for 40, 60, and 80 nm particles range mostly between 0.10 and 0.40 with an average characteristic of highly oxidized organics of 0.20 ± 0.10, indicating that organics play a dominant role for this environment. HTDMA-derived κ were generally 30% lower. Diurnal trends of κ show a minimum at sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon; this trend covaries with inorganic mass fraction and the m/z 44 organic mass fraction given by a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, further illustrating the importance of organics in aerosol hygroscopicity. The chemical dispersion inferred from the observed κ distributions indicates that while 60 and 80 nm dispersion increases around midday, 40 nm dispersion remains constant. Additionally, 80 nm particles show a markedly higher level of chemical dispersion than both 40 and 60 nm particles. An analysis of droplet activation kinetics for the sizes considered indicates that most of the CCN activate as rapidly as (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol.

  5. Miniature and low cost fiber bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, P.M.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the beg

  6. French Interrogative Structures: A New Pedagogical Norm for the 21st-Century Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interrogative structures most frequently used by native speakers of French, in an attempt to reconcile differences between language forms taught in the French as a foreign language classroom and those that are encountered in authentic input. Radio, television, and magazine interviews provided multiple examples of…

  7. A High-Temperature Fiber Sensor Using a Low Cost Interrogation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated Fibre Bragg Gratings have the potential for high-temperature monitoring. In this paper, the inscription of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and the later regeneration process to obtain Regenerated Fiber Bragg Gratings (RFBGs) in high-birefringence optical fiber is reported. The obtained RFBGs show two Bragg resonances corresponding to the slow and fast axis that are characterized in temperature terms. As the temperature increases the separation between the two Bragg resonances is reduced, which can be used for low cost interrogation. The proposed interrogation setup is based in the use of optical filters in order to convert the wavelength shift of each of the Bragg resonances into optical power changes. The design of the optical filters is also studied in this article. In first place, the ideal filter is calculated using a recursive method and defining the boundary conditions. This ideal filter linearizes the output of the interrogation setup but is limited by the large wavelength shift of the RFBG with temperature and the maximum attenuation. The response of modal interferometers as optical filters is also analyzed. They can be easily tuned shifting the optical spectrum. The output of the proposed interrogation scheme is simulated in these conditions improving the sensitivity. PMID:24008282

  8. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  9. Dynamic interrogator for elastic wave sensing using Fabry Perot filters based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Achar V; Varghese, Bibin; Rao, Babu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2015-07-01

    Use of in-fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filters based on fiber Bragg gratings as both sensor as well as an interrogator for enhancing the detection limit of elastic wave sensing is investigated in this paper. The sensitivity of such a demodulation scheme depends on the spectral discrimination of the sensor and interrogator gratings. Simulations have shown that the use of in-fiber FP filters with high finesse provide better performance in terms of sensitivity compared to the demodulation using fiber Bragg gratings. Based on these results, a dynamic interrogator capable of sensing acoustic waves with amplitude of less than 1 micro-strain over frequencies of 10 kHz to several 100 kHz has been implemented. Frequency response of the fiber Bragg gratings in the given experimental setup has been compared to that of the conventional piezo sensors demonstrating that fiber Bragg gratings can be used over a relatively broad frequency range. Dynamic interrogator has been packaged in a compact box without any degradation in its performance.

  10. Resolution-improved in situ DNA hybridization detection based on microwave photonic interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Guo, Tuan; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Dandan; Ran, Yang; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-19

    In situ bio-sensing system based on microwave photonics filter (MPF) interrogation method with improved resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber Bragg grating (mFBG) is used as sensing probe for DNA hybridization detection. Different from the traditional wavelength monitoring technique, we use the frequency interrogation scheme for resolution-improved bio-sensing detection. Experimental results show that the frequency shift of MPF notch presents a linear response to the surrounding refractive index (SRI) change over the range of 1.33 to 1.38, with a SRI resolution up to 2.6 × 10(-5) RIU, which has been increased for almost two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional fundamental mode monitoring technique (~3.6 × 10(-3) RIU). Due to the high Q value (about 27), the whole process of DNA hybridization can be in situ monitored. The proposed MPF-based bio-sensing system provides a new interrogation method over the frequency domain with improved sensing resolution and rapid interrogation rate for biochemical and environmental measurement. PMID:26480367

  11. The Influence of Gender on the Uncertainty Reduction Strategies of Disclosure, Interrogation, and Nonverbal Immediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Judith A.; And Others

    A study examined gender differences in the uses of uncertainty reduction strategies (self-disclosure, interrogative strategies, nonverbal immediacy, and other's self-disclosure) and their interrelationships with attributional confidence (uncertainty reduction). The subjects, 853 students from three western universities, participated in a survey…

  12. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  13. Designing Scientific Academic Conferences as a Learning Environment: How to Stimulate Active Learning at Academic Conferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Context: The main aim in organizing academic conferences is to share and develop knowledge in the focus area of the conference. Most conferences, however, are organized in a traditional way: two or three keynote presentations and a series of parallel sessions where participants present their rese......Context: The main aim in organizing academic conferences is to share and develop knowledge in the focus area of the conference. Most conferences, however, are organized in a traditional way: two or three keynote presentations and a series of parallel sessions where participants present...... their research work, mainly using PowerPoint or Prezi presentations, with little interaction between participants. Problem: Each year, a huge number of academic events and conferences is organized. Yet their typical design is mainly based on a passive way of sharing knowledge. No models for an adequate...... as well as moments of collective learning. Organizers are recommended to adopt an explicit conference design. Constructivist content: Following a constructivist approach to learning environments, this paper stresses the importance of scheduling moments of active and collective learning and knowledge...

  14. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change.

  15. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  16. Reproductive activity after induced anestrus using altrenogest in Tursiops truncatus females in captivity in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available i nterest to reproduce Bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus in captivity has increased due to the international restrictions for its commercialization and the risks and logistical difficulties for transporting specimens. Therefore, it has become important to study its reproductive biology in captivity. The objective of the present study was to determine altrenogest ( r egumate ® post-treatment indicators of vaginal cytology, estradiol levels and restarting of reproductive activity of T. truncatus females in captivity in marine environment. Twelve females received altrenogest at a daily dose of 0.07mg kg -1 for a year. a total 420 slides of vaginal cytology of each female were performed to determine the percentage of cornified cells. a lso, 60 blood samples of each animal were analyzed to determine estradiol levels. r egarding the vaginal cytology; percentage of cornified cells increased between 60 and 70% from day 4 to day 9 after removing the altrenogest treatment and between 70 and 80% from day 12 to day 19. e stradiol levels were in the range of 16 to 114pg ml -1 during the entire monitoring period. a positive correlation (r = 0.7062; P<0.05 was found between these indicators. Therefore, we conclude that treatment with altrenogest and monitoring the estrous cycle with simple techniques such as vaginal cytology might be used for designing protocols for assisted reproduction for groups of T truncatus in captivity.

  17. A Discussion on Interrogation Techniques in Handling Road Traffic Accidents%谈道路交通事故处理中讯问的技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何树林

    2013-01-01

    Those suspects whose acts constitute a crime and shall be prosecuted for criminal liability in accordance with the law in traffic accident cases will be implemented interrogations. Interrogations in handling road traffic accidents, a serious law enforcement activity, must be proceeded strictly according to the law and regulations. It is of great significance for the work of handling road traffic accidents to guarantee interrogations timely and effectively, guarantee suspects provide authentic materials related to the traffic accidents objectively and comprehensively. On the basis of making clear the concept and requirements of interrogation, this article elaborates interrogation techniques profoundly so as to provide help for business departments and the police in handling road traffic accidents.%  对构成犯罪、依法追究刑事责任的交通事故案件,对交通肇事犯罪嫌疑人要实施讯问。道路交通事故处理中的讯问,是一项严肃的执法活动,必须严格按照法律、法规的规定进行。在道路交通事故处理中,保障讯问及时、有效地进行,保障被讯问人客观、全面地提供有关事故的真实材料,对于道路交通事故的处理工作具有十分重要的意义。文章在明确道路交通事故处理中讯问的概念与要求的基础上,深刻阐述了道路交通事故处理中讯问的技巧,目的是为道路交通事故处理的业务部门和办案民警提供帮助。

  18. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    OpenAIRE

    Heather D'Angelo; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Sheila Fleischhacker; Myers, Allison E; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food sto...

  19. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651619

  1. On the Forced Confession of Investigation and Interrogation%侦讯逼供论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闻高

    2014-01-01

    逼供是证据形成的巨大威胁,使嫌疑人不得不招供。现代法治重视口供的自愿性。侦讯需区分刑讯和逼供。逼供是不可避免的法律行为,不能用理想标准衡量,而需用“非任意性自白排除”等规则去限制。这些规则是调和法律矛盾的产物,有助于口供自愿性的认定。侦讯附带的心理“痛苦”,不等于刑讯。逼供的合法性,关键在把握自愿之度。侦讯心理逼供之技术,需研究犯罪心理痕迹的激活、催眠暗示等。其心理唤起,会形成逼供情境。逼供行为的合理性,需辨别“精神逼供”中的“精神刑讯”。排除“精神刑讯”,除了法律规则,还需智谋运作。侦讯智谋,需借势而为,以势逼之,以险胜之。%Forced confession is a big threat to the formation of evidence , which forces suspects to confess .But in modern legal society , we attach importance to voluntary confession .We should distinguish between torture and forced confession .Forced confession is an inevitable legal act and can't be measured by ideal standard .Instead , it should be limited by ‘non-arbitrariness confession excluded'rule.These rules are the products after reconciling legal conflict which contribute to the identification of voluntary confession .The psychological distress which investi-gating and interrogating brings is not equal to torture .To guarantee the legality of forced confession , we should hold the degree of voluntary .When using techniques of psychological forced confession of investigation and interrogation , we should study the activation of criminal mental trace and hypnotic suggestion , etc.The mental arousal of suspect will form forced confession situation .To achieve rationality of forced confession , we should identify the mental tor-ture and mental forced confession .To eliminate mental torture , besides the rule of law , we should combine wisdom and strategy together .In all, we should

  2. The Interrelation of Intelligence, Involvement in Musical Activities, and Supportive Musical Family Environment in Ninth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kopacin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence has increasingly been becoming a desirable human trait, so she scientists from different fields devote it a lot of attention. We were interested in the interconnectedness of intelligence, musical activities and family environment in ninth graders. Correlations were determined with the differences in student achievement in measuring educative components of general intellectual abilities with standard progressive matrices (SPM. The survey results confirm that intelligence, musical activities and musical family environment significantly correlated with each other. The study included 177 randomly selected ninth graders from six basic schools in the region of Primorska.

  3. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment. PMID:16897518

  4. Neighbourhood physical activity environments and adiposity in children and mothers: a three-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles-Corti Billie

    2010-02-01

    = 0.18 within 800 m was significant among older children. Among female carers, options for aerobics/fitness and swimming within 2 km were associated with change in BMI (B = -0.42. Conclusion A small number of neighbourhood environment features were associated with adiposity outcomes. These differed by age group and neighbourhood scale (800 m and 2 km and were inconsistent between cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. However, the results suggest that improvements to road connectivity and slowing traffic and provision of facilities for leisure activities popular among women may support obesity prevention efforts.

  5. Optimization Query Process of Mediators Interrogation Based On Combinatorial Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cherrat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the distributed environment where a query involves several heterogeneous sources, communication costs must be taken into consideration. In this paper we describe a query optimization approach using dynamic programming technique for set integrated heterogeneous sources. The objective of the optimization is to minimize the total processing time including load processing, request rewriting and communication costs, to facilitate communication inter-sites and to optimize the time of data transfer from site to others. Moreover, the ability to store data in more than one centre site provides more flexibility in terms of Security/Safety and overload of the network. In contrast to optimizers which are considered a restricted search space, the proposed optimizer searches the closed subsets of sources and independency relationship which may be deep laniary or hierarchical trees. Especially the execution of the queries can start traversal anywhere over any subset and not only from a specific source.

  6. The Impact of Student Activity in a Virtual Learning Environment on Their Final Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogus, Ana M.; Djurdjevic, Ivana; Suvak, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    By studying the use of a virtual learning environment, many have focused on automatically logged web data in order to detect factors that enhance students' use of the virtual learning environment and that may impact their productive and efficient learning via this means. Following their footsteps, the aim of this research is to examine data…

  7. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Francisco Caracheo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  8. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues. PMID:23124167

  9. The IT studens' project activity for the formation of the university information educational environment in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Баранов, А. В.; Baranov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the experience of the IT students’ project activity in learning physics at the Novosibirsk State Technical University. The students design software for educational purposes in the electronic information-educational environment В статье рассматривается опыт организации проектной деятельности студентов IT направлений при обучении физике в Новосибирском государственном техническом университете. Студенты разрабатывают программные продукты учебного назначения для электронн...

  10. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manua...

  11. Feasibility of multi-secto policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts Marie-Jeanne; Schuit Albertine J; van de Goor Ien AM; van Oers Hans AM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector) policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy...

  12. Visitor Perceptions on the Impacts of Tourism Activities, Development and Infrastructure on the Environment of Perhentian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the leading contributors to service industry in Malaysia and is gradually growing. The growth of this industry brings impact towards the environment, specifically islands. This study views into the tourists’ perception on the impact of tourism activities, development and infrastructure to the environment of Perhentian Islands. A total number of 258 questionnaires were distributed to tourists in Perhentian Islands which is a popular tourist island destination in Malaysia. The results indicate that there is a significant number of moderate and high level of agreement that tourism activities, development and infrastructure are effecting the island’s environment. It was also found that foreign tourist had significantly higher level of agreement for both variables than local tourist. However, it was found that there was no significant difference among gender for both variables. Establishing carrying capacity and embedding environmental education in sustainable tourism management would help broaden the perception of tourists.

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Environment Studies with Students with Special Education Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    Developed by teachers, the curriculum guide provides information on environmental studies activities for use with handicapped students. Activities are divided into three areas: awareness level activities (aesthetics, cemeteries, water, soil, air, noise, and miscellaneous activities); transition level activities (playgrounds, cemeteries, wildlife,…

  14. A New Approach toward Digital Storytelling: An Activity Focused on Writing Self-Efficacy in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, computer technology and multimedia elements have been developed and integrated into teaching and learning. Entertainment-based learning environments can make learning contents more attractive, and thus can lead to learners' active participation and facilitate learning. A significant amount of research examines using video editing…

  15. Preschool outdoor play environment may combine promotion of children´s physical activity and sun protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldemann, Cecilia; Dal, Henrik; Mårtensson, Fredrika;

    2011-01-01

    in Raleigh. Trees and shrubbery integrated in children’s playscape trigger both physical activity and sun-protective behaviour in Sweden, and previous measurements in Stockholm were confirmed. Such outdoor environment should be recommended, but the role of season and climate needs to be further explored....

  16. Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…

  17. Pedagogical Management of Learning Activities of Students in the Electronic Educational Environment of the University: A Differentiated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktarova, Vera Ivanovna

    2015-01-01

    The present study considers issues related to the planning and implementation of the system of pedagogical management of learning activities of students in the context of modern electronic educational environment of the higher education institution. As a methodological basis considered a differentiated approach based on flexible individual…

  18. Ecology and the Environment. Language Arts around the World, Volume V. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of ecology and the environment. The units in the book reach diverse…

  19. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    in the Danish part of the European Youth Hearth Study (EYHS) was used to examine the effect of the built environment on PA. A MI was developed using objectively measured built environment characteristics, and included residential density, recreational facilities, daily destinations and street connectivity....... CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the built environment is a determinant for PA, especially for females. The found gender differences might suggest the need to develop gender specific environmental indices in future studies. The validity of the measures can be further improved by creating domain specific...

  1. An Evaluation Of The Effects Of Petroleum Exploration And Production Activities On The Social Environment In Ogoni Land Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The exploration and production of petroleum and its subsequent transportation and distribution in the Niger Delta have led to pollution of aquatic habitats with serious threats to associated flora and fauna. Consequently most studies have concentrated on the effects of crude oil and its products on aquatic flora and fauna with little emphasis on the socio-economic environment. Evaluation of the effects of petroleum exploration and production activities on the social environment in Ogoni land of Rivers State is the main focus of this study. Therefore in order to fill this gap there is the need to investigate the effects of crude oil spills on the socio-economic environment including the livelihoods of people. This is done by examining the impact of intensive resource exploitation on the social environment of the oil producing communities in Ogoni land which has further degraded the environment to the peril of the inhabitants. Also to examine how the Oil and Gas Multinational Companies have contributed to the management of the environment in these selected communities. The target population comprised 478 respondents across 4 major Oil fields of Ogoni land which is a 5 probability sample. The study employed two sampling techniques Multi-stage Sampling technique and simple random sampling technique. The study revealed that the hazards and effects associated with crude oil spill are enormous and conspicuous. It was also found out that there is no proper mechanism for the dissemination of information about the environmental hazards associated with spills on the environment. The study proffered recommendations appropriate workable Environmental Management Programme EMP which will help mitigate and enhance the environmental quality of the Ogoni land through baseline studies of the environment and carrying out full Environmental Impact Assessments EIAs to understand the ecology of coastal environment for sustainable development to be achieved.

  2. Live Interrogation and Visualization of Earth Systems (LIVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Anderson, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Twenty tablet PCs and associated peripherals acquired through a HP Technology for Teaching grant are being used to redesign two freshman laboratory courses as well as a sophomore geobiology course in Geology and Geophysics at Louisiana State University. The two introductory laboratories serve approximately 750 students per academic year including both majors and non-majors; the geobiology course enrolls about 35 students/year and is required for majors in the department's geology concentration. Limited enrollments and 3 hour labs make it possible to incorporate hands-on visualization, animation, GIS, manipulation of data and images, and access to geological data available online. Goals of the course redesigns include: enhancing visualization of earth materials, physical/chemical/biological processes, and biosphere/geosphere history; strengthening student's ability to acquire, manage, and interpret multifaceted geological information; fostering critical thinking, the scientific method, and earth-system science/perspective in ancient and modern environments (such as coastal erosion and restoration in Louisiana or the Snowball Earth hypothesis); improving student communication skills; and increasing the quantity, quality, and diversity of students pursuing Earth Science careers. IT resources available in the laboratory provide students with sophisticated visualization tools, allowing them to switch between 2-D and 3-D reconstructions more seamlessly, and enabling them to manipulate larger integrated data- sets, thus permitting more time for critical thinking and hypothesis testing. IT resources also enable faculty and students to simultaneously work with simulation software to animate earth processes such as plate motions or groundwater flow and immediately test hypothesis formulated in the data analysis. Finally, tablet PCs make it possible for data gathering and analysis outside a formal classroom. As a result, students will achieve fluency in using visualization

  3. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  4. EH&S annual report: Summary of activities Environment, Health and Safety Division, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report presents an overview of the environment, safety, and health program in operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. description of research in environmental science, remediation, waste management, safety, health services, radiation assessment, and emergency plans are provided.

  5. Vigorous physical activity and the built environment: cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    the relationship between the frequency of VPA and aspects of the built environment (intersection density, number of street intersections, total length of exercise and walking paths, sports facilities and urban green space) within 2 km surrounding each school. We controlled for confounding variables...... at the individual (grade, family social class) and neighborhood levels (urbanicity) and employed the use of interaction terms between family social class and the built environment variables. Results: Of all built environment variables examined, urban green space devoted to recreational use was overall the strongest...... girls. In combination with family social class, the likelihood of frequent VPA was signficantly reduced in boys and girls from low social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to urban green space. Findings were similar for boys and girls even when a combination of built environment...

  6. High Throughput Interrogation of Behavioral Transitions in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mochi; Shaevitz, Joshua; Leifer, Andrew

    We present a high-throughput method to probe transformations from neural activity to behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans to better understand how organisms change behavioral states. We optogenetically deliver white-noise stimuli to target sensory or inter neurons while simultaneously recording the movement of a population of worms. Using all the postural movement data collected, we computationally classify stereotyped behaviors in C. elegans by clustering based on the spectral properties of the instantaneous posture. (Berman et al., 2014) Transitions between these behavioral clusters indicate discrete behavioral changes. To study the neural correlates dictating these transitions, we perform model-driven experiments and employ Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascades that take the white-noise stimulus as the input. The parameters of these models are fitted by reverse-correlation from our measurements. The parameterized models of behavioral transitions predict the worm's response to novel stimuli and reveal the internal computations the animal makes before carrying out behavioral decisions. Preliminary results are shown that describe the neural-behavioral transformation between neural activity in mechanosensory neurons and reversal behavior.

  7. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  8. Sustainability of physical activity promoting environments and influences on sustainability following a structural intervention in residential children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Gregory M; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T; Saunders, Ruth P

    2016-04-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity (PA) among residential youth. This study examines the sustainability of PA promoting environments and influences on sustainability within RCHs. A sustainability survey was administered to 14 RCHs 2 years after receiving ENRICH. Variables included sustainability of PA promoting environments, Organizational Influences, perceived organizational and individual benefits, and implementation of PA and general (i.e. Global) wellness activities. Activities reported as sustained and barriers were used descriptively to inform sustainability. Path analyses explained the relationship between sustainability influences and sustainability of PA promoting environments. Sustainability was found in 8 of 14 (57%) RCHs. Sustained activities reflected greater Global versus PA implementation. Global implementation mediated the relationship between Organizational Influences and sustainability, which may have been more easily achieved since Global activities were most likely controlled by WTs and did not require extensive organizational support from RCH administrators. Results highlight the importance of defining and assessing different implementation types when measuring sustainability and influences on sustainability within RCHs organizations. PMID:26944869

  9. Combining GPS, GIS, and accelerometry to explore the physical activity and environment relationship in children and young people - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrorie, Paul R W; Fenton, Candida; Ellaway, Anne

    2014-09-13

    The environment has long been associated with physical activity engagement, and recent developments in technology have resulted in the ability to objectively quantify activity behaviours and activity context. This paper reviews studies that have combined Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and accelerometry to investigate the PA-environment relationship in children and young people (5-18 years old). Literature searches of the following bibliographic databases were undertaken: Sportdiscus, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA). Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, and covered topics including greenspace use, general land use, active travel, and the built environment. Studies were largely cross-sectional and took place across developed countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia). Findings suggest that roads and streets, school grounds, and the home location are important locations for total PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). The relationship between greenspace was positive, however, multiple definitions and outcome measures add complexity to the results. MVPA was more likely in those exposed to higher levels of greenspace compared to sedentary individuals. Total MVPA time in greenspace is low, but when framed as a proportion of the total can be quite high. Domestic gardens may be an important area for higher intensity activity.

  10. International Volcanological Field School in Kamchatka and Alaska: Experiencing Language, Culture, Environment, and Active Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Ivanov, B.; Izbekov, P.; Kasahara, M.; Melnikov, D.; Selyangin, O.; Vesna, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The Kamchatka State University of Education, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Hokkaido University are developing an international field school focused on explosive volcanism of the North Pacific. An experimental first session was held on Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka during August 2003. Objectives of the school are to:(1) Acquaint students with the chemical and physical processes of explosive volcanism, through first-hand experience with some of the most spectacular volcanic features on Earth; (2) Expose students to different concepts and approaches to volcanology; (3) Expand students' ability to function in a harsh environment and to bridge barriers in language and culture; (4) Build long-lasting collaborations in research among students and in teaching and research among faculty in the North Pacific region. Both undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, the United States, and Japan participated. The school was based at a mountain hut situated between Gorely and Mutnovsky Volcanoes and accessible by all-terrain truck. Day trips were conducted to summit craters of both volcanoes, flank lava flows, fumarole fields, ignimbrite exposures, and a geothermal area and power plant. During the evenings and on days of bad weather, the school faculty conducted lectures on various topics of volcanology in either Russian or English, with translation. Although subjects were taught at the undergraduate level, lectures led to further discussion with more advanced students. Graduate students participated by describing their research activities to the undergraduates. A final session at a geophysical field station permitted demonstration of instrumentation and presentations requiring sophisticated graphics in more comfortable surroundings. Plans are underway to make this school an annual offering for academic credit in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska and in Kamchatka. The course will be targeted at undergraduates with a strong interest in and

  11. A Novel Approach for Creating Activity-Aware Applications in a Hospital Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2009-01-01

    Context-aware and activity-aware computing has been proposed as a way to adapt the computer to the user’s ongoing activity. However, deductively moving from physical context - like location - to establishing human activity has proved difficult. This paper proposes a novel approach to activity......-aware computing. Instead of inferring activities, this approach enables the user to explicitly model their activity, and then use sensor-based events to create, manage, and use these computational activities adjusted to a specific context. This approach was crafted through a user-centered design process...

  12. Soil microbial activities in Mediterranean environment as desertification indicators along a pluviometric gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadova, I.; Zahora, J.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    In the Mediterranean areas of Southern Spain, unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions (López Bermúdez and Albaladejo, 1990), have led to a permanent degradation and loss of soil fertility. This includes deterioration of the natural plant cover, which protects against erosion by contributing organic matter, the main prerequisite of ecosystem sustainability (Grace et al., 1994). Physico-chemical, microbiological and biochemical soil properties are very responsive and provide immediate and precise information on small changes occurring in soil (Dick and Tabatabai, 1993). There is increasing evidence that such parameters are also sensitive indicators of ecology stress suffered by a soil and its recovery, since microbial activity has a direct influence on the stability and fertility of ecosystems (Smith and Papendick, 1993). One method for recovering degraded soils of such semiarid regions, with their low organic matter content, is to enhance primary productivity and carbon sequestration without any additional nitrogen fertilization and preferably without incorporation of leguminous plants (Martinez Mena et al., 2008). Carbon rich materials can sustain microbial activity and growth, thus enhancing biogeochemical nutrient cycles (Pascual et al., 1997). The present study is focused in the role of physico-chemical and microbial soil properties in Mediterranean environment, in terms of in situ and ex situ microbial transformation of soil carbon and nitrogen, in order to characterise the key soil microbial activities which could strongly affect carbon and nitrogen turnover in soil and hereby soil fertility and soil organic matter "quality". These microbial activities could at unsuitable agricultural practices with adverse environmental conditions induce unfavourable hydrologycal tempo-spatial response. The final results shown modifications in the soil properties studied with the increasing of the aridity. Such changes suppose the soil

  13. Geoprocessing via google maps for assessing obesogenic built environments related to physical activity and chronic noncommunicable diseases: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter; Grande, Antonio Jose; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Peccin, Maria Stella

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the reliability and validity of obesogenic built environments related to physical activity and chronic noncommunicable diseases through Google Maps in a heterogeneous urban area (i.e., residential and commercial, very poor and very rich) in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. There are no important differences when comparing virtual measures with street audit. Based on Kappa statistic, respectively for validity and reliability, 78% and 80% of outcomes were classified as nearly perfect agreement or substantial agreement. Virtual measures of geoprocessing via Google Maps provided high validity and reliability for assessing built environments.

  14. A Distributed Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogator Employing a Reformative Arrayed Waveguide Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing-Tang; HUANG Xu-Guang; ZHAO Hua-Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present an interrogating technique employing a reformative arrayed waveguide grating without output waveguides in combination with a linear charge coupled device. A simple and effective data processing method called area equalized point is used to improve the system resolution. The simulation results show that the wavelength shift of a fibre Bragg grating with temperature can be precisely measured by this interrogation technique. The temperature accuracy and wavelength resolution of the sensor system are smaller than 0.08℃ and 0.8 pm, respectively. If the FBG 3dB-bandwidth is 0.2nm with the wavelength spacing between two adjacent FBGs of 1.4 nm, the temperature and wavelength errors caused by croestalk are respectively 0.01℃ and 0. 1 pm.

  15. Resolution limits of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric displacement sensors utilizing wavelength scanning interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Nikolai; Liokumovich, Leonid

    2014-08-10

    The factors limiting the resolution of displacement sensors based on the extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer were studied. An analytical model giving the dependency of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) resolution on the parameters of an optical setup and a sensor interrogator was developed. The proposed model enables one to either estimate the limit of possible resolution achievable with a given setup, or derive the requirements for optical elements and/or a sensor interrogator necessary for attaining the desired sensor resolution. An experiment supporting the analytical derivations was performed, demonstrating a large dynamic measurement range (with cavity length from tens of microns to 5 mm), a high baseline resolution (from 14 pm), and good agreement with the model.

  16. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident l...

  17. Insight into fiber Bragg sensor response at 100-MHz interrogation rates under various dynamic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Mielke, Chuck H.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Azad, Abul; Sandberg, Richard L.; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Sandoval, Tom

    2015-05-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain, pressure, and shock position sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber was used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor were detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals were recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 25 GHz bandwidth digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing of magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts were used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application to FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Then, as final demonstration, we use a chirped FBG (CFBG) to resolve shock propagation dynamics in 1-D from an explosive detonation that produces fragmentation in an inert confinement vessel. These applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  18. Performance analysis of peak tracking techniques for fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero, Massimo; Tosi, Daniele; Perrone, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a spectral correlation-based technique for tracking the wavelength shift of a fiber Bragg grating. We compared this approach, by means of a Monte Carlo numerical simulation, to the typical peak tracking techniques applied in classic interrogation systems. As result, we obtained a considerable gain in terms of noise tolerance (about 20 dB), which can be further incremented by selecting large-bandwidth gratings. This permits to increase the power budget of a fiber Brag...

  19. Optimized signal processing for FMCW interrogated reflective delay line-type SAW sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, Ville; Kokkonen, Kimmo; Meltaus, Johanna

    2008-11-01

    This correspondence presents an optimized frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interrogation procedure for reflective delay line-type SAW sensors. In this method, the time delays between reflections are obtained with Fourier transform from optimally windowed frequency response. Optimal window functions maximize the signal-tointerference ratio at chosen temporal points of interest. The method is experimentally verified and its accuracy is compared with that of a Fourier transform from Hamming-windowed frequency response. PMID:19049933

  20. Optically powered and interrogated rotary position sensor for aircraft engine control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, W. B.; Crowne, D. H.; Woodward, D. W.

    A throttle level angle (TLA) sensing system is described that utilizes a capacitance based rotary position transducer that is powered and interrogated via light from a single multimode optical fiber. The system incorporates a unique GaAs device that serves as both a power converter and optical data transmitter. Design considerations are discussed, and the fabrication and performance of the sensor system are detailed.

  1. Interrogation of a fiber Fabry-Perot sensor by current modulation of a diode laser

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, J H; Littler, I C M; McClelland, D E; Gray, M B; Chow, Jong H.; Cumpston, Jeff S.; Littler, Ian C.M.; Clelland, David E. Mc; Gray, Malcolm B.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for remote interrogation of passive fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot resonators, employing current modulation of the diode laser source. With the presence of both RF amplitude and frequency modulation, it is a variant of the ultra-sensitive Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency locking technique. We demonstrate that current modulation and interferometric demodulation removes the need for a phase modulator in the sensing architecture.

  2. Design and fabrication of customized fiber gratings to improve the interrogation of optical fiber sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Fiber grating sensors and devices have demonstrated outstanding capabilities in both telecommunications and sensing areas, due to their well-known advantageous characteristics. Therefore, one of the most important motivations lies in the potential of customized fiber gratings to be suitably employed for improving the interrogation process of optical fiber sensors and systems. This Ph.D. dissertation is focused on the study, design, fabrication and performance evaluation of customized...

  3. The Interrogative Model of inquiry as a logic of scientific reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mutanen, Arto

    2011-01-01

    Questioning has been understood as a general method for knowledge seeking in philosophy for thousands of years. The first systematic questioning approach in the (written) history of philosophy is the Socratic Method of Questioning (elenchus). The strategy of questioning is the central part of the Socratic Method of Questioning. Hintikka has developed a logico-philosophical model called the Interrogative Model of Inquiry, in which he systematizes the questioning method. The notion of strategy ...

  4. NeuroArray: A Universal Interface for Patterning and Interrogating Neural Circuitry with Single Cell Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Junzhe; Lin, Xudong; Luo, Rongcong; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many surface-chemistry-based patterning methods, our NeuroArray technique is specially designed to accommodate neuron's polarized morphologies to make regular arrays...

  5. ACORD – Construction and Interrogation of Knowledge Bases Using Natural Language and Graphics – Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bès, Gabriel G.

    1989-01-01

    International audience The Technical Documentation of the ACORD project resumes five years of work by eight European teams, industrial and academic partners, which involved more than fifty people working around the construction and interrogation of knowledge bases using natural language and graphics. The Introduction guides the reader towards the architecture of the whole system and its components. The 12 chapters include four common points: scientific background and development, technical...

  6. Interrogating public sphere and popular culture as theoretical concepts on their value in African studies

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Concepts such as civil society and public sphere have been frequently used both as analytical tools and as normative concepts deemed essential to a wellfunctioning liberal democracy. Because of its theoretical roots in Western liberal thinking, scholars in African studies such as Comaroffs, Mamdani and Ekeh have vigorously debated the extent to which the concept of civil society is useful in explaining and interrogating developments in Africa. However, the concept of the public sphere has ...

  7. Sharpening Precision Medicine by a Thorough Interrogation of Metabolic Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Kirk; Kennedy, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an active component of medical practice today, but aspirations are to both broaden its reach to a greater diversity of individuals and improve its "precision" by enhancing the ability to define even more disease states in combination with associated treatments. Given complexity of human phenotypes, much work is required. In this review, we deconstruct this challenge at a high level to define what is needed to move closer toward these aspirations. In the context of the variables that influence the diverse array of phenotypes across human health and disease - genetics, epigenetics, environmental influences, and the microbiome - we detail the factors behind why an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is increasingly regarded as a key element to precisely defining phenotypes. Although an individual's biochemical (metabolite) composition is generally regarded, and frequently shown, to be a surrogate to the phenotypic state, we review how metabolites (and therefore an individual's metabolic profile) are also functionally related to the myriad of phenotypic influencers like genetics and the microbiota. We describe how using the technology to comprehensively measure an individual's biochemical profile - metabolomics - is integrative to defining individual phenotypes and how it is currently being deployed in efforts to continue to elaborate on human health and disease in large population studies. Finally, we summarize instances where metabolomics is being used to assess individual health in instances where signatures (i.e. biomarkers) have been defined.

  8. On Language Skill of Interrogation%试论讯问言语技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何悦

    2011-01-01

    Interrogation belongs to a kind of important detective behavior which is often used by the public security organs. In the process of investigation, the criminal suspect or defendant's confession is one of the prescribed evidences according to the criminal procedure law which plays a critical role in timely cracking the case, the prosecution, charges and accurate conviction. Interrogation must be carried out effectively and legally. Meanwhile, the interrogaters are expected to have the excellent language skills of interrogation.%讯问是公安机关侦查活动中经常、普遍进行的一种重要的侦查行为。在侦察取证中,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的口供是刑事诉讼法规定的证据之一,它对于及时地侦破案件、准确的起诉、指控和定罪量刑有非常重要的作用。讯问必须有效而合法的进行,同时要求讯问人员有着高超的讯问言语技巧。

  9. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences.

  10. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  11. Design, integration, and testing of a compact FBG interrogator, based on an AWG spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trita, Andrea; Vickers, Garrie; Mayordomo, Iker; van Thourhout, Dries; Vermeiren, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating or FBG sensors are gaining more and more interest in structural health monitoring of composite materials. Often, the weakest point in such a system is the ingress point of the fiber sensing chain into the composite material. For this reason we have developed a strongly miniaturized FBG interrogator unit with wireless power and data transmission, which can be incorporated in the composite structure. The interrogator is based on an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) filter fabricated in a SOI technology, which is tailored in such a way to give large cross-talk between neighboring channels. The AWG signals are read by a linear 128 pixel InGaAs array flip-chipped on top of the Photonic Circuit (PIC). The spectrometer unit is completed with a ROIC mounted on the same substrate. The SLED and remaining electronics are integrated on a small and thin substrate and surrounded by the wireless antenna. The interrogator has an overall dimension of 100 mm diameter by max 7 mm height. The power dissipation of the electronics unit is limited to 1.5 W. The unit is capable of measuring strain values as low as 5 micro-strain.

  12. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  13. ‘Women’ in ‘Asia’: An Interrogation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devleena Ghosh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this special issue section of PORTAL had their first iteration as presentations in the Eighth Women in Asia Conference held at the University of Technology Sydney in 2005, the theme of which was ‘Shadow Lines’. The concept ‘Women in Asia’ is problematic since some of the major debates in gender or women’s studies have focused on the diversity of women’s life worlds and beings and the contested nature of the term ‘Asia’. As a theme it has the potential to become a holdall phrase for scholarship, research and activist work ‘from Suez to Suva’. However, reflecting on these difficult terms can be a creative and rewarding process. The attempt to locate Australia within the region, rather than within a putative ‘west’, and to deal with her geography rather than just her white history, can be an effective way of challenging many current ‘white blindfold’ discourses. At the same time, gendered analyses of society, politics and culture that attempt a re-insertion of ‘herstories’ into academic discourses have to be sophisticated enough to demonstrate the intrinsic gendering of all-embracing, supposedly ‘neutral’, ideas such as race, nationalism, ethics, and the state, rather than simply ‘adding in’ women. The marginalised spaces of women’s activities have to be legitimated as crucial elements of all social relations, highlighting the intimate relationships and connections between men and women. These concerns animate the papers collected in this issue.

  14. Verification of plutonium content in spent fuel assemblies using neutron self-interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Apencer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The large amounts of plutonium in reactor spent fuel assemblies has led to increased research directed toward the measurement of the plutonium for safeguards verification. The high levels of fission product gamma-ray activity and curium neutron backgrounds have made the plutonium measurement difficult. We have developed a new technique that can directly measure both the {sup 235}U concentration and the plutonium fissile concentration using the intrinsic neutron emission fronl the curium in the fuel assembly. The passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) method has been described previously where the curium neutrons are moderated in the surrounding water and reflect back into the fuel assembly to induce fissions in the fissile material in the assembly. The cadmium (Cd) ratio is used to separate the spontaneous fission source neutrons from the reflected thermal neutron fission reactions. This method can measure the sum of the {sup 235}U and the plutonium fissile mass, but not the separate components. Our new differential die-away self-interrogation method (DDSI) can be used to separate the {sup 235}U from the {sup 239}Pu. The method has been applied to both fuel rods and full assemblies. For fuel rods the epi-thermal neutron reflection method filters the reflected neutrons through thin Cd filters so that the reflected neutrons are from the epi-cadmium energy region. The neutron fission energy response in the epi-cadmium region is distinctly different for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. We are able to measure the difference between {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu by sampling the neutron induced fission rate as a function of time and multiplicity after the initial fission neutron is detected. We measure the neutron fission rate using list-mode data collection that stores the time correlations between all of the counts. The computer software can select from the data base the time correlations that include singles, doubles, and triples. The die-away time for the doubles

  15. Influence of the environment on the protective effects of guaiacol derivatives against oxidative stress: mechanisms, kinetics, and relative antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galano, Annia; León-Carmona, Jorge Rafael; Alvarez-Idaboy, Juan Raúl

    2012-06-21

    The peroxyl radical scavenging activity of five guaiacol derivatives (GD) has been studied in nonpolar and aqueous solutions, using the density functional theory. The studied GD are guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic alcohol, vanillic acid, and eugenol. It was found that the environment plays an important role in the peroxyl scavenging activity of these compounds. They were all found to react faster in aqueous solution than in nonpolar media. The order of reactivity in nonpolar environments was found to be vanillic alcohol > eugenol > guaiacol > vanillin > vanillic acid, while, in aqueous solution, at physiological pH, it becomes vanillic acid > vanillic alcohol > guaiacol ≈ eugenol > vanillin. It was also found that in aqueous solution as the pH increases so does the reactivity of GD toward peroxyl radicals. The environment also has important effects on the relative importance of the hydrogen transfer (HT) and the sequential proton electron transfer (SPET) mechanisms, which are the ones relevant to the peroxyl radical scavenging activity of GD. The HT from the phenolic OH was identified as the main scavenging process in nonpolar media, and in aqueous solution at pH ≤ 4. On the other hand, SPET is proposed to be the one contributing the most to the overall peroxyl scavenging activity of GD in aqueous solution at pH ≥ 6.

  16. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East-California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Mendel, J. Trevor [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Patton, David R., E-mail: ekhabibo@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  17. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  18. Autonomy supportive environments and mastery as basic factors to motivate physical activity in children: a controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemmich James N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choice promotes the experience of autonomy, which enhances intrinsic motivation. Providing a greater choice of traditional active toys may increase children's activity time. Mastery also increases intrinsic motivation and is designed into exergames, which may increase play time of a single exergame, reducing the need for choice to motivate activity compared to traditional active toys. Providing both choice and mastery could be most efficacious at increasing activity time. The energy expenditure (EE of an active play session is dependent on the duration of play and the rate of EE during play. The rate of EE of exergames and the same game played in traditional fashion is not known. The purpose was to test the basic parameters of choice and mastery on children's physical activity time, activity intensity, and energy expenditure. Methods 44 children were assigned to low (1 toy or high (3 toys choice groups. Children completed 60 min sessions with access to traditional active toys on one visit and exergame versions of the same active toys on another visit. Results Choice had a greater effect on increasing girls' (146% than boys' (23% activity time and on girls' (230% than boys' (minus 24% activity intensity. When provided choice, girls' activity time and intensity were no longer lower than boys' activity time and intensity. The combination of choice and mastery by providing access to 3 exergames produced greater increases in physical activity time (1 toy 22.5 min, 3 toys 41.4 min than choice alone via access to 3 traditional games (1 toy 13.6 min, 3 toys 19.5 min. Energy expenditure was 83% greater when engaging in traditional games than exergames. Conclusions Boys and girls differ in their behavioral responses to autonomy supportive environments. By providing girls with greater autonomy they can be motivated to engage in physical activity equal to boys. An environment that provides both autonomy and mastery is most efficacious at

  19. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  20. The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The results suggest that abundant sidewalks, dense bus stops, easily accessible commercial establishments, and ample green land space are potentially effective to enhance walking among the elderly, albeit to varied degrees. The compact urban form, which is considered as walkability in the western context, may not necessarily play a positive role in Zhongshan’s context. The findings provide insights into the policy-making to promote sustainable transportation modes and the design of interventions on health promotion of the elderly in China.

  1. Influence of macro and micro economical environments of electrogenic effectiveness for business activity of renewable power sources in the Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of the contribution is to explain evaluation of economical environment that firms must respect during their business activity. External environment of mining firm includes except others technological development, economical situation, legislative by the way of regulation, but in last time also stimulations from the government, competition behavior and other. Contribution is dealing also with energetical effectiveness in the frame of economical evaluation applied in conditions of Slovak republic. The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society. (authors)

  2. The activity and lethality of militant groups : Ideology, capacity, and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierau, J.O.

    2013-01-01

    What determines the activity and lethality of militant groups? To answer this question, a two-step count method disentangles activity and lethality in terms of ideology, capacity, and environmental factors. A first step assesses the determinants of group activity, measured by the number of incidents

  3. Seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols in the outdoor environment of the Qingdao coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xi; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Hongtao; Dong, Lijie; Gao, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Microbial activities in the atmosphere can indicate the physiological processes of microorganisms and can indirectly affect cloud formation and environmental health. In this study, the microbial activity in bioaerosols collected in the Qingdao coastal region was investigated using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method to detect the enzyme activity of microorganisms. The results showed that the microbial activity ranged from 5.49 to 102 ng/m3 sodium fluorescein from March 2013 to February 2014; the average value was 34.4 ng/m3. Microbial activity has no statistical correlation with total microbial quantity. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that meteorological factors such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and wind speed accounted for approximately 35.7% of the variation of the microbial activity, although their individual impacts on microbial activity varied. According to the correlation analysis, atmospheric temperature and wind speed had a significant positive and negative influence on microbial activity, respectively, whereas relative humidity and wind direction had no significant influence. The seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols was in the order of summer > autumn > winter > spring, with high fluctuations in the summer and autumn. Microbial activity in bioaerosols differed in different weather conditions such as the sunny, foggy, and hazy days of different seasons. Further in situ observations in different weather conditions at different times and places are needed to understand the seasonal distribution characteristics of microbial activity in bioaerosols and the influence factors of microbial activity.

  4. Activity Theory as a Framework for Project Work in Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David W. L.; Wong, Angela F. L.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes activity theory as a framework for student project work that is a form of open-ended contextual activity-based learning emphasizing problem solving as a collaborative effort. Topics include project work from a Vygotskian perspective of activity theory; and the design of a prototype for Web-based project work. (LRW)

  5. Active Learning in the Online Environment: The Integration of Student-Generated Audio Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Armier, David Des, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Educators have integrated instructor-produced audio files in a variety of settings and environments for purposes such as content presentation, lecture reviews, student feedback, and so forth. Few instructors, however, require students to produce audio files and share them with peers. The purpose of this study was to obtain empirical data on…

  6. Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida

    neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources...

  7. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  8. Driver behavior analysis during ACC activation and deactivation in a real traffic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.; Feenstra, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    For the development of a traffic-simulation model to estimate the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems on traffic safety, throughput, and environment, data of a field operational test (FOT) were analyzed, in which vehicles were equipped with ACC and lane-departure warning (LDW) systems. T

  9. Participation in the Virtual Environment of Blended College Courses: An Activity Study of Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Hargis, Jace; Mayberry, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in the introductory semester of liberal studies blended courses offered at the bachelor of science level. The influence of student participation in the online course environment was examined, as measured by the number of times students logged into the learning management system (LMS) and average…

  10. Theoretical analysis of the cost of antagonistic activity for aquatic bacteria in oligotrophic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneas eAguirre-Von-Wobeser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many strains of bacteria produce antagonistic substances that restrain the growth of others, and potentially give them a competitive advantage. These substances are commonly released to the surrounding environment, involving metabolic costs in terms of energy and nutrients. The rate at which these molecules need to be produced to maintain a certain amount of them close to the producing cell before they are diluted into the environment has not been explored so far. To understand the potential cost of production of antagonistic substances in water environments, we used two different theoretical approaches. Using a probabilistic model, we determined the rate at which a cell needs to produce individual molecules in order to keep on average a single molecule in its vicinity at all times. For this minimum protection, a cell would need to invest 3.92X10-22 kg s-1 of organic matter, which is 9 orders of magnitude lower than the estimated expense for growth. Next, we used a continuous model, based on Fick’s laws, to explore the production rate needed to sustain minimum inhibitory concentrations around a cell, which would provide much more protection from competitors. In this scenario, cells would need to invest 1.20X10-11 kg s-1, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the estimated expense for growth, and thus not sustainable. We hypothesize that the production of antimicrobial compounds by bacteria in aquatic environments lies between these two extremes.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the cost of antagonistic activity for aquatic bacteria in oligotrophic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-von-Wobeser, Eneas; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Many strains of bacteria produce antagonistic substances that restrain the growth of others, and potentially give them a competitive advantage. These substances are commonly released to the surrounding environment, involving metabolic costs in terms of energy and nutrients. The rate at which these molecules need to be produced to maintain a certain amount of them close to the producing cell before they are diluted into the environment has not been explored so far. To understand the potential cost of production of antagonistic substances in water environments, we used two different theoretical approaches. Using a probabilistic model, we determined the rate at which a cell needs to produce individual molecules in order to keep on average a single molecule in its vicinity at all times. For this minimum protection, a cell would need to invest 3.92 × 10(-22) kg s(-1) of organic matter, which is 9 orders of magnitude lower than the estimated expense for growth. Next, we used a continuous model, based on Fick's laws, to explore the production rate needed to sustain minimum inhibitory concentrations around a cell, which would provide much more protection from competitors. In this scenario, cells would need to invest 1.20 × 10(-11) kg s(-1), which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the estimated expense for growth, and thus not sustainable. We hypothesize that the production of antimicrobial compounds by bacteria in aquatic environments lies between these two extremes.

  12. Associations between the neighbourhood built environment and out of school physical activity and active travel: An examination from the Kids in the City study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Mavoa, Suzanne; Badland, Hannah; Parker, Karl; Donovan, Phil; Kearns, Robin A; Lin, En-Yi; Witten, Karen

    2015-11-01

    This study's aim was to examine selected objectively-measured and child specific built environment attributes in relation to proportion of out-of-school time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) and active travel in a group of ethnically and socio-economically diverse children (n=236) living in Auckland, New Zealand. Street connectivity and distance to school were related to the proportion of trips made by active modes. Ratio of high speed to low speed roads and improved streetscape for active travel were related to %MVPA on weekdays only. Inconsistent results were found for destination accessibility. Local destinations (particularly schools) along a safe street network may be important for encouraging children's activity behaviours. PMID:26432167

  13. FINITE MARKOV CHAINS IN THE MODEL REPRESENTATION OF THE HUMAN OPERATOR ACTIVITY IN QUASI-FUNCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Serzhantova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We analyze the problems of finite Markov chains apparatus application for simulating a human operator activity in the quasi-static functional environment. It is shown that the functional environment stochastic nature is generated by a factor of interval character of human operator properties. Method. The problem is solved in the class of regular (recurrent finite Markov chains with three states of the human operator: with a favorable, median and unfavorable combination of the values of mathematical model parameters of the human operator in a quasi-static functional environment. The finite Markov chain is designed taking into account the factors of human operator tiredness and interval character of parameters of the model representation of his properties. The device is based on the usage of mathematical approximation of the standard curve of the human operator activity performance during work shift. The standard curve of the human operator activity performance is based on the extensive research experience of functional activity of the human operator with the help of photos of the day, his action timing and ergonomic generalizations. Main Results. The apparatus of regular finite Markov chains gave the possibility to evaluate correctly the human operator activity performance in a quasi-static functional environment with the use of the main information component of these chains as a vector of final probabilities. In addition, we managed to build an algorithmic basis for estimating the stationary time (time study for transit of human operator from arbitrary initial functional state into a state corresponding to a vector of final probabilities for a used chain after it reaches the final state based on the analysis of the eigenvalues spectrum of the matrix of transition probabilities for a regular (recurrent finite Markov chain. Practical Relevance. Obtained theoretical results are confirmed by illustrative examples, which

  14. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea–land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea–land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately $1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo model of explosives screening in cargo containers using fast neutrons. • Monte Carlo model also explores neutron detector response. • Development of an explosives detection algorithm using active neutron interrogation. • Implementation of the algorithm, including equipment, infrastructure, cost and dose. • System will cost ~1M USD and an entire container may be scanned in ~10 min

  15. MATURITY IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT - EVOLUTION, ACTIVITY AND PROMOTION. CASE STUDY REGARDING TRAVEL AGENCIES FROM CLUJ-NAPOCA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Filofteia TUTUNEA

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation of digital market imposed on companies relocating their activities into the digital environment where interactivity, direct communication, interfacing of the company and its offer with the digital consumer are implemented through the digital identity in its traditional or mobile form. Tourism was among the first digitalised global industries, the web presence of tourism companies becoming the main tool for presentation and marketing their products and services. The form, usabili...

  16. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  17. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    E. Owen D. Waygood; Yilin Sun; Laurence Letarte

    2015-01-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Th...

  18. Identifying Active Travel Behaviors in Challenging Environments Using GPS, Accelerometers, and Machine Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Katherine; Godbole, Suneeta; Marshall, Simon; Lanckriet, Gert; Staudenmayer, John; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel is an important area in physical activity research, but objective measurement of active travel is still difficult. Automated methods to measure travel behaviors will improve research in this area. In this paper, we present a supervised machine learning method for transportation mode prediction from global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data. Methods: We collected a dataset of about 150 h of GPS and accelerometer data from two research assistants follow...

  19. Identifying active travel behaviors in challenging environments using GPS, accelerometers and machine learning algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine eEllis; Suneeta eGodbole; Simon eMarshall; Gert eLanckriet; John eStaudenmayer; Jacqueline eKerr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel is an important area in physical activity research, but objective measurement of active travel is still difficult. Automated methods to measure travel behaviors will improve research in this area. In this paper we present a supervised machine learning method for transportation mode prediction from GPS and accelerometer data. Methods: We collected a dataset of about 150 hours of GPS and accelerometer data from two research assistants following a protocol of prescribe...

  20. The impact of phosphate loading activities on near marine environment: The Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of loading cargoes of phosphate ore into ships on the near marine environment at the Syrian coast has been evaluated. Results have shown a significant enhancement of 210Po, 210Pb and other natural radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210Po and 210Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq kg-1 respectively, while 210Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 mBql-1. In addition, comparable values of 210Po and 210Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) suggest that their use as indicators for phosphate pollution is not recommended. However, the effect of loading cargoes on Tartous port marine environment of Tartous was found to be mainly related to wind direction where radioactive air particulate are either being dispersed to land or sea. (author)