WorldWideScience

Sample records for active ingredient fact

  1. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  2. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  3. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  4. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed.

  5. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts.

  6. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  7. A survey of Chinese herbal ingredients with liver protection activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Linda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A literature survey was conducted on herbs, their preparations and ingredients with reported liver protection activities, in which a total of 274 different species and hundreds of active ingredients have been examined. These ingredients can be roughly classified into two categories according to their activities: (1 the main ingredients, such as silybin, osthole, coumarin, glycyrrhizin, saikosaponin A, schisandrin A, flavonoids; and (2 supporting substances, such as sugars, amino acids, resins, tannins and volatile oil. Among them, some active ingredients have hepatoprotective activities (e.g. anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulating and liver cirrhosis-regulating effects. Calculation of physicochemical parameters indicates that the main ingredients with negative and positive Elumo values possibly display their hepatoprotective effects through different mechanisms, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects. As the combination of herbs may achieve some treatment effects synergistically and/or additively, it is common in Chinese medicine to use mixtures of various medicinal herbs with pharmacologically active compounds to have synergistic and/or additive effects, or to reduce harmful effects of some pharmacologically active compounds. In particular, the active compounds with Clog P around 2 are suitable for passive transport across membranes and accessible to the target sites. Thus, Elumo and Clog P values are good indicators among the calculated parameters. Seven different physicochemical parameters (MW, Clog P, CMR, μ, Ehomo, Elumo and Hf and four major biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral/antitumor and immunomodulating are discussed in this review. It is hoped that the discussion may provide some leads in the development of new hepatoprotective drugs.

  8. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  9. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  10. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF INDONESIAN HERBAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to aimed to evaluated and compare in vitro antioxidant activities of 2 Indonesian herbal ingredients (A and B), determined total phenol content., cytotoxic and apoptosis induction activities on HL-60 cells. These data were providing some useful information for people healthy dietary and the new potential application of natural antioxidant containing food materials in functional foods and also as new cancer therapeutics promising candidates. The parameters were total anti...

  11. Preparation and evaluation of combination tablet containing incompatible active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Fude; Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2003-07-01

    Combination preparation plays an important role in clinical treatment because of its better and wider curative synergism and weaker side effects. However, the existence of incompatibility between active ingredients or between active ingredients and excipients presents a serious obstacle in the preparation of such combination solid dosage forms. In this study, aspirin and ranitidine hydrochloride, between which there existed a chemical interaction, were selected as model drugs. Aspirin powders without any additives were granulated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) water solution as a binder using a Wurster coating apparatus and the operation conditions were optimized by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis. Under these conditions, the aspirin granules prepared showed good flowability and compressibility. On the other hand, ranitidine hydrochloride was coated with Aquacoat (ethyl cellulose aqueous dispersion) after preliminary granulation with the Wurster coating apparatus. The aspirin granules and coated ranitidine hydrochloride particles were compressed into tablets with suitable excipients. The combination tablets showed good dissolution, content uniformity and improved stability of active ingredients.

  12. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  13. Nano-microdelivery systems for oral delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oral delivery of one or more active ingredients in the form of a lipid nano-micro-delivery system comprising a lipid nano-micro-structure comprising at least one lipid and at least one active ingredient, said at least one active ingredient being immobilized in said lipid nano...

  14. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  16. Active ingredients in anti-stigma programmes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent Mental Health Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mental health. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mental health problems but who had received no mental health training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mental health service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mental health problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mental health stigma.

  17. 77 FR 48519 - Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... be affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to..., 235 South Kresson Street, Baltimore, MD 21224-2616. Active Ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis...

  18. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE... established for each ingredient in § 341.74(d): (a) Oral antitussives. (1) Chlophedianol hydrochloride....

  19. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  20. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. 75 FR 53691 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane AGENCY... pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  2. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  3. Selecting an optimal instrument to identify active ingredients of the motivational interviewing-process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, Jos; Meijel, Berno van; Barkhof, Emile; Scholte op Reimer, Wilma; Latour, Corine; Peters, Ron; Linszen, Don

    2014-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) can effectively stimulate motivation for health behavior change, but the active ingredients of MI are not well known. To help clinicians further stimulate motivation, they need to know the active ingredients of MI. A psychometrically sound instrument is required to ide

  4. Effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients mixtures in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, M; Mattos, J J; Piazza, C E; Bainy, A C D; Bebianno, M J

    2014-08-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are emergent environmental contaminants widely detected in surface waters as result of incomplete waste water treatment plant (WWTP) removal processes and improper disposal. The assessment of potential effects of APIs on non-target organisms is still scarce since besides presenting multiple chemical structures, properties and modes of action, these compounds occur as complex mixtures. This study comprises a 15-day exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to mixtures (at environmentally relevant nominal concentrations) of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac (DCF) (250 ng L(-1) each) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) (75 ng L(-1)) (MIX 1) along with the addition of classical pro-oxidant copper (Cu) (5 μg L(-1)) (MIX 2). The goals included the assessment of oxidative stress, neurotoxic and endocrine effects on this sentinel species applying both a multibiomarker and gene expression (here and later gene expression is taken as synonym to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that it is also affected by, e.g. translation, and mRNA and protein stability) analysis approaches. The results revealed a swifter antioxidant response in digestive glands than in gills induced by MIX 1, nevertheless the presence of Cu in MIX 2 promoted a higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction. Neither mixture altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, while both triggered the formation of vitellogenin-like proteins in females confirming the xenoestrogenic effect of mixtures. All these results varied with respect to those obtained in previous single exposure essays. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed a catalase (CAT) and CYP4Y1 gene expression down- and upregulation, respectively, with no significant changes in mRNA levels of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Finally, this study highlights variable tissue and time-specific biomarker

  5. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  7. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  8. Research Progression of Anti-HIV Chinese Medicines and Their Natural Active Ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing; Fu Linchun; Li Maoqing; Chen Jiantao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the research progression of Chinese medicines for anti-human immunodeifciency virus (HIV) and their natural active ingredients at home and abroad so as to provide references for pharmaceutical research and clinical medication. Methods:Abundant representative literatures at home and abroad were classiifed to introduce the anti-HIV monomers, compounds and natural active ingredients of Chinese medicines. Results:The researches on anti-HIV natural medicines have obtained great achievements, in which medicines with anti-virus and immunity-improving functions have had rapid progression and new-types for anti-virus also have had dramatic development. Conclusion:The progression of anti-HIV Chinese medicines and their active ingredients has favorable prospect.

  9. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on good manufacturing practice for active pharmaceutical ingredients; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q7A Good Manufacturing Practice Guidance for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The guidance is intended to help ensure that all APIs meet the standards for quality and purity they purport or are represented to possess.

  10. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  11. Tregitope Peptides: The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of IVIG?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. De Groot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years ago, we reported the identification and characterization of several regulatory T-cell epitopes (now called Tregitopes that were discovered in the heavy and light chains of IgG (De Groot et al. Blood, 2008. When added ex vivo to human PBMCs, these Tregitopes activated regulatory T cells (Tregs, increased expression of the transcription factor FoxP3, and induced IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells. We have now shown that coadministration of the Tregitopes in vivo, in a number of different murine models of autoimmune disease, can suppress immune responses to antigen in an antigen-specific manner, and that this response is mediated by Tregs. In addition we have shown that, although these are generally promiscuous epitopes, the activity of individual Tregitope peptides is restricted by HLA. In this brief report, we provide an overview of the effects of Tregitopes in vivo, discuss potential applications, and suggest that Tregitopes may represent one of the “active pharmaceutical ingredients” of IVIg. Tregitope applications may include any of the autoimmune diseases that are currently treated almost exclusively with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG, such as Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN, as well as gene therapy and allergy where Tregitopes may provide a means of inducing antigen-specific tolerance.

  12. 21 CFR 358.710 - Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.710 Section 358.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Psoriasis § 358.710 Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. The... psoriasis. (1) Coal tar, 0.5 to 5 percent. When a coal tar solution, derivative, or fraction is used as...

  13. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  14. Nano-microdelivery systems for oromucosal delivery of an active ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oromucosal delivery of at least one active ingredient, more particularly a lipid nano-microdelivery system comprising a nicotine component and/or a flavour component, wherein the nicotine component may be delivered to the oral cavity via absorption through the mucosal membranes...... thereof and/or wherein the flavour component may be delivered to the oral mucosa by controlled release....

  15. 78 FR 70043 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... name: DAS-81419-2 Soybean. Active ingredients: Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein expressed in soybean and Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein expressed in soybean. Proposed classification/Use: Plant... list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be...

  16. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows cyto...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug....

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WATER EXTRACTS OF TRIKATU CHURNA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Malvankar* and M. M. Abhyankar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae. Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, lignin & saponins. The objective of study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of trikatu churna & its individual ingredients with their preliminary phytochemical study. The aqueous extracts of trikatu churna & its each ingredient were tested for antimicrobial activity against certain bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus by in vitro agar well diffusion method and the results are recorded as the zone of inhibition. Trikatu churna was found to possess higher extent of phytoconstituents with promising antimicrobial activity.

  18. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Fayed, A. E

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called “phytoestrogens,” which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for m...

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  20. Release effect of the active ingredients using a radiation cross linking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Seok; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Yun [Dept. of Bioengineering, Division of Applied Chemical and Bio Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Typical radiation cross-linked hydrogels has the characteristic that high water content, but low emission efficiency of active ingredients. Therefore, the hydrogel was prepared by the addition to collagen, which is closely related to the formation of skin wrinkles in biocompatibility and highly water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC) in order to preparation of hydrogels has excellent emission efficiency of active ingredients. Hydrogels were prepared by dissolving CMC and collagen each of 0.5%, 10% concentration in deionized water. Then, prepared hydrogels are performed by gamma-radiation at 1, 3, 5 kGy irradiation dose. The results showed that the gel fraction of after irradiated 3 kGy hydrogel was higher than before irradiated gelation as long as the 55.3%. The swelling rate of irradiated 3 kGy hydrogel was lower than the non-irradiated sample. The compressive strength of 3 kGy irradiated hydrogel was the highest. The visco-elastic did not show any significant differences, even after irradiation. The CMC hydrogel in this study suggested a potential use as a material for the mask pack for improved emission efficiency of the active ingredient and anti-wrinkles.

  1. [Studies on pharmacokinetics features of characteristic active ingredients of daidai flavone extract in different physiological status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Jun; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Li; Lian, Yun-Fang; Cai, Wei-Wei; Huang, Qun; Lin, Yi-Li

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the clinical hypolipidemic features of Daidai flavone extract, the pharmacokinetics features of characteristic active ingredients of Daidai flavone extract in normal and hyperlipemia rats were studied and compared. The study established the quantitative determination method of naringin and neohesperidin in plasma by UPLC-MS. Study compared the pharmacokinetics differences of naringin and noehesperidin in normal and hyperlipemia rats on the basis of establishment of hyperlipemia model. Results indicated that the pharmacokinetics features of characteristic active ingredients of Daidai flavone extract in normal and hyperlipemia rats showed significant differences. The C(max) of naringin and neohesperidin in hyperlipemia rats plasma after oral administration of Daidai flavone extract increased obviously, while t1/2, MRT and AUC0-24 h decreased, compared to normal rats. But t(max) showed no differences to that of normal rats. The results further proved Daidai flavone extract would have better hypolipidemic effect in the hyperlipemia pathological status. And the characteristic active ingredients naringin and noehesperidin were the material base of Daidai flavone extract to express the hypolipidemic effect.

  2. Comparison of Active Ingredient Content of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi Collected in Different Seasons Detected by HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng YAO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the active ingredient content of Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis collected in different seasons. Methods: Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract the active ingredients in Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi, with methanol as the solvent. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection ℃; mobile phase: water (A - acetonitrile (B; gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min; and detection wavelength: 225 nm. (HPLC-DAD method was used to analyze the content of each ingredient, with chromatographic conditions as follows: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm; column temperature: 30 Results: All ingredients waiting for detection reached their peaks within 75 min, with excellent degree of separation and higher number of theoretical plates. Standard curves were drawn, and the mean value of phase relationship of each ingredient was >0.999. The content of active ingredients in lignans of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi showed tendency of increase first and then decreased. In addition, all ingredients in Beiwuweizi reached their peaks in September while those in Nanwuweizi in August. Conclusion: This method can be used to detect the content of multiple ingredients in Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis simultaneously because it is simple in operation, precise in results and excellent in repeatability.

  3. Soil sorption and leaching of active ingredients of Lumax® under mineral or organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Pusino, Alba

    2014-09-01

    The study describes the soil sorption of the herbicide Lumax®, composed of S-metolachlor (MTC), terbuthylazine (TBZ), and mesotrione (MST), as influenced by mineral and organic fertilizers. The investigation was performed on a sandy soil of an agricultural area designated as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone, where mineral and organic fertilizers were applied for many years. Two organic fertilizers, cattle manure and slurry, respectively, and a mineral fertilizer with a nitrification inhibitor, Entec®, were compared. According to the experiments, performed with a batch method, the sorption conformed to Freundlich model. The extent of sorption of Lumax® ingredients was closely related to their octanol-water partition coefficient Kow. The respective desorption was hysteretic. Leaching trials were carried out by using water or solutions of DOM or Entec® as the eluants. Only the elution with the mineral fertilizer promoted the leaching of Lumax® active ingredients.

  4. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  5. Nanocarriers for the delivery of active ingredients and fractions extracted from natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years with a recent increase in popularity. Despite promising biological activities of active ingredients and fractions from TCM, their poor solubility, poor stability, short biological half-life, ease of metabolism and rapid elimination hinder their clinical application. Therefore, overcoming these problems to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TCM preparations is a major focus of pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, nanocarriers have drawn increasing attention for their excellent and efficient delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions. This review discusses problems in the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions; focuses on recent advances in nanocarriers that represent potential solutions to these problems, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid nanocarriers; and discusses unanswered questions in the field and criteria for the development of better nanocarriers for the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions to be focused on in future studies.

  6. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), anticholinergic, antihistamine, oral antitussive, or stimulant active ingredient. (7) Dandruff/seborrheic... Mono- and di-glycerides Niacinamide Organic vegetables Pancreatin Pantothenic acid Papain Papaya... blue Natural estrogenic hormone Niacinamide Nutmeg oil (oil of nutmeg) Oil of erigeron...

  7. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    information sets revealed that the intracellular localisation of active ingredients determines the performance of test compounds against different target pests because of different feeding behaviours: mites feed on mesophyll, and aphids and whiteflies mostly in the vascular system. Polar compounds have a slow...... adsorption into leaf cells and thus a favourable distribution into apoplast and xylem sap. Slightly lipophilic bases get trapped in vacuoles, which is a less suited place to control hemipteran pests but appropriate to control mites. Non-favourable cellular localisation led to a strong reduction...

  8. Studies of Active Ingredients in Cough Syrup by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tian-shu; WANG Ai-fang; WU Fang; SHI Guo-yue; FANG Yu-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The present paper covers a simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE) with amperometric detection(AD), for the separation and the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate. Under the optimal conditions, the three analytes were base-line separated completely within 16 min. Good linear relationships between the peak heights and the concentrations of the three analytes were obtained with the correlation coefficients better than 0.9993. The method was directly applied to the determination of the active ingredients in pharmaceutical preparations and the assay results were satisfactory.

  9. After-brush rinsing protocols, frequency of toothpaste use: fluoride and other active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, C; O'Mullane, D

    2013-01-01

    The intra-oral retention or substantivity of active ingredients in toothpastes is important for their effectiveness, and this is influenced by product-related and user-related factors. Product-related factors include the formulation and the compatibility of active and other agents in the toothpaste and the concentration of the active ingredient. User-related factors include biological aspects such as salivary flow and salivary clearance, and behavioural aspects, such as frequency and duration of brushing, amount of toothpaste used and post-brushing rinsing behaviour. To date, product-related factors have dominated the research agenda for toothpastes, but user-related factors have the potential to significantly enhance or reduce the effectiveness of toothpaste. In this chapter, we will focus on two of the user-related factors that have been most widely studied: (1) frequency of toothbrushing and (2) post-brushing rinsing behaviour. We will then provide an overview of how evidence on these two behaviours has been used to produce guidance both for the profession and for the public, and make suggestions for the future direction of research in this area.

  10. Identification of the main active ingredients of agrochemicals used around the Lake of Tota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Javier Pérez-Holguín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a descriptive study aimed at identifying the main active ingredients, frequency of use, and the processes employed in the application of the agrochemicals most used around the Lake of Tota, which is considered the most important freshwater ecosystem in Colombia. A key source for this study is a survey to farmers, which sampling frame was established from a Geographical Institute Agustin Codazzi (IGAC digital map, considering only the plots with some agricultural activity and runoff into the lake. This information was supplemented with geographic data obtained from Google Maps®. As control mechanism, two additional sources were used: i a manual count of packaging of agrochemicals in a certified collection center, and ii a census of stores that supply such products in the study area. The results allow knowing the set of agrochemicals most used around the lake, their active ingredients, and the most common farming practices, some of which could entail some risk to farmers, consumers and the environment.

  11. Determination of nickel in active pharmaceutical ingredients by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnič, Zoran; Urleb, Uroš; Kreft, Katjuša; Veber, Marjan

    2010-03-01

    An electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric procedure for the determination of nickel in active pharmaceutical ingredients was developed. Since the recoveries of nickel by the direct dissolution of samples in diluted nitric acid were low and caused errors in the determination of Ni in pharmaceutical samples, different approaches for sample pre-treatment were examined. It was found that the microwave digestion was the most suitable way for sample preparation. Various combinations of digestion agents and different microwave conditions were tested. The combination of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be the most appropriate. The validity of the method was evaluated by recovery studies of spiked samples and by the comparison of the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recovery ranged from 87.5 to 104.0% and a good agreement was achieved between both methods. The detection limit and the limit of quantification were 0.6 and 2.1 µg g-1 respectively. The precision of the method was confirmed by the determination of Ni in the spiked samples and was below 4%, expressed in terms of a relative standard deviation. The method was applied to the determination of nickel in production samples of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates.

  12. Methodological Establishment of HPLC-DAD for Determination of 10 Active Ingredients in Wuweizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng YAO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD method for the determination of active ingredients of multiple lignans in Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis so as to set up the standard for the quality control of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis. Methods: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm was applied, with detection condition as follows: column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A-acetonitrile (B; gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min and detection wavelength: 225 nm.Results: Ten ingredients in Beiwuweizi and 5 in Nanwuweizi were completely separately within 75 min. Peak area was in favorable linear relationship with concentration. In addition, the recovery rate was 96.87-103.29% and relative standard deviation (RSD was 0.68-2.09%.Conclusion: HPLC-DAD is simple and reliable with favorable repeatability, so it can be used for the determination of multiple lignans in Wuweizi.

  13. Methodological Establishment of HPLC-DAD for Determination of 10 Active Ingredients in Wuweizi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Feng; CHEN Da-shuai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of active ingredients of multiple lignans in Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata) and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) so as to set up the standard for the quality control of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis). Methods: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) was applied, with detection condition as follows: column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A)-acetonitrile (B); gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min and detection wavelength: 225 nm. Results: Ten ingredients in Beiwuweizi and 5 in Nanwuweizi were completely separately within 75 min. Peak area was in favorable linear relationship with concentration. In addition, the recovery rate was 96.87%-103.29% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.68%-2.09%. Conclusion: HPLC-DAD is simple and reliable with favorable repeatability, so it can be used for the determination of multiple lignans in Wuweizi.

  14. Peculiar surface behavior of some ionic liquids based on active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Mata, José Luis; Saramago, Benilde

    2011-02-21

    The ionic liquids based on biologically active cations and anions, commonly designated by ionic liquids based on active pharmaceutical ingredients (ILs-APIs), are interesting compounds for use in pharmaceutical applications. Lidocaine docusate, ranitidine docusate, and didecyldimethylammonium ibuprofen are examples of promising ILs-APIs that were recently synthesized. They were submitted to biological testing and calorimetric measurements, but nothing is known about their surface properties. In this work, we measured the surface tension and the contact angles on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in a temperature range as wide as possible. Based on the wettability data, the polarity fractions were estimated using the Fowkes theory. The peculiar surface behavior observed was tentatively attributed to the presence of mesophases.

  15. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  16. The Potential of Cyclodextrins as Novel Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: A Short Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Pio di Cagno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs are cyclic oligosaccharides of natural origin that were discovered more than 100 years ago. The peculiar cone-like conformation of the sugar ring, expressing a lipophilic cavity and a hydrophilic external surface, allows these substances to spontaneously complex poorly soluble compounds in an aqueous environment. For more than 50 years, these substances have found applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries as solubilizing agents for poorly soluble chemical entities. Nowadays, several research groups all over the world are investigating their potential as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs for the treatment of several illnesses (e.g., hypercholesterolemia, cancer, Niemann-Pick Type C disease. The aim of this review is to briefly retrace cyclodextrins’ legacy as complexing agents and describe the current and future prospects of this class of chemical entities in pharmaceutics as new APIs.

  17. Classification of parasite eggs used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, J. M.; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Thamsborg, S.

    2012-01-01

    the pharmaceutical potency of eggs from the parasite Trichuris suis (pig whipworm), used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient in medicine against chronic autoimmune diseases of the intestines such as Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. The analysis will combine spectral and morphological characteristics...... in order to first detect and then classify the parasite eggs based on a set of biologically inspired, quantitative features. The egg classification is currently done manually using transmitted light microscopy, but to allow for validation of this process and to reduce the operator bias, an automated system...... and the classification was based on the orientation of the larva inside the egg: The ratio of longitudinal vs. latitudinal ‘lines’ inside the egg is higher for eggs containing a larva....

  18. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...... removed at 5 mg/l ClO2 dose. Removal of the same APIs from the high COD effluent was observed when the ClO2 dose was increased to 1.25 mg/l and an increase in API removal only after treatment with 8 mg/l ClO2. This illustrates that treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide has potential...... to remove pharmaceuticals traces from wastewater treatment plant effluents....

  19. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic Acid functionality in polyethylene glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe;

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are attractive as excipients in the manufacture of drug products because they are water soluble and poorly immunogenic. They are used in various pharmaceutical preparations. However, because of their terminal hydroxyl groups, PEGs can participate in esterification...... reactions. In this study, kinetics of two active pharmaceutical ingredients, cetirizine and indomethacin possessing carboxylic acid functionality, has been studied in PEG 400 and PEG 1000 at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. HPLC-UV was applied for the determination of concentrations in the kinetic studies......, it is important to be aware of this drug-excipient interaction, as it can reduce the shelf-life of a low-average molecular weight PEG formulation considerably. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2424-2433, 2014....

  20. Continuous Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Suspensions via Dynamic Cross-Flow Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Toschkoff, Gregor; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Over the last years, continuous manufacturing has created significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Continuous filtration at low flow rates and high solid loadings poses, however, a significant challenge. A commercially available, continuously operating, dynamic cross-flow filtration device (CFF) is tested and characterized. It is shown that the CFF is a highly suitable technology for continuous filtration. For all tested model active pharmaceutical ingredients, a material-specific strictly linear relationship between feed and permeate rate is identified. Moreover, for each tested substance, a constant concentration factor is reached. A one-parameter model based on a linear equation is suitable to fully describe the CFF filtration performance. This rather unexpected finding and the concentration polarization layer buildup is analyzed and a basic model to describe the observed filtration behavior is developed.

  1. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  2. 78 FR 3900 - Generic Drug User Fee-Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... drug active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and finished dosage form (FDF) facilities user fees for... applications in the backlog as of October 1, 2012, on finished dosage form (FDF) and active pharmaceutical... Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...

  3. Induced starburst and nuclear activity: Faith, facts, and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the origin of starburst and nuclear (nonstellar) activity in galaxies is reviewed. A physical understanding of the mechanism(s) that induce both types of activity requires one to address the following issues: (1) what is the source of fuel that powers starbursts and active galactic nuclei; and (2) how is it channeled towards the central regions of host galaxies? As a possible clue, the author examines the role of non-axisymmetric perturbations of galactic disks and analyzes their potential triggers. Global gravitational instabilities in the gas on scales approx. 100 pc appear to be crucial for fueling the active galactic nuclei.

  4. Gallic Acid, the Active Ingredient of Terminalia bellirica, Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Hiroko; Koike, Yuka; Ohta, Masatomi; Horiguchi-Babamoto, Emi; Tsubata, Masahito; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Akase, Tomoko; Goshima, Yoshio; Aburada, Masaki; Shimada, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Visceral obesity induces the onset of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue is considered as a potential pharmacological target for treating metabolic disorders. The fruit of Terminalia bellirica is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat patients with diseases such as diabetes mellitus. We previously investigated the effects of a hot water extract of T. bellirica fruit (TB) on obesity and insulin resistance in spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic mice. To determine the active ingredients of TB and their molecular mechanisms, we focused on adipocyte differentiation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which are widely used to study adipocyte physiology. We show here that TB enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to mature adipocytes and that one of the active main components was identified as gallic acid. Gallic acid (10-30 µM) enhanced the expression and secretion of adiponectin via adipocyte differentiation and also that of fatty acid binding protein-4, which is the target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), although it does not alter the expression of the upstream genes PPARγ and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha. In the PPARγ ligand assay, the binding of gallic acid to PPARγ was undetectable. These findings indicate that gallic acid mediates the therapeutic effects of TB on metabolic disorders by regulating adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, TB shows promise as a candidate for preventing and treating patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term.

  6. Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-10-01

    A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes.

  7. Dampened neural activity and abolition of epileptic-like activity in cortical slices by active ingredients of spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Maurizio; Elhamdani, Abdeladim; Camacho, Susana; Meystre, Julie; González, Stephanie Michlig; le Coutre, Johannes; Markram, Henry

    2014-10-31

    Active ingredients of spices (AIS) modulate neural response in the peripheral nervous system, mainly through interaction with TRP channel/receptors. The present study explores how different AIS modulate neural response in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of S1 neocortex. The AIS tested are agonists of TRPV1/3, TRPM8 or TRPA1. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin, eugenol, menthol, icilin and cinnamaldehyde, but not AITC dampen the generation of APs in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. This effect was further tested for the TRPM8 ligands in the presence of a TRPM8 blocker (BCTC) and on TRPM8 KO mice. The observable effect was still present. Finally, the influence of the selected AIS was tested on in vitro gabazine-induced seizures. Results coincide with the above observations: except for cinnamaldehyde, the same AIS were able to reduce the number, duration of the AP bursts and increase the concentration of gabazine needed to elicit them. In conclusion, our data suggests that some of these AIS can modulate glutamatergic neurons in the brain through a TRP-independent pathway, regardless of whether the neurons are stimulated intracellularly or by hyperactive microcircuitry.

  8. Effects of rhubarb and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in INTMNC of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Zhen Lin; De Lu Ma; Zhi Qing Cui; Yi Kang

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The recent studies have shown that rhubarb has not only the effect of removing stasis by purgation, but also intestinal barrier effects[1,2]. In order to further clarify the intestinal barrier mechanism of rhubarb, we studied the effects of rhubarb decoction and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in isolated intestinal mononuclear cells (INT-MNC)

  9. Active Ingredients of Instructional Coaching: Developing a Conceptual Framework. R2Ed Working Paper 2015-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew S.; Howell Smith, Michelle; Kunz, Gina M.; Nugent, Gwen C.

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have explored the impact of instructional coaching and named possible elements believed essential to effective coaching, there has yet to emerge from the literature a coherent model of those essential elements ("active ingredients"). This qualitative study sought to identify those elements through a systematic…

  10. Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-09-01

    The important number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) available on the market along with their potential adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystems, lead to the development of prioritization methods, which allow choosing priority molecules to monitor based on a set of selected criteria. Due to the large volumes of API used in hospitals, an increasing attention has been recently paid to their effluents as a source of environmental pollution. Based on the consumption data of a Swiss university hospital, about hundred of API has been prioritized following an OPBT approach (Occurrence, Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity). In addition, an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) allowed prioritizing API based on predicted concentrations and environmental toxicity data found in the literature for 71 compounds. Both prioritization approaches were compared. OPBT prioritization results highlight the high concern of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiviral drugs, whereas antibiotics are revealed by ERA as potentially problematic to the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, according to the predicted risk quotient, only the hospital fraction of ciprofloxacin represents a risk to the aquatic organisms. Some compounds were highlighted as high-priority with both methods: ibuprofen, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ritonavir, gabapentin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, raltegravir, propofol, etc. Analyzing consumption data and building prioritization lists helped choosing about 15 API to be monitored in hospital wastewaters. The API ranking approach adopted in this study can be easily transposed to any other hospitals, which have the will to look at the contamination of their effluents.

  11. Direct analysis of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-03-31

    Anodic stripping voltammetry, a classical electroanalytical method has been optimized to analyze trace Pd(II) in active pharmaceutical ingredient matrices. The electroanalytical approach with an unmodified glassy carbon electrode was performed in both aqueous and 95% DMSO/5% water (95/5 DMSO/H2O) solutions, without pretreatment such as acid digestion or dry ashing to remove the organics. Limits of detection (LODs) in the presence of caffeine and ketoprofen were determined to be 11 and 9.6 μg g(-1), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.7% and 2.3%, respectively. This method is simple, highly reproducible, sensitive, and robust. The instrumentation has the potential to be portable and the obviation of sample pretreatment makes it an ideal approach for determining lost catalytic metals in pharmaceutical-related industries. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of Pd(II) with Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the low μg L(-1) range indicates that this system is capable of simultaneous multi-analyte analysis in a variety of matrices.

  12. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  13. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  14. Development of a solvate as an active pharmaceutical ingredient: Developability, crystallisation and isolation challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, Julien; Stevenson, Neil; Lee, Mei; Mallet, Franck; Ward, Richard; Aspin, Peter; Dennehy, Daniel Robert; Camus, Laure

    2012-03-01

    The preclinical development of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) begins with the selection of a solid state form. A solvate may be selected for development if it is sufficiently stable and if the solvent quantity administered to the patient is lower than the tolerated potential daily exposure (PDE). The selection and process development of a solvate is presented here. The initial crystallisation process gave poor control over the particle size distribution (PSD) and inclusion of additional crystallisation solvent in the crystal lattice. These two API attributes were controlled using micronised seeds and optimising the crystallisation conditions. After filtration, slurry washing with a second solvent was used to replace the high boiling point crystallisation solvent to improve the drying efficiency. The slurry washing was modelled and studied in the laboratory to control the level of unbound crystallisation solvent in the API. The API desolvation during slurry washing was studied by considering thermodynamics, by construction of the ternary phase diagram, and kinetics aspects. This work provides useful approaches and considerations to assess the risks specific to the controlled production of a solvate that are rarely presented in the literature.

  15. Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Vc Yinqiao Tablets by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U),Jin; WANG,Qing-Jiang; CHENG,Xi; LIU,Hai-Yan; HE,Pin-Gang; FANG,Yu-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    A simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD), has been developed for simultaneous determination of four active ingredients in Vc Yinqiao tablets including paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. A carbon-disk electrode was used as working electrode and 0.95 V (versus SCE) was selected as detection potential. The optimal conditions of CZE experiment were 30 mmol·L-1 borate solution (pH 9.5) as running buffer, 14 kV as separation voltage and 8 s (14 kV) as electro-kinetic sampling time. Under the selected optimum conditions, paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid could be perfectly separated within 22 min, and their detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 5 × 10-7 to 1×10-6 mol·L-1. This proposed method demonstrated good reproducibility with relative standard deviations of less than 3% for both migration time and peak current (n=7). The utility of this method was demonstrated by monitoring a kind of compound medicine named Vc Yinqiao tablets and the assay results were satisfactory.

  16. Understanding real-world implementation quality and "active ingredients" of PBIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Lauren E; Moore, Julia E; Trail, Jessica; Van Epps, John James; Hopfer, Suellen

    2013-12-01

    Programs delivered in the "real world" often look substantially different from what was originally intended by program developers. Depending on which components of a program are being trimmed or altered, such modifications may seriously undermine the effectiveness of a program. In the present study, these issues are explored within a widely used school-based, non-curricular intervention, Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports. The present study takes advantage of a uniquely large dataset to gain a better understanding of the "real-world" implementation quality of PBIS and to take a first step toward identifying the components of PBIS that "matter most" for student outcomes. Data from 27,689 students and 166 public primary and secondary schools across seven states included school and student demographics, indices of PBIS implementation quality, and reports of problem behaviors for any student who received an office discipline referral during the 2007-2008 school year. Results of the present study identify three key components of PBIS that many schools are failing to implement properly, three program components that were most related to lower rates of problem behavior (i.e., three "active ingredients" of PBIS), and several school characteristics that help to account for differences across schools in the quality of PBIS implementation. Overall, findings highlight the importance of assessing implementation quality in "real-world" settings, and the need to continue improving understanding of how and why programs work. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy.

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient from solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, T H; Sharma, R; Susanto, D; Di Maso, M; Kwong, E

    2007-07-13

    The microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been evaluated for the extraction of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from various solid dosage forms. Using immediate release tablets of Compound A as a model, optimization of the extraction method with regards to extraction solvent composition, extraction time and temperature was briefly discussed. Complete recovery of Compound A was achieved when samples were extracted using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent under microwave heating at a constant cell temperature of 50 degrees C for 5 min. The optimized MAE method was applied for content uniformity (single tablet extraction) and potency (multiple tablets extraction) assays of release and stability samples of two products of Compound A (5 and 25mg dose strength) stored at various conditions. To further demonstrate the applicability of MAE, the instrumental extraction conditions (50 degrees C for 5 min) were adopted for the extraction of montelukast sodium (Singulair) from various solid dosage forms using methanol-water (75:25, v/v) as the extraction solvent. The MAE procedure demonstrated an extraction efficiency of 97.4-101.9% label claim with the greatest RSD at 1.4%. The results compare favorably with 97.6-102.3% label claim with the greatest RSD at 2.9% obtained with validated mechanical extraction procedures. The system is affordable, user-friendly and simple to operate and troubleshoot. Rapid extraction process (7 min/run) along with high throughput capacity (up to 23 samples simultaneously) would lead to reduced cycle time and thus increased productivity.

  18. Capturing the Active Ingredients of Multicomponent Participatory Organizational Stress Interventions Using an Adapted Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Co-crystallization: An approach to improve the performance characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen boding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API can be resolved using co-crystallization approach. Proper understanding of crystal structure of an API is required for successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co-former. This review article focus on explanation about co-crystals, intellectual property rights, their advantages and limitations. Co-crystallization can be achieved using different methods like co-grinding slurry based, solvent evaporation method, etc. Methods of co-crystallization are simple and increase the purity of the final product. Co-crystallization can be applied to the drugs prescribed in combination therapy. Stoichiometric composition of different drugs used in combination therapy can be co-crystallize to form one solid state form. Physicochemical properties of APIs such as solubility and stability can be improved using co-crystallization approach. With due regards co-crystallization should be used with caution because of some issues during manufacturing of final product.

  20. Consequences of new approach of chemical stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena eJamrógiewicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need of broaden look on stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs in comparison with current requirements contained in pharmacopoeia. By usage of many modern analytical methods the conception of monitoring the changes of APIs during initial stage of their exposure to harmful factors has been developed. New knowledge must be acquired in terms of identification of each degradation products, especially volatile ones. Further research as toxicology prediction during in silico studies of determined and identified degradation products is necessary. In silico methods are known as computational toxicology or computer-assisted technologies which are used for predicting toxicology of pharmaceutical substances such as impurities or degradation products. This is a specialized software and databases intended to calculate probability of genotoxicity or mutagenicity of these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. Applying of new analytical approach is proposed as the usage of PAT tools, XRD, HS-SPME GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS for stability testing. Described improvements should be taken into account in case of each drug existing already in the market as well as being implemented as new one.

  1. Use of prediction methods to estimate true density of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Leyva, Norma; Anderson, Stephen R; Hancock, Bruno C

    2008-05-01

    True density is a fundamental and important property of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Using prediction methods to estimate the API true density can be very beneficial in pharmaceutical research and development, especially when experimental measurements cannot be made due to lack of material or sample handling restrictions. In this paper, two empirical prediction methods developed by Girolami and Immirzi and Perini were used to estimate the true density of APIs, and the estimation results were compared with experimentally measured values by helium pycnometry. The Girolami method is simple and can be used for both liquids and solids. For the tested APIs, the Girolami method had a maximum error of -12.7% and an average percent error of -3.0% with a 95% CI of (-3.8, -2.3%). The Immirzi and Perini method is more involved and is mainly used for solid crystals. In general, it gives better predictions than the Girolami method. For the tested APIs, the Immirzi and Perini method had a maximum error of 9.6% and an average percent error of 0.9% with a 95% CI of (0.3, 1.6%).

  2. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  3. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  4. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Guangwen Luo; Dahui Chen; Zheng Xiang

    2016-01-01

    AbstractRhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few foc...

  5. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  6. FACT Assists Base Excision Repair by Boosting the Remodeling Activity of RSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Richard, John Lalith; Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Menoni, Hervé; Ouararhni, Khalid; Lone, Imtiaz Nisar; Roulland, Yohan; Papin, Christophe; Ben Simon, Elsa; Kundu, Tapas; Hamiche, Ali; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    FACT, in addition to its role in transcription, is likely implicated in both transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and DNA double strand break repair. Here, we present evidence that FACT could be directly involved in Base Excision Repair and elucidate the chromatin remodeling mechanisms of FACT during BER. We found that, upon oxidative stress, FACT is released from transcription related protein complexes to get associated with repair proteins and chromatin remodelers from the SWI/SNF family. We also showed the rapid recruitment of FACT to the site of damage, coincident with the glycosylase OGG1, upon the local generation of oxidized DNA. Interestingly, FACT facilitates uracil-DNA glycosylase in the removal of uracil from nucleosomal DNA thanks to an enhancement in the remodeling activity of RSC. This discloses a novel property of FACT wherein it has a co-remodeling activity and strongly enhances the remodeling capacity of the chromatin remodelers. Altogether, our data suggest that FACT may acts in concert with RSC to facilitate excision of DNA lesions during the initial step of BER.

  7. The Active Ingredients of Jiang-Zhi-Ning: Study of the Nelumbo nucifera Alkaloids and Their Main Bioactive Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN, crude JZN extracts, different extracted fractions, different subfractions of the active fraction and different isolated ingredients. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphin (2H1M, an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, one of the herbs that make up JZN, was identified as the constituent showing the major pharmacodynamic effect. The major metabolites of 2H1M were analyzed and identified as N-demethyl-2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-sulphate. This study provided a comprehensive insight into the active components of JZN.

  8. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  9. Core-shell column Tanaka characterization and additional tests using active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jufang Wu; Karlsson, Anders; Kjellberg, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, core-shell particles have gained more and more attention in fast liquid chromatography separations due to their comparable performance with fully porous sub-2 μm particles and their significantly lower back pressure. Core-shell particles are made of a solid core surrounded by a shell of classic fully porous material. To embrace the developed core-shell column market and use these columns in pharmaceutical analytical applications, 17 core-shell C18 columns purchased from various vendors with various dimensions (50 mm × 2.1 mm to 100 mm × 3 mm) and particle sizes (1.6-2.7 μm) were characterized using Tanaka test protocols. Furthermore, four selected active pharmaceutical ingredients were chosen as test probes to investigate the batch to batch reproducibility for core-shell columns of particle size 2.6-2.7 μm, with dimension of 100 × 3 mm and columns of particle size 1.6 μm, with dimension 100 × 2.1 mm under isocratic elution. Columns of particle size 2.6-2.7 μm were also tested under gradient elution conditions. To confirm the claimed comparable efficiency of 2.6 μm core-shell particles as sub-2 μm fully porous particles, column performances of the selected core-shell columns were compared with BEH C18 , 1.7 μm, a fully porous column material as well.

  10. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  11. Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA, showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity.

  12. Quantitative analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using a potentiometric electronic tongue in a SIA flow system

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    An advanced potentiometric electronic tongue and Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) measurement system was applied for the quantitative analysis of mixtures containing three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, in the presence of various amounts of caffeine as interferent. The flow-through sensor array was composed of miniaturized classical ion-selective electrodes based on plasticized PVC membranes containing only ion exchangers. P...

  13. Mathematical Modeling of the Release of Active Ingredients from a Contraceptive Patch: Ortho Evra® as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Patricio Sáenz-Collins, Carlos; García-Arellano, Lizette; Moisés Álvarez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive patches have become a frequently used contraceptive method. We present a mathematical model that describes the serum concentration profiles of Norelgestromin (NGMN) and Ethinylestradiol (EE) released from the contraceptive patch Ortho Evra®. We propose a simple one-compartment model based on pharmacokinetics data reported in previous studies. The model assumes a time-dependent release rate and a first order elimination rate for each of the active ingredients contained in the pat...

  14. Antifeedant Activity and Active Ingredients Against Plutella xylostella from Momordica charantia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts from the leaves of Momordica charantia, we obtained two most active compounds against the feeding of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella larvae. The antifeedant activity of momordicine Ⅰ and momordicine Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella were tested using leaf discs of cabbage in the laboratory. The results showed that momordicin Ⅰ and momordiein Ⅱ had significant antifeedant activity on the larvae of P. Xylostella, and momordicin Ⅱ was more active than momordicin Ⅰ. The concentrations for 50% antifeedant effects (AFC50) of momordicin Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of P. Xylostella were 76.69 and 116.24 μg mL-1, whereas that of momordicin Ⅰ was 144.08 and 168.42 μg mL-1, respectively. In addition, momordicin Ⅰ and momordicin Ⅱ had significant inhibitive effect on the rate of weight gain and survival of P. Xylostella larvae.

  15. The significance of different health institutions and their respective contributions of active pharmaceutical ingredients to wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Manuel; Olsson, Oliver; Fiehn, Rainer; Herrel, Markus; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been frequently found in the environment. It is, however, still not quite clear who is mainly responsible for API emissions. Hospitals have been considered to be the main contributing point sources for wastewater (WW) discharge of APIs. However, recent studies have shown that the contribution of hospitals to the input of APIs into the aquatic environment is quite low. Due to demographic change and the increase of psychiatric diseases, health institutions (HIs) such as psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes are likely to be important sources as well, but no data is available in this respect. This study aims to assess the impact of HIs and to provide a methodology to measure their respective contributions. Drawing on pharmaceutical consumption data for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, this study identified API usage patterns for a psychiatric hospital (146 beds), a nursing home (286 inhabitants), and a general hospital (741 beds), the latter of which comprises three separate locations. All the HIs are located in two sub-regions of a county district with about 400,000 citizens in southwestern Germany. A selection of neurological drugs was quantified in the sewer of these facilities to evaluate the correlation between consumption and emission. The API contribution of HIs was assessed by comparing the specific consumption in the facilities with the consumption in households, expressed as the emission potential (IEP). The study shows that the usage patterns of APIs in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home were different from the general hospital. Neurological drugs such as anticonvulsants, psycholeptics, and psychoanaleptics were mainly consumed in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home (74% and 65%, respectively). Predicted and average measured concentrations in the effluent of the investigated HIs differed mostly by less than one order of magnitude. Therefore, the consumption-based approach is a useful method

  16. Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (Centevita™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramaldi G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Federico Franceschi,1 Elian Lati21Indena SpA, Milan, Italy; 2Laboratoire BIO-EC, Longjumeau, FrancePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the topical efficacy of a new purified extract from Madagascar, Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica [L.] Urban, both on human explants and on human volunteers, in relation to skin wrinkling and skin protection against ultraviolet light exposure. The extract, with a peculiar content of biologically active molecules, was investigated as a novel anti-inflammaging and antiglycation agent. Its typical terpenes, known as collagen synthesis promoters, represent at least 45% of the extract. It also contains a polyphenolic fraction cooperating to the observed properties.Methods: C. asiatica purified extract was assayed on human skin explants maintained alive, and several parameters were evaluated. Among the most relevant, the thymine dimerization was evaluated by immunostaining. Malondialdehyde formation was evaluated as free-radical scavenging marker by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interleukin-1a was observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. The product was further evaluated as an antiglycation agent, being glycation quantified by the advanced glycation product carboxymethyl lysine. C. asiatica purified extract was also evaluated as an antiwrinkling agent in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Formulated in a simple oil-in-water emulsion, the extent of wrinkling was assessed by skin replicas, skin firmness, skin elasticity, and collagen density measurements.Results: C. asiatica purified extract could protect DNA from ultraviolet light-induced damage, decreasing the thymine photodimerization by over 28% (P<0.05. A reduced (26%, P<0.01 expression of interleukin-1α was also observed, supporting its anti-inflammatory potential. C. asiatica purified extract showed in vitro a total inhibition of carboxymethyl lysine formation induced by the

  17. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P

    2004-03-01

    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  18. Special active ingredients and beauty-food%特种活性物及营养美容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了特种活性物及营养美容的理念。消费者目前对营养美容理念的兴趣越来越浓厚,使得营养美容产品逐渐成为市场营销的热点。配方师也热衷于将营养品与美容相结合,开发出营养美容产品,并将营养美容对身体的益处都囊括在产品配方中。介绍了几种最具潜力的营养美容成分以及特种活性物成分,并对其前景进行了展望。%The idea of special active ingredients and beauty-food are introduced briefly. Nowadays, the consumers become more and more interested in the concept of beauty-food, and the beauty-food product category has gradually become the hot topic of marketing. Formulators are eager to combine the benefits of nutrition with beauty in the formulations, and develop the beauty-food products. Some diet beauty ingredients with the greatest potential are introduced, and the future of the special active ingredients and the beauty-food are prospected here.

  19. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product...... a PTFE membrane with 28 cm2 of active area. A less challenging separation of water and toluene was achieved at total flow rates as high as 80 mL/min, with potential to achieve even higher flow rates. The operability and flexibility of the membrane separator and a plate coalescer were compared...

  20. Artepillin C, a major ingredient of Brazilian propolis, induces a pungent taste by activating TRPA1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketoshi Hata

    Full Text Available Brazilian green propolis is a popular health supplement because of its various biological properties. The ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEBP is characteristic for its herb-like smell and unique pungent taste. However, the ingredients responsible for its pungency have not yet been identified. This study provides the first evidence that artepillin C is the main pungent ingredient in EEBP and that it potently activates human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 channels. EEBP was fractionated using column chromatography with a step gradient elution of an ethanol-water solution, and the fractions having the pungent taste were determined by sensory tests. HPLC analysis revealed that the pungent fraction was composed primarily of artepillin C, a prenylated derivative of cinnamic acid. Artepillin C was also identified as the pungent compound of EEBP by organoleptic examiners. Furthermore, the effects of artepillin C and other cinnamic acids found in EEBP on TRPA1 channels were examined by calcium imaging and plate reader-based assays in human TRPA1-expressing cells to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying their pungent tastes. Artepillin C and baccharin activated the TRPA1 channel strongly, whereas drupanin caused a slight activation and p-coumaric acid showed no activation. Because the EC(50 values of artepillin C, baccharin, and allyl isothiocyanate were 1.8 µM, 15.5 µM, and 6.2 µM, respectively, artepillin C was more potent than the typical TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate. These findings strongly indicate that artepillin C is the main pungent ingredient in EEBP and stimulates a pungent taste by activating TRPA1 channels.

  1. 2010年登记或上市农药品种%New Active Ingredients Registered or Launched in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吉春; 吴峤; 李学建; 刘长令

    2011-01-01

    概述了2010年登记或上市的36个新农药品种,其中杀菌剂11个、杀虫剂4个、除草剂10个、熏蒸剂2个、杀线虫剂1个、生物农药和信息素8个.%A review of 36 new active ingredients registered or launched in 2010, in which there are 11 with fungicidal activity, 4 with insecticidal activity and acaricide, 10 with herbicidal activity, 2 with fumigation activity, 1 with nematicidal activity, 8 as biopesticides and pheromones.

  2. Teen Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Childbearing among Latinos in the United States. Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    The Latino population is the fastest-growing major racial/ethnic group in the United States. By 2020, approximately 16 percent of the population will be Latino. This increase will be even more pronounced among teens. This fact sheet summarizes data from the National Vital Statistics Reports on reported sexual activity, pregnancy rates, and…

  3. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  4. Physio-chemical Investigation and Natural Bond Orbital Analysis of the Most Actives Ingredient of Fennel Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Pishehabadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physio-chemical properties of effective compounds of fennel plant were investigated through using computational chemistry. To do this, trans-anethole, estragole, 3'- hydroxyanethole and 4- methoxycinnamyl alcohol compounds that the most active ingredient combinations make up the fennel plant have been carried out at three different levels of HF, BLYP and B3LYP theories using 6-31G*, 6-311G*, 6-311G**, 6-311+G and 6-311++G basis sets. Additionally, ab initio calculation in the gas phase have been studied and physio-chemical parameters including Gibbs free energy, thermal energy, enthalpy, entropy, and thermal capacity in constant volume (CV of these compounds have been computed as well as Gibbs free energy in polar solvents such as ethanol and methanol and water. Based on these obtained data the structural stabilities of these flavorful compounds have been discussed. However, in these herbal effective compounds presented here the natural bond orbital (NBO analysis has been performed which seemed quite informative to show some important atomic and structural features. The result lead to the issue that all those compounds in polar solvents, particularly alcoholic solvents solved and the compounds can be used sufficiently to extract the active ingredients of herb fennel.

  5. A Unique Combination of Nutritionally Active Ingredients Can Prevent Several Key Processes Associated with Atherosclerosis In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe W E Moss

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease that leads to more global mortalities each year than any other ailment. Consumption of active food ingredients such as phytosterols, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavanols are known to impart beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease although the combined actions of such agents in atherosclerosis is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to screen a nutritional supplement containing each of these active components for its anti-atherosclerotic effect on macrophages in vitro.The supplement attenuated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 in human and murine macrophages at physiologically relevant doses. The migratory capacity of human monocytes was also hindered, possibly mediated by eicosapentaenoic acid and catechin, while the ability of foam cells to efflux cholesterol was improved. The polarisation of murine macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype was also attenuated by the supplement.The formulation was able to hinder multiple key steps of atherosclerosis development in vitro by inhibiting monocyte recruitment, foam cell formation and macrophage polarisation towards an inflammatory phenotype. This is the first time a combination these ingredients has been shown to elicit such effects and supports its further study in preclinical in vivo models.

  6. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief.

  7. Cichorium intybus root extract: A "vitamin D-like" active ingredient to improve skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, P M B G; G Mercurio, D; O Melo, M; Closs-Gonthier, B

    2017-02-01

    During the aging process, the human skin suffers many alterations including dryness, skin barrier function damage. The skin barrier function is important to the prevention of skin alterations and maintenance of homeostasis. So, the objective of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy on skin barrier function of Cichorium intybus root extract in cosmetic formulations with or without UV filters. Fifty women, aged between 45 and 60 years, were divided into two groups. One group received vehicle formulations containing UV filters, and the other group received formulations without UV filters. Both groups received a formulation containing the extract and the vehicle. The formulations were applied twice daily to the upper arms after washing with sodium lauryl sulphate. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin microrelief were evaluated before and after a 14- and 28-day period of treatment. The control regions and regions where the vehicles were applied showed an increase in the TEWL. For the formulations containing the extract, decreased TEWL and improved microrelief were observed when compared to the vehicle and control areas after a 28-day period. In conclusion, Cichorium intybus root extract showed protective and restructuring effects on the skin and stands out as an innovative ingredient to improve skin barrier function.

  8. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athula B. Attygalle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 °C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  9. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI) mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athula B. Attygalle; Freneil B. Jariwala; Julius Pavlov; Zhihua Yang; Jason A. Mahr; Mabel Oviedo

    2014-01-01

    A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 1C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion) and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion) which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  10. Quantification of potential impurities by a stability indicating UV-HPLC method in niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Bharti, Amber; Tharpa, Kalsang; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2012-02-23

    A sensitive, stability indicating reverse phase UV-HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 stationary phase in isocratic mode using simple mobile phase. Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. Major degradation of the drug substance was found to occur under oxidative stress conditions to form niacinamide N-oxide. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, linearity and accuracy. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for niacinamide and its six impurities. Detection limit of impurities was in the range of 0.003-0.005% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.3% and 113.3% for all impurities.

  11. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes – A process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic...... the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested...... kg of product – was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical industry featuring different characteristic reaction times, as well as L–L separation and distillation-based solvent exchange...

  12. Optimization of HS-GC-FID-MS Method for Residual Solvent Profiling in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using DoE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poceva Panovska, Ana; Acevska, Jelena; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Brezovska, Katerina; Petkovska, Rumenka; Dimitrovska, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    Within this research, a headspace (HS) gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry method was developed for profiling of residual solvents (RSs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Design of experiment was used for optimization of sample preparation, as well as for robustness testing of the method. HS equilibration temperature and dilution medium were detected as parameters with greater impact on the sensitivity, compared with the time used for equilibration of the samples. Regardless of the sample solubility, the use of water for sample preparation was found to be crucial for better sensitivity. The use of a well-designed strategy for method development and robustness testing, additional level of identification confidence, as well as use of internal standard provided a strong and reliable analytical tool for API fingerprinting, thus enabling the authentication of the substance based on the RS profile.

  13. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  14. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  15. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Aqeela Said Hamed AL Orimi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita). Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract>methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  16. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Guangwen; Chen, Dahui; Xiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use.

  17. Lack of sustained efficacy for alcohol-based surgical hand rubs containing 'residual active ingredients' according to EN 12791.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Suchomel, M

    2017-02-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (Phand rub with 0.1% OPP in 78.2% ethanol was also not superior to the reference treatment when applied as recommended for 1.5min. It appears reasonable and responsible to limit the dermal exposure and environmental input to biocidal agents with a clear benefit such as the alcohols. In analogy to avoiding dyes and fragrances in hand rubs, formulations containing 'active' substances without a clear benefit but with potential risks should be avoided when alternative formulations with the same level of antimicrobial activity, dermal tolerance, and user acceptability are available.

  18. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  19. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use.

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  2. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  3. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bharate, Sonali S.; Bharate, Sandip B.; Bajaj, Amrita N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literature reports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with differen...

  4. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  5. MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM (MDS: A UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY FOR DELIVERY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical industry, various controlled released dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation and topical preparation have more importance due to efficacy and patient compliance. Topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness and skin irritation and fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is overcome by microsponge delivery system. Microsponges are tiny sponge like spherical and highly porous micro-sized particles with a unique ability for entrapping actives. They offers programmable release active drug into the skin in order to reduce systemic exposure and minimize local cutaneous reactions to active. These MDS’s are closely related to microspheres, and used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over- the-counter (OTC skin care preparations, recently used in oral drug as well as biopharmaceuticals (peptides, proteins and DNA-based therapeutics drug delivery. The present review introduces microsponge technology along with its synthesis, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of MDS.

  6. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  7. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  8. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A reduce inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Zjawiony, J; Kutrzeba, L; Aviello, G; Sarnelli, G; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-02-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been used for medical treatments of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract from the leaves of Salvia divinorum (SDE) and of its active ingredient salvinorin A on motility in vivo, both in physiological states and during croton oil-induced intestinal inflammation. SDE (1-100 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited motility only in inflamed, but not in control, mice. In control mice, salvinorin A (0.01-10 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited motility only at the highest doses tested (3 and 10 mg kg(-1)) and this effect was not counteracted by naloxone or by the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Inflammation significantly increased the potency of salvinorin A (but not of the KOR agonist U-50488) in reducing motility. The inhibitory effects of both salvinorin A and U-50488 in inflamed mice were counteracted by naloxone or by nor-binaltorphimine. We conclude that salvinorin A may reduce motility through activation of different targets. In physiological states, salvinorin A, at high doses, inhibited motility through a non-KOR mediated mechanism. Gut inflammation increased the potency of salvinorin A; this effect was mediated by KOR, but it was not shared by U-50488, thus suggesting that salvinorin A may have target(s) other than KOR in the inflamed gut.

  9. Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid. To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-β1 levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P=0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P=0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P=0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly.

  10. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  11. Piperine, an active ingredient of black pepper attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Annie Deborah Harris Souriyan; Deborah Jackline; Mahaboob Khan Rasool

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of piperine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Methods: In mice, hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of acetaminophen (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.). Piperine (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) and standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) were given to mice, 30 min after the single injection of acetaminophen. After 4 h, the mice were decapitated. Activities of liver marker enzymes [(aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated in serum, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione) were determined in liver homogenate of control and experimental mice. Results: Acetaminophen induction (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) significantly increased the levels of liver marker enzymes, TNF-α, and lipid peroxidation, and caused the depletion of antioxidant status. Piperine and silymarin treatment to acetaminophen challenged mice resulted in decreased liver marker enzymes activity, TNF-α and lipid peroxidation levels with increase in antioxidant status. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate that piperine shows promising hepatoprotective effect as comparable to standard drug silymarin.

  12. Use of Active Ingredient Information for Low Socioeconomic Status Parents’ Decision-making Regarding Cough and Cold Medications: Role of Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H. Shonna; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Nagin, Perry; van Schaick, Linda; Cerra, Maria E.; Dreyer, Benard P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Parent administration of multiple medications with overlapping active ingredients places children at risk for overdose. We sought to examine how parents use active ingredient information as part of the process of selecting a cough/cold medication for their child, and how health literacy plays a role. METHODS Experimental study of parents of children presenting for care in an urban public hospital pediatric clinic. Parents were asked to determine which of 3 cough/cold medications could be given to relieve a child’s cold symptoms, as part of a scenario in which they had already given a dose of acetaminophen; only 1 did not contain acetaminophen. Primary dependent variable: correct selection of cough/cold medication, using active ingredient as the rationale for choice. Primary independent variable: parent health literacy (Newest Vital Sign (NVS)). RESULTS Of 297 parents, 79.2% had low health literacy (NVS score 0–3). 35.4% correctly chose the cough/cold medication which did not contain acetaminophen. The proportion of those who made the correct choice was no different than expected from chance alone (Goodness of fit test; χ2=2.1, p=0.3). Only 7.7% chose the correct medication and used active ingredient as the rationale. Those with adequate literacy skills were more likely to have selected the correct medication and rationale (25.8% vs. 3.0% (p=0.001); AOR=11.1 [95%CI: 3.6–33.7], adjusting for sociodemographics, including English proficiency and education). CONCLUSIONS Many parents, especially those with low health literacy, do not use active ingredient information as part of decision-making related to administering multiple medications. PMID:23680341

  13. Ginkgo biloba extracts: a review of the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Christian; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Wurglics, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is among the most favourite and best explored herbal drugs. Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba represent the only herbal alternative to synthetic antidementia drugs in the therapy of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's diseases. The clinical efficiency of such standardized Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) is still controversial, but authors of numerous international clinical studies recommended the use of GBE in the described therapies.Extracts of Ginkgo biloba are a mixture of substances with a wide variety of physical and chemical properties and activities. Numerous pharmacological investigations lead to the conclusion that the terpene trilactones (TTL) and the flavonoids of GBE are responsible for the main pharmacological effects of the extract in the therapy of cognitive decline. Therefore, the quality of GBE products must be oriented on a defined quantity of TTL and flavonoids. Furthermore, because of their toxic potential the amount of ginkgolic acid should be less than 5 ppm.However, data on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, especially related to the central nervous system (CNS), which is the target tissue, are relatively rare. A few investigations characterize the TTL and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba pharmacokinetically in plasma and in the brain. Recent investigations show that significant levels of TTL and Ginkgo biloba flavonoids cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the CNS of rats after oral application of GBE. Knowledge about the pharmacokinetic behaviour of these substances is necessary to discuss the pharmacological results on a more realistic basis.

  14. Health effects of Vaccinium myrtillus L.: evaluation of efficacy and technological strategies for preservation of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Monteleone, Domenico; Trombetta, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Bilberries are a rich dietary source of various phytonutrients, including anthocyanins which contribute greatly to their antioxidant capacity and have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. These include protection against cardiovascular disorders, age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and several degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protecting genomic DNA integrity. In recent years, sales of many dietary supplements/pharmaceutical products containing anthocyanins in various dosages and formulations have been made by advertising their wide range of beneficial effects. However, there is a heightened risk of distributing deteriorated formulations to consumers due to lax regulations, in particular those applicable to phytochemical characterization and extract standardization, and in terms of quality regarding the stability of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin pigments readily degrade during industrial processing and this can have a dramatic impact on color quality and may also affect nutritional/pharmaceutical properties. This review aims to summarize the main health effects of bilberry extract used in several food supplements/pharmaceutical formulations focusing on some important aspects of anthocyanin degradation during processing and storage. It will also describe the main technological strategies which can give active ingredients greater stability, solubility and dispersibility in order to enhance formulation quality which is of great interest to the consumer and industry due to its direct and indirect impact on consumer health.

  15. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  16. Effect of particle shape of active pharmaceutical ingredients prepared by fluidized-bed jet-milling on cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaka, Tadashi; Sawaguchi, Kohta; Golman, Boris; Shinohara, Kunio

    2005-05-01

    Milling is a common procedure to improve bioavailability of many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), which typically have low solubility in water. But such micronization can yield an increase in the cohesiveness of particles. Although particle cohesiveness is desirable for tablet strength in the subsequent formulation process, increased particle cohesiveness can lead to operational difficulties in a milling equipment due to compaction of particles inside. In this article, the impact of milling via a fluidized-bed jet-mill on the cohesive strength and interparticle force was studied using Ethenzamide as a pharmaceutical model compound. As a result, the particle shape was found to affect both the tensile strength of powder bed and the interparticle cohesive force. A powder bed, having relatively high void fraction by direct tensile test, shows a positive correlation between the cohesive force and the particle sphericity, while powders with low void fraction by diametral compression test show a positive correlation between the cohesive force and the angularity of the particle.

  17. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic acid functionality in polyethylene glycol: formulation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe; Østergaard, Jesper

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are attractive as excipients in the manufacture of drug products because they are water soluble and poorly immunogenic. They are used in various pharmaceutical preparations. However, because of their terminal hydroxyl groups, PEGs can participate in esterification reactions. In this study, kinetics of two active pharmaceutical ingredients, cetirizine and indomethacin possessing carboxylic acid functionality, has been studied in PEG 400 and PEG 1000 at 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. HPLC-UV was applied for the determination of concentrations in the kinetic studies, whereas HPLC-MS was used to identify reaction products. The esterification reactions were observed to be reversible. A second-order reversible kinetic model was applied and rate constants were determined. The rate constants demonstrated that cetirizine was esterified about 240 times faster than indomethacin at 80 °C. The shelf-life for cetirizine in a PEG 400 formulation at 25 °C expressed as t(95%) was predicted to be only 30 h. Further, rate constants for esterification of cetirizine in PEG 1000 in relation to PEG 400 decreased by a factor of 10, probably related to increased viscosity. However, it is important to be aware of this drug-excipient interaction, as it can reduce the shelf-life of a low-average molecular weight PEG formulation considerably.

  18. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  19. A Tape Method for Fast Characterization and Identification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the 2-18 THz Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissi, Eric Ofosu; Bawuah, Prince; Silfsten, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2015-03-01

    In order to find counterfeit drugs quickly and reliably, we have developed `tape method' a transmission spectroscopic terahertz (THz) measurement technique and compared it with a standard attenuated total reflection (ATR) THz spectroscopic measurement. We used well-known training samples, which include commercial paracetamol and aspirin tablets to check the validity of these two measurement techniques. In this study, the spectral features of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), such as aspirin and paracetamol are characterized for identification purpose. This work covers a wide THz spectral range namely, 2-18 THz. This proposed simple but novel technique, the tape method, was used for characterizing API and identifying their presence in their dosage forms. By comparing the spectra of the APIs to their dosage forms (powder samples), all distinct fingerprints present in the APIs are also present in their respective dosage forms. The positions of the spectral features obtained with the ATR techniques were akin to that obtained from the tape method. The ATR and the tape method therefore, complement each other. The presence of distinct fingerprints in this spectral range has highlighted the possibility of developing fast THz sensors for the screening of pharmaceuticals. It is worth noting that, the ATR method is applicable to flat faced tablets whereas the tape method is suitable for powders in general (e.g. curved surface tablets that require milling before measurement). Finally, we have demonstrated that ATR techniques can be used to screen counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of the Release of Active Ingredients from a Contraceptive Patch: Ortho Evra® as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Patricio Sáenz-Collins, Carlos; García-Arellano, Lizette; Moisés Álvarez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive patches have become a frequently used contraceptive method. We present a mathematical model that describes the serum concentration profiles of Norelgestromin (NGMN) and Ethinylestradiol (EE) released from the contraceptive patch Ortho Evra®. We propose a simple one-compartment model based on pharmacokinetics data reported in previous studies. The model assumes a time-dependent release rate and a first order elimination rate for each of the active ingredients contained in the patch. The model was applied to noncompliance scenarios, such as total and partial detachment of the patch or prolonged use without patch replacement. The proposed model adequately describes the clinically observed evolution of NGMN and EE in serum. Predictions from the model were successfully validated using reported experimental data of serum concentrations of NGMN and EE. This simple model can be a valuable tool to predict pharmacokinetic profiles in diverse scenarios such us non-compliance situations. Alternatively, the model can be conveniently adapted to anticipate the effect of variations on patch characteristics such as differences in contact area, doses, materials, among others. PMID:24734055

  1. Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Richard H; Östman, Marcus; Olofsson, Ulrika; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  2. 蒿属植物的农药活性及其有效成分%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Artemisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利娟; 桑晓清; 孙永艳; 杨文杰

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on pesticidal activities and the corresponding active ingredients of Artemisia are presented. Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia vestita, Artemisia parvijlora, Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia capillarie, Artemisia mongoli-ca, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia monosperma and Artemisia judaica possess insecticidal activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, borneol, camphor, caryophyllene, isoaryophyllene and farnesene. Artemisia annua, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia tournefortiana, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia taurica, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia molinieri, Artemisia stolonifera show fungicidal activities and the main active ingredients are camphor, cineole, borneol, flavonoids, olefins, terpene hydrocarbons, alkanes and organic acids. Artemisia caerulescens subsp. gallica, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia roxburghiana,Artenisia annua, Artemisia tridentate, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia taurica exhibit herbicide activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, camphor, arteether, monoterpenes and ses-quiterpenes. Artemisia absinthium shows nematicidal activity. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia dracunculus have mollusicidal activities. In all, Artemisia annua, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia borealis and Artemisia judaica show multiple activities and may be used as botanical pesticides.%综述了蒿属植物的杀虫、杀螨、杀菌、除草、杀线虫和杀软体动物活性及相应的有效成分.该属中具有杀虫杀螨活性的主要有黄花蒿、野艾蒿、苦艾、蒌蒿、毛莲蒿、西南牡蒿、大籽蒿、猪毛蒿、茵陈蒿、蒙古蒿、巴儿古津蒿、南亚蒿、犹地蒿和Artemisia monsperma等,其主要有效成分是桉树脑、龙脑、樟脑、石竹烯、异石竹烯和β-法呢烯等.该属中具有杀菌活性的主要有黄花蒿、银叶艾蒿

  3. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-06

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems.

  4. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  5. Fusion production of solid dispersions containing a heat-sensitive active ingredient by hot melt extrusion and Kinetisol dispersing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinunzio, James C; Brough, Chris; Hughey, Justin R; Miller, Dave A; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2010-02-01

    Many techniques for the production of solid dispersions rely on elevated temperatures and prolonged material residence times, which can result in decomposition of temperature-sensitive components. In this study, hydrocortisone was used as a model temperature-sensitive active ingredient to study the effect of formulation and processing techniques as well as to characterize the benefits of KinetiSol Dispersing for the production of solid dispersions. Preformulation studies were conducted using differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy to identify optimum carriers for the production of amorphous solid dispersions. After identification, solid dispersions were prepared by hot melt extrusion and KinetiSol Dispersing, with material characterized by X-ray diffraction, dissolution and potency testing to evaluate physicochemical properties. Results from the preformulation studies showed that vinylacetate:vinylpyrrolidone (PVPVA) copolymer allowed for hydrocortisone dissolution within the carrier at temperatures as low as 160 degrees C, while hydroxypropyl methylcellulose required temperatures upward of 180 degrees C to facilitate solubilization. Low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, a high glass transition temperature control, showed that the material was unable to solubilize hydrocortisone. Manufacturing process control studies using hot melt extruded compositions of hydrocortisone and PVPVA showed that increased temperatures and residence times negatively impacted product potency due to decomposition. Using KinetiSol Dispersing to reduce residence time and to facilitate lower temperature processing, it was possible to produce solid dispersions with improved product potency. This study clearly demonstrated the importance of carrier selection to facilitate lower temperature processing, as well as the effect of residence time on product potency. Furthermore, KinetiSol Dispersing provided significant advantages over hot melt extrusion due to the reduced

  6. Assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredient particle size in tablets by Raman chemical imaging validated using polystyrene microsphere size standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Atsushi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2014-04-01

    Particle size is a critical parameter for controlling pharmaceutical quality. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the micrometer-scale active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in tablets using Raman chemical imaging and to understand the effects of formulation on particle size. Model tablets containing National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable polystyrene microsphere size standards were developed to determine the binarization threshold value of Raman chemical images for API particle sizing in specific formulations and processes. Three sets of model tablets containing 5, 10, and 15 μm polystyrene microspheres, used to mimic API, were prepared using a commercial tablet formulation (Ebastel tablets, mean API particle size was about 5 μm). Raman mapping with a 50× objective (NA, 0.75) was applied to tablet cross-sections, and particle size of polystyrene microspheres was estimated from binary images using several binarization thresholds. Mean particle size for three sets of polystyrene microspheres showed good agreement between pre- and postformulation (the slope = 1.024, R = 1.000) at the specific threshold value ((mean + 0.5σ) of the polystyrene-specific peak intensity histogram), regardless of particle agglomeration, tablet surface roughness, and laser penetration depth. The binarization threshold value showed good applicability to Ebastel tablets, where the API-specific peak intensity histogram showed a pattern similar to that of polystyrene microspheres in model tablets. The model tablets enabled determination of an appropriate binarization threshold for assessing the mean particle size of micrometer-scale API in tablets by utilizing the unique physicochemical properties of polystyrene microspheres.

  7. Measurement of low amounts of amorphous content in hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients with dynamic organic vapor sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Today, a variety of devices for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is available and many different formulations for optimized deposition in the lung are developed. However, during the production of powder inhalers, processing steps may induce changes to both, the carrier and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is well known that standard pharmaceutical operations may lead to structural changes, crystal defects and amorphous regions. Especially operations such as milling, blending and even sieving generate these effects. These disorders may induce re-crystallization and particle size changes post-production which have a huge influence on drug delivery and product stability. In this study, pilot tests with a polar solvent (water) and hydrophilic drug (Salbutamol sulfate) were performed to receive a first impression on further possible implementation of hydrophobic samples with organic solvents. Thereafter, a reliable method for the accurate detection of low amounts of amorphous content is described up to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5% for a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide). The organic vapor sorption method which is a gravimetric method quantifies exactly these low amounts of amorphous content in the hydrophobic powder once the suitable solvent (isopropanol), the correct p/p0 value (0.1) and the exact temperature (25°C) have been found. Afterward it was possible to quantitate low amorphous amounts in jet-milled powders (0.5-17.0%). In summary, the data of the study led to a clearer understanding in what quantity amorphous parts were generated in single production steps and how variable these parts behave to fully crystalline material. Nevertheless it showed how difficult it was to re-crystallize hydrophobic material with water vapor over a short period. For the individual samples it was possible to determine the single humidity at which the material starts to re-crystallize, the behavior against different nonpolar solvents and the calculation of the

  8. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown toenail relief. 310.538 Section 310.538 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown toenail relief. (a) Any product that bears labeling claims such as for “temporary relief of discomfort from ingrown toenails,” or “ingrown...

  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    OpenAIRE

    Si-Ming Zhang; Buddenborg, Sarah K.; Adema, Coen M.; John T Sullivan; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biolog...

  10. Supersaturation of Calcipotriene and Betamethasone Dipropionate in a Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation for Topical Treatment of Psoriasis Provides Enhanced Bioavailability of the Active Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated the superior efficacy of a novel aerosol foam formulation of fixed combination calcipotriene 0.005% (Cal) and betamethasone dipropionate 0.064% (BD), compared with the ointment formulation. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether enhanced bioavailability of the active ingredients due to supersaturation and/or occlusive properties can explain the observed greater clinical efficacy. Methods Solubility and evaporation experiments were conduct...

  11. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method.

  12. In vitro effects of buyang huanwu decoction and its ingredients on inhibiting the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor to its receptor in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic action of traditional Chinese medicine compound is the comprehensive effect of various ingredients, and the interactions of various ingredients are closely correlated with the final effect. In order to reveal the compatibility mechanism of buyang huanwu decoction (BHD)'s prescription in treating and preventing ischemic cerebrovascular disease, we need to explore the effect and relation of ingredients in prescription except for considering the effect of each ingredient on the whole prescription.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of BHD and its ingredients in the prescription on the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor (PAFR)in rabbits in vitro, and to analyze the action of each ingredient in the prescription.DESIGN: A decomposed recipe study based on orthogonal test.SETTING: Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Five healthy adult New Zealand rabbits of either gender were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese medicine. The prescription herbal pieces were purchased from Foshan Kangpu Pharmaceuticals Company and Jianmin Pharmaceuticals Company, and were appraised by Professor Yanchen Xu from College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 3H-PAF was supplied by Amersham Co.,Ltd.(Specific activity:6.475 TBq/mmol;batch number:200402); PAF standard by Biomol Co., Ltd.(batch number: P1318V).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between September and December 2004. ① The seven influencing factors were selected: such as Shenghuangqi , Dangguiwei, Chishao, Dilong, Taoren, Honghua, Chuanxiong. Each factor was divided into two levels, selected or not selected. The tests were arranged according to L8 (27) orthogonal test table. ②The specific binding of 3H-PAF to its receptors in rabbits was measured by

  13. Diabetes Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes by losing weight. Related information Fitness and nutrition Heart disease and stroke Obesity and weight loss fact sheet Physical activity fact sheet Pregnancy The javascript used in this widget is not ...

  14. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  15. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures.

  16. [Studies on effects of Achyranthes bidentata on tongsaimai pellets main active ingredients chlorogenic acid, isoliquiritin, harpagoside and glycyrrhizin in vivo pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Di, Liu-Qing; Shan, Jin-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Kang, An; Bi, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jun-Song

    2014-04-01

    To study on the effects of Achyranthes bidentata on Tongsaimai pellets main active ingredients chlorogenic acid, isoliquiritin, harpagoside and glycyrrhizin in rats in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors, a method for the simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, isoliquiritin, harpagoside and liquiritigenin in rat plasma was established by UPLC-MS/MS. The analysis was performed on a waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 microm) with the mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid/water as mobile phase, and the gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1). The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry with the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. It turned out that the analytes of Tongsaimai pellets groups C(max) and AUC(Q-infinity) values were higher than that with A. bidentata group, and the C(max) values of chlorogenic acid had significantly difference (P < 0.05), the AUC(0-infinity) values of chlorogenic acid and glycyrrhizin had significantly difference (P < 0.05); The T(max) and CL values of two groups had no significantly difference. Results showed that the established method was specific, rapid, accurate and sensitive for the studies of Tongsaimai pellets four main active ingredients in rat in vivo pharmacokinetic, and A. bidentata have varying degrees of effects on Tongsaimai pellets four main active ingredients in rat in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors.

  17. Developmental changes in fact and source recall: Contributions from executive function and brain electrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Rajan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood.

  18. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge.

  19. [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, active ingredients of the traditional Japanese medicine hangeshashinto, relief oral ulcerative mucositis-induced pain via action on Na(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Suzuro; Ono, Kentaro; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Chinami; Mizuno, Keita; Yamaguchi, Kiichiro; Imai, Ryota; Omiya, Yuji; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

    2017-03-01

    The traditional Japanese herbal medicine hangeshashinto (HST) has beneficial effects for the treatment of oral ulcerative mucositis (OUM) in cancer patients. However, the ingredient-based mechanism that underlies its pain-relieving activity remains unknown. In the present study, to clarify the analgesic mechanism of HST on OUM-induced pain, we investigated putative HST ingredients showing antagonistic effects on Na(+) channels in vitro and in vivo. A screen of 21 major ingredients using automated patch-clamp recordings in channel-expressing cells showed that [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol, two components of a Processed Ginger extract, considerably inhibited voltage-activated Na(+) currents. These two ingredients inhibited the stimulant-induced release of substance P and action potential generation in cultured rat sensory neurons. A submucosal injection of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold in healthy rats. In a rat OUM model, OUM-induced mechanical pain was alleviated 30min after the swab application of HST despite the absence of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory actions in the OUM area. A swab application of a mixture of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol induced sufficient analgesia of OUM-induced mechanical or spontaneous pain when co-applied with a Ginseng extract containing abundant saponin. The Ginseng extract demonstrated an acceleration of substance permeability into the oral ulcer tissue without an analgesic effect. These findings suggest that Na(+) channel blockage by gingerol/shogaol plays an essential role in HST-associated analgesia of OUM-induced pain. This pharmacological mechanism provides scientific evidence supporting the use of this herbal medicine in patients suffering from OUM-induced pain.

  20. Polysaccharide-Containing Macromolecules in a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, Hochuekkito: Dual Active Ingredients for Modulation of Immune Functions on Intestinal Peyer's Patches and Epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kiyohara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41 is a well-known Kampo formula, and has been found to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in not only local mucosal immune system in upper respiratory tract, but also systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system. Although this immunopharmacological effect has been proposed to express by modulation of intestinal immune system including Peyer's patches and intestinal epithelial cells, active ingredients are not known. TJ-41 directly affected the production of bone marrow cell-proliferative growth factors from murine Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells in vitro. Among low molecular, intermediate size and macromolecular weight fractions prepared from TJ-41, only fraction containing macromolecular weight ingredients showed Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell-proliferation enhancing activity. Anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration gave 17 subfractions comprising polysaccharides and lignins from the macromolecular weight fraction of TJ-41, and some of the subfractions showed significant enhancing activities having different degrees. Some of the subfractions also expressed stimulating activity on G-CSF-production from colonic epithelial cells, and statistically significant positive correlation was observed among enhancing activities of the subfractions against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and epithelial cells. Among the fractions from TJ-41 oral administration of macromolecular weight ingredient fraction to mice succeeded to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system, but all the separated fractions failed to enhance the in vivo antibody response in upper respiratory tract.

  1. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients.

  2. Silver sucrose octasulfate (IASOS™ as a valid active ingredient into a novel vaginal gel against human vaginal pathogens: in vitro antimicrobial activity assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Marianelli

    Full Text Available This in vitro study assessed the antimicrobial properties of a novel octasilver salt of Sucrose Octasulfate (IASOS as well as of an innovative vaginal gel containing IASOS (SilSOS Femme, against bacterial and yeast pathogens isolated from human clinical cases of symptomatic vaginal infections. In BHI and LAPT culture media, different ionic silver concentrations and different pHs were tested. IASOS exerted a strong antimicrobial activity towards all the pathogens tested in both culture media. The results demonstrated that salts and organic compounds present in the culture media influenced IASOS efficacy only to a moderate extent. Whereas comparable MBCs (Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations were observed for G. vaginalis (10 mg/L Ag+, E. coli and E. aerogenes (25 mg/L Ag+ in both media, higher MBCs were found for S. aureus and S. agalactiae in LAPT cultures (50 mg/L Ag+ versus 25 mg/L Ag+. No minimal concentration totally inhibiting the growth of C. albicans was found. Nevertheless, in both media at the highest ionic silver concentrations (50-200 mg/L Ag+, a significant 34-52% drop in Candida growth was observed. pH differently affected the antimicrobial properties of IASOS against bacteria or yeasts; however, a stronger antimicrobial activity at pH higher than the physiological pH was generally observed. It can be therefore concluded that IASOS exerts a bactericidal action against all the tested bacteria and a clear fungistatic action against C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the whole vaginal gel SilSOS Femme further confirmed the antimicrobial activity of IASOS. Overall, our findings support IASOS as a valid active ingredient into a vaginal gel.

  3. Active Ingredient Analysis of Tibet Cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum%西藏人工栽培灵芝活性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶恩铭; 刘涛; 次仁德吉; 宋博文

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the main active ingredient in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum, this article collected the local cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum as the raw materials, used anthrone-sulfuric acid spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, pre-column derivatization RP-HPLC method to analyze the main active ingredient. The results showed that the contents of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, triterpenoids, amino acids in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum were:1.199g/100g, 1.63%, 8.898g/100g. Compared with national coverage, the active ingredient of cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum is richer, and the acid and triterpenoids content is higher than that in other regions.%为了解西藏人工栽培灵芝的主要活性成分,采集当地栽培的灵芝为原材料,分别采用蒽酮-硫酸分光法、紫外分光光度法、柱前衍生化RP-HPLC方法,分析其主要活性成分。结果表明,西藏人工栽培的灵芝中灵芝多糖、三萜类、氨基酸含量依次为:1.199g/100g、1.63%、8.898g/100g,经与国内报道相比较,西藏人工灵芝活性成分比较丰富,氨基酸和三萜类含量高于其他区域。

  4. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A inhibit enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Capasso, F; Siebert, D J; Stewart, D J; Zjawiony, J K; Izzo, A A

    2006-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a widespread hallucinogenic herb traditionally employed for divination, as well as a medicament for several disorders including disturbances of gastrointestinal motility. In the present study we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract from the leaves of S. divinorum (SDE) on enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum. SDE reduced electrically evoked contractions without modifying the contractions elicited by exogenous acetylcholine, thus suggesting a prejunctional site of action. The inhibitory effect of SDE on twitch response was abolished by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine, but not by naltrindole (a delta-opioid receptor antagonist), CTOP (a mu-opioid receptor antagonist), thioperamide (a H(3) receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an alpha(2)-receptor antagonist), methysergide (a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an inhibitor of NO synthase) or apamin (a blocker of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels). Salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of S. divinorum, inhibited in a nor-binaltorphimine- and naloxone-sensitive manner electrically induced contractions. It is concluded that SDE depressed enteric cholinergic transmission likely through activation of kappa-opioid receptors and this may provide the pharmacological basis underlying its traditional antidiarrhoeal use. Salvinorin A might be the chemical ingredient responsible for this activity.

  5. Analytical method (HPLC), validation used for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use and its finite product Tilodem 50, hydrosoluble powder

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for the finite product Tilodem 50 - hydrosoluble powder was acomkplished in the respect of last European Pharmacopoeia.The method for analysis used in this purpose was the compendial method „Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use” in EurPh. in vigour edition and represent a variant developed and validation „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are th...

  6. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell line handling procedure for the comet assay to investigate the genotoxic potential of widely used pesticides. The effects of various media and handling of the EPC cell line were examined. Results indicated...... that avoiding trypsin to detach cells led to lower level of DNA damage in the negative control. Further, two commonly used herbicides (Dezormon and Optica trio) and their four active ingredients (4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid, 2...

  7. Quality control of tuirejieduling granules using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method and simultaneous determination of four main active ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tuirejieduling granule is a compound preparation made from four kinds of Chinese medicines. It is effective for anti-inflammation, antivirus, defervescence and anti-bacterium; however, its quality control standards have remained unknown. Objective: To establish a simple and accurate fingerprint method for quality control of the Tuirejieduling granule. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of the Tuirejieduling granule was used for the fingerprint analysis and the four selected active ingredients (epigoitrin, phillyrin, saikosaponin A and glycyrrhetinic acid in the extract were determined. The fingerprint method was performed on an Amethyst C18-P chromatography column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and aqueous phase (containing 0.5% H 3 PO 4 (v/v, pH 3.0. Results: Under the optimal chromatographic condition, twenty peaks were chosen as fingerprint peaks of the Tuirejieduling granules extractions. The similarities of 10 batches of Tuirejieduling granule was more than 0.99. This indicates that the different batches of Tuirejieduling granules were under the consistent quality control. Good linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges were obtained with the values of R2 higher than 0.99 for four studied active ingredients. The recoveries for spiked samples were in the range of 96.2-105.5%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the contents of active constituents in different batches of Tuirejieduling granule. Conclusion: The HPLC fingerprint was proved to be a reliable method for the quality control of Tuirejieduling granule.

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  9. Ferret facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This update functions to inform cooperators on the latest, most recent facts on the 1994 Montana Black-footed Ferret Reintroduction. This is a weekly update,...

  10. Analytical method (HPLC, validation used for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use and its finite product Tilodem 50, hydrosoluble powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finite product Tilodem 50 - hydrosoluble powder was acomkplished in the respect of last European Pharmacopoeia.The method for analysis used in this purpose was the compendial method „Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use” in EurPh. in vigour edition and represent a variant developed and validation „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the followings: Selectivity, Linearity, Linearity range, Detection and Quantification limits, Precision, Repeatability (intra day, Inter-Day Reproductibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Solutions’ stability and System suitability. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is consistent, in terms of quality, if it contains Tylosin A - minimum 80% and the amount of Tylosin A, B, C, D, at minimum 95%. Identification and determination of each component separately (Tylosin A, B, C, D is possible by chromatographic separation-HPLC. Validation of analytical methods is presented below.

  11. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot.

  12. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  13. What are the active ingredients in cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy for anxious and depressed children? A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Pasek, Leigh F; McFall, Joseph P

    2007-06-01

    Prior meta-analytic reviews have indicated that cognitive and behavioral treatments are efficacious in treating child and adolescent depression and anxiety. Further, a meta-analysis has suggested that behavioral treatments are superior to nonbehavioral treatments for treating anxiety and depression in youth. However, the prior meta-analysis did not examine direct comparisons between cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) and non-CBT treatments, leaving open the possibility that their results were artifactual. The present meta-analysis aggregated results of studies in which CBT treatments were compared with either other bona fide treatments (including other CBT therapies) or non-bona fide therapies. The heterogeneity of the distribution of differences between bona fide treatments as well as a comparison of full (e.g. CBT+Parent training) versus component treatments (e.g., CBT only) were examined. The results indicated that: (a) CBT was more efficacious than non-bona fide therapies; (b) CBT was no more efficacious than bona fide non-CBT treatments (c) the differences between bona fide treatments were homogenously distributed around zero; and (d) full CBT treatments offered no significant benefit over their components. The results strongly suggest that the theoretically purported critical ingredients of CBT are not specifically ameliorative for child and adolescent depression and anxiety.

  14. Snack, Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The American diet has undergone substantial changes, a fact that has negatively impacted the dental health of children. Primary prevention is the ideal method to address the current increased incidence of tooth decay. Educating kids, and their parents, about the qualities of snacks as well as the role of frequency of snacking could help to reduce…

  15. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to Navigation Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  16. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  17. 抗心律失常天然活性成分的研究进展%Research progress of antiarrhythmic natural active ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永煌; 岑柏宏; 陈瑞晗; 曹静桦; 黄国杰; 梁燕玲; 董艳芬

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmias are common in the field of cardiovascular disease. In March 2013, World Health Organization reported that, in 2008 the population who died of cardiovascular disease has been as high as 17.3 million, and by 2030 will increase to 23.3 million. Sudden cardiac death accounts for about 40%-50%, while the majority of sudden cardiac death caused by arrhythmia, so the development of new drugs antiarrhythmic is urgent. In recent years, the development of chemical antiarrhythmic drugs getting into the bottleneck, the value of natural antiarrhythmic drug has gotten the world's attention again. At present, the active ingredient of natural antiarrhythmic drugs mainly are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins. By a comprehensive analysis of the reported literature, the article generalizes the research progress which is about the active ingredient of natural antiarrhythmic drug in nearly a decade, in order to provide certain basis for further study on the active ingredient of natural drugs.%心律失常是心血管领域的常见病、多发病。2013年3月世界卫生组织报道,2008年死于心脑血管疾病者高达1730万,而到2030年将增至2330万。其中心脏性猝死占40%~50%,而大多数心脏性猝死由心律失常所引发,故抗心律失常新药的研发刻不容缓。近几年化学抗心律药物的研发渐入瓶颈,天然药物抗心律失常的价值重新得到世界的关注。目前天然药物抗心律失常活性成分多为生物碱类、黄酮类、皂苷类。本研究通过综合分析已报道的相关文献,概括近几年抗心律失常的天然药物活性成分研究进展,为天然药物活性成分的进一步研究提供依据。

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Iranian Crack to Determine the Active Ingredient in Committing Crime in order to Determine Criminal Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime (the basis of criminal law is the behavior that intentionallyleadsto violation of legal orders and one of the things that hinder the realization of criminal liability is the condition called insanity. People lacking the healthy will, or unaware of the essence of the consequences their acts if they commit crimes they are not addressed in the law and do not have criminal responsibility.In a cross sectional study in Khuzestan forensic toxicology lab after 61 TLCsamplesof crack street, drug recognition tests was doneby HPLC and GC / MS. Examination of data (V22 SPSS (p value <0.05:% 93/4of crack samples were containing morphine,% 83/6 with caffeine, noscapine or dextromethorphan,% 27/9 heroin and codeine,% 37/7 six mono-acetylphloroglucinol morphine,% 34/4 acetyl codeine,% 13/1 narceine and acetaminophen, % 16/4 diazepam and% 9/8 chloramphenicol and other components of methyl amphetamines, diphenhydramine, lidocaine, thebaine, amoxicillin, amitriptyline and nortriptyline % 6/6 of samples were a mixture of methyl amphetamine - diphenhydramine and acetaminophen, it was a special type of Iraniancrack, due to the existence of amphetamines play a major role in dementia and mental illness like schizophrenia.Iraniancrack is not only different from a real crack (cocaine, but differs in the types, number and amount of additives drug ,Opioid and diluent. Crack has different amount of effective substances on the central nervous system pharmacological and non-pharmacological and psychedelic properties.Different Clinical manifestations like dementia and lack of determinationthat leads to crime.As a result, the need to determine the ingredients in the crack used in the examination of crime and helpingthe criminal justice system in determining the penalty is definite.

  19. Cell-based screening identifies the active ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicine formula Shixiao San as the inhibitors of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed a phenotypic screening in human endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein (an in vitro model of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction to identify the effective compounds in Shixiao San. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the cell-based screening method using atorvastatin as the positive control drug, this method was applied in screening Shixiao San and its extracts. The treatment of n-butanol fraction on endothelial cells exhibited stronger healing effects against oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced insult when compared with other fractions. Cell viability, the level of nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 were measured, respectively. The assays revealed n-butanol fraction significantly elevated the survival ratio of impaired cells in culture. In parallel, n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest inhibition of inflammation. The generation of prostaglandin-2 and adhesion molecule (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was obviously declined. Furthermore, n-butanol fraction suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and restored the activity of superoxide dismutase. Compounds identification of the n-butanol fraction was carried out by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The active ingredients including quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-l-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside revealed the ability of anti-atherosclerosis after exposing on endothelial cells. The current work illustrated the pharmacology effect of Shixiao San and clearly indicated the major active components in Shixiao San. More importantly, the proposed cell-based screening method might be particularly suitable for fast evaluating the anti-atherosclerosis efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicines and screening out the

  20. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  1. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium and kinetic models for a case study of pharmaceutical active ingredient adsorption from fermentation broths: parameter determination, simulation, sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Likozar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models for a batch process were developed to predict concentration distributions for an active ingredient (vancomycin adsorption on a representative hydrophobic-molecule adsorbent, using differently diluted crude fermentation broth with cells as the feedstock. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the maximization of the coefficient of determination by a heuristic algorithm. The parameters were estimated for each fermentation broth concentration using four concentration distributions at initial vancomycin concentrations of 4.96, 1.17, 2.78, and 5.54 g l−¹. In sequence, the models and their parameters were validated for fermentation broth concentrations of 0, 20, 50, and 100% (v/v by calculating the coefficient of determination for each concentration distribution at the corresponding initial concentration. The applicability of the validated models for process optimization was investigated by using the models as process simulators to optimize the two process efficiencies.

  2. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Major Active Ingredients and Toxic Components in GinkgoBiloba Leaves Extract (EGb 761) by a Validated UPLC-MS-MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Qi; Yao, Xin; Cheng, Zongqi

    2017-01-08

    An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results indicated that the quantification analysis could be readily utilized as a quality control method for EGb 761 and its other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids as markers.

  3. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, Amy; Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-de; Allen, Sandra A; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef

    2015-12-01

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8-10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60-70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10-14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2±1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system.

  4. Review on active ingredients from Cannabis sativa leaves and its pharmacological characteristics%汉麻叶活性成分及其药理特性的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军强; 何锦风; 何聪芬; 蒲彪; 李靖宇; 蒋勇

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis saliva leaves contains a variety of active ingredients, including cannabinoid and non -cannabinoid. Active ingredients from Cannahis saliva leaves have a high application value in the pharmacy and other fields. In this paper, the pharmacological characteristics of cannabinoid, non-cannabinoid and unknown active ingredients was summarized.%汉麻叶含有多种活性成分,包括大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物.汉麻叶的活性成分在医药等领域有极高的应用价值.本文就大麻酚类化合物,非大麻酚类化合物和未知活性成分的药理特性展开综述.

  5. HRSA Data Fact Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Data Fact Sheets provide summary data about HRSA’s activities in each Congressional District, County, State,...

  6. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations.

  7. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago

  8. Effective Teachers for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Active Ingredients Leading to Positive Teacher and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) have varied skills and abilities. Within the field there are some teachers, who teach students with E/BD by actively engaging them in learning tasks and who have few behavior problems in comparison to other teachers, who struggle with classroom management. Many researchers have found…

  9. Induction of rat hepatic cytochromes P450 by toxic ingredients in plants: lack of correlation between toxicity and inductive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Nakamura, T; Oguri, K

    1998-12-01

    "Animal-Plant Warfare" is one of the hypotheses for the evolution of drug-metabolizing P450s. To address the validity of this hypothesis, we examined the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s by 12 plant toxins in rats, using hepatic activity for testosterone metabolism as the index. The compounds tested were aconitine, morphine, tubocurarine, physostigmine, pilocarpine, muscarine, cocaine, atropine, amygdalin, digitonin, nicotine and solanine. Drinking water containing a test compound was given to rats for 4 days, and the hepatic activity of testosterone metabolism was determined together with monitoring body weight gain and liver weight as the indices of toxicity. The results showed that while cocaine and nicotine have a minor ability to increase testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylase activity, a marker activity for the CYP2B1 and 2, all other compounds did not have any such effect. No correlation was observed between a change in 16 beta-hydroxylase and toxicity caused by toxins. Therefore, these results did not support the idea that the inducibility of the CYP2B subfamily in animals is acquired through "Animal-Plant Warfare". Several compounds examined here increased or decreased hepatic activities of testosterone 2 alpha-, 6 beta-, 7 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylation and 17-oxidation, indicating a possible effect on the CYP2A, 2C and 3A subfamily. Of these effects, a moderate correlation (r toxicity. It is therefore suggested that inhibition or suppression of the expression of CYP2C11 is one of the mechanisms in the toxicity of plant toxins for rats, although it comes from an examination using limited numbers of compounds.

  10. Kinetics of Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase Using Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.: A Potential Antidepressant Herbal Ingredient with Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacche, R N; Shaikh, R U; Chapole, S M; Jadhav, A D; Jadhav, S G

    2011-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and effect of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. (Poaceae) leaves on the activity of monoamine oxidase and kinetics of enzyme inhibition. Ethanol extract of C. martinii and rat brain mitochondrial monoamine oxidase preparation ware used to study the kinetics of enzyme inhibition using double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The DPPH was used as a source of free radical to evaluate antioxidant potential. It is observed that, the ethanolic extract of C. martinii inhibits the monoamine oxidase activity with competitive mode of inhibition. The V(max) (0.01 mM/min) remained constant while, K(m) varied from 21.00 ± 1.1, 43.33 ± 1.5 and 83.33 ± 1.4 mM for 100-500 μg/ml concentration of C. martinii. The K(i) values were calculated to be 90.00 ± 0.87, 75.00 ± 0.69, 68.18 ± 0.68 μg for 100-500 μg/ml concentration of C. martini. It also shows a significant DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine) radical scavenging (IC(50) = 0.34 ± 0.05 mg/ml) and reducing activity (IC(50) = 0.70 ± 0.22 mg/ml). The C. martini can be considered as a possible source of MAO inhibitor used in the treatment of depression and other neurological disorders.

  11. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  12. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  13. The slow relaxation dynamics in active pharmaceutical ingredients studied by DSC and TSDC: Voriconazole, miconazole and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joaquim J Moura; Diogo, Hermínio P

    2016-03-30

    The slow molecular mobility of three active pharmaceutical drugs (voriconazole, miconazole and itraconazole) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC). This study yielded the main kinetic features of the secondary relaxations and of the main (glass transition) relaxation, in particular their distribution of relaxation times. The dynamic fragility of the three glass formers was determined from DSC data (using two different procedures) and from TSDC data. According to our results voriconazole behaves as a relatively strong liquid, while miconazole is moderately fragile and itraconazole is a very fragile liquid. There are no studies in this area published in the literature relating to voriconazole. Also not available in the literature is a slow mobility study by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the amorphous miconazole. Apart from that, the results obtained are in reasonable agreement with published works using different experimental techniques.

  14. Analysis of bioactive ingredients in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus by capillary electrophoresis and neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truus, Kalle; Vaher, Merike; Koel, Mihkel; Mähar, Andres; Taure, Imants

    2004-07-01

    Two different types of bioactive components of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were analysed: (1) polyphenols (phlorotannins) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (2) mineral part (including bioactive microelements) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). CE experiments were carried out using a UV detector (at 210 nm) and an uncoated silica capillary. The best separation was achieved at a voltage of 20 kV using borate or acetate buffer in a methanol/acetonitrile mixture as background electrolyte. The CE analysis data were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Determination of mineral composition of algal biomass by NAA was performed on the basis of various nuclides; the best results (from 38 elements determined) were obtained for Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Sr, I, Ba, Au and Hg.

  15. Active Ingredients Extracted and Nanofiltration Application in Astragalus Extract%黄芪的有效成分提取与纳滤提取应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立忠; 吴镝

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析黄芪的有效成分提取和纳滤提取的应用,对传统的黄芪提取工艺进行改进。方法将黄芪多糖、总皂甙作为实验对象,使用正交实验设计并用极差分析法分析数值,对比不同提取温度、时间和次数对成分含量的影响,并在水煮醇沉提取工艺中加入了纤维素酶,比较纳滤、蒸发方法的效果。结果实验表明温度<80℃、提取2次且每次60 min的纳滤浓缩提取是黄芪水提的最佳工艺。结论相比较传统水煮醇沉提取法,黄芪的纳滤浓缩提取工艺在经济、技术上有很强的优越性,在指导制剂生产、临床应用中具有一定的推广价值。%Objective To analyze the active ingredients of astragalus diarrhea extraction and nanofiltration extracted application,astragalus traditional extraction process improvements. Methods APS,saponins as subjects,the use of orthogonal experimental design and analysis of numerical range analysis by comparing the effects of different extraction temperature,time and number of ingredients,and the extraction process in boiling alcohol shen added effect of cel ulase,nanofiltration comparison,the evaporation method. Results The experimental results showed that the temperature < 80 ℃, extracting 2 times,and each time 60 min nanofiltration concentrated extract was the optimum water extraction of astragalus. Conclusion Compared to traditional boiling alcohol precipitation extraction,astragalus of nanofiltration extraction process in the economic,technical y strong advantages,it has some promotional value in guiding the preparation of manufacturing,clinical applications.

  16. Influence of Process Parameters on Content Uniformity of a Low Dose Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in a Tablet Formulation According to GMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muselík Jan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and production of tablets using direct compression of powder mixtures. The aim was to describe the impact of filler particle size and the time of lubricant addition during mixing on content uniformity according to the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process validation requirements. Processes are regulated by complex directives, forcing the producers to validate, using sophisticated methods, the content uniformity of intermediates as well as final products. Cutting down of production time and material, shortening of analyses, and fast and reliable statistic evaluation of results can reduce the final price without affecting product quality. The manufacturing process of directly compressed tablets containing the low dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API warfarin, with content uniformity passing validation criteria, is used as a model example. Statistic methods have proved that the manufacturing process is reproducible. Methods suitable for elucidation of various properties of the final blend, e.g., measurement of electrostatic charge by Faraday pail and evaluation of mutual influences of researched variables by partial least square (PLS regression, were used. Using these methods, it was proved that the filler with higher particle size increased the content uniformity of both blends and the ensuing tablets. Addition of the lubricant, magnesium stearate, during the blending process improved the content uniformity of blends containing the filler with larger particles. This seems to be caused by reduced sampling error due to the suppression of electrostatic charge.

  17. 肉桂降糖活性成分提取方法的研究%Study on cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredient extraction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢春连; 陆志科

    2014-01-01

    用乙醇回流提取法、超声波提取法、新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分。结果表明,新装置提取法比回流提取法、超声波提取法提取效率高,且快速简便。新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分的最佳条件为:多功能提取器装置,提取溶剂为95%乙醇,提取时间2 h,产品粗提率达21.0%。%Three methods were compared of preparing cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredients:the etha-nol refluxing extraction,ultrasonic extraction and the new device extraction. The results showed that the new device extraction was superior to ethanol refluxing extraction and ultrasonic extraction,and the meth-od was fast and simple. The best conditions of the method were:multi-extractor device,solvent of 95%ethanol,and the time of extraction was 2 h,the coarse product rate was 21. 0% .

  18. Preparation of Fe3O4 Magnetic Surface Imprinted Microspheres and the Ethyl Acetate Extract Flavonoids Raspberry Concentration of Active Ingredient Applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie YiHui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available the study is used by the co-precipitation method to make some uniform particle size and have good Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modified with oleic acid ; oleic acid as the carrier of Fe3O4, quercetin as template molecule, prepared by the microwave assisted molecular imprinted polymer magnetic nanospheres; In raspberry ethyl acetate extract fingerprints for the assessment index, with orthogonal design best preparation; Characterization of equilibrium adsorption constant Kd and maximum adsorption capacity Qmax by Scatchard model.The results show that: This study explores the preparation of MIPs polymerization time by ten times, prepared by the Fe3O4 nanometer level, greatly increase the MIPs of the specific surface area, thereby increase the amount of adsorption (Kd = 0.7322mg / L, Qmax = 18.92μmol / g. Successfully extract raspberry flavonoids active ingredients from ethyl acetate which can be used for rapid and large parts of ethyl acetate enrichment raspberry flavonoids.

  19. 臭参活性成分乙酸乙酯部分的分离%Separating the Active Ingredient Ethyl Smelly Reference Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾云鹏; 王启明

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment:the separation of smelly and the activity of the main ingredients. Methods:prelimi-nary extraction with 95%ethanol by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate extraction, part of the ethyl acetate extract of gradient elution with chloroform, methanol (100:0~70:30). Results:ethyl acetate extraction part of the elution of the A, B, C, D, A total of four parts.%此实验的目的:分离臭参中主要的活性成分。方法:先用95%乙醇初步提取在经过石油醚、乙酸乙酯萃取,把得到的乙酸乙酯萃取的部分用氯仿——甲醇梯度洗脱(100:0~70:30)。结果:乙酸乙酯萃取的部分洗脱出A、B、C、D共4个部分。

  20. Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jin-Xing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078, and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1 plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL. However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD. Methods A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy. Results Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression. Conclusion IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  1. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  2. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter and solute linked carrier (influx transporter. Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70 were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and

  3. Systems pharmacology-based approach for dissecting the active ingredients and potential targets of the Chinese herbal Bufei Jianpi formula for the treatment of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Li, Jiansheng; Li, Ya; Tian, Yange; Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese herbal Bufei Jianpi formula (BJF) provides an effective treatment option for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the systems-level mechanism underlying the clinical effects of BJF on COPD remains unknown. Methods In this study, a systems pharmacology model based on absorption filtering, network targeting, and systems analyses was applied specifically to clarify the active compounds and therapeutic mechanisms of BJF. Then, a rat model of cigarette smoke- and bacterial infection-induced COPD was used to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of BJF on COPD and its comorbidity. Results The pharmacological system successfully identified 145 bioactive ingredients from BJF and revealed 175 potential targets. There was a significant target overlap between the herbal constituents of BJF. These results suggested that each herb of BJF connected with similar multitargets, indicating potential synergistic effects among them. The integrated target–disease network showed that BJF probably was efficient for the treatment of not only respiratory tract diseases but also other diseases, such as nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. The possible mechanisms of action of BJF were related to activation of inflammatory response, immune responses, and matrix metalloproteinases, among others. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BJF treatment could effectively prevent COPD and its comorbidities, such as ventricular hypertrophy, by inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production, matrix metalloproteinases expression, and other cytokine production in vivo. Conclusion This study using the systems pharmacology method, in combination with in vivo experiments, helped us successfully dissect the molecular mechanism of BJF for the treatment of COPD and predict the potential targets of the multicomponent BJF, which provides a new approach to illustrate the synergetic mechanism of the complex prescription and discover more effective drugs against COPD

  4. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  5. Stability indicating LC method for rapid determination of related substances of O-desmethyl venlafaxine in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Karri Visweswara; Reddy, Kesareddy Padmaja; Kumar, Yelavarthi Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    A simple, precise and accurate stability-indicating reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the quantitative determination of O-desmethyl venlafaxine (ODV) and its related substances in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical formulation. The method was developed using YMC-pack ODS-A (150 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column with mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents A and B. Solvent A contained a mixture of buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 85:15 (v/v). The buffer consisted of 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 2 mM 1-octane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH adjusted to 6.0 by using diluted potassium hydroxide solution). Solvent B contained a mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 20:80 (v/v). The eluted compounds were monitored at 230 nm. ODV and its six impurities were well separated within 14 min run time. It was subjected under the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, water, thermal and photolytic degradation. It was sensitive towards acidic, basic, oxidative and water stress conditions, stable in photolytic and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, the mass balance in each case was >99.0%, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to its specificity, linearity (correlation coefficient >0.9996), limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy (recovery range 97.1-103.2%), precision (% relative standard deviation ≤1.9%) and robustness.

  6. Development and validation of a stability-indicating reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummala, Veera Raghava Raju; Lanka, Mohana Krishna

    2015-10-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating gradient reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and pharmaceutical formulation. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase of a gradient mixture. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.18 mL/min with column temperature of 30 degrees C and detection wavelength of 281 nm. The relative response factor values of (R*)-2-( benzylamino)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl) ethanol ((R x S*) NBV-), (R)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S)-2-((S)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino) ethanol ((RRSS) NBV-3), 1-(chroman-2-yl)-2-(2-(6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl amino) ethanol (monodesfluoro impurity), (S)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((R)-2 (S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol hydrochloride ((RSRS) NBV-3) and (R*)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S*)-2-((S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol ((R* S* S* S*) NBV-2) were 0.65, 0.91, 0.68, 0.92 and 0.91 respectively. Nebivolol formulation sample was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity and photolytic degradation. Nebivolol was found to degrade significantly under peroxide stress condition. The degradation products were well resolved from nebivolol and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the nebivolol peak was homogenous and pure in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 98%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to International Conference on Hormonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness.

  7. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  8. Systems pharmacology-based approach for dissecting the active ingredients and potential targets of the Chinese herbal Bufei Jianpi formula for the treatment of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peng Zhao,1,2 Jiansheng Li,1,2 Ya Li,1,2 Yange Tian,1,2 Yonghua Wang,2,3 Chunli Zheng3 1Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine, Collaborative Innovation Center for Respiratory Disease Diagnosis and Treatment and Chinese Medicine Development of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, 3Center of Bioinformatics, College of Life Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, People’s Republic of China Background: The Chinese herbal Bufei Jianpi formula (BJF provides an effective treatment option for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the systems-level mechanism underlying the clinical effects of BJF on COPD remains unknown. Methods: In this study, a systems pharmacology model based on absorption filtering, network targeting, and systems analyses was applied specifically to clarify the active compounds and therapeutic mechanisms of BJF. Then, a rat model of cigarette smoke- and bacterial infection-induced COPD was used to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of BJF on COPD and its comorbidity. Results: The pharmacological system successfully identified 145 bioactive ingredients from BJF and revealed 175 potential targets. There was a significant target overlap between the herbal constituents of BJF. These results suggested that each herb of BJF connected with similar multitargets, indicating potential synergistic effects among them. The integrated target–disease network showed that BJF probably was efficient for the treatment of not only respiratory tract diseases but also other diseases, such as nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. The possible mechanisms of action of BJF were related to activation of inflammatory response, immune responses, and matrix metalloproteinases, among others. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BJF treatment could effectively prevent COPD and its comorbidities, such as ventricular hypertrophy, by inhibition

  9. Water soluble active ingredients of Danshen--review on the Salvianolic acids%丹参水溶性有效成分--丹酚酸研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冠华; 张均田

    2000-01-01

    Danshen-Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae,is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines,which has been used clinically in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases more than 20 centuries.The active ingredients of Danshen has been researched 5 decades by the modern methods.Many researchers investigated the pharmacological effects of water soluble ingredients of Danshen-salvianolic acids in vivo and in vitro.The results demonstrated that salvianolic acids have different pharmacological effects such as potent antioxidative effects,scavenging free radicals,protect neural cells against injuries caused by anoxia, etc.In present paper,the pharmacological effects of salvianolic acids and the mechanisms of their actions are reviewed based on the research results obtained in our laboratory and other authors.

  10. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD.

  11. Pharmacodynamic Study and Active Ingredient of Endophyte in Medicinal Plants%药用植物内生菌活性成分及药效学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁仁伟; 邓毅

    2012-01-01

    查阅国内外近年相关文献,对药用植物内生菌代谢产物的种类及药效进行分析总结,概述药用植物内生菌的活性成分和药效学研究现状,提出药用植物内生菌可产生多种活性成分和药理作用,此项研究对于解决药用植物资源匮乏和发现新成分、新疗效具有重要价值.%Metabolites types of endophytes in medicinal plants and efficacy were analyzed and summarized; active ingredient and pharmacodynamic study of endophytes in medicinal plants were outlined through consulting associated literature at home and abroad in recent years, endophytes in medicinal plants can produce many kinds of active ingredients and pharmacological action. The study is valuable for covering scarcity of medicinal plants and discovering new ingredient and curative effects.

  12. Effect of Different Processing Technology of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim on the Active Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity%加工工艺对苦茶槭有效成分和抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔成诚; 方成武; 张传标; 张明燕

    2016-01-01

    To study on the effects of different processing method of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim main active ingredient and antioxidant activity, used Acer Ginnala Maxim as raw material in different processing methods, HPLC method was used to measure main active ingredient content of gallic acid. DPPH method was used to determine the scavenging effect on free radicals. Result showed that Acer. Ginnala. Maxim processing method of Black tea, gallic acid content was ( 18. 49±1. 13) mg/g, higher than processing method of green tea of (12. 45±1. 92) mg/g and dried in shade of (14. 28±1. 13) mg/g. Antioxidant activity of the different processing methods of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim was in the following order:the method of green tea (0. 443 mg/mL) < the method of dried in shade (0. 726 mg/mL) < the method of black tea (1. 286 mg/mL) . From the angle of improve the content of Gallic acid and increased the antioxidant activity, the processing method of black tea was much better.%研究了不同加工工艺对苦茶槭主要活性成分和抗氧化活性的影响,以期筛选最适合苦茶槭加工方式。对所采集的苦茶槭鲜叶以不同加工方式进行加工处理,采取HPLC法对苦茶槭主要有效成分没食子酸含量进行检测。采用DPPH法评价不同加工方法苦茶槭自由基的抗氧化活动。结果显示,采用红茶加工法的苦茶槭没食子酸含量为(18.49依1.13) mg/g高于绿茶加工法(12.45依1.92) mg/g和自然阴干法(14.28依1.13) mg/g。不同加工方法的苦茶槭IC50依次为:绿茶工艺(0.443 mg/mL)<自然阴干(0.726 mg/mL)<红茶工艺(1.286 mg/mL)。从提高苦茶槭没食子酸含量,增加抗氧化活性角度建议采用红茶加工方法。

  13. Study on the in vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Spice Essential Oils and Their Ingredients%香辛料精油及单体的体外抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海江; 王向红; 毛宇豪; 孙佳

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of spice essential oils including Cinnamomum Verum, Syringa oblata, 0riganum vulgare L.and their main ingredients were studied using filter-paper and serial two-fold methods.The common food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria including E.coli, staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Shigella, S.cerevisiae and B.subtilis were employed as the test strains.Furthermore, the effect of pH value on the antimicrobial activity was investigated.The results indicated that all the spice essential oils and their ingredients showed good in vitro antibacterial activities against all the microbials and the acidic conditions could strengthen the activities of Cinnamomum Verum, Syringa oblata essential oil and their ingredients.%采用滤纸片法和溶液二倍稀释法研究肉桂、丁香、牛至等天然香辛料精油及其单体对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌、志贺菌、枯草芽孢杆菌等常见食源性致病菌、腐败菌的体外抑菌活性,并考察了pH值对抑菌活性的影响。结果表明各精油及其单体对各菌株均具有良好的体外抑制作用,酸性条件有利于增强肉桂、丁香精油及其单体的抑菌活性。

  14. [Antiperspirants and deodorants--ingredients and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, V A; Korting, H C

    1989-01-01

    Antitranspirants and deodorants gain more and more interest. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequently used active ingredients in commercial antitranspirants today. Aluminium chloride and propantheline bromide, the anticholinergic substance, are important alternatives although less common. Active ingredients of deodorants are mainly perfumes or bactericidal/bacteriostatic substances, such as triclosan. In addition, there are substances which are meant to bind offending smells (e.g. zinc ricinoleate) or to influence the skin surface pH (e.g. triethyl citrate). As in the cosmetics industry in general, both safety and efficacy of a product are major parameters in the experimental and clinical evaluation. Establishment of efficacy is based on olfactory tests in model situations as well as on the detection of associated effects (e.g. influence on cutaneous microflora).

  15. 复方卡力孜然凝胶剂主要活性成分体外经皮渗透%In vitro Percutaneous Penetration of Main Active Ingredient from Fufang Kali Ziran Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢建国; 王新春; 赵媛; 马建红; 薛桂蓬; 刘桂花

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同透皮促进剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分体外经皮渗透的影响,筛选有效的透皮吸收促进剂.方法:采用改良Franz扩散池法、离体鼠皮进行体外透皮试验,HPLC测定透皮吸收促进剂对3种有效成分补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素的累积透过量及透皮速率的影响.结果:不同促透剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂中补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素体外透皮吸收产生不同的影响,确定2%氮酮为促进剂时3种有效成分的促透效果最好.结论:2%氮酮能够促进复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分的有效渗透,透皮吸收过程符合Higuchi方程.%Objective: To study on effects of in vitro percutaneous penetration of different penetration enhancers for three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel, and to screen out effective transdermal absorption enhancers. Method;In vitro transdermal test was used by modified Franz diffusion cell method and in vitro rat skin, effect of cumulative penetration volume and penetration rate from transdermal absorption enhancers for three active ingredients ( psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole) was determined by HPLC. Result; Different enhancers were found to have different degree in vitro penetration enhancing effect on psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole in Fufang Kali Ziran gel,determined 2% azone had optimum promoting effect as enhancers to three active ingredients. Conclusion;2% azone could promote effective penetration of three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel. This process of penetration absorption could be in line with Higuchi equation.

  16. 酸枣仁抗氧化成分的分离及其相互作用研究%Separation and Interaction of the Ingredients of Antioxidant Activities in Zizyphi Spinosi Semen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁轲; 马崟松; 韩涛; 陈湘宁

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the antioxidant activity of Zizyphi Spinosi Semen (ZSS) which is known as a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of insomnia and anxiety, extracts of ZSS was extracted by ethyl acetate, separated by polyamide resin and isolated by C18 reverse-phase medium, orderly. The antioxidant activity of products obtained from each step was measured. The extracts of ethyl acetate, fraction B and 6' '-feruloylspinosin have the best antioxidant activity. At the same time, other two effective ingredients zizyphusine and spinosin were also separated. The antioxidant activity of the three effective ingredients was measured. The antioxidant activity was also studied by mixing zizyphusine, spinosin and 6' '-feruloylspinosin with different proportions. The results prove that the three ingredients have antagonistic effect on both the removal of free radical DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. But they have synergistic effect on chelating with metal ions. The results show that the flavone is the effective part of ZSS for the antioxidant activity, 6' '-feruloylspinosin is the ingredient of flavone in ZSS with the best antioxidant activity. However antagonistic effect on antioxidant activity of ZSS exists among the ingredients of flavone in ZSS .%为了研究酸枣仁这种传统中药的抗氧化活性,采用多项抗氧化活性指标进行评价,通过活性追踪,酸枣仁提取物依次经过乙酸乙酯萃取,聚酰胺树脂分离和 C18反相快速制备色谱分离,顺次得到抗氧化活性最好的萃取物、馏分B和黄酮组分6''-阿魏酰斯皮诺素,同时还分离得到另外两个组分斯皮诺素和酸李碱。在进一步比较了三种组分酸李碱、斯皮诺素与6''-阿魏酰斯皮诺素抗氧化活性的基础上,将三种组分按照不同配比混合后进行了抗氧化活性的研究,证明这三种物质在清除DPPH自由基的反应中呈现拮抗作用,在总抗氧化能力的反应中为拮抗作用,而在与

  17. Anti-Phytopthora capsici Activities and Potential Use as Antifungal in Agriculture of Alpinia galanga Swartz, Curcuma longa Linn, Boesenbergia pandurata Schut and Chromolaena odorata: Bioactivities Guided Isolation of Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilart Pompimon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant derived fungicides are now being subjects of many research groups. These secondary metabolites have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agrochemical research. The study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity and their potential use as fungicides in the agriculture of crude extracts and purified compounds derived from plants used in traditional medicines. Approach: Four medicinal plants including A. galanga, C. longa, B. pandurata and C. odorata were selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone or methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated their chemical structures. Disc mycelial growth inhibition was applied in order to determine their anti P. capsici activity and the field study was performed to determine their potential use in controlling fungal infection in chili plants compared with commercial fungicides such as captan and bio-control Trichoderma virens. Results: All crude extract inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus performed with similar efficacy. ED90 was equal to 300 ppm. Among plants studied B. pandurata was the most potent against P. capsici. The proposed active ingredients were pinostrobin and pinocembrin. In the field study, pinocembrin mediated the same anti P. capsici activity as captan. B. pandurata can protect chili from infection, thus increasing crop yield of chili comparable to Trichoderma virens. Conclusion: The results clearly showed that the extracts of the four plants studied could be considered as potential sources of novel fungicides. Particularly, B. pandurata has a very high potential as raw material for developing the antifungal molecule of non-petrochemical, naturally eco-friendly, easily obtainable and not toxic to human beings and environment, at least for use in chili growing.

  18. Monetary policy, inflation and the level of economic activity in Brazil after the Real Plan: stylized facts from SVAR models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisne Céspedes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers some stylized facts about the short run fluctuations of the Brazilian economy after the Real Plan, giving special attention to the identification of the effects of monetary policy shocks. A distinctive feature of this article is the careful attention paid to monetary policy developments after the Real Plan when dividing our sample into two subsamples (1996:07-1998:08 and 1999:03-2004:12. We use directed acyclic graphs to identify the Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR models. In contrast with most SVAR analysis for Brazil, we found empirical evidence that supports the view that a contractionary monetary policy indeed reduces the price level.Este artigo obtém alguns fatos estilizados sobre as flutuações de curto prazo da economia brasileira após o Plano Real, dando atenção especial à identificação dos efeitos dos choques da política monetária. Dadas as alterações na política monetária, ocorridos após o Plano Real, optamos por dividir a nossa análise em dois subperíodos (1996:07-1998:08 e 1999:032004:12. Os modelos de Auto-Regressão Vetorial Estrutural (SVAR foram identificados através do uso de grafos acíclicos direcionados. Em contraste com a maioria das análises feitas para o Brasil, que adotam modelos SVAR, encontramos evidências de que uma política monetária contracionista reduz o nível geral de preços.

  19. 黄秋葵茶叶的成分分析及其水提物的抗氧化活性测定%Ingredient analysis and antioxidant activity of water extract of Abelmoschus esculentus tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兆祥; 白石琦; 邹烨; 冯伟伟; 赵婷; 王鑫彤; 朱昀; 张漪静; 仰榴青

    2015-01-01

    目的:对黄秋葵茶叶营养成分和活性成分进行分析,并对其水提取物进行抗氧化活性测定。方法:采用国标法和农业行业标准方法分析黄秋葵茶叶的营养成分和活性成分,同时测定其水提物对 DPPH 自由基、羟自由基的清除作用。结果:黄秋葵茶叶(以干基计)中灰分含量为15.32%,粗蛋白含量为27.58%,粗脂肪含量为2.27%,总糖含量为12.06%;氨基酸分析结果表明,黄秋葵茶叶含有多种人体必需氨基酸;元素分析结果表明,黄秋葵茶叶中含有丰富的钾、钙、镁、铁等元素;活性成分黄酮和多糖的含量分别为1.36%和4.70%。黄秋葵茶叶水提物清除 DPPH 自由基、羟自由基的半数抑制浓度分别为156.8 mg/L 和674.5 mg/L。结论:黄秋葵茶叶具有较好的营养价值和抗氧化保健功能,为消费者提供了一种新型的绿色健康饮品。%Objective:To analyze nutritional ingredient and active ingredient of Abelmoschus esculentus tea,and study on antioxidant activity of water extract.Methods:To analyze nutritional ingredient and ac-tive ingredient of Abelmoschus esculentus tea with GB method and agriculture standard method.Scavenging effects of water extract on DPPH and OH were determined.Results:The content of ash ,crude protein, crude fat and total carbohydrate were 1 5.32%,27.58%,2.27% and 1 2.06% of dried sample,respective-ly.The amino acid analysis results showed that Abelmoschus esculentus tea contained many kinds of essential amino acid.The trace element analysis results showed that Abelmoschus esculentus tea contained K,Ca,Mg, Fe,et al.The active ingredient flavonoids and polysaccharide were 1 .36% and 4.70%,respectively.The IC50 of water extract scavenging DPPH and OH were 1 56.8 mg/L and 674.5 mg/L,respectively.Conclu-sion:Abelmoschus esculentus tea has good nutritional value and antioxidant effect which can provide a new green health drinks

  20. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  1. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease Based on a systematic review of ...

  2. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  3. Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet Pharmacogenomics Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is pharmacogenomics? Pharmacogenomics (sometimes called pharmacogenetics) is a field of ...

  4. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most ... treatment depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves ...

  5. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  6. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  7. A comparative analysis of nutrition components and functional active ingredients in Avena nuda and Avena sativa%裸燕麦和皮燕麦的营养及功能活性成分对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑蕊; 王世霞; 幺杨; 婷婷; 刘珊; 任贵兴; 綦文涛

    2015-01-01

    The differences of nutrition components and active ingredient between Avena nuda and Avena sativa were compared.The contents of basic components (moisture and ash),nutritional compositions (starch,protein and fat)and functional active ingredient (flavonoids,polyphenols and oligosaccharide) in 5 kinds of Avena nuda and 3 kinds of Avena sativa were determined.The results showed that there were no significant differences in the contents of moisture and ash between Avena nuda and Avena sativa. The contents of crud fat,crud protein,stearic acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid,flavonoids and amino acid in Avena nuda were significantly higher than those in Avena sativa,while the contents of slowly digestible starch and stachyose in Avena nuda were significantly lower than those in Avena sativa. Both Avena nuda and Avena sativa had similar composition of nutritional and functional active ingredients but the contents of them higher in Avena nuda than in Avena sativa.%对比研究裸燕麦和皮燕麦营养组分及功能活性成分的差异。以5种裸燕麦和3种皮燕麦为材料,分别测定其中基本组分(水分和灰分)、营养组分(淀粉、蛋白质和脂肪)以及功能组分(黄酮、多酚和低聚糖等)的含量。结果表明,裸燕麦和皮燕麦的水分和灰分含量无显著性差异;裸燕麦在粗脂肪、粗蛋白、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、黄酮和氨基酸等营养及功能组分的含量方面显著高于皮燕麦,而慢消化淀粉和水苏糖2种组分含量显著低于皮燕麦。裸燕麦和皮燕麦含有相同种类的营养及功能组分,但裸燕麦的多种营养组分及功能组分含量高于皮燕麦。

  8. Application of Refractometry in Purification Technology of Active Ingredients from Citrus aurantium by Macroporous Resin%折光法在树脂精制枳实中有效成分的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文雪; 姚珍珍; 涂瑶生; 陈银芳; 宋小玲; 王跃生

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨折光法在大孔树脂纯化工艺中应用的可行性.方法:选取枳实提取物为研究对象,经AB-8型大孔吸附树脂精制有效部位,用水与50%乙醇洗脱,间隔取样,在线监测洗脱液的折光率并分析其变化规律,同时以HPLC和UV检测作为参比,判断洗脱过程中始点和终点.结果:枳实有效部位精制过程中水洗终点为第4 BV(折光率0),亦即50%乙醇洗脱始点,50%乙醇洗脱终点为第9 BV(折光率16).结论:折光法准确可靠、便捷快速,具有较强的实践指导意义.%Objective: To explore application feasibility of refractometry in purification technology of macroporous resin. Method: Taking extract of Citrus aurantium as research object, active ingredients in it was refined by AB-8 macroporous resin, washed with water and 50% ethanol, interval sampled, refractive ratio of eluent was monitored on line and analyzed its regularity. At the same time, HPLC and UV spectrophotometric method was used to determine hesperidin as references, and to judge initiation point and terminal point during elution. Result: In purification process of active ingredients from C. aurantium, water elution terminal point 4 BV ( refractive index 0) of which was the initiation point by 50% ethanol, 9 BV (refractive index 16) of 50% ethanol elution was the terminal point. Conclusion: Refractometry was accurate, reliable, convenient, quickly in purification technology of active ingredients of TCM, it had a strong practical significance.

  9. Suppressing effect of saikosaponin A, an active ingredient of Bupleurum falcatum, on chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Capra, Alessandro; Castelli, M Paola; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2017-01-18

    Recent lines of experimental evidence have indicated that saikosaponin A (SSA) - a bioactive ingredient of the medicinal plant, Bupleurum falcatum L. - suppressed alcohol, morphine, and cocaine self-administration in rats. The present paper was designed to assess whether the protective properties of SSA on addiction-related behaviors generalize to a hyperpalatable food such as a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB). To this end, rats were initially trained to lever-respond for CFB [5% (w/v) Nesquik(®) powder in water] under fixed ratio (FR) 10 (FR10) schedule of reinforcement. Once lever-responding reached stable levels, rats were treated acutely with two different dose ranges of SSA (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/kg; 0, 1, 2.5, and 5mg/kg; i.p.) and exposed to the FR10 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement in four independent experiments. The effect of acutely administered SSA (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/kg; i.p.) on cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior for CFB was also assessed. Under the FR and PR schedules of reinforcement, treatment with SSA diminished lever-responding for CFB, amount of self-administered CFB, and breakpoint for CFB. All variables were virtually completely suppressed after treatment with 5mg/kg SSA. Treatment with SSA also suppressed reinstatement of CFB-seeking behavior. No dose of SSA altered rat motor-performance, evaluated exposing all rats to an inverted screen test immediately after the self-administration session. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with SSA potently suppressed several addictive-like behaviors motivated by highly hedonic nourishment. These data extend to a highly rewarding natural stimulus the anti-addictive properties of SSA recently disclosed in rats self-administering alcohol, morphine, and cocaine.

  10. Facts about Hib Disease. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about Hib Disease in young children, which may involve a bacterial meningitis causing mental retardation, hearing loss, partial blindness, speech disorders, partial paralysis, behavioral problems, or seizures. Stressed is prevention of Hib Disease through immunization. The question and answer format…

  11. 黄花棘豆抑制植物病原菌的活性成分研究%Antifungal activity and isolation of active ingredients in Oxytropis ochrocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震发; 袁呈山; 杨顺义; 柳利龙; 杨晋伟; 沈慧敏

    2014-01-01

    In order to find new botanical antifungal compounds,antifungal ingredients of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge were isolated. Using bioassay-guided fractionation methods,antifungal ingredients were isolated and mono-meric compounds were identified by modern spectroscopy techniques from O. ochrocephala. All data were pro-cessed statistically by using SPSS 17.0. Ethanol extract of O. ochrocephala showed strong activity against the se-lected pathogenic fungi with an inhibition ratio of 82.08 % at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The methylene chloride and ethyl acetate phases displayed a significant antifungal activity against Botrytiscinerea,with an inhibi-tion ratio of 84.30% and 83.13% ,respectively. Six compounds were isolated and identified through comparing the data obtained via spectroscopic methods and the values reported in the literature. The screening of antifungal activity showed that 3-hydroxy-4,9-dimethoxypterocarpan,3-hydroxy-9-dimethoxy pterocarpan and 3-hydroxy-8, 9-dimethoxypterocarpan had higher EC50 on tested fungi. The EC50 of 3-hydroxy-4,9-dimethoxypterocarpan against B.cinerea was 10.42μg/mL and the EC50 of 3-hydroxy-8,9-dimethoxypterocarpan against Fusarium oxys-porum was 27.09μg/mL. O. ochrocephala could be used as a biological antifungal agent and pterocarpan com-pounds are its significant antifungal ingredients.%为了测定黄花棘豆(Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge)提取物对常见病原真菌的活性,明确其中的有效成分,以黄花棘豆为材料,结合生物活性追踪法,对黄花棘豆的抑菌活性物质进行分离,并利用现代波谱学技术进行结构鉴定。结果表明,黄花棘豆乙醇提取物对供试4种病原真菌均表现出较强的活性,10 mg/mL对番茄灰霉病菌的抑菌率达到82.08%;粗提物萃取后的二氯甲烷相和乙酸乙酯相为其活性部分,10 mg/mL对番茄灰霉病菌的抑菌率分别为84.30%和83.13%;从合并后的二氯甲烷和乙酸乙酯

  12. 基于均匀设计法对酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的配伍研究%Uniform Designed Research on the Active Ingredients Assembling of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for Anti-depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen out the optimized compatibility proportion of three active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae foranti-depression.Methods Groups were ar anged fol owing uniform design. The forced swimming test,tail suspension test were car ied out to determine theanti-depressantactivity in mice.Mice immobility duration in forced swimming test and tail suspension test were observed.Results The optimized dosage of total fat y oil was 10mg/kg,total flavonoids was 100mg/kg and total saponins was 10mg/kg.Conclusion It would be possible to use uniform design combined with pharmacodynamics method in defining the optimized compatibility of active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae.%目的优选酸枣仁中3种抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍比例。方法根据均匀设计法进行分组,采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验,用小鼠不动时间作为药效学评价指标。结果酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最优配伍为总脂肪油10mg/Kg,总黄酮100mg/Kg,总皂苷10mg/Kg。验证实验证明,酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍组合抗抑郁疗效确切。结论应用均匀设计法与药效学相结合确定酸枣仁活性组分配伍的方法是可行的。

  13. ACTIVE INGREDIENTS ACTION IN THE PLASMA JET AID COAL GASIFICATION%等离子体炬辅助煤气化中活性组分的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董光华; 庞先勇

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis for the active species character and the reaction pa rameter in the process of the plasma jet aid coal gasification, the experiments for confirming ac tive species action has been designed in this paper. Through quantum chemistry calculation, it is found that the water molecule structure was changed observably by direct action between the ac tive ingredients: singlet oxygen, O2+ etc and oxygen atom in the water molecule in the coal gasifi cation , and these actions was favorable to form free radical OH ? , which react with the carbon in the coal by the broken O-H bond. Likely reaction channel induced by the active ingredients has been posed according to the regression equations on oxygen contents in the working gas to the volume fractions of the staple- H2, CO and CO2 in the experiment.%在对等离子体炬辅助煤气化过程中活性物种的特征和反应参数分析的基础上,设计了以证实活性组分的作用实验.通过量子化学计算,发现活性组分单线态氧和O2+等与水分子的氧原子直接作用更显著地改变了水分子结构,更有利于断键形成自由基OH·,OH·可以与煤中的碳发生反应.根据实验工作气体中氧含量对实验主要产物H2,CO和CO2体积分数的回归方程,提出活性组分诱发煤气化反应的可能化学反应通道.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Active Ingredients in Compound Acetylsalicylic Acid Tablets by DOSY%复方乙酰水杨酸片中有效成分的DOSY技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽敏; 仇汝臣; 黄少华

    2016-01-01

    Compound acetylsalicylic acid tablet is a clinical drug having antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The present methods to analyze the active ingredients in this drug have many disadvantages. In this study, we used polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), DOSY-correlated spectroscopy (COSY), and relative quantitative1H NMR techniques to analyze the three main active ingredients in this drug. The content ratios among the 3 components could be obtained. It is argued that PDMS-assisted DOSY provides a convenient and efficient method for pharmaceutical quality control of compound acetylsalicylic acid tablets.%复方乙酰水杨酸片是临床常用的解热镇痛消炎药物,目前其有效成分的分析方法存在操作繁琐而分析速度慢等不足。该文利用二甲基硅油(PDMS)辅助的扩散排序(DOSY)技术以及扩散排序-同核相关(DOSY-COSY)联用技术,成功地对复方乙酰水杨酸片中三种有效成分的分子结构进行了快速定性分析,并且利用核磁共振氢谱(1H NMR)技术进行了相对定量分析。该方法具有方便、快捷等特点,可作为借鉴和参考用于药物的质量评价。

  15. 辛夷不同组分抗过敏作用活性比较研究%Research on the Antiallergenic Activity of the Different Ingredients from Flos Magnolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓉; 钱晓路; 吕莉莉

    2013-01-01

    the alcohol extract and water extract or volatile oil components by compareing the antiallergenic effect of different extract of Flos Magnolia. Conclusion The antiallergenic activity of the different ingredients from Flos Magnolia were alcohol extract >water extract> volatile oil components, and under the guidance of antiallergenic activity, the effective ingredients of Flos Magnolia was the alcohol extract. But as the complex of pharmacodynamics characteristics of TCM and the interaction between the components and molecular mechanisms of l ia were not very clear, so it is necessary to take more research of the multi-components between the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms, in order to provide references and research ideas for innovative drugs.

  16. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. Sometimes ... clear or white shiny rock (called a crystal). Meth powder can be eaten or snorted up the ...

  17. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  18. Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan through its active ingredient loganin counteracts substance P-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling in rats with bladder hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Overt bladder afferent activation may exacerbate endogenous substance P (SP) release to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to hyperactive bladder. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (BWDHW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients by undefined mechanisms. We explored the possible mechanisms and the active components of BWDHW on exogenous SP-induced bladder hyperactivity. BWDHW contained six major components: loganin, paeoniflorin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and paeonol by high-performance liquid chromatography. In urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats, we evaluated transcystometrogram, pelvic afferent nerve activity by electrophysiologic recording techniques, ICAM-1 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ROS amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence method and possible ROS sources from the different leukocytes by specific stains in SP-treated bladder. BWDHW and its major component loganin dose-dependently inhibited H2 O2 and HOCl activity in vitro. Intragastrical BWDHW (250 mg/kg) and loganin (5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks did not affect the baseline micturition parameters. Intra-arterial SP (20 µg/rat) through neurokinin-1 receptor activation increased voiding frequency (shortened intercontraction intervals), pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, bladder ROS amount, neutrophils adhesion to venous endothelium, CD68 (monocyte/macrophage), and mast cell infiltration in the inflamed bladder. BWDHW and loganin pretreatment significantly depressed SP-enhanced pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and ROS amount, and subsequently improved bladder hyperactivity. In conclusion, our results suggest that BWDHW and its active component loganin improves bladder hyperactivity via inhibiting SP/neurokinin-1

  19. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC.

  20. Respirator Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have expiration dates that should be checked before purchase. Also, over time your mask can get old ... Respirator Fact Sheet [PDF - 706 KB] Follow NIOSH Facebook Flickr Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A- ...

  1. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  2. Facts about Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UDC System About Us Blood Disorders Facts About Thalassemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Did You ... to death. What are the different types of thalassemia? When we talk about different “types” of ...

  3. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  4. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  5. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  6. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  7. Facts about Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  8. Facts about Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  9. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from <2% (e.g., caseinates, milk protein isolates) to 100% in lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose

  10. Improving the Concentrations of the Active Components in the Herbal Tea Ingredient, Uraria crinita: The Effect of Post-harvest Oven-drying Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Li, Ke; Peng, Wen-Huang; Pao, Li-Heng; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Qin, Xue-Mei; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Uraria crinita is widely used as a popular folk drink; however, little is known about how the post-harvest operations affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of UC. We assessed three drying methods (Oven-drying, Air-drying, Sun-drying), as well as the Oven-drying temperature using metabolomics approaches and bioactivity assays. The samples processed at 40 degree show a greater effect on the levels of estrogen receptor-alpha activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 activity, anti-oxidative activity, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition compared with the other samples. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the 40 degree Oven-dried samples and the other samples, which is consistent with the results of bioactivity assay. These results are ascribed to at least two-fold increase in the concentrations of flavonoids, spatholosineside A and triterpenoids in the oven-dried samples compared with the other groups. The proposed Oven-drying method at 40 degree results in an improved quality of UC. PMID:28079108

  11. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active compounds were simultaneously determined in 17 samples by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS. The results suggested that Maca from Yunnan province was the potential substitute for the one from Peru. Meanwhile, the neuroprotective effects of Maca were investigated. Three fractions and two pure compounds showed strong activities in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced zebrafish model. Among them, 80% methanol elution fraction (Fr5) showed significant neuroprotective activity, followed by 100% part (Fr6). The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) was a possible mechanism of its neuroprotective effect.

  12. 超临界萃取技术在蓝色化妆品活性成分提取分离中的应用进展%Application Progress of Supercritical Fluid Extraction in Development of Blue Cosmetic Active ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕永贤; 蒋丽刚; 陆海英

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the recent development on the utilization of supercritical fluid extraction in development of blue cos-metic active ingredients,the published articles on extracting blue cosmetic active ingredients by supercritical fluid extraction technology were reviewed and analyzed. The results showed,the supercritical fluid extraction technology in blue cosmetic ac-tive ingredients extracting especially for polyunsaturated fat acid,polyphenols,natural pigments and terpenes has its unique ad-vantages. This review will provide a reference for the further research and development of blue cosmetic active ingredients.%为探讨超临界萃取技术在蓝色化妆品活性成分提取分离中的应用现状,查阅相关文献,并对其进行归纳、分析和总结。结果发现,超临界萃取技术在在多不饱和脂肪酸、多酚、天然色素、萜类等蓝色化妆品活性成分的提取分离中有其独特的优势,可为超临界萃取技术在蓝色化妆品活性成分提取分离中的进一步发展应用提供参考依据。

  13. 石榴籽油冷榨技术及活性成分生理作用研究%Pomegranate Seed Oil Cold Pressing and Physiological Role of Its Active Ingredient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    石榴籽油冷榨技术采用低温62℃,使脂肪氧化酶灭活,既可提高出油率,又可防止挥发油、多酚、维生素等活性物质的损失.冷榨技术与莘取法相比,出油率仅低3%-5%,但没有萃取溶剂有害物质的残留.本文介绍了冷榨技术工艺流程及操作要点,分析了石榴籽油的活性成分及其生理作用.%Pomegranate seed oil cold pressing technology inactives lipoxygenase at low temperature 62℃ ,which can increase oil yield and prevent the loss of volatile oils, polyphenols, vitamins and other active substances. Compared with extraction technology,oil yield of cold pressing technology is 3%-5% lower, but no harmful substances residues in extraction solvent. Process and operating points of cold pressing technology were introduced and physiological role of active ingredients in pomegranate seed oil was analyzed.

  14. 丹参治疗冠心病的有效成分分析及其药理学探析%An analysis on the active ingredients and the pharmacology of Danshen on treating coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖天南

    2012-01-01

      Objective:To investigate the active ingredients and the pharmacology of Danshen on treating coronary heart disease. Method: ①The closed microwave assisted extraction Salvia the active ingredient tanshinone; ②Cultured mouse cardiomyocytes, manufacturing mice myocardial hypoxia-reperfusion injury model, to simulate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury that caused by vivo coronary heart disease; ③Used salvia feeding mice, to observe toxicity; ④To observe teratogenic effects of salvia against mice sperm. Results: The effective tanshinone of salvia that treated coronary heart disease can inhibit of myocardial damage, the inhibitory rate was 84.3%, toxicological studies to prove that medicinal salvia was safe and non-toxic, non-teratogenic, effected on mouse sperm. Conclusion:The pharmacod-ynamic of Danshen sure and nontoxic.%  目的:探讨丹参治疗冠心病的有效成分并对其药理学进行分析.方法:①密闭微波辅助萃取丹参有效成分丹参酮;②培养小白鼠心肌细胞,制造小白鼠心肌细胞缺氧再灌注损伤模型,来模拟体内冠心病所致的心肌缺血再灌注损伤;③用丹参喂养小白鼠,观察其毒副反应;④观察丹参对小白鼠精子的致畸作用.结果:丹参治疗冠心病的有效成分丹参酮能有效的抑制心肌的损伤,损伤抑制率84.3%;经毒理学研究证明药用丹参安全无毒;对小白鼠精子无致畸作用.结论:丹参治疗冠心病药效肯定且无毒.

  15. RP-HPLC测定水蛭中3种蝶啶类活性成分的含量%Content Determination of Three Pteridine Active Ingredients in Leech by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑云枫; 程建明; 彭国平

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立RP-HPLC测定水蛭药材中3种蝶啶类活性成分含量的方法.方法 采用Kromsail C18色谱柱,以甲醇:0.05%三氟乙酸水(20:80)为流动相,检测波长为354 nm,流速为1.0mL/min,柱温30℃.结果 在以上色谱条件下3种成分可以完全分离.水蛭甲素:Y=12.181 4X+0.075 3,r=0.999 6;(36.0~0.90) μg/mL,水蛭乙素:Y=12.024X-2.124 5,r=0.999 5;(40.4~1.01)μg/mL,水蛭丙素:Y=12.814 5X-3.686 l,r=0.999 8;(42.8~1.07) μg/mL.结论 该方法简单、快速,专属性好,可用于水蛭药材的质量控制方法之一.%OBJECTIVE To establish RP-HPLC determination of the content of three pteridine active ingredients in leech. METHODS Kromsail Cu chromatographic column was used with methanol to 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (20 '? 80) as mobile phase, detecting wave length of 354 nm, flow speed of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature of 30 "C. RESULTS Three active ingredients were separated on the conditions mentioned above. Hirudin A: Y=12.181 4X+0.075 3,r=0. 9996; (36.0~0.90)fig/mL. Hirudin B:Y = 12.024 X - 2.124 5, r=0.9995; (40. 4~1. 01)ng/mL. Hirudin C: Y = 12.814 5X-3.686 1, r=0.999 8; (42.8~1.07)f±g/mL. CONCLUSION The method proves to be easy and fast with good specificity, which can be used to control quality of leeches.

  16. Fact Finding Nuclear Energy; Fact Finding Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lako, P. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Blom, F.J.; Van Gemert, F. [Sociaal-Economische Raad SER, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Facts and figures on nuclear energy are presented to enable a discussion on the role of nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The following issues are presented: Nuclear technology, safety and security (including non-proliferation and protection against terrorism); Environmental aspects (including greenhouse gas emissions of the nuclear energy lifecycle); Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits); Policy issues (including sustainable development); Social acceptance of nuclear energy; Knowledge infrastructure for nuclear energy in the Netherlands; and Nuclear power in long term energy scenarios for the Netherlands and Europe. Using two long-term energy scenarios the report also presents a social impact analysis of an increasing share of nuclear power in the Dutch electricity supply. [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn feiten en gegevens over kernenergie verzameld op basis van bestaande inzichten en een veelheid aan literatuur (fact finding). Voor technologische expertise heeft ECN zich laten bijstaan door de Nucleair Research and consultancy Group (NRG). Op basis van de fact-finding studie bereidt de SER een advies voor over de rol van kernenergie in de toekomstige nationale elektriciteitsproductie. In de eerste acht hoofdstukken worden feiten en gegevens gepresenteerd over verschillende onderwerpen die bij kernenergie van belang zijn. In Hoofdstuk 2 wordt de kernenergietechnologie beschreven, inclusiefde veiligheid van kernenergie besproken, omdat die nauw met de technologie samenhangt. Hierbij gaat het om de technische veiligheid van de installaties, maar ook om beveiliging tegen misbruik van technologie en nucleair materiaal, waaronder beveiliging tegen terrorisme. De milieuaspecten door radioactiviteit en door emissies van kooldioxide die met het gebruik van kernenergie samenhangen

  17. Comparative research between Bai-hua Qian-hu, a Chinese traditional plant, and its active ingredient on nuclear factor-κB and tumor necrosisfactor-α in isolated ischemia-reperfusion heart of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王弛; 常天辉

    2004-01-01

    @@Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a complicated pathophysiological process, which is involved in calcium overload, free radical production, metabolic abnormalities, and inflammatory reaction. With the development of modern molecular biology, the expression and regulation of gene in myocardial I/R injury are focused on NF-κB.1Inflammatory reactions play an important role in I/R injury.2 TNF-α, an important inflammatory cytokine, is regulated by NF-κB and counteracts the activation of NF-κB. Sometimes, improper activation of NF-κB can induce excessive inflammatory responses and injury, so, modulation of NF-κB activation may dedicate a new target in alleviation of myocardial I/R injury.3Our previous studies have proved that Bai-hua Qian-hu (Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, BQ), a Chinese traditional plant had cardioprotective action in I/R animals.4 Its active ingredient Pd-Ia, a Ca2+-influx blocker5 and K+-channel opener,6 had similar effects. Meanwhile, it relieved inflammatory reaction and apoptosis in I/R myocardium through inhibition of interleukin-6 and Fas, bax, bcl-2 protein expression.7 However, the effects of BQ and Pd-Ia on the activation of NF-κB and the expression of TNF-α in I/R myocardium have not been clear yet. In this study, the effects of BQ and Pd-Ia on these two factors were investigated to further ascertain the molecular protective mechanism of BQ in I/R myocardium.

  18. Dielectronic recombination of Fe 3p^q ions: a key ingredient for describing X-ray absorption in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Badnell, N R

    2006-01-01

    We have carried-out multi-configuration Breit-Pauli AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations for the dielectronic recombination (DR) of Fe^{8+} - Fe^{12+} ions. We obtain total DR rate coefficients for the initial ground-level which are an order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to radiative recombination (RR), at temperatures where Fe 3p^q (q=2-6) ions are abundant in photoionized plasmas. The resultant total (DR+RR) rate coefficients are then an order of magnitude larger than those currently in use by photoionized plasma modeling codes such as CLOUDY, ION and XSTAR. These rate coefficients, together with our previous results for q=0 and 1, are critical for determining the ionization balance of the M-shell Fe ions which give rise to the prominent unresolved-transition-array X-ray absorption feature found in the spectrum of many active galactic nuclei. This feature is poorly described by CLOUDY and ION, necessitating an ad hoc modification to the low-temperature DR rate coefficients. Such modifications are no lo...

  19. Qualitative Confirmation of Active Ingredient of Arbutin in Pear Leaves and Quantitative Determination by HPLC%梨树叶中有效成分熊果苷的确证及HPLC检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁; 何强; 姚秉华; 孔祥虹

    2011-01-01

    目的 确证梨树叶中含有熊果苷,并建立高效液相色谱法测定梨树叶中熊果苷的含量.方法 将充分粉碎的梨树叶样品用甲醇提取,蒸去甲醇后用ENVITM- 18固相萃取柱净化,采用在线获取的紫外光谱及扫描质谱对熊果苷进行确证.高效液相色谱分析时用Inertsil ODS-3色谱柱分离,甲醇-水(1:9)洗脱,282 nm检测.结果 梨树叶样品中目标物的紫外吸收光谱及子离子扫描质谱图与熊果苷标准品相同.高效液相色谱法定量分析时线性关系良好,熊果苷的回收率>93%,RSD<2.1%.结论 梨树叶中含有熊果苷有效成分,高效液相色谱法检测梨树叶中熊果苷的含量简便、快速、准确.%OBJECTIVE To confirm arbutin as an ingredient in pear leaves, and develop a method for the determination of arbutin content in pear leaves by HPLC. METHODS The full powdered pear leaves were extracted with methanol, then cleanup was performed on ENVI-18 SPE columns after methanol boiled off. Qualitative confirmation using the UV spectrum and mass spectra was acquired on-line. HPLC was performed on Inertsil ODS-3 column with DAD detection wavelength of 282 nm using methanol-water( 1: 9) as mobile phase. RESULTS The UV spectrum and mass spectra of the target chromatographic peak were the same as arbutin standard. The HPLC method showed good linear relationship, the recoveries of arbutin were all more than 93% and RSD was less than 2.1%. CONCLUSION Arbutin is an active ingredient in pear leaves, and HPLC as the content analysis method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  20. Energy Facts, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Energy Facts, organized by energy source, is a compilation of energy data providing a reference to a broad range of domestic and international energy data, for the general public as well as the technical community. This report is designed especially for the business person, government worker, or student who needs a quick reference to major facts about energy. Each table of statistics appears on the opposite page from a corresponding graphic. The graphic has a point of interest rather than a title across the top.

  1. Facts in artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Bindhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  2. International waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  3. Irradiation effects of ChuanBei active ingredients with cobalt 60%钴-60辐照对川贝活性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋九华; 成英; 刘素君

    2012-01-01

    考查不同Co-60辐照剂量对川贝活性成分的影响,为川贝的灭菌贮存和质量评价提供参考.采用HPLC法分析成分的变化.在不同辐射剂量照射后,川贝的化学成分的组成基本不变(各组分的保留时间tR不受辐照影响),但钴-60辐照剂量会对川贝药材某些组分的含量有不同程度的影响,在川贝的贮存和质量评价中应引起注意.%To provide guidance of ChuanBei storage and quality evaluation through examining different Co irradiation dose. The column Shim-pack VP-ODS( 150mmx4. 6mm,5. 0μm) was used. The mobile phase consisted of A(2. 5% of phosphoric acid sodium hydrogen and 10%sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution)and B( methanol) with a gradient elution,and the flow rate was l.0mL/ min. The detection wavelength were 200 nm, and the column temperature was 30°C. The composition structure of same original ChuanBei in different radiation dose was same based on retention time( tR ) ,but some components were affected by cobalt 60 irradiation doses. There are obvious effect on some active component content of ChuanBei by Cobalt 60 irradiation. This method can be used as a means of ChuanBei storage and quality assessment.

  4. Research Progress of TCM Medicinal Herbs and Their Active Ingredients in Anti-bacterial Biofilms of Caries%中草药及其活性成分抗龋病细菌生物膜研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉梅; 徐静舒

    2015-01-01

    龋病是一种最常见的慢性进行性口腔疾病。中草药与传统治疗龋病的药物(如氟化物)相比有诸多优势,因此,近年来中草药抗龋成为国内外众多学者关注的热点。龋病不是单因素疾病,龋病的发生与变形链球菌、血链球菌、内氏放线菌、黏性放线菌、乳酸杆菌形成的细菌生物膜密切相关。本文就中草药及其活性成分抗龋病细菌生物膜相关研究进行简要概述。%Caries is one of the most common chronic progressive oral diseases. TCM medicinal herbs have many advantages compared with traditional dental drugs for caries (such as fluoride). In recent years, cariogenic TCM medicinal herbs have attracted the attention of many domestic and foreign scholars. Caries is not caused by a single factor. The development of caries is closely related to bacterial biofilms that are formed by streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, actinomyces inside, actinomyces and lactobacillus. Therefore, this article took a brief overview of TCM medicinal herbs and their active ingredients that inhibit the bacterial biofilms.

  5. Dynamic Determination of Active Ingredients in Introduced Echinacea purpurea%引种紫锥菊不同部位有效成分含量的动态测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孙俊英; 郭庆梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究引种紫锥菊中有效成分的动态积累规律。方法:分别采用HPLC和比色法测定紫锥菊生长过程中不同部位菊苣酸和总多酚含量。结果:一年生紫锥菊中总多酚含量变化不大,不同时期不同部位的菊苣酸含量存在差异,各部位菊苣酸含量在盛花期达最大值。结论:紫锥菊采收期取决于菊苣酸含量。研究结果可为山东引种紫锥菊提供理论依据。%This study was aimed to analyze the dynamic accumulation of active ingredients of Echinacea purpurea. Contents of cichoric acid and total polyphenols in different parts through the whole growth process were determined by HPLC and colorimetry. The results showed that the content of total polyphenol changed little in annual plant. There were differences in content of cichoric acid of different parts in different periods. And the content reached the maximum at flowering stage. It was concluded that the harvest stage depended on the content of cichoric acid. The results provided theoretical basis for induced plant in Shandong province.

  6. Effect on the growth and development and induction of abnormalities by a glyphosate commercial formulation and its active ingredient during two developmental stages of the South-American Creole frog, Leptodactylus latrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nadia Carla; Natale, Guillermo Sebastián; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the acute lethal and sublethal effects of technical-grade glyphosate (GLY) and the GLY-based commercial formulation Roundup ULTRA MAX® (RU) on two Gosner stages (Gss) 25 and 36 of the South-American Creole frog, Leptodactylus latrans. Bioassays were performed following standardized methods within a wide range of concentrations (0.0007-9.62 mg of acid equivalents per liter-a.e./L-of RU and 3-300 mg/L of GLY). The endpoints evaluated were mortality, swimming activity, growth, development, and the presence of morphologic abnormalities, especially in the mouthparts. No lethal effects were observed on larvae exposed to GLY during either Gs-25 or Gs-36. The concentrations inducing 50 % lethality in RU-exposed larvae at different exposure times and Gss ranged from 3.26 to 9.61 mg a.e./L. Swimming activity was affected by only RU. Effects on growth and development and the induction of morphologic abnormalities-like oral abnormalities and edema-were observed after exposure to either GLY or RU. Gs-25 was the most sensitive stage to both forms of the herbicide. The commercial formulation was much more toxic than the active ingredient on all the endpoints assessed. Effects on growth, development, and the induction of morphologic abnormalities observed in the range of environmental concentrations reported for agroecosystems of Argentina constitute an alert to the potential detrimental effects of the herbicide that could be affecting the fitness and survival of anurans in agroecosystems.

  7. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About Vitamin C 1 Linda B. Bobroff and Isabel Valentín-Oquendo 2 FCS8702 Why do we need vitamin C? Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has a ... maintain healthy body tissues and the immune system. Vitamin C also helps the body absorb iron from ...

  9. Facts about Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cost References Español: Datos breves Facts about Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is one of the world’s most pressing public ... antibiotic use is a key strategy to control antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance in children and older adults are ...

  10. Trauma Facts for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…

  11. Homosexuality: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and TeensPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth ControlSex and Sexuality Share Homosexuality: Facts for Teens What does it mean to be homosexual?A ... patient education, patient information, sexual orientation, sexual preference, ... Kids and Teens, Prevention and Wellness, Sex and Birth Control, Sex ...

  12. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Books for Practitioners Professional Membership Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible ... Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About ...

  14. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  15. Burns Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Answers page . Share Print E-mail House Image Highlight Header Learn More Highlight Body Other NIGMS Fact Sheets Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on April 06, 2016 Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube ...

  16. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  17. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  19. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  20. Diet myths and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure to check the serving size too. MYTH? Skipping breakfast makes you gain weight. FACT: Eating a healthy breakfast can help you manage your hunger later in the day and help ... that skipping the morning meal leads directly to weight gain. ...

  1. Comparison of the Nutrient and Active Ingredients in Three Kinds of Jinxiang Allium sativum L.%3种金乡大蒜中营养活性成分的含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇; 王文军; 李茜; 杨丹; 孔庆胜

    2016-01-01

    [目的]检测3种金乡大蒜中营养成分和活性物质含量,从化学分子水平探讨不同品种的差异,对于优化种质资源、提升大蒜后期加工利用的品质和附加值具有指导作用。[方法]采用食品化学的常规方法并结合大型仪器检测,测定大蒜中营养成分和活性成分的含量。[结果]基本营养成分可溶性糖、粗脂肪、蛋白质含量,以金乡紫皮蒜最高,金乡白皮蒜次之,独头蒜最少;金乡紫皮蒜维生素C含量最高,独头蒜次之,金乡白皮蒜最少;金乡白皮蒜的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性最高,紫皮蒜次之,独头蒜最差;锗和大蒜素DADS含量则是独头蒜最高。[结论]对于偏重营养成分的利用,金乡紫皮蒜有较大优势;而对于大蒜素和锗的特色保健功能利用,独头蒜有更大优势。%Objective] The research aimed to detect the difference of contents of nutrient and active ingredients in 3 kinds of Jinxiang Allium sa-tivum L.and to explore the differences of different varieties from the chemical molecular level .It performs important functions in optimizing the germplasm resourses and improving the quality additional value of late garlic processing.[Method]The nutrient and active ingredients of 3 kinds of Jinxiang Allium sativum L.were detected by traditional chemical methods and large-scale instruments methods.[Result]In the basic nutrients, such as soluble sugar, crude fat, protein and vitamin C,the Jinxiang purple skin Allium sativum L.had the highest content, the white skin Allium sativum L.took the second place and the single clove Allium sativum L.was the least.In the contents of vitamin C ,the Jinxiang purple skin Alli-um sativum L.had the highest content,the single clove Allium sativum L.took the second place and the white skin Allium sativum L.was the least.While in the activity of catalase(CAT), the Jinxiang white skin Allium sativum L.showed the maximum activity,the purple skin Allium

  2. Processed Meat Ingredients: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingredients were first utilized to preserve meat and improve its palatability which date back to when our ancestors used salt and fire to preserve meat. Since that time man has incorporated a wide variety of ingredients to develop unique meat products and find ways to extend the shelf life of these ...

  3. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  4. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  5. PharmacoIogicaI Effects of Cortex phellodendri and Its Active Ingredient Extraction%黄柏的药理作用及其活性成分提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳峰; 钟晓红

    2015-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is the dry bark of rutaceae plants Phellodendron chinense Schneid or Cortex phellodendri, which has characters of bitter and cold and effects of clearing heat,drying dampness,removing firelight and excepting steam,curing poison and sore.Cortex phellodendri has extensive pharmacological activities,such as antibacterial,antivi-ral,relieving cough,depressurization and enhance immunity,etc.Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in Cortex phellodendri,in which content of berberine is highest,which reaches to 1.4% ~5.8%.In addition,jateorrhizine,phel-lodendrine,palmatine,obaculactone and obacunone also occupy certain proportion.This article summarized the research progress on pharmacological effects of Cortex phellodendri and the extraction processes of its alkaloids.%黄柏为芸香科植物黄皮树或黄檗的干燥树皮,其性味苦寒,有清热燥湿,泻火除蒸,解毒疗疮之功效。黄柏具有广泛的药理活性,如抗菌、抗病毒、镇咳、降压以及增强免疫等。黄柏的主要活性成分为生物碱,其中小檗碱是含量最高的生物碱,可达1.4%~5.8%,另外药根碱、黄柏碱、掌叶防己碱以及黄柏内酯、黄柏酮等活性成分也占有一定比重。综述了黄柏的药理作用及其生物碱提取工艺研究进展。

  6. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    is regarded as a first step towards a fully continuous PC process. The current knowledge of the importance of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry and the complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena accompanied with the separation of chiral compounds are addressed. The experimental work...

  7. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staddon, J E R

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  8. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Staddon, J. E. R.

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  9. HPLC Determination of 9 Active Ingredients in Arundina Graminifolia%高效液相色谱法测定竹叶兰中9种活性成分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银科; 舒丽丹; 杨海英; 叶艳青; 李明

    2014-01-01

    A method of HPLC for the determination of 9 active ingredients in Arundina Graminifolia was proposed.The sample was extracted with methanol (8+2)solution by speedy and homogeneous pulping,and an aliquot of 5.0 mL of the extract was purified by passing through MCI-GEL RP-resin SPE column.An aliquot of 2.00 mL of the eluate was taken for HPLC analysis.Waters Xbridge chromatographic column was used as stationary phase and mixtures of methanol and acetic acid (0.5 +99.5)solution with different mixing ratios were used as mobile phase in the gradient elution.UV-detection at 275 nm was adopted in the determination.Linear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of the 9 active ingredients were kept in definite ranges.Detection limits (3S/N)found were ranged from 20 to 30 μg·L-1 .Values of recovery found by standard addition method were in the range of 96.4%-105%,with values of RSD′s (n=7)in the range of 1.5%-2.4%.%提出了高效液相色谱法测定竹叶兰中9种活性成分含量的方法。竹叶兰样品经甲醇(8+2)溶液高速匀浆提取,分取提取液5.0 mL,经 MCI-GEL 反相树脂固相萃取小柱净化,取2.00 mL净化液供色谱分析。净化液采用 Waters Xbridge 色谱柱为分离柱,用甲醇和乙酸(0.5+99.5)溶液以不同比例混合的混合液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,在检测波长275 nm 处进行测定。9种活性成分在一定的质量浓度范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)在20~30μg·L-1之间。加标回收率在96.4%~105%之间,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=7)在1.5%~2.4%之间。

  10. GC-MS Fingerprint of an Active Ingredients Group from Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi Powders%金玄痔科熏洗散有效部位制剂的GC-MS指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别文华; 刘蔚; 李力; 周道年

    2015-01-01

    目的::对金玄痔科熏洗散及有效部位新制剂进行GC-MS分析,建立了有效部位新制剂的GC-MS指纹图谱。方法:采用GC-MS方法对金玄痔科熏洗散及有效部位新制剂中的主要组分进行分析,并确定指纹图谱中的特征指纹信息。结果:对10个批次的有效部位新制剂进行了测定,并得到了较为理想的包含特征信息的有效部位新制剂的GC-MS指纹图谱。结论:方法重复性好,所建立的指纹图谱为金玄痔科熏洗散有效部位新制剂的质量控制提供了有效手段。%Objective:To analyze Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi powders ( JZX) and an active ingredients group ( AIG) obtained from JZX by GC-MS, and develop a characteristic fingerprint of AIG. Methods: A gas chromatography-mass spectrum ( GC-MS) method was applied to analyze the main compositions in JZX and AIG, and the characteristic fingerprint information in the fingerprint spectrum was determined. Results:Totally 10 batches of AIG were detected, and a promising GC-MS fingerprint spectrum containing characteristic information for AIG was obtained. Conclusion: The developed fingerprint with good repeatability can be successfully applied in the quality control of AIG.

  11. HPLC determination of 4 compounds in Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi powder and its active ingredients group%新老工艺的金玄痔科熏洗散4种成分含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔚; 叶晓川; 段雪云; 陈树和; 刘焱文

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立测定金玄痔科熏洗散(JZXS)及新工艺制备的金玄痔科熏洗散(AIG)中绿原酸、咖啡酸、金丝桃苷和木犀草素的HPLC分析方法.方法:采用Venusil XBP C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm);柱温30℃;流速1.0mL·min-1;流动相:乙腈-0.4%磷酸水溶液,梯度洗脱;进样量10μL;检测波长为335nm.结果:绿原酸、咖啡酸、金丝桃苷、木犀草素的线形范围分别和回归方程分别为0.760~4.560μg (r=0.999 9),Y=2 254.9X+ 131.66;0.058~0.348μg (r=0.999 9),Y=3 610.8X+7.913 5;0.046~0.276 μg(r=0.999 9),y=1 446.7X+2.124 3;0.024~0.144μg(r=0.999 9),y=2 344.5 X -0.716 2;JZXS 平均加样回收率(n=5)分别为97.4%(RSD=1.8%),98.6%(RSD=2.3%)和97.8%(RSD=2.9%);AIG平均加样回收率(n=5)为97%(RSD=1.2%),97.3%(RSD=2.5%),98.12% (RSD=2.7%)和96.9% (RSD=1.9%).结论:该方法专属性好,准确度高,为进一步完善JZXS的质量标准提供了科学依据,并为该传统制剂二次开发为创新中药品种奠定了基础.%OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside and luteoloside in Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi powder(JZXS) and its active ingredients group(AIG). METHODS RP-HPLC was used, the separation was performed on Venusil XBP C18 (250 m×4. 6 mm,5μm) column by gradient elution with acetonitrile -0. 4% phosphoric acid as the mobil phase. The detection wavelength was set at 335 nm and the flow rate was 1. 0 mL·min-1 , and column temperature was 30 ℃. RESULTS The linear ranges were 0. 760-4. 560μg (Y = 2 254. 9X + 131. 66, r = 0. 999 9) for chlorogenic acid, 0. 058 - 0. 348μg (Y = 3 610. 8X +7. 913 5, r=0.9999) for caffeic acid, 0. 046 - 0. 276μg (Y = 1 446.7X + 2. 124 3, r= 0. 999 9) for hyperoside and 0. 024 - 0. 144μg (Y= 2 344. 5X - 0. 716 2,r= 0. 999 9) for luteoloside. The recoveries (n = 5) were 97. 4%(RSD= 1. 8%) ,98. 6%(RSD=2. 3%) and 97. 8%(RSD= 2. 9%), respectively in Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi paoder, and

  12. An introduction to toothpaste - its purpose, history and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Toothpaste is a paste or gel to be used with a toothbrush to maintain and improve oral health and aesthetics. Since their introduction several thousand years ago, toothpaste formulations have evolved considerably - from suspensions of crushed egg shells or ashes to complex formulations with often more than 20 ingredients. Among these can be compounds to combat dental caries, gum disease, malodor, calculus, erosion and dentin hypersensitivity. Furthermore, toothpastes contain abrasives to clean and whiten teeth, flavors for the purpose of breath freshening and dyes for better visual appeal. Effective toothpastes are those that are formulated for maximum bioavailability of their actives. This, however, can be challenging as compromises will have to be made when several different actives are formulated in one phase. Toothpaste development is by no means complete as many challenges and especially the poor oral substantivity of most active ingredients are yet to overcome.

  13. Arteriosclerosis: facts and fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C; Fishbein, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Arterial vascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Every physician learns about the pathology of these diseases in medical school. All pathologists evaluate arterial disease in surgical pathology and/or autopsy specimens. All clinicians encounter patients with clinical manifestations of these diseases. With such a common and clinically-important group of entities one would think there would be a general understanding of the "known" information that exists. That is, physicians and scientists should be able to separate what is fact and what is fancy. This review article is intended to generate thought in this regard.

  14. Chernobyl: the facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbridge, R. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden) Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-08-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  15. 基于均匀设计的中药有效组分复方配伍研究%Uniform designed research on the active ingredients assembling of Chinese herbal for antioxidative capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸿; 吴彦; 马琰岩; 吕俊海; 李晶哲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find a suitable way of quantitative composition-activity relationship of Chinese herbal for antioxidative capacity based on uniform design. Method Chinese herbal active ingredient formula was composed of Total flavonoids of Glycyrrhiza (TFG) , ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) , Total fa-vonoids of epimedium (TFE) and astragaloside (AST) . The herbal efficacy was detected by scavenging the free radical of DPPH in vitro, and the mathematical model was constructed to describe the connection between different combinations and their antioxidative capacity by the method of LARS regression. Result The best effect was in the ratio of TFG 0. 8 mg/ml,GBE 3.144 mg/ml,TFE 0.024 mg/ml,AST 0.036 mg/ml. Conclusion Uniform designed research is one of efficient ways to describe the quantitative composition-activity relationship.%目的 探索基于均匀设计的中药抗氧化有效组分复方的研究分析方法.方法 采用均匀设计和改进最小角回归分析,对甘草总黄酮、银杏叶提取物、淫羊藿总黄酮和黄芪总苷组成的中药组分复方不同配比体外清除DPPH自由基的作用进行研究.结果 通过分析获得了中药组分配伍清除DPPH的回归方程,优化组合后进行药效学验证,结果显示该中药组分配伍最佳剂量组合为甘草总黄酮0.8 mg/ml、银杏叶提取物3.144 mg/ml、淫羊藿总黄酮0.024 mg/ml和黄芪总苷0.036 mg/ml.结论 上述中药组分配伍后能有效清除DPPH自由基;本实验采用的均匀设计结合改进最小角回归分析适合"非线性、小样本"生物实验数据数据分析,为筛选评价抗氧化中药有效组分复方提供了合适的研究方法.

  16. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  17. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  18. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Kralik; Zlata Kralik; Manuela Grčević; Zoran Škrtić

    2012-01-01

    Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as f...

  19. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  20. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  1. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  2. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  3. The supernova rate: a critical ingredient and an important tool

    CERN Document Server

    Mannucci, F

    2009-01-01

    In this review I summarize the role of supernova rate as a critical ingredient of modern astrophysics, and as an important tool to understand SN explosions. Many years of active observations and theoretical modeling have produced several important results. In particular, linking SN rates with parent stellar populations has proved to be an important strategy. Despite these advances, the situation is far from clear, in particular for the SNe Ia.

  4. Where Students Shop for Nutrition Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching PreK-8, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Describes a school tour launched by a supermarket to familiarize children with basic facts about nutrition and healthful eating. Discusses visits to a perishable foods department, a shopping activity, a recipe preparation activity, and Food Pyramid activity. Suggests making enquiries about such tours with local supermarket chains and bringing it…

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chilli paste and its ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griangsak Chairote

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Green chilli paste and its ingredients (chilli, red onion and garlic from different stages of processing were analysed for total phenolic content and antioxidant properties, i.e. total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching activity. The effects of processing stage on total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chilli paste and its ingredients were discussed, along with the correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant properties.

  6. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin. (author)

  7. Biochemical basis for functional ingredient design from fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jissy K; Tiwari, Krishnaraj; Correa-Betanzo, Julieta; Misran, Azizah; Chandrasekaran, Renu; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2012-01-01

    Functional food ingredients (nutraceuticals) in fruits range from small molecular components, such as the secondary plant products, to macromolecular entities, e.g., pectin and cellulose, that provide several health benefits. In fruits, the most visible functional ingredients are the color components anthocyanins and carotenoids. In addition, several other secondary plant products, including terpenes, show health beneficial activities. A common feature of several functional ingredients is their antioxidant function. For example, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be oxidized and stabilized by flavonoid components, and the flavonoid radical can undergo electron rearrangement stabilizing the flavonoid radical. Compounds that possess an orthodihydroxy or quinone structure can interact with cellular proteins in the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway to activate the gene transcription of antioxidant enzymes. Carotenoids and flavonoids can also exert their action by modulating the signal transduction and gene expression within the cell. Recent results suggest that these activities are primarily responsible for the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  8. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resano, Martín, E-mail: mresano@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Flórez, María del Rosario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi [Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera ICTJA-CSIC, Sole Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marguí, Eva [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH{sub 4}F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 8.3 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 9.3 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 0.15 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 0.10 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration.

  9. Extraction of active ingredients in Honey suckle and their function in cosmetics%金银花活性成分提取及其抗氧化和抑菌功效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小锋; 原增艳; 许平辉

    2012-01-01

    利用超声波预处理结合乙醇回流提取法从金银花中提取活性成分,通过响应面分析法设计实验,得到了较佳的提取工艺:超声波预处理30.9 min,乙醇的体积分数为73.7%,提取温度为68.5℃,每次提取2.1h,提取2次,在此条件下绿原酸提取率达到88.39%.通过与阳性物质Vc比较检验了提取物的功效,证明金银花提取物具有较好的体外抗氧化能力;通过对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、黑曲霉的抑制分析,证明金银花提取物具有良好的抑菌防腐能力.%Active ingredients in Honey suckle were extracted by ultrasonic -aided ethanol method. The optimal processing conditions for the extraction were identified by using the software "Design Expert 7. 1. 3 Tril". Pretreatment time is 30. 9 min under aid of ultrasonic wave. Ethanol with volume fraction of 73. 7% was used as the solvent. Temperature was 68. 5 ℃. Extraction of two times was operated with each of 2. 1 h. Under the afore - said conditions, yield of chlorogenic acid achieves 88.39%. Comparing with positive material vitamin C,the efficacy of the extract was investigated and experimental results showed that the extract has a good in - vitro antioxidation capability. Bacteriostasis tests were carried out against colibacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger and the results showed that the Honey suckle extract has strong bacteriostatic and antiseptic capabilities.

  10. Analysis on safety assessment and active ingredient of functional textiles%功能性纺织品的安全性评估及其功能因子的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏孟媛; 和杉杉; 段冀渊; 陈宇凤; 薛文良

    2014-01-01

    我国对功能性纺织品的需求很大,目前功能性纺织品的功能主要通过纺织品的后整理实现。后整理会对环境和消费者造成一定的危害。通过对市场上功能性纺织品功能因子的调研,并与相关法规及资料(包括欧盟REACH法规附录17及其SVHC高关注度物质,美国服装鞋类协会受限物质清单RSL,美国加州65号法案,我国化学品环境风险防控“十二五”规划,《纺织行业有毒有害物质消除指南》)进行了整理比对,明确了市场中功能因子存在的安全隐患,为功能性纺织品的安全性检验提供一定的依据。%There is a great demand for functional textile in China .Functional textiles have been developed that rely upon the approach of finishing , whose chemical agents have chances to be harmful to our environment and consumers’ health.Integrating the survey results on functional textiles with related acts and rules , the active ingredients of toxicity in functional textiles and provides advice on further safety inspections were listed .The above mentioned actions and rules are REACH ( appendix 17 and the SVHC ) , RSL established by AAFA , safe drinking water and toxic enforcement act of 1986 , prevention and control for environmental risks of chemicals in 12 th five-year plan of China and “Toxics use elimination guideline for the textile industry 1.0 by greenpeace”.

  11. 菊花活性成分Parthenolide对人鼻咽癌CNE2细胞线粒体功能和半胱天冬酶活性的影响%Influence of active ingredient of chrysanthemum Parthenolide on mitochondrial function of CNE2 cell of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and caspase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 林育纯; Shen Han-Ming; Yang Cheng-Feng; Ong Choon-Nam

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parthenolide (PN) is the pricipal component of sesquiterpene lactones contained in some aromatic herbs. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) occurs worldwide is one of highest incidence malignant tumor in south China. It is essential that using the PN as the therapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine to develop the modern rehabilitation for NPC.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of sesquiterpene lactones(SLs), the active ingredient of chrysanthemum, on the mitochondrial function of NPC cell and activating passage of caspase. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in this study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Completed by the Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University with object of poorly differentiated CNE2 cell strain.INTERVENTION: Parthenolide is given and the dose-reaction and time effect are observed. The cellular mitochondrial function is detected with MTT color reaction, cellular caspase-9 and -3 activity were measured with substrate fluorescence spectrum, the release of mitochondrial cytochromic C(CytC) and cleavage segment of caspase-3 proenzyme were detected with protein immunity blotting; and specific inhibitor was applied for the blocking passage experiment of cellular caspase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: cellular mitochondrial function, cellular caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, release of mitochondrial CytC and cleavage of caspase-3 proenzyme. RESULTS: After acted by PN( 1 - 100 μmol/L) for 12 hours and 24 hours, MTT color reaction inhibition rate grows obviously with the dose, indicating dose-dependence (Pearson's γ=0. 7322, 0. 7703, P < 0. 05), IC50 was 252.94 μmol/L and 49.63 μmol/L respectively; but without rising of caspase-9 and -3 activity, release of CytC and formation of caspase-3 proenzyme cleavage. Affected by PN and caspase inhibitor at same time, caspase-9 and -3 activity were apparently lower than that of control and singlePN effect. (t=9. 146, 8.280, 27.325, 27.450, P

  12. Facts about Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Sickle Cell Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... SCD. Infographic: 5 Facts You Should Know About Sickle Cell Disease Did you know SCD affects people from ...

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... without Alzheimer's — a rate twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, ... COMMITMENT TO RESEARCH. Read More Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and ...

  14. HPLC法测定复方前列舒丸中6个活性成分%Determination of six active ingredients in Compound Qianlieshu Pills by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李征; 董斌; 李宪刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of six active ingredients plantamajoside, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, epimedin C, and icariin in Compound Qianlieshu Pills. Methods The determination was carried out with Agilent Zorbax C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1%phosphoric acid solution with gradient elution. The detection wavelengths were 330 nm in 0—20 min (determination of plantamajoside) , 283 nm in 20—40 min (determination of naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin) , and 270 nm in 40—50 min ( determination of epimedin C and icariin). The column temperature was set at 35℃, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with injection volume of 5μL. Results There were good linear relationships of plantamajoside, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, epimedin C, and icariin in the concentration ranges of 10.11—202.20, 49.62—992.40, 15.46—309.20, 44.62—892.40, 18.39—367.80, and 52.18—1 043.60 ng. The average recoveries were 97.4%, 98.8%, 99.5%, 98.9%, 97.2%, and 95.6% with RSD 0.83%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 1.0%, respectively. Conclusion The method is simple and valid, and can simultaneously determine six active ingredients plantamajoside, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, epimedin C, and icariin, which can be used in quantity control for Compound Qianlieshu Pills.%目的:建立HPLC法同时测定复方前列舒丸中大车前苷、柚皮苷、橙皮苷、新橙皮苷、朝藿定C、淫羊藿苷6个活性成分的方法。方法采用安捷伦Zorbax C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5µm);流动相为乙腈–0.1%磷酸水溶液,梯度洗脱;检测波长为330 nm(0~20 min,测定大车前苷)、283 nm(20~40 min,测定柚皮苷、橙皮苷、新橙皮苷)、270 nm(40~50 min,测定朝藿定C、淫羊藿苷);柱温为35℃;体积流量为1.0 mL/min;进样量为5µL。结果大车前苷、柚皮苷、橙皮苷、新橙皮苷

  15. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  16. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office ...

  18. Trauma Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complex roles following injury—it is necessary for healing but is also linked to many life-threatening complications. Genomic studies are showing that severe injury alters the activity levels of a large number of genes. A ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  2. Volunteering among High School Students. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet explores volunteering among high school students, ages 16-18. Overall, volunteering among high school students was down slightly in 2006 as compared to 2005. Additional information includes types of volunteer organizations and activities, and ways that high school students become involved in these activities. Volunteer rate vary by…

  3. Facts from Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, Carol; Butzow, John

    1988-01-01

    Describes how a ladybug can be used to teach entomology, natural selection, comparative anatomy, food chains and symbiotic relationships. Focuses on a picturebook entitled "The Grouchy Ladybug" (Eric Carle). Discusses enrichment activities in science, language, social studies, art, and music. (CW)

  4. Época e princípios ativos para a quebra de dormência de caquizeiro cv. Fuyu Time and active ingredients for bud break of japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de aumentar o período de oferta do caqui 'Fuyu' e buscar alternativas à falta de opções para estimular a brotação, avaliando-se épocas e diferentes princípios ativos na quebra de dormência dos frutos. Os tratamentos testados foram: óleo mineral (OM, cianamida hidrogenada (CH e a mistura de macro e micronutrientes, em três épocas de aplicação, constituindo-se esquema fatorial com 5 tratamentos e 3 épocas de aplicação. Os tratamentos testados foram: T1-testemunha; T2- 0,5 % OM; T3-: 2 % CH + 0,5 % OM; T4- 1 % micronutrientes + 0,2 % macronutrientes + 0,5 % OM; T5- 2 % micronutrientes + 0,2 % macronutrientes + 0,5 % OM. Avaliaram-se o número de brotos por ramo, a porcentagem de gemas brotadas e o número de ramos com broto, o número e a produção de frutos por planta. A antecipação da época de quebra de dormência provocou a diminuição do número de frutos produzidos na região centro-sul do Paraná. A produção de frutos foi diretamente proporcional à porcentagem de gemas brotadas no primeiro surto de brotação. A aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada promoveu antecipação da brotação e aumento na produção de frutos de caquizeiro; no entanto, a mistura de micronutrientes e óleo mineral não influenciou na brotação e produção de frutos de caquizeiro.This work aimed to rise fruit market period and search options to stimulate bud break, evaluating three dates and different active ingredients in bud break of persimmon 'Fuyu'. Mineral oil, hydrogen cyanamide (CH, micro and macronutrients mixture were tested in three application dates in a factorial scheme with 5 treatments and 3 application dates. The traetments were: T1-control, T2- 0.5 % OM, T3-: 2 % CH + 0.5 % OM, T4- 1 % micronutrients + 0.2 % macronutrients + 0.5 % OM; T5- 2 % micronutrients + 0.2 % macronutrients + 0.5 % OM. It was analyzed the number of sprouts per branch, the sprouting percentage, the number of

  5. Chemical Ingredients of Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms, including Cordyceps militaris, have received attention in Korea because of their biological activities. In the fruiting body and in corpus of C. militaris, the total free amino acid content was 69.32 mg/g and 14.03 mg/g, respectively. In the fruiting body, the most abundant amino acids were lysine, glutamic acid, proline and threonine. The fruiting body was rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which comprised about 70% of the total fatty acids. The most abundant unsaturated a...

  6. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  7. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  8. Reinforcing Power Grid Transmission with FACTS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chertkov, Misha

    2013-01-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed into the grid to relieve congestion created by load growth or fluctuations of intermittent renewable generation. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to those that can be represented by modification of the inductance of the transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the $l_1$ norm of the FACTS-associated inductance correction subject to constraints enforcing that no line of the system exceeds its thermal limit. We develop off-line heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) where at each step the constraints are linearized analytically around the current operating point. The algorithm is accelerated further with a version of the cutting plane method greatly reducing the number of active constraints during the optimization, while checking feasibility of the non-active constraints post...

  9. Pinellas Plant facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  10. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  11. Tonsillotomy: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, J P; Savva, K; Dahm, J D; Werner, J A

    2015-04-01

    instruments, Diode-LASER, and other instruments. Instruments were not specified for 1,815 patients. Data for operation time, intraoperative bleeding, return to normal diet, analgesic intake were in favor for SIPT/TT and ablation procedures. Regrowth and tonsillitis occurred in rates of 8 years are definitely not commonly accepted as contraindication for SIPT, TT or ablation procedures. There is a strong evidence that pain is less after SIPT, TT and tonsil ablation resulting in an earlier return to normal diet and activity. Large, well-designed randomized controlled trials with an adequate follow-up are necessary to determine whether the procedure is capable to replace TE to resolve upper airway obstruction resulting from tonsillar hypertrophy as well as recurrent episodes of tonsillitis in children and adults.

  12. Facts Plus: An Almanac of Essential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "Facts Plus: An Almanac of Essential Information" by Susan C. Anthony, an authoritative, user-friendly almanac for students in grades 3-9. An accompanying teacher's guide containing almost 200 pages of activities is described; and a lesson based on a crossword puzzle from the guide that helps students interpret charts, graphs,…

  13. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiese-Smith, Deneille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Highley, Aaron M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Behrens, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  14. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  15. Impact of Light Intensity on Biosynthesis of Active Ingredients in Epimedium%光照对淫羊藿活性成分生物合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国燕; 陈建军; 廖思红; 王瑛

    2012-01-01

    淫羊藿作为传统的中药材,具有补肾阳、强筋骨、祛风湿等功效.其主要功能活性成分为黄酮醇苷成分淫羊藿苷、朝藿定A、B、C等.本实验在武汉植物园内的药园和园外园两个不同生长环境下,研究两种不同光照对巫山淫羊藿(Epimedium wushanense T.S.Ying)WY品系和箭叶淫羊藿(Epimedium sagittatum( Sieb.& Zucc.)Maxim.) LT1、HN3品系4种主要活性成分生物合成的影响.结果显示,在药园环境生长的淫羊藿的光合速率要高于园外园生长的淫羊藿,药园生长的箭叶淫羊藿LT1、HN3品系的4种活性成分含量均高于园外园生长的同品系,而巫山淫羊藿WY品系则相反.光合速率对4种活性成分含量的积累有一定影响,与朝藿定A、B和淫羊藿苷含量呈显著正相关,与朝藿定C含量呈显著负相关.文中对光合速率与活性成分积累间的关系进行了讨论,还针对不同的淫羊藿品系提出了相应的栽培建议.%As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, epimedii has effects on toning kidney, strengthening bones and muscles,and treating rheumatism. Its bioactive ingredients are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, including icariin, epimedin A,B,and C. Two light conditions [Yao-yuan (Medicinal Herb Garden) of Wuhan Botanical Garden,Yuan-wai-yuan of Wuhan Botanical Garden] were used to study how light affected the biosynthesis of the major bioactive ingredients in Epimedium wushanense T. S. Ying and Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. & Zucc. ) Maxim. Results showed that the photosynthesis rate was higher in Yao-yuan than in Yuan-wai-yuan for both species. The four bioactive ingredients of E. sagittatum were higher in Yao-yuan than in Yuan-wai-yuan,but the opposite was found for E. wushanense. Photosynthesis rate had significant positive correlation with the content of epimedin A,B and icariin,but had significant negative correlation with epimedin C. The relationship between photosynthesis rate and accumulation of

  16. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  17. HPLC-DAD法同时测定更年安片中6个活性成分的含量%HPLC-DAD simultaneous determination of six active ingredients in Gengnian' an tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施法; 侯峰; 陆军; 郭汉文; 张满来; 郝延军

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时分析测定更年安片中6个活性成分(2,3,5,4'-四羟基二苯乙烯-2 -O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、毛蕊花糖苷、仙茅苷、丹皮酚、哈巴俄苷、五味子醇甲)的方法.方法:采用HPLC-DAD法,色谱柱为奥泰Alltima ODS( 250 mm×4.6mm,5μm),以乙腈为流动相A,0.05%磷酸溶液为流动相B,梯度洗脱,流速1.0mL·min-1,检测波长为254 nm(测定五味子醇甲)、284 nm(测定仙茅苷、丹皮酚、哈巴俄苷)、330 nm(测定2,3,5,4'-四羟基二苯乙烯-2 -O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、毛蕊花糖苷).结果:2,3,5,4'-四羟基二苯乙烯-2-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、毛蕊花糖苷、仙茅苷、丹皮酚、哈巴俄苷、五味子醇甲线性范围分别为0.0404~1.616 μg(r =0.9999),0.0194~0.774 μg(r =0.9998),0.0202 ~0.810μg(r =0.9997),0.0201~0.804μg(r=0.9999),0.0206~0.826μg(r=0.9998),0.0398~1.592 μg(r=0.9999).平均加样回收率(n=6)分别为97.8%,98.2%,97.9%,98.3%,101.2%,97.5%;RSD分别为1.2%,1.1%,0.95%,1.1%,0.97%,1.1%.结论:该方法操作简单,重复性好,为评价和监控更年安片的质量提供可靠的方法.%Objective;To establish a method for simultaneous determination of six active ingredients(2,3,5,4' -tetrahydroxystilbene -2 - 0 -β - D - glucoside, acteoside, curculigoside, paeonol, harpagoside, schisandrin). Methods; The determination was carried out with Alltima ODS column ( 250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 μm); The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile( A) -0. 05% phosphoric acid solution( B) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1. 0 Ml · min-1; The detection wavelengths were 254 nm for schisandrin, 284 nm for curculigoside, paeonol and harpagoside, 330 nm for 2,3,5,4' -tetrahydroxystilbene -2 - 0 -β - D - glucoside and acteoside. ResultS;The calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 0. 0404 -1.616 μg for 2,3,5 ,4' - tetrahydroxystilbene -2 - 0 -0 -D -glucoside(r =0. 9999), 0. 0194 -0. 774 μg for acteoside (r =0. 9998), 0. 0202 -0. 810 |xg for

  18. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries . Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  19. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-04-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  20. Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-01-01

    Foods contain a wide range of food ingredients that serve numerous technical functions. Per capita consumer exposure to most of these food ingredients is rather low with a few notable exceptions such as sugar and starch. Some food ingredients including edible oils, hydrolyzed proteins, lecithin, starch, lactose, flavors and gelatin may, at least in some products, be derived from sources commonly involved in IgE-mediated food allergies. These ingredients should be avoided by consumers with allergies to the source material if the ingredient contains detectable protein residues. Other food ingredients, including starch, malt, alcohol and vinegar, may be derived in some cases from wheat, rye or barley, the grains that are implicated in the causation of celiac disease. If these ingredients contain gluten residues, then they should be avoided by celiac sufferers. A few food ingredients are capable of eliciting allergic sensitization, although these ingredients would be classified as rarely allergenic. These ingredients include carmine, cochineal extract, annatto, tragacanth gum and papain. Food manufacturers should declare the presence of allergenic food ingredients in the ingredient listings on product labels so that allergic consumers can know to avoid these potentially hazardous products.

  1. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  2. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2017 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the Full Report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2016, 15.9 million family ...

  4. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  5. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  6. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT — ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: THE NEXT FRONTIER In the history of medicine, one ... physician I am a researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia ...

  8. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials View All Content Definition & Facts for Constipation What is Constipation? Constipation is a condition in which you typically ... to prevent or relieve constipation. How common is constipation? Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal ( ...

  9. Research and Compare the Antioxidant Active Ingredients of Pomegranate Vinegar,MuIberry Vinegar and BIueberry Vinegar%蓝莓醋、石榴醋、桑葚醋抗氧化活性成分的研究与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽娟; 何思鲁; 赵翡; 王颉

    2016-01-01

    以市售蓝莓醋、石榴醋、桑葚醋为试验原料,对三种水果醋进行抗氧化活性成分分析和测定,研究其主要活性成分含量与清除 DPPH 自由基之间的相关性,并对其抗氧化性能进行对比。试验结果表明:三种水果醋都具有一定的抗氧化活性,其中石榴醋的抗氧化能力最强,总酚、总黄酮、抗坏血酸含量达到110.03,480.47,110 mg/kg;当加入400 mg/kg 三种水果醋时,其 DPPH 自由基清除率分别达到57.58%,63.66%,54.10%;其抗氧化活性成分与 DPPH 自由基的清除能力成正相关。水果醋具有良好的抗氧化活性,是目前较为优质的调味品,该试验为水果醋产品的进一步开发奠定了坚实的理论基础。%Take pomegranate vinegar,mulberry vinegar and blueberry vinegar as the test materials, analyze and determine the antioxidant active ingredients of the three kinds of fruit vinegar,research the correlation between the content of antioxidant active ingredients and clearing DPPH radical,and compare the antioxidation performance with one another.The results show that three kinds of fruit vinegar has a certain antioxidant activity,among them,the antioxidant capacity of pomegranate vinegar is the strongest.The content of total phenols,total flavonoids and ascorbic acid is about 110.03,480.47,110 mg/kg.When adding the three kinds of fruit vinegar with 400 mg/kg,the DPPH radical scavenging is 57.58%, 63.66%, 54.10%. It is positively correlated between antioxidant active ingredients and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Fruit vinegar has a good antioxidant activity and it is high-quality condiment.It will lay a solid theoretical foundation for the further development of fruit vinegar products.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of active ingredients in technical zhongshengmycin%中生菌素原药有效成分高效液相色谱-串联质谱分析方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔港; 魏少鹏; 姬志勤

    2012-01-01

    建立了采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)分析中生菌素(zhongshengmycins)原药中各有效成分(链丝菌素A~F)的方法.原药用去离子水超声辅助提取后经离心过滤,反相离子对高效液相色谱分离,二级质谱检测,标准样品定量离子外标法定量.结果表明:在15.63~500μg/mL质量浓度范围内,中生菌素原药各组分的仪器响应值与进样质量浓度之间呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R2>0.990 5;方法具有较好的精密度和准确度,6次重复进样,其相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.33% ~ 1.96%之间;在0.1、0.5和1μg/mg 3个添加水平下,各组分的回收率在98.2%~101.1%之间.样品实测结果表明:供试原药中链丝菌素D的含量最高,为297.65 μg/g;其次是链丝菌素B、C和F,含量分别为247.77、285.64和115.92 μg/g;链丝菌素A和E的含量较低,分别为15.63和19.60 μg/g.该方法能满足中生菌素原药中各有效成分定性及定量分析的要求.%A reliable method for determination of active ingredients in technical zhongshengmycin material was established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The active ingredients in technique material were extracted by the ultrasound-assisted method, and then the aqueous extract was cleaned up by centrifugation and filtration. After separated by reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, the characteristic MS/MS ions were detected by mass spectrometer and quantified with external standard method. A good linear relationship between response and concentration was obtained in the range of 15.63 -500 μg/mL,and its correlation coefficient was above 0.990 5. The relative standard derivations for different ingredients were in the range of 0. 33% - 1. 96%. The recovery rates for different ingredients were 98. 2% -101. 1% in the spiking levels of 0. 1,0. 5 and 1 μg/mg. The contents of streptothricins D,B,C,F,A and E in the tested technical

  11. Detection of genetically modified ingredients in seed samples from Heilongjiang soybean field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyan; WANG Jianhua; WU Peng; LI Yongchun; WANG Guoying

    2005-01-01

    A total of 210 soybean samples collected from different areas of Heilongjiang Province were analyzed by PCR to detect the presence of RR (Roundup Ready) soybean ingredient. Results showed that CaMV35S promoter was not detected in all samples. CP4-EPSPS gene was amplified in 13 samples, but all of them were proved to be false positives in restriction endonuclease digestion analysis of PCR products. Further analysis by nested PCR indicated that there were no RR soybean ingredients in the samples. Besides, the amplified fragments of 0x1 by CP4-EPSPS primers were sequenced, and the results confirmed again the fact that this fragment was not from CP4-EPSPS gene.

  12. Performance of FACTS equipment in Meshed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, E.; Povh, D. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Modern power electronic devices such as thyristors and GTOs have made it possible to design controllable network elements, which will play a considerable role in ensuring reliable economic operation of transmission systems as a result of their capability to rapidly change active and reactive power. A number of FACTS elements for high-speed active and reactive power control will be described. Control of power system fluctuations in meshed systems by modulation of active and reactive power will be demonstrated using a number of examples. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs.

  13. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  14. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  15. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  16. Inventions on baker's yeast strains and specialty ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Baker's yeast is one of the oldest food microbial starters. Between 1927 and 2008, 165 inventions on more than 337 baker's yeast strains were patented. The first generation of patented yeast strains claimed improved biomass yield at the yeast plant, higher gassing power in dough or better survival to drying to prepare active dry baker's yeast. Especially between 1980 and 1995, a major interest was given to strains for multiple bakery applications such as dough with variable sugar content and stored at refrigeration (cold) or freezing temperatures. During the same period, genetically engineered yeast strains became very popular but did not find applications in the baking industry. Since year 2000, patented baker's yeast strains claimed aroma, anti-moulding or nutritive properties to better meet the needs of the baking industry. In addition to patents on yeast strains, 47 patents were issued on baker's yeast specialty ingredients for niche markets. This review shows that patents on baker's yeast with improved characteristics such as aromatic or nutritive properties have regularly been issued since the 1920's. Overall, it also confirms recent interest for a very wide range of tailored-made yeast-based ingredients for bakery applications.

  17. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  18. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  20. Norms and facts in measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakel, J. van

    1984-01-01

    Publications concerned with the foundations of measurement often accept uncritically the theory/observation and the norm/fact distinction. However, measurement is measurement-in-a-context. This is analysed in the first part of the paper. Important aspects of this context are: the purpose of the part

  1. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to manage. The basic fact is healthy teeth and gums are essential for: n Preventing infections which may cause MS symptoms to increase n ... person clenches his or her jaws or “grinds” teeth, usually during the night n ... and periodontitis are infections, each of which can be made worse by ...

  2. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  3. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  4. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  5. Facts Speak Louder Than Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Is the Western world ignoring the real truth about Tibet?In order to separate Tibet from China, the Dalai Lama has always severely criticized China’s Tibet policy and his words have been echoed by some Western media and politicians. But facts prove that these criticisms are totally groundless.

  6. Facts about Atrial Septal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Atrial Septal Defect Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  7. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  8. Facts about Tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Tetralogy of Fallot Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  9. Facts About Delta Pi Epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses the purpose and structure of Delta Pi Epsilon and the general qualifications for membership. Service projects and publications, research awards, timely facts, the year of each chapter's origination, national presidents, and executive secretaries for the last 40 years are listed. (BP)

  10. A skin sensitization risk assessment approach for evaluation of new ingredients and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerberick, G F; Robinson, M K

    2000-06-01

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of new ingredients or products is critical before their introduction into the marketplace. The risk assessment process described in this article involves evaluation of skin sensitization hazard, consideration of all potential human exposures, comparative ingredient/product benchmarking, and, when appropriate, the management of the risk. In this article, a risk assessment process is reviewed along with a description of the risk assessment tools that are employed for evaluating a new ingredient or product. The basic process we use for evaluating the skin sensitization risk of a new product or ingredient is considered a no effect/safety factor approach. The tools used for conducting a risk assessment include structure activity relationship analysis, exposure assessment, preclinical testing (e.g., local lymph node assay [LNNA]) and clinical testing (e.g., human repeat insult patch testing [HRIPT]). The skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this paper has been used successfully for many years for the safe introduction of new products into the marketplace. This process is dynamic--it can be applied to a diversity of product categories (e.g., shampoo, transdermal drug). In summary, the skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this article allows one to carefully assess the skin sensitization potential of a new ingredient or product so that it can be safely introduced into the marketplace.

  11. 瑞香狼毒活性成分对东亚飞蝗的生物活性和病理学研究%Bioactivity and histopathology study of the active ingredients from Stellera chamaej asme L .against Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嫚潞; 吴朗; 陈龙; 周卫; 陶科; 侯太平

    2013-01-01

    The activity of ligarine extracts from Stellera chamaej asme L .against Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) was tested and compared by bioassay methods . The biological activity and histopathological effects of the active ingredients from Stellera chamaej asme L .on Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) and mid-gut cells were determined .The results showed that the active ingredients from Stellera chamaej asme L .had anti-feeding activity ,contacting activity ,stomach toxicity activity and inhibition of growth and development on Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) .The AFC50of complete anti-feeding activity were 317 .63mg/L ,113 .20mg/L in 24 hour and 48 hour ;The LC50 of contacting activity were 548 .21 mg/L and the LC50 of stomach toxicity activity were 2486 .19 mg/L in 96 hour for ligarine extracts from Stellera chamaej asme L .,active ingredients also had strong effect on growth and development of Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) .The EC50of growth inhibition rate was 39 .75 mg/L in 48 hour . The histopathology studies on mid-gut from Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen) showed that the ligarine extracts from Stellera chamaej asme L .damage the normal structure of mid-gut and lead to columnar epithelial cells fell off and death .%采用活体生物试验方法进行活性跟踪,选取瑞香狼毒对东亚飞蝗毒杀活性最高的石油醚萃取部分,测定瑞香狼毒活性成分对东亚飞蝗的生物活性及其中肠消化道的组织病理学影响.结果表明:瑞香狼毒活性成分对东亚飞蝗具有拒食、触杀、胃毒活性及生长发育抑制作用,其中拒食活性最为显著,24 h、48 h拒食中浓度(A FC50)分别为317.63、113.20 mg/L ;96 h触杀致死中浓度(LC50)、胃毒致死中浓度(LC50)分别为548.21 mg/L、2486.19 mg/L ;生长发育抑制作用也十分明显,48 h生长发育抑制中浓度(EC50)为39.75 mg/L .东亚飞蝗中肠组织病理学变化研究结果表明,

  12. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis.

  13. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Jun 01, 2012 ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...

  14. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed.

  15. Quantum mechanics: Myths and facts

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, H

    2006-01-01

    A common understanding of quantum mechanics (QM) among students and practical users is often plagued by a number of "myths", that is, widely accepted claims on which there is not really a general consensus among experts in foundations of QM. These myths include wave-particle duality, time-energy uncertainty relation, fundamental randomness, the absence of measurement-independent reality, locality of QM, nonlocality of QM, the existence of well-defined relativistic QM, the claims that quantum field theory (QFT) solves the problems of relativistic QM or that QFT is a theory of particles, as well as myths on black-hole entropy. The fact is that the existence of various theoretical and interpretational ambiguities underlying these myths does not yet allow us to accept them as proven facts. I review the main arguments and counterarguments lying behind these myths and conclude that QM is still a not-yet-completely-understood theory open to further fundamental research.

  16. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes(MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient,heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it.

  17. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K; Desai, N; Lebwohl, M G

    1998-06-01

    Patients with rosacea are particularly susceptible to the irritation caused by sunscreen ingredients. The purpose of this bilateral comparison study was to examine the effects of different ingredients found in sunscreen on facial cutaneous irritancy in patients with rosacea. patients clinically diagnosed with rosacea were asked to test different preparations of common sunscreens on their faces. The results show that the presence or absence of appropriate protective ingredients, such as dimethicone and cyclomethicone in the vehicle, may prevent irritation from other sunscreen ingredients in patients with inflammatory conditions such as rosacea.

  18. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Technology to Market subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot’s record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage.

  19. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  20. 核桃根、茎、叶提取物对蚕豆的遗传毒性分析%Genetic toxicity of active ingredients extracted from roots,stems, and leaves of walnut on Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元河; 潘乔丹

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究核桃根、茎、叶不同提取物的化感作用机制,为开发新型无公害植物源除草剂提供科学依据.[方法]采用蚕豆根生长试验和蚕豆微核试验,测定核桃根、茎、叶不同提取物对蚕豆生长的影响和遗传毒性.[结果]经核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物培养24和48h的蚕豆根生长减慢,当核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物浓度大于0.050 g/mL时,培养72 h的蚕豆根生长停滞.微核试验结果,核桃根、叶正丁醇提取物能抑制蚕豆根尖细胞生长,损伤其遗传物质,导致其有丝分裂指数下降、微核率增高,与对照相比呈显著性差异(P<0.05),且在试验浓度范围内(0.025~0.100 g/mL)表现出显著的浓度效应和时间效应.[结论]核桃根和叶中含有一定遗传毒性的化感物质,能够抑制植物细胞分裂,导致细胞遗传物质损伤,对周围植物产生不可逆的遗传损伤效应.%In order to provide scientific evidences for the development of pollution-free botanical herbicides, this study explored the allelopathic mechanism of different extracts from the roots, stems, and leaves of walnut (Juglans regia L.). [ Method jThe Vicia (aba root growth test and micronucleus test were used to study the effects of the different ingredients derived from the roots, stems, and leaves of walnut on Vicia faba growth and their genetic toxicity. [ResultJThe research results showed that the Vicia faba root grew slowly after being cultured by the n-butanol extracts (0.025, 0.050, 0.100 g/mL) from walnut roots and leaves for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. When the extracts concentration was greater than 0.050 g/mL, the Vicia faba root, which was cultured for 72 hrs, stopped growing. The micronuclear test indicated that the n-butanol extracts of roots and leaves could inhibit the growth of Vicia faba root tip cells and damage the genetic material, which resulted in the mitotic index of Vicia faba root tips to decrease and micronuclear rate to

  1. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to

  2. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... method, including actual or theoretical chemical action. (f) If an ingredient is a derivative or... terms of percent volume of absolute alcohol at 60 °F. (15.56 °C.). (e) A derivative or preparation of a... ingredient does not indicate that it is a derivative or preparation of the parent substance named in...

  3. Ingredients for an Integrated Dinner: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In 1966, Simon and Garfunkel combined the English traditional "Scarborough Fair" with a counter melody. This is one of the manifold techniques of the Kontrapunktik described by Bach around 1745 in "The Art of the Fugue": combining completely different and seemingly independent melodies (or motifs) into a coherent piece of music, pleasant for the audience. This achievement, transposed into Computer Science, could be of great benefit for geo services as we look at the currently disparate situation: On the one hand, we have metadata - traditionally, they are understood as being small in volume, but rich in content and semantics, and flexibly queryable through the rich body of technologies established over several decades of database research, centering around query languages like SQL. On the other hand, we have data themselves, such as remote sensing and other measured and observed data sets - they are considered difficult to interpret, semantic-poor, and only for clumsy download, as they are the main constituent of what we today call Big Data. The traditional advantages of databases, such as information integration, query flexibility, and scalability seem to be unavailable. These are the melodies that require a kontrapunctic harmonization, leading to a Holy Grail where different information categories enjoy individually tailored support, while an overall integrating framework allows seamless and convenient access and processing by the user. Most of the data categories to be integrated are well known in fact: ontologies, geospatial meshes, spatiotemporal arrays, and free text constitute major ingredients in this orchestration. For many of them, isolated solutions have been presented, and for some of them (like ontologies and text) integration has been achieved already; a complete harmonic integration, though, is still lacking as of today. In our talk, we detail our vision on such integration through query models and languages which merge established concepts and novel

  4. Sherlock: Scalable Fact Learning in Images

    OpenAIRE

    Elhoseiny, Mohamed; Cohen, Scott; Chang, Walter; Price, Brian; Elgammal, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We study scalable and uniform understanding of facts in images. Existing visual recognition systems are typically modeled differently for each fact type such as objects, actions, and interactions. We propose a setting where all these facts can be modeled simultaneously with a capacity to understand unbounded number of facts in a structured way. The training data comes as structured facts in images, including (1) objects (e.g., $$), (2) attributes (e.g., $$), (3) actions (e.g., $$), and (4) in...

  5. Differences in Microbial Activities of Faeces from Weaned and Unweaned Pigs in Relation to In vitro Fermentation of Different Sources of Inulin-type Oligofructose and Pig Feed Ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, S.B.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the differences in microbial activity of five faecal inocula from weaned pigs and one faecal inoculum from unweaned pigs in combination with 6 substrates. The substrates tested were negative control diet, corn, soybean meal, oligofructose (OF), ground

  6. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  7. Standardized extract of Syzygium aqueum: a safe cosmetic ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, U D; Ling, L T; Manaharan, T; Sivapalan, V; Subramaniam, T; Helme, M H; Masilamani, T

    2011-06-01

    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry.

  8. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction with an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    J. Sep. Sci. 2016, 39, 4147-4157 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600284 Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Shang Han Lun which was prescribed by Zhongjing Zhang during 150-219 AD. A novel quantitative analysis method was developed, based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector for the simultaneous determination of 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of the 14 components in eight normal extraction samples of Yinchenhao decoction, with the aid of hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The present research could help hospital, factory and lab choose the best way to make Yinchenhao decoction with better efficacy.

  9. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  10. Facts and fictions about polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol(-1), conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol(-1) in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  12. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  13. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W. [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A. [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc.

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  14. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  15. Facts and Statistics about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Create Your Own Events Educational Events Facts and Statistics FARE works on behalf of the millions of ... threatening anaphylaxis. This page includes important facts and statistics that can help you better understand food allergies ...

  16. 辣木的有效成分、保健功能和开发利用研究进展%Research Progress on Active Ingredients, Health Care Functions, Development and Utilization of Moringa oleifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹; 管俊岭; 许玫; 李涛; 陈文品

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera belongs to Moringaceae Moringa Adans'hot tropical deciduous woody vegetables and oil crops, having a high nutritional value and unique biological activity, with great development potential. This article reviewed the extraction of moringa oil, protein, total flavonoids et al;and the function of anti-oxidation and protecting the liver, lowering blood sugar and blood fat, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory and other health functions,besides, the development and utilization were also reviewed, hoping to provide a reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of Moringa oleifera resources.%辣木(Moringa oleifera)是辣木科辣木属的热带落叶木本蔬菜及油料作物,有着丰富的营养价值和独特的生物活性,极具开发潜力。从辣木有效成分辣木油、蛋白质、总黄酮等的提取,抗氧化及保护肝脏、降血糖、降血脂、抗菌消炎等保健功能和开发利用等方面进行综述,为辣木资源的研究利用提供参考。

  17. 番茄红素有效成分的提取工艺及其解酒机理的研究%Extraction of Lycopene Active Ingredients and Study on Its Hangover-Cure Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫佳; 陈家树

    2016-01-01

    探讨番茄提取物解酒作用机理,为中药解酒保肝药物的开发提供依据.观察比较番茄提取物与解酒护肝胶囊对小鼠肝脏匀浆中ADH、SOD的酶活力的影响.结果表明,番茄提取物能够明显提高ADH、SOD活力.番茄红素提取物通过提高ADH、SOD活力以达到其解酒的作用,并能减缓酒精进入血液中的速度,进而对抗酒精性肝损伤.%The hangover-cure mechanism of tomato extracts was explored to provide reference for the development of traditional Chinese medi-cine with hangover-cure and hepato-protective functions. In the experiments, the effects of tomato extracts and hangover-cure&hepato-protec-tive capsule on the activities of ADH and SOD in liver homogenates were compared. The results suggested that, tomato extracts could signifi-cantly improve ADH and SOD vitality and further achieve satisfactory hangover-cure effects, and slow down the speed of alcohol into the bloodstream and further prevent alcohol-induced liver damage.

  18. Simultaneous quantitation of 14 active components in Yinchenhao decoction by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection: Method development and ingredient analysis of different commonly prepared samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, YaXiong; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Yue; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Yuan; Xu, XiaoJun; Zhang, YuXin

    2016-11-01

    We developed a novel quantitative analysis method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 14 main active components in Yinchenhao decoction. All components were separated on an Agilent SB-C18 column by using a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile/0.1% phosphoric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min for 35 min. Subsequently, linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy tests were implemented to validate the method. Furthermore, the method has been applied for compositional difference analysis of 14 components in eight normal-extraction Yinchenhao decoction samples, accompanied by hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis. The result that all samples were divided into three groups based on different contents of components demonstrated that extraction methods of decocting, refluxing, ultrasonication and extraction solvents of water or ethanol affected component differentiation, and should be related to its clinical applications. The results also indicated that the sample prepared by patients in the family by using water extraction employing a casserole was almost same to that prepared using a stainless-steel kettle, which is mostly used in pharmaceutical factories. This research would help patients to select the best and most convenient method for preparing Yinchenhao decoction.

  19. 天然活性成分对糖尿病的调控作用及其相关基因的研究进展%Research progress of natural active ingredient for diabetes control and its related gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常燕飞; 李爱珍

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a common endocrine and metabolic diseases. At present, the natural active substances of new pharmacology and mechanisms have been in the continuous exploration, mainly reflected in the antiviral, antitumor, antiox-idant, antibacterial, reducing bloodsugar, reducing blood pressure, prevention of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease and so on. Genes can be targets of diabetes treatment. This article mainly summarized the relevant regulation of nucleoside, alkaloids, polysaccharide and flavonoids on diabetes, at the same time the genes related with diabetes were simply introduced. The development of modern clinical medicine adopted drugs, antibodies, biological or physical factors to affect on the network of important nodes of the diabetes genes, making it crack or change, which could achieve good results in the treatment of diabetes. With the development of molecular biological and pharmaceutical engineering, further study of specific natural active substances of the pharmacological, toxicological effects and the mechanism can be carried out, so as to excavate its business and clinical valueimmensely.%糖尿病是一种常见的内分泌代谢性疾病。目前,天然活性物质对糖尿病治疗的药理活性和机制在不断探索中,主要体现在抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗氧化、抑菌、降糖、降压、预防冠心病及动脉粥样硬化等作用,同时基因可作为糖尿病治疗的靶标。本文主要综述了苷类、生物碱类、多糖类及黄酮类化合物对糖尿病的相关调控作用,同时对糖尿病相关基因做了简单介绍。目前临床医学通过采用药物、抗体、生物或物理因子等对糖尿病基因作用网络的重要节点进行作用,使其崩裂或改变,这使糖尿病的治疗能达到较好的效果。随着现代分子生物学及制药工程的发展,进一步深入研究明确天然活性物质的药理、毒理作用及其相应作用机制,对挖掘其商业和临床价值都意义匪浅。

  20. The review on active antibacterial ingredients of Chinese medicine and the antibacterial mechanism%中药抗菌成分及其抗菌机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云宁; 李小凤; 班旭霞; 姜爱雯

    2015-01-01

    抗生素的抗菌作用显著,但其毒副作用、所引起的二重感染及细菌的耐药等问题,使其应用受到一定限制。从单味中药及单体化合物、中药复方制剂的抑菌实验3方面的研究已证实多种中药均具有抗菌作用,且具有不易产生耐药的特点与优势。研究还发现,中药的抗细菌作用机制不同于抗生素,其作用机理较为复杂,表现为对细菌的直接抑杀、抑制酶的活性、逆转耐药机制和调节机体免疫功能等多种作用综合的结果。本文就近年来中药制剂的抗菌作用、抗菌活性成分及其抗菌机制进行综述。%Although the antibacterial effect of antibiotics is remarkable, its application is restricted the due to the obvious side effects such as superinfection and the drug resistance of bacteria, etc. . A variety of traditional Chinese medicine have the antibacterial effect less drug resistance from single herb, monomer compounds to compound preparation, which have been confirmed by Bacteriostatic experiment. The studies also found that the mechanism of anti-bacteria effect of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) is different from antibiotics, which are more complex, like direct killing bacteria, suppressing enzyme activity, reversing drug resistance and regulating immune function. The antibacterial components and anti-bacterial mechanism of Chinese medicine were reviewed in this paper.

  1. periploca Methyl Alcohol Extraction Insect Disinfestation Active Ingredient Separation and Determination Research%杠柳甲醇提取物杀虫活性成份分离及测定的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠亚茹; 李; 杨华

    2014-01-01

    The plant periploca root skin was separated by gel column chromatographic. The result showed that con-stituent of A-4 exhibited significant(P= 0. 0013)repellent activity at 0. 01g/mL by using Y-tube olfactometer. The major compounds of A-4 fraction were(9E,12E)-octadeca -9,12 -dienoic acid(34. 48%),palmitic acid(17. 97%),(Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester(3. 18%)and methyl palmitate(1. 34%) by GC-MS analysis.%采用硅胶柱层析对陕北杀虫植物杠柳根皮的甲醇提取物进行分离,得到杀虫成分A-4,经GC-MS分析,A-4的化学成分主要有:(9E,12E)-十八二烯酸(34.48%),棕榈酸(17.97%),9Z,12Z-十八碳二烯酸甲酯(3.18%)和棕榈酸甲酯(1.34%);采用“Y”形嗅觉测试仪测定了其对红火蚁工蚁的趋避活性。结果显示:当A-4浓度为0.01 g/mL时,对红火蚁大工蚁有显著的驱避活性( P=0.0013)。

  2. Active ingredients of olive oil processing wastes and their comprehensive utilization technique:a review%橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    在橄榄油的生产加工过程中产生了大量的富含生物活性物质的废弃物,这些废弃物均未得到有效的开发利用,造成了极大的资源浪费和环境污染.实现橄榄油加工废弃物的高值化综合开发利用是实现油橄榄产业可持续发展的重要保障之一.结合国内外研究报道,总结了橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术的研究现状,旨在为橄榄油加工废弃物的综合开发利用提供可行思路和技术参考.%Abundant wastes with bioactive compounds are produced during olive oil production. Those wastes are not utilized reasonably and lead to the problems of resource waste and environmental pollution. Comprehensive exploitation and utilization of olive oil processing wastes ( OPW) with high value is one of the most important strategies for olive industry achieving sustainable development. The active ingredients in OPW and their comprehensive utilization techniques were summarized so as to provide a feasible solu-tion and technical reference for OPW.

  3. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Vogel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermogenic (TRM supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective: To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design: Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9 or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14 for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results: Significant (p<0.05 group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05 within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG, creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL, eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73, globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL, A/G (+0.27±0.23, and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL, and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion: Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05 intragroup

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  5. 毛喉鞘蕊花中抗急性肺损伤活性成分对人中性粒细胞功能的影响%Effects of active ingredients from Coleus forskohlii on human neutrophil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓宁; 卿晨; 陈国珍; 许云龙; 金歧端; 马丽梅; 杨为民

    2008-01-01

    目的 实验研究从植物毛喉鞘蕊花中提取的化合物--异佛司可林(Isoforskolin,ISOF)及有效部位(CF-E,主要为异佛司可林类似物混合物),对人中性粒细胞(PMN)功能的调节作用,以探讨其抗急性肺损伤(ALI)的作用机制.方法 从人脐静脉血中分离得到人PMN,测定受试物对N-甲酰甲硫亮氨酰苯丙氨酸(fMLP)诱导人血PMN聚集,以及内毒索(LPS)诱导PMN与人脐静脉血管内皮细胞(ECV-304)黏附的影响.流式细胞仪、放免法测定受试物对LPS诱导PMN分泌细胞黏附分子、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)、环腺苷酸(cAMP)的影响.结果 因ISOF及CF-E明显抑制PMN聚集及黏附反应,诱导剂对照组的聚集率、黏附率分别为(44.14±2.36)%、(14.92±1.05)%,25,50,100/μmol/L ISOF剂量组的聚集率分别降低至(25.22±1.62)%、(35.33±4.57)%、(24.88±6.45)%,黏附率分别降低至(9.02±0.31)%、(7.12±0.35)%、(5.52±0.34)%(P<0.01或0.05);ISOF及CF-E显著抑制PMN黏附分子CD11b、CD18、CD14分泌,诱导剂对照组的黏附分子CD14表达率为(40.77±3.91)%,25,50,100 μmol/L ISOF 剂量组的 CD14表达率分别降低至(21.58±2.21)%、(18.05±0.97)%、(0.75±0.09)%(P<0.01);ISOF及CF-E明显抑制PMN的TNF-α分泌,而升高PMN内cAMP含量,诱导剂组及50,100 μmol/L ISOF剂量组的TNF-α水平分别为(0.72±0.03)、(O.59±0.09)、(0.42±0.02)ng/1.5×106个细胞(P<0.01或P<0.05),溶媒对照组及50,100μmot/LISOF剂量组的cAMP分别为(1.23±0.05)、(1.61±0.36)、(2.11±0.25)ng/1.5×106个细胞(P<0.01).结论 ISOF及CF-E明显抑制fMLP、LPS激活状态下PMN的聚集、黏附及分泌功能,升高PMN内cAMP水平,ISOF及CF-E的抗ALI的作用机制与调节PMN功能有关.%Objective To study the effect of plant Coleus forskohlii active elements Isoforskolin(ISOF)and CT-E(analogs mixture of Isoforskolin)on human neutrophill(PMN)in vitro in order to uncover the mechanism of their properties of mitigating acute lung injury(ALI).Method The effects

  6. Mixed feed and its ingredients electron beam decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu; Voronin, L. A.; Ites, Yu V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Leonov, S. V.; Leonova, M. A.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.; Yuskov, Yu G.

    2017-01-01

    Electron beam treatment is used for food processing for decades to prevent or minimize food losses and prolong storage time. This process is also named cold pasteurization. Mixed feed ingredients supplied in Russia regularly occur to be contaminated. To reduce contamination level the contaminated mixed feed ingredients samples were treated by electron beam with doses from 2 to 12 kGy. The contamination levels were decreased to the level that ensuring storage time up to 1 year.

  7. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  9. Teaching Chemistry for All Its Worth: The Interaction between Facts, Ideas, and Language in Lavoisier's and Priestley's Chemistry Practice: The Case of the Study of the Composition of Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Both Lavoisier and Priestley were committed to the role of experiment and observation in their chemistry practice. According to Lavoisier the physical sciences embody three important ingredients; facts, ideas, and language, and Priestley would not have disagreed with this. Ideas had to be consistent with the facts generated from experiment and…

  10. Legal Facts and Dependence on Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almäng Jan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barry Smith has recently argued against John Searle’s thesis that institutional facts exist because they are represented as existing in a certain community. Smith argues that institutional facts can exist even though they are not represented as existing and that institutional facts can fail to obtain even though they are represented as obtaining. In this paper it is argued that Smith’s challenge can be met for a certain class of legal facts. I argue that in order to solve the problem posed by Smith, we must distinguish between three different kinds of institutional facts and between three different kinds of representation which sustain their existence.

  11. MIT Lincoln Laboratory 2011 Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Laboratories The Decision Support Laboratories provide develop- ment, evaluation, and visualization capabilities for decision support activities in a...direction for future research. Workshops and Seminars Advanced Technology Joint Advisory Committee (JAC) Technical Seminar The AET Seminar provides an

  12. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  14. Neutrino masses From fantasy to facts

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    Theory suggests the existence of neutrino masses, but little more. Facts are coming close to reveal our fantasy: solar and atmospheric neutrino data strongly indicate the need for neutrino conversions, while LSND provides an intriguing hint. The simplest ways to reconcile these data in terms of neutrino oscillations invoke a light sterile neutrino in addition to the three active ones. Out of the four neutrinos, two are maximally-mixed and lie at the LSND scale, while the others are at the solar mass scale. These schemes can be distinguished at neutral-current-sensitive solar & atmospheric neutrino experiments. I discuss the simplest theoretical scenarios, where the lightness of the sterile neutrino, the nearly maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing, and the generation of $\\Delta {m^2}_\\odot$ & $\\Delta {m^2}_{atm}$ all follow naturally from the assumed lepton-number symmetry and its breaking. Although the most likely interpretation of the present data is in terms of neutrino-mass-induced oscillations, one...

  15. FACT - Monitoring Blazars at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Balbo, M; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Freiwald, J; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2015-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) was built on the Canary Island of La Palma in October 2011 as a proof of principle for silicon based photosensors in Cherenkov Astronomy. The scientific goal of the project is to study the variability of active galatic nuclei (AGN) at TeV energies. Observing a small sample of TeV blazars whenever possible, an unbiased data sample is collected. This allows to study the variability of the selected objects on timescales from hours to years. Results from the first three years of monitoring will be presented. To provide quick flare alerts to the community and trigger multi-wavelength observations, a quick look analysis has been installed on-site providing results publicly online within the same night. In summer 2014, several flare alerts were issued. Results of the quick look analysis are summarized.

  16. ATTITUDE - THE KEY INGREDIENT FRAMEWORK OF SUCCESS IN THE SALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude sale is communicative! The other people in front of us communicate through verbal, or physical paraverbal that we are interested in the transaction or not. Convert the fact that it respects the other in front of us, in this case the client as a person and identity, or we do not. It is already know, from studies about the fact that buying decision is made based on emotions or feelings. every time we have to may we, as buyers, a transaction of sale, our filters interior and meta-programs on which run the mental will reactivate moods negative or positive basis on which we decide to purchase or not . Communication is a necessary request for any organization, in order to reach the imposed objectives, a sine qua non condition of its efficient functioning, in order to settle the most important inter-human relationships. The communication represents the premise in order to exercise the management activity and the management process functions. Only by means of an efficient communication are the planning and programming, the coordination and control, the motivation, consulting and active participation of the organization members possible, in order to accomplish the aimed goals. Every single moment belonging to the organization activity is based on the efficient communication, as a modality to focus and correlate the efforts.

  17. The FACT complex promotes avian leukosis virus DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Shelby; Larue, Ross C; Abraham, Carly M; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Skopp, Amelie; Winkler, Duane; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Beemon, Karen L

    2017-01-25

    All retroviruses need to integrate a DNA copy of their genome into the host chromatin. Cellular proteins regulating and targeting lentiviral and gammaretroviral integration in infected cells have been discovered, but the factors that mediate alpharetroviral avian leukosis virus (ALV) integration are unknown. Here, we have identified the FACT protein complex, which consists of SSRP1 and Spt16, as a principal cellular binding partner of ALV integrase (IN). Biochemical experiments with purified recombinant proteins show that SSRP1 and Spt16 are able to individually bind ALV IN, but only the FACT complex effectively stimulates ALV integration activity in vitro Likewise, in infected cells, the FACT complex promotes ALV integration activity with proviral integration frequency varying directly with cellular expression levels of the FACT complex. An increase in 2-LTR circles in the depleted FACT complex cell line indicates that this complex regulates the ALV life cycle at the level of integration. This regulation is shown to be specific to ALV, as disruption of the FACT complex did not inhibit either lentiviral or gammaretroviral integration in infected cells.

  18. Innovative Field Investigations in Limestone using a FACT-FLUTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Barrett Sørensen, Mie; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2015-01-01

    concentration and aqueous concentration can be established. This allows the FACT-FLUTe technology to be employed for the characterization of contaminant distribution in limestone aquifers. A comparison between the aqueous (pore water) concentrations calculated with the model from the FACT-FLUTE data...... activated carbon technique) is an innovative monitoring technique, which allows determining the distribution of a contaminant in the surrounding of a borehole with a higher resolution than conventional monitoring methods. The FACT technique proved to be a helpful tool for characterization of contaminant...... between measured sorbed concentration (mg/g AC) and the aqueous pore water concentration (mg/L). The objective of the research presented was to develop a tool for the interpretation of FACT measurements and apply it to the Naverland dataset for comparison with concentrations in groundwater samples sampled...

  19. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aluminosilicates. (4) Magnesium carbonate. (5) Magnesium glycinate. (6) Magnesium hydroxide. (7) Magnesium oxide..., aluminum hydroxide-magnesium carbonate codried gel, aluminum hydroxide-magnesium trisilicate codried gel... or salt; maximum daily dosage limit 8 grams. (f) Glycine (aminoacetic acid). (g)...

  20. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gram, 30 milligrams of chlortetracycline hydrochloride in a suitable ointment base. (d) Neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each gram, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin in a suitable water soluble or oleaginous ointment base. (e) Neomycin sulfate cream containing, in each gram, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin...

  1. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cholecalciferol. (3) Shark liver oil, provided that the product is labeled so that the amount of the product that... 400 U.S.P. units of cholecalciferol. (4) Zinc oxide not to exceed 25 percent by weight per dosage unit....

  2. Agglomeration Control during Ultrasonic Crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Gielen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of ultrasound during crystallization can efficiently inhibit agglomeration. However, the mechanism is unclear and sonication is usually enabled throughout the entire process, which increases the energy demand. Additionally, improper operation results in significant crystal damage. Therefore, the present work addresses these issues by identifying the stage in which sonication impacts agglomeration without eroding the crystals. This study was performed using a commercially available API that showed a high tendency to agglomerate during seeded crystallization. The crystallization progress was monitored using process analytical tools (PAT, including focus beam reflectance measurements (FBRM to track to crystal size and number and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to quantify the supersaturation level. These tools provided insight in the mechanism by which ultrasound inhibits agglomeration. A combination of improved micromixing, fast crystal formation which accelerates depletion of the supersaturation and a higher collision frequency prevent crystal cementation to occur. The use of ultrasound as a post-treatment can break some of the agglomerates, but resulted in fractured crystals. Alternatively, sonication during the initial seeding stage could assist in generating nuclei and prevent agglomeration, provided that ultrasound was enabled until complete desupersaturation at the seeding temperature. FTIR and FBRM can be used to determine this end point.

  3. 21 CFR 357.210 - Cholecystokinetic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a melting point of 41 to 43.5 °C, an iodine value of 65 to 69, and a fatty acid composition as follows: Fatty acid Percent composition Myristic acid 0.1 Palmitic acid 10.0 Palmitoleic acid 0.1 Stearic acid 13.5 Oleic acid 72.0 Linoleic acid 3.8 Linolenic acid 0.1 Arachidic acid 0.5 Behenic acid 0.2...

  4. Toxicity of Derosal (active ingredient carbendazim) to aquatic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, R.P.A.; Crum, S.J.H.; Decraene, K.; Hattink, J.; Kammen, van A.

    1998-01-01

    Short- and long-term laboratory single species toxicity tests were performed with eleven invertebrate species and the fungicide Derosal(R) (a.i. carbendazim). Toxicity values differed widely between the tested invertebrates. The most sensitive species we found was the flatworm Dugesia lugubris (96hr

  5. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Salicylic acid 0.5 to 2 percent. (d) Sulfur 3 to 10 percent. (e) Sulfur 3 to 8 percent when combined in... § 333.320(b). (d) Salicylic acid, 0.5 to 2 percent. (e) Sulfur, 3 to 10 percent. (f) Sulfur, 3 to...

  6. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vitamin A and 400 U.S.P. Units cholecalciferol. (f) Colloidal oatmeal, 0.007 percent minimum; 0.003... combination with colloidal oatmeal in accordance with § 347.20(a)(4). (m) Petrolatum, 30 to 100 percent....

  7. Impacts of drying methods on the main chemical ingredients and antioxidant activities in cultured hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza%不同干燥方法对丹参毛状根有效成分含量及其抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼信; 李焱; 周铜水

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同干燥方法对丹参毛状根中主要化学成分含量及其抗氧化活性的影响,尤其关注采后干燥对丹参毛状根酚酸类成分是否也有类似对植物根一样的胁迫诱导作用。方法丹参毛状根经冷冻干燥、真空干燥、阴干和晒干四种不同干燥方式处理后,采用高效液相色谱法测定毛状根中包括9种酚酸类和4种酮类成分的含量;利用1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼( DPPH)自由基清除试验、超氧阴离子清除试验、脂质过氧化抑制试验测定毛状根提取物的抗氧化活性。结果与冷冻干燥相比,真空干燥和阴干对酚酸类成分的影响不大,但酮类成分下降约50%;晒干处理后二类成分均严重损失达90%左右;晒干样品提取物抗氧化活性也显著下降。结论冷冻干燥是最适合丹参毛状根的干燥方法;与丹参根不同,采后干燥对毛状根的酚酸类成分无诱导作用。%Objective To explore the effects of different drying methods on concentrations of main bioactive ingredients and antioxidant activities of extract from cultured hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge ( Danshen ) .Methods Contents of 9 salvianolic acids and 4 tanshinones in freeze,vacuum,shade,and sun dried samples of hairy roots were determined by HPLC;meanwhile,antioxidant activities of the samples were assessed using DPPH assay ,superoxide anion scavenging assay ,and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay respectively . Results Dehydrated samples in vacuum and shade contained mainly similar levels of salvonolic acids as those of freeze sample ,while the amount of tanshiones dropped significantly to around 50%.Great loss (~90%) of main ingredients was suffered after sun drying . The sun dried sample exhibited the lowest level of antioxidant activity .Conclusions Freeze drying may be the most appropriate method for hairy roots of this plant;unlike roots of the plant ,post-harvest drying process seemed to

  8. [Obesity and functional foods: are the new ingredients and products effective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alvarez; Gómez-Candela, C; Villarino-Marín, A L

    2006-01-01

    According to WHO data, obesity and overweight have reached the level of a world-wide epidemic: more than one billion adults are overweight, and at least three hundred million of them are obese. Obesity is associated with the main chronic diseases of our time. Obesity can reduce the life expectancy by 10 years and in Spain it is calculated that the health care costs account for 7% of the total. In the Spanish adult population, 14.5% are obese, and 38.5% are overweight. In the fight against obesity, the food industry has been incorporating new ingredients intended to help consumers obtain a suitable weight. In this study, we review the scientific evidence about some products and ingredients, discussing the fact that the main problem is their scant scientific support. Advertisers make much of supposed benefits which often lack a scientific basis, as in the case of products with a supposed effect on thermogenesis, metabolism and oxidation of fats, products which make people feel full, products affecting fat absorption, diuretics, laxatived, sedatives and substances affecting the central nervous system.

  9. Protective effect of active ingredients of Kang Fu Ling on PC12 cells oxidative injury induced by microwave irradiation%抗辐灵活性成分对微波辐射致PC12细胞氧化应激损伤的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊俊; 白宏英; 彭瑞云; 赵黎; 王运良; 胡韶华; 张雪岩; 徐志秀; 郝延辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the three active ingredients of a Chinese traditional medicine compound named Kang Fu Ling( KFL) against PC12 cells oxidative damage induced by microwave radiation.Methods PC12 cells were differentiated into neuros induced by nerve growth factor ( NGF ) .PC12 cells were incubated for 48 hours after astragalosides,total paeony glycoside and tanshinones were added at different concentrations (1, 3, or 9 μg/ml) .The cells in the control group were cultivated with the only medium of the same volume.Then, cells were irradiated with 30 mW/cm2 microwave for 6 minutes.The morphology of PC12 cells was observed under an inverted microscope soon before and after irradiation and the cell viability was measured by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium ( MTT) colorimetry.Reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was determined using active oxygen probe 2′, 7′-dichlorodihyarofluolescen diacetde ( DCFH-DA ) while malonyldialdehyde(MDA) was measured in the homogenate of PC12 cells through thiobarbituric acid ( TBA) reactive substance assay.Results The cell morphology of each group showed no obvious difference.6 h after irradiation, the viability of irradiation control group measured by MTT declined apparently(P<0.01)compared with the normal control group.The 3 μg/ml astragalosides treatment group increased the viability of PC12 cells after microwave exposure ( P <0.01).The contents of ROS and MDA were increased after irradiation(P<0.01).However, in the three active ingredients of Kang Fu Ling treatment groups, both ROS and MDA were much lower than in irradiation control group.Conclusion Astragalosides, total paeony glycoside and tanshinones, which are the three active ingredients of Kang Fu Ling, all have protective effect against PC12 cell injury caused by microwave radiation,possibly by scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress injury.%目的:观察抗辐灵活性成分黄芪总苷、赤芍总苷和丹参酮对微波辐射致PC12细胞氧化

  10. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.

  11. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.

  12. Determination of the Transfer Rate of Six Active Ingredients of Chinese Herbs in Purpose-made Cigarette and its Smoke by HPLC%HPLC法测定试制卷烟及烟气中6种中草药活性成分的转移率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 赵瑜; 贺冬秀; 谭新良; 陈波; 杨华武

    2011-01-01

    为评价添加中草药成分的卷烟中活性成分向烟气中的转移率,建立了测定卷烟及其烟气中的岩白菜素,黄芩苷,甘草苷,丹皮酚,五味子素,罗汉果苷等六种成分含量的高效液相色谱法.方法:HypersilC18-ODS 5μm(200×4.6 mm);流动相:A= B =0.2%磷酸水,乙睛,梯度洗脱;检测波长:205 nn ;进样量:10 μL;流速:1 mL/min.结果:6种中草药成分在一定范围内线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.998,RSD都小于4.0%(n=6),加标回收率在97.6%~100.3%之间.结论:六种成分中岩白菜素,丹皮酚及五味子素的转移率较高:分别为7.37%,15.26%,9.30%.本方法操作简单,精密度好,准确度高,可用于卷烟及烟气中六种成分的测定.%To evaluate transfer rate of active ingredient of Chinese herbs from the purpose-made cigarette to its smoke,a new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for determinating the six compounds in the cigarette and its smoke simultaneously.Six analytes were Bergenin, Baicalin, Glycyrrhizin, Paeonol, Schisandrin, Mangosteen and Glycosides, respectively.Methods: Hypersil C18-ODS 5 μm ( 200 × 4.6 mm);mobile phase: A = 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid, B = acetonitrile; gradient elution; detection wavelength: 205 nm;injection volume:10 μL;flow rate:1 mL/min.Results: All six herbal ingredients had a good linear relationship in a certain range, correlation coefficients were greater than 0.998, the relative standard deviation were less than 4.0%(n = 6), recovery rates were in the range of 97.6% ~ 100.3 %.Conclusions: Among the six components, Bergenin,Paeonol and Schisandrin have higher transfer rate: Bergenin 7.37%, Paeonol 15.26%, Schisandrin 9.30%.The proposed method was found to be simple, precise and accurate and it is suitable for the simultaneous determination of six active components in the cigarette and its smoke.

  13. 新鲜冰冻血浆、普通冰冻血浆与去冷沉淀血浆部分有效成分的对比%Contrast of the Active Ingredients Between Fresh Frozen Plasma、Ordinary Frozen Plasma and Plasma Cryoprecipitate Reduced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓝生; 庄文; 陈镇奇; 林昂

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解新鲜冰冻血浆、普通冰冻血浆与去冷沉淀血浆中部分有效成分的实际含量,为临床选择不同血浆输注提供实验室依据.方法 采集23袋(200 ml/袋)ACD-B血液保存液保存的血液,4 h内分离制备新鲜冰冻血浆,各袋均留2份标本;1份同新鲜冰冻一起置-35℃保存,于第3天速融后检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量;1份置4℃保存21 d后检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量;新鲜冰冻血浆于第3天取出制备冷沉淀,留取去冷沉淀血浆标本1份检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量.结果 去冷沉淀血浆中的血浆蛋白和凝血因子含量均低于普通冰冻血浆与新鲜冰冻血浆(P<0.001),普通冰冻血浆与新鲜冰冻血浆中的血浆蛋白无差别(P>0.001),普通冰冻血浆中的凝血因子含量低于新鲜冰冻血浆(P<0.001).结论 新鲜冰冻血浆、普通冰冻血浆与去冷沉淀血浆有效成分各不相同,在临床上不能等同使用.%Objective To know about some of the actual amount of active ingredient in fresh frozen plasma, ordinary frozen plasma and plasma cryoprecipitate reduced , so as to provide experimental evidence for different selection of plasma infusion. Method Collected 23 bags of whole blood ( ACD-B ,200 ml) , separated and prepared of fresh frozen plasma in 4 hours. Each bag took two samples ,one saved with the fresh frozen plasma in refrigerator of - 35℃ , thawed and checked total protein, albumin, fibrinogen, factor V, factor Ⅷ, factor Ⅹ after 3 days; the othcr one saved in refrigerator of 4℃ , thawed and checked total protein. albumin , fibrinogen ,factor V , factor Ⅷ , factor Ⅹ after 21 days. The fresh frozen plasma separated and prepared of cryoprecipitate after 3 days, took samples of the plasma cryoprecipitate reduced to check total protein、albumin.fibrinogen、factor V

  14. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...... (WPP) owners. On the other hand flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices offer enhancement of grid stability and can facilitate grid code compliance for WPP. In this paper state-of-the-art in FACTS for large WPPs with AC connection is given. FACTS devices (excluding HVDC) with their properties...... are described. Academic and industrial research in FACTS applicability for WPPs is summarized....

  15. The establishment and evaluation of near infrared universal model to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mei Xiong; Xiang Zhong Song; Chang Zhou Chen; Hong Ping Lin; Guo Tang; Yue Huang; Jia Duan; Shun Geng Min

    2012-01-01

    A near infrared universal quantitative analysis model was established to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC (hikernalisation) by the PLS (partial least squares) algorithm,the model predictive ability was evaluated by the external inspection method.The model was established among samples containing the same active ingredient from five different companies,and the model determination coefficient R2 and RMSECV (root mean square error of cross validation) were 0.9997 and 0.0223,respectively,the relative error between predicted value and chemical value of the testing set samples was between -2.71% and 3.36%,which indicated that the method to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC by the established universal model can meet the need of pesticide market monitoring.

  16. DNA End Resection: Facts and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which arise following exposure to a number of endogenous and exogenous agents, can be repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways in eukaryotic cells. A vital step in HR repair is DNA end resection, which generates a long 3′ single-stranded DNA (ssDNA tail that can invade the homologous DNA strand. The generation of 3′ ssDNA is not only essential for HR repair, but also promotes activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR. Multiple factors, including the MRN/X complex, C-terminal-binding protein interacting protein (CtIP/Sae2, exonuclease 1 (EXO1, Bloom syndrome protein (BLM/Sgs1, DNA2 nuclease/helicase, and several chromatin remodelers, cooperate to complete the process of end resection. Here we review the basic machinery involved in DNA end resection in eukaryotic cells.

  17. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  18. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  19. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fact sheets. 460.13 Section 460.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers...

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  2. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Arithmetic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a widely studied phenomenon of human memory, but RIF of arithmetic facts remains relatively unexplored. In 2 experiments, we investigated RIF of simple addition facts (2 + 3 = 5) from practice of their multiplication counterparts (2 x 3 = 6). In both experiments, robust RIF expressed in response times occurred…

  3. Quick Facts for 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Education presents "Quick Facts," an annual snapshot of general state statistics, facts about public schools, the State Board of Education, and general financial data. The data presented in this report covers the school year 2013-2014.

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1- to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas ...

  5. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  6. Optimization of processing parameters and ingredients for development of low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kumar, A; Kumbhar, B K; Dar, B N

    2015-02-01

    Increasing demand of low calorie and high fibre containing products give impetus to dairy industry for development of a well palatable low calorie dairy products like paneer. The objective of the present study was to develop low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer. The ingredients were chosen for low-fat fibre- supplemented paneer to reduce the cost and calorie content besides providing the functional benefits. Optimization of ingredients was carried out in terms of independent variables viz wheat bran (0.4-0.8 %), maltodextrin (1-5 %), coagulation temperature (60-80 °C) and amount of citric acid solution (150-210 ml). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to design the experiments and to select the optimum levels of ingredients. Paneer was made by using different levels of ingredients by coagulating hot milk using citric acid solution followed by pressing and dipping in chilled water for texturization. These parameters were evaluated in terms of physico-chemical parameters viz water activity, pH and acidity. Instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) of paneer during optimization trials was done using TAXT 2i Texture Analyzer. The textural responses namely hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were measured via Texture Analyzer. The sensory properties namely flavor, appearance, body and texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability of paneer samples were evaluated by a semi-trained panel of judges using 9-point hedonic scale. Full second order polynomial was developed to predict each response. All the textural and sensory responses were statistically analysed.

  7. The Fact Book: Report for the Florida College System, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 fact book for the Florida College System is divided into the following categories: (1) Student Information, which includes fall, annual, FTE, and program enrollment statistics, as well as credit program completion statistics; (2) Employee Information, which includes statistics regarding employee headcount by occupational activity, and…

  8. The Fact Book: Report for the Florida College System, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 fact book for the Florida College System is divided into the following categories: (1) Student Information, which includes fall, annual, FTE, and program enrollment statistics, as well as credit program completion statistics; (2) Employee Information, which includes statistics regarding employee headcount by occupational activity, and…

  9. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  10. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of glycerin as a cigarette ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmines, E L; Gaworski, C L

    2005-10-01

    Glycerin is applied to cigarette tobacco at levels in the range of about 1-5% to improve moisture holding characteristics of tobacco and act as a surface active agent for flavor application. Neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and sub-chronic rodent inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various target levels (5%, 10%, and 15%) of the glycerin were performed to provide data for an assessment of the use of glycerin as a cigarette tobacco ingredient. The actual levels of glycerin in the respective test cigarettes were determined to be 3.2%, 6.2% and 8.4% after cigarette production. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 900 degrees C, neat glycerin did not pyrolyze extensively suggesting that glycerin would transfer intact to mainstream smoke (smoke was not analyzed for glycerin in this study). On a tar basis, nicotine in smoke was significantly decreased at 10% and 15% glycerin while water was increased at all addition levels. Addition of 10% or 15% glycerin also resulted in a statistically significant increase in acrolein (9%) and a decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, aromatic amines, nitrogen oxides, tobacco specific nitrosamines, and phenols. Addition of 5% glycerin produced the same decrease in smoke constituents as the 10% and 15% groups but there was no concomitant increase in acrolein. Biological tests indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke (or smoke preparations) from cigarettes with added glycerin compared to control cigarettes. Cigarette smoke atmosphere dilution, coupled with the lower nicotine delivery in the test cigarettes containing glycerin resulted in a lower nicotine delivery to the glycerin cigarette smoke exposed rats of the 90-day inhalation study. Smoke atmosphere acrolein was also reduced in a concentration

  12. Temporal Cognition: A Key Ingredient of Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eManiadakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing the flow of time is an important capacity of biological systems that is involved in many ways in the daily activities of humans and animals. However, in the field of robotics, the key role of time in cognition is not adequately considered in contemporary research, with artificial agents focusing mainly on the spatial extent of sensory information, almost always neglecting its temporal dimension. This fact significantly obstructs the development of high level robotic cognitive skills, as well as the autonomous and seamless operation of artificial agents in human environments. Taking inspiration from biological cognition, the present work puts forward time perception as a vital capacity of artificial intelligent systems and contemplates the research path for incorporating temporal cognition in the repertoire of robotic skills.

  13. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  14. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains...

  15. Microencapsulation as a tool for incorporating bioactive ingredients into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, S S; Oliveira, J C; Crean, A M

    2010-11-01

    Microencapsulation has been developed by the pharmaceutical industry as a means to control or modify the release of drug substances from drug delivery systems. In drug delivery systems microencapsulation is used to improve the bioavailability of drugs, control drug release kinetics, minimize drug side effects, and mask the bitter taste of drug substances. The application of microencapsulation has been extended to the food industry, typically for controlling the release of flavorings and the production of foods containing functional ingredients (e.g. probiotics and bioactive ingredients). Compared to the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry has lower profit margins and therefore the criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are more stringent. The type of microcapsule (reservoir and matrix systems) produced and its resultant release properties are dependent on the microencapsulation technology, in addition to the physicochemical properties of the core and the shell materials. This review discusses the factors that affect the release of bioactive ingredients from microcapsules produced by different microencapsulation technologies. The key criteria in selecting a suitable microencapsulation technology are also discussed. Two of the most common physical microencapsulation technologies used in pharmaceutical processing, fluidized-bed coating, and extrusion-spheronization are explained to highlight how they might be adapted to the microencapsulation of functional bioactive ingredients in the food industry.

  16. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more-and-more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  17. 7 CFR 58.634 - Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  18. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  19. Literacy: An Essential Ingredient in the Recipe for Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The ingredients that underpin economic growth are well-known and generally accepted; population growth, physical capital, financial capital and human capital all play a part in creating long term differences in the wealth of nations. There remains, however, considerable debate about the ideal recipe for economic growth. Recently, Statistics Canada…

  20. Identification on a fungi isolated from deep sea and analysis on the physical and chemical properties of active ingredient%一株抗植物致病真菌的深海霉菌的鉴定和活性成分理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽维; 敖敬群; 陈新华

    2013-01-01

    从印度洋深海底泥中分离到一株真菌S2915,经ITS基因序列分析及显微形态观察,鉴定S2915为支顶孢属Acremonium sp.真菌.其发酵液对5株植物致病真菌有明显的抑制作用.经硫酸铵沉淀后的抗菌活性分析,可以初步判断该抗菌活性成分为蛋白类物质,且最佳硫酸铵饱和浓度为70%(m/m).初步分析了该抗菌粗蛋白的理化性质,结果表明,该活性物质具有很好的耐热性,经60、80、100℃甚至121℃处理后,活性均无明显差异;耐强酸强碱,在pH值为2~12范围内活性不受影响;紫外照射0~12h及用蛋白酶K、胰蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶处理后,活性均没有减弱;但对多种有机溶剂比较敏感,经三氯甲烷、乙酸乙酯、乙醚和丙酮处理后,抗菌活性受到不同程度的抑制,其抑制率分别为35%、25.7%、22.9%、12.9%.证明该抗菌活性物质高效、稳定,可用于抗真菌农药的开发应用.%In this study,a fungi strain named S2915 was isolated from the sediments of deep-sea Indian Ocean.According to ITS sequence analysis and microscopic morphology observation,this fungi was identified as Acremonium sp..The fermented broth from S2915 exhibited apparent inhibition on 5 plant pathogenic fungi,including Rhizoctonia solani Ktihn,Sclerotinia sclerrotiorum,Trichoderma viride,Alternaria longipes and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.When the fermentation broth was precipitated by ammonium sulfate,the precipitate remained anti-fungi activity.Thus we preliminary concluded that this anti-fungi active ingredient was a protein-like substance.The optimum ammonium sulfate saturation was 70% (m/m).To learn the physical and chemical properties of this anti-fungi active substance,we treated it with different temperature,pH values and with ultraviolet-irradiation,organic solvents or protease digestion.And its anti-fungi activity after treatment was evaluated.The results showed that the antifungal activity of crude protein

  1. Observational Facts of Sustained Departure Plateau Vortexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhua; GAO Wenliang; PENG Jun; XIAO Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    By using the twice-daily atmospheric observation data from 1998 to 2012, station rainfall data, Tropical Rainfall Measure Mission (TRMM) data, as well as the plateau vortex and shear line year book, charac-teristics of the sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) are analyzed. Some new useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the SDPV activities. The following results are obtained. (1) The active period of SDPVs is from June to August, most in July, unlike that of the unsustained depar-ture plateau vortexes (UDPVs), which have same occurrence frequencies in the three summer months. (2) The SDPVs, generated mainly in the Qumalai neighborhood and situated in a sheared surrounding, move eastward or northeastward, while the UDPVs are mainly led by the upper-level trough, and move eastward or southeastward. (3) The SDPVs influence wide areas of China, even far to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Vietnam. (4) The SDPVs change their intensities and properties on the way to the east. Most of them become stronger and produce downpour or sustained regional rainstorms to the south of Yellow River. (5) The longer the SDPV sustains, the more baroclinity it has. (6) When an SDPV moves into the sea, its central pressure descends and rainfall increases in all probability. (7) An SDPV might spin over the bend of the Yellow River when there exists a tropical cyclone in the East China Sea. It could also move oppositely to a landed tropical low pressure originated from the sea to the east of Taiwan or from the South China Sea.

  2. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  3. Computational fact checking from knowledge networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Rocha, Luis M; Bollen, Johan; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Traditional fact checking by expert journalists cannot keep up with the enormous volume of information that is now generated online. Computational fact checking may significantly enhance our ability to evaluate the veracity of dubious information. Here we show that the complexities of human fact checking can be approximated quite well by finding the shortest path between concept nodes under properly defined semantic proximity metrics on knowledge graphs. Framed as a network problem this approach is feasible with efficient computational techniques. We evaluate this approach by examining tens of thousands of claims related to history, entertainment, geography, and biographical information using a public knowledge graph extracted from Wikipedia. Statements independently known to be true consistently receive higher support via our method than do false ones. These findings represent a significant step toward scalable computational fact-checking methods that may one day mitigate the spread of harmful misinformation...

  4. Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome What is IBS? ... physical and mental causes and isn’t a product of a person’s imagination. What are the four ...

  5. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  6. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Solectria (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Solectria at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to to develop 500- and 750-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) inverters with advanced features that can support the electric grid.

  7. Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects. ...

  8. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the body, is narrower than usual. What is Coarctation of the Aorta? Coarctation of the aorta is ...

  9. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  10. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  12. More Fact Sheets - SEER Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  13. FACTS device control strategy using PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tauseef Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The laying and commissioning of new transmission line is very difficult due to socio-economic problems, like environmental clearances, right of way, etc. Therefore, there is an emphasis on better utilization of available transmission infrastructure. FACTS devices can provide reactive power compensation, transmission capability enhancement, and voltage and stability improvement. FACTS devices operate under the command of system operator who analyses its demand by the data acquired through traditional SCADA system, state estimation algorithms and PMUs. SCADA together with PMU give accurate information about the operational state of power system. This paper proposes a scheme to automate the FACTS devices in collaboration with PMUs in a more efficient way. Highly precised data from PMUs can be fed to intelligent controllers for effective analyzing and automating the FACTS device through control command. Thus, this combination can provide real time control of reactive power, together with enhancement of power handling capability and stability improvement.

  14. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  15. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  16. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  17. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships.

  18. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  19. Adaptive ingredients against food spoilage in Japanese cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke

    2009-12-01

    Billing and Sherman proposed the antimicrobial hypothesis to explain the worldwide spice use pattern. The present study explored whether two antimicrobial ingredients (i.e. spices and vinegar) are used in ways consistent with the antimicrobial hypothesis. Four specific predictions were tested: meat-based recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than vegetable-based recipes; summer recipes would call for more spices/vinegar than winter recipes; recipes in hotter regions would call for more spices/vinegar; and recipes including unheated ingredients would call for more spices/vinegar. Spice/vinegar use patterns were compiled from two types of traditional Japanese cookbooks. Dataset I included recipes provided by elderly Japanese housewives. Dataset II included recipes provided by experts in traditional Japanese foods. The analyses of Dataset I revealed that the vinegar use pattern conformed to the predictions. In contrast, analyses of Dataset II generally supported the predictions in terms of spices, but not vinegar.

  20. "Math Starring the Dominoes": Activities Using Dominoes Designed to Reinforce Basic Facts and to Stimulate Strategic Thinking for Problem Solving. (Grades 1-4.) Title I Elementary Mathematics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronert, Joie; Marshall, Sally

    Activities and games which use dominoes to reinforce basic arithmetic skills are presented. Instructions and materials are provided for the activities and games, most of which involve addition and subtraction. Other skill areas which are covered include recognition and matching of domino patterns, multiplication, and division. A seven-item list of…

  1. Contaminant and nutrient concentrations of natural ingredient rat and mouse diet used in chemical toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G N; Knapka, J J

    1987-08-01

    The NIH-07 open formula natural ingredient rat and mouse ration is the standard diet for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity studies conducted for the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Contaminant and nutrient concentrations were determined in 2 to 94 lots of this diet used in the NTP toxicology studies. All nutrient concentrations were equivalent to or greater than the requirements for rats and mice as set forth by the National Research Council. Aflatoxins, Hg, chlorinated hydrocarbons except methoxychlor, organophosphates except malathion, estrogenic activity, and Salmonella sp. were not present at the detectable levels. Fluorine, As, Cd, Pb, Se, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, nitrate, nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ethylene dibromide, methoxychlor, malathion, and trypsin inhibitor activity were present at or above the detectable levels. Five lots of diet had nitrosamine content of 100 to 273 ppb and 7 lots had 2.08 to 3.37 ppm of Pb. All other lots of NIH-07 diet used for NTP toxicology studies contained low levels of the contaminants. After determination of the contaminant concentrations in the 94 lots of diet and the contaminant concentrations in natural ingredients used in formulating NIH-07 diet, maximum allowable levels of contaminants were established and a flexible scoring system for acceptability of each lot of diet for chemical toxicology studies was developed. By prescreening ingredients such as fish meal for heavy metals and nitrosamines, and applying the flexible scoring system proposed, more than 95% of the lots of NIH-07 diet produced during the last 3 years had scores of greater than or equal to 95 out of 100 points and were considered acceptable for toxicology studies.

  2. Facts, Principles and the Third Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ypi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the dialogue entitled “Parmenides” Plato introduces an objection to his own theory of ideas, one that he never managed to answer, dubbed by Aristotle as the “Third Man” argument. According to that objection, the theory of ideas is threatened with infinite regress when examining why a specific Platonic form (say, justice is predicated of a particular set of facts. This article seeks to show how any defence of fact-insensitive principles like the one offered by G.A. Cohen in his recent book “Rescuing Justice and Equality” is vulnerable to a similar objection. Cohen wants to insist that, when showing why facts support principles, the process of reason-giving is finite and terminates in fact-independent comprehensive principles. But something like the Third Man argument undermines Cohen’s conclusion just as it does Plato’s. The search for ultimate fact-independent principles is indeed threatened by infinite regress.

  3. On the Essential Ingredients of Modern Cultural Syllabus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹邱; 刘英波

    2015-01-01

    Integrating cultural learning within English teaching has gradually been accepted as a common practice in the English language teaching classrooms.Based on the inseparable relationship between language and culture this essay analyzes the essential ingredients of modern cul-tural syllabus and believes that language teachers have to follow a cultural syllabus specified with an introduction,a set of teaching materials and a comprehensive glossary.

  4. Isolation and identification of ingredients inducing cancer cell death from the seeds of Alpinia galanga, a Chinese spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiao-hui; Lu, Chuan-Li; Zhang, Xue-wu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to isolate ingredients from the seeds of a Chinese spice (Alpinia galangal) and to evaluate their cytotoxic activity on cancer cell lines. Isolation and purification of the phytochemical constituents were conducted using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS columns. After extraction using 95% ethanol, the total extracts were re-extracted, resulting in petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) and water fractions, respectively. Activity tests showed that the EA fraction exhibited obvious (p galangal for the first time. Moreover, compounds I, II, IV and V were the main active ingredients for inducing death of the tested cancer cells, and their IC50 values ranged from 60 to 90 μg mL(-1), indicating that these compounds possessed a wide anti-cancer capability. Therefore, A. galangal seeds could be a potential source of healthy food for tumor prevention.

  5. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proctor Enola K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research.

  6. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  7. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

  8. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-06-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other cosmetic products (shampoos, creams, tonics, etc) were found to contain 0.0003-0.0820% of 1 to 3 of the target fragrances. Relatively high concentrations of hydroxycitronellal, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde were found in some of the investigated products. The detection of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients.

  9. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Eric

    2013-03-15

    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products.

  10. Hashish e principio attivo: considerazioni medico-legali su una casistica / Haschich et principe actif : considérations médico-légales à partir d’une liste de cas / Hashish and its active ingredient: forensic-medical considerations from a case-record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Doriana Antonella

    2012-10-01

    the leaves of the plant and contains THC in a percentage from 6 to 15%. The drug samples analyzed at the Laboratorio della Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Lazio (ARPALazio in a three year time 2007-2009 were hashish for 54,10% out of the whole analyze drug sampling.The amount of the main active ingredient is between 6 and 8% for the three year time analysis 2007-2009. The cases exceeding the threshold amount of 500 mg as established by the Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica of 9th October 1990 n.309 relating to the unpunishable possession for private personal use were 5,81%. This percentage does not confirm the existence of big international drug trafficking but of “small drug dealers and/or consumers”.This can be explained by considering that if the amount of THC is always low, also the cases exceeding the allowed threshold quantity will be few. Furthermore, if the amount of THC in the sample is between 6-8%, the rest of the substance is made up of other elements such as contaminants, cutting agents and adulterants which alter the laboratory test drug results by hiding the THC contents that will be traced only through more sophisticated techniques.

  11. Power System Stability Enhancement Using Fact Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. B. T. Ramakrishna Rao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of the modern power system has led to an increasing complexity in the study of power systems, and also presents new challenges to power system stability, and in particular, to the aspects of transient stability and small-signal stability. So Power system engineers are currently facing challenges to increase the power transfer capabilities of existing transmission system. This is where the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS technology comes into effect with relatively low investment, compared to new transmission or generation facilities. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices use power electronics components to maintain controllability and capability of electrical power system. The paper aims towards the performance of UPFC is compared with other FACTS devices such as Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC, and Static Var Compensator (SVC respectively. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the UPFC on transient stability of the system.

  12. FACT. Energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Fabian; Einecke, Sabrina; Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5, Otto-Hahn-Str.4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope which uses silicon photon detectors (G-APDs aka SiPM) as photo sensors. With more than four years of operation, FACT proved an application of SiPMs is suitable for the field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Due to the stable flux at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula is handled as a ''standard candle'' in Cherenkov astronomy. The analysis of its energy spectrum and comparison with other experiments, allows to evaluate the performance of FACT. A modern analysis chain, based on data stream handling and multivariate analysis methods was developed in close cooperation with the department of computer science at the TU Dortmund. In this talk, this analysis chain and its application are presented. Further to this, results, including the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula, measured with FACT, are shown.

  13. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient...

  14. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  15. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  16. Facts and Methods need to be taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, George

    2015-03-01

    Current trends in the K-12 educational establishment tend to concentrate on ``understanding'', both the ``understanding `` of how the student thinks and the student's ``understanding'' of a concept. In many cases the teaching of facts upon which the student might base his/her ``understanding'' is neglected. The lack of facts is amplified in our digital age where the exposure to reality is replaced by a virtual experience. This is one of the reasons for the limitations our college students exhibit. Examples in physics and math will be discussed, as well as possible remedies.

  17. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  18. EU AND GLOBALIZATION: SOME STYLIZED FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scamuffa Domenico

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people all over the world claim that globalization is a result of dynamic interactions between economic, technological, social and political factors. The aim of this paper is to document some stylized facts on this phenomenon in order to take

  19. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2010 Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lori; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2010 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the eleventh annual survey of ATE projects and…

  20. Advanced Technological Education Survey 2012 Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lori; Smith, Corey; Westine, Carl; Gullickson, Arlen

    2012-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes data gathered in the 2012 survey of National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant recipients. Conducted by EvaluATE, the evaluation resource center for the ATE program located at The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University, this was the thirteenth annual survey of ATE projects…