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Sample records for active ingredient fact

  1. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotlieb, K.F.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  2. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  3. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispers

  4. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  5. PTSD: A Search for "Active Ingredients."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Family counselors working with individuals suffering the effects of trauma are encouraged to consider the "active ingredients" found by Charles Figley and Joyce Carbonell at Florida State University and reported in the two articles reviewed. (Author/MKA)

  6. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.12 Antihistamine active ingredients. The active ingredient...

  7. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... antiseptic active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in combination) or more of the active... generally recognized as safe and effective single first aid antiseptic active ingredient, or any...

  8. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...

  9. 21 CFR 333.210 - Antifungal active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antifungal active ingredients. 333.210 Section 333.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.210 Antifungal active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  10. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  11. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. PMID:25712493

  12. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    is regarded as a first step towards a fully continuous PC process. The current knowledge of the importance of crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry and the complex thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena accompanied with the separation of chiral compounds are addressed. The experimental work...... public demand, and fierce competition have forced the pharmaceutical industry to redevelop existing methods or develop completely new methods to produce pharmaceuticals consisting of APIs of the desired enantiomer. PC is one of several methods used industrially to obtain pure enantiomers by separation...... covers laboratory studies and the theoretical work is based on the experimental data and observations. A large fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are enantiomers and the desired biological activity is provided only by one of the enantiomers. Strict regulatory requirements, increasing...

  13. 21 CFR 331.11 - Listing of specific active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (5) Dihydroxyaluminum sodium carbonate. (b) Bicarbonate-containing active ingredients: Bicarbonate...., 8 grams calcium carbonate). (e) Citrate-containing active ingredients: Citrate ion, as citric acid... old and 100 mEq. of bicarbonate ion for persons 60 years or older. (2) Sodium potassium tartrate....

  14. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts.

  15. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  16. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  17. Metabolically active functional food ingredients for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, E M R; Mela, D J

    2006-02-01

    The scale of the obesity epidemic creates a pressing consumer need as well as an enormous business opportunity for successful development and marketing of food products with added benefits for weight control. A number of proposed functional food ingredients have been shown to act post-absorptively to influence substrate utilization or thermogenesis. Characteristics and supporting data on conjugated linoleic acid, diglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides, green tea, ephedrine, caffeine, capsaicin and calcium, are reviewed here, giving examples of how these could act to alter energy expenditure or appetite control. Consideration is also given to other factors, in addition to efficacy, which must be satisfied to get such ingredients into foods. We conclude that, for each of the safe, putatively metabolically active agents, there remain gaps in clinical evidence or knowledge of mechanisms, which need to be addressed in order to specify the dietary conditions and food product compositions where these ingredients could be of most benefit for weight control. PMID:16436103

  18. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rheumatologic active ingredients. 343.13 Section 343.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  19. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular active ingredients. 343.12 Section 343.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR...

  20. Optimised crystal morphologies for active pharmaceutical ingredients and related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Horgan, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are crystalline solids in their pure forms. Crystalline solids have definable morphologies, i.e. shape and size. Crystal morphology is determined by both the internal structure of the crystals and external factors during growth from solution. The morphology of a crystal batch can affect key processes during manufacturing. Companies generally accept whatever morphology the manufacturing process provides and deal with any subsequent probl...

  1. 78 FR 70043 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY... pesticide product containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is...

  2. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  3. 78 FR 32246 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... 12014, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Active ingredient: Flupyradifurone. Product Type: Insecticide..., Stewartsville, NJ 08886. Active ingredient: Ethyl Formate. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Use: Fumigant on.... Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing...

  4. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  5. Impurity profile tracking for active pharmaceutical ingredients: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lili; Mao, Bing; Reamer, Robert; Novak, Tom; Ge, Zhihong

    2007-06-28

    Tracking the impurity profile of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a very important task for all stages of drug development. A systematic approach for tracking impurity profile of API is described. Various real pharmaceutical applications are presented through successful examples of impurity profile tracking for three different novel APIs. These include MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. A general strategy including selection of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) impurity profile method based on screening various stationary phases and changing the pH of the mobile phase and elucidation of impurity structures through the utilization of LC-MS, preparative-LC and NMR is demonstrated. A series of studies were conducted on the peak purity check by using the LC-UV diode-array and LC-MS detections. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the evaluation of peak purity are discussed. PMID:17142001

  6. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient. (a) Salicylic acid 12 to 40 percent in a plaster vehicle. (b) Salicylic acid 5 to 17 percent in a collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  7. 75 FR 53691 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical Sedaxane AGENCY... pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  8. Selecting an optimal instrument to identify active ingredients of the motivational interviewing-process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobber, Jos; Meijel, Berno van; Barkhof, Emile; Scholte op Reimer, Wilma; Latour, Corine; Peters, Ron; Linszen, Don

    2014-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) can effectively stimulate motivation for health behavior change, but the active ingredients of MI are not well known. To help clinicians further stimulate motivation, they need to know the active ingredients of MI. A psychometrically sound instrument is required to ide

  9. Effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients mixtures in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, M; Mattos, J J; Piazza, C E; Bainy, A C D; Bebianno, M J

    2014-08-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are emergent environmental contaminants widely detected in surface waters as result of incomplete waste water treatment plant (WWTP) removal processes and improper disposal. The assessment of potential effects of APIs on non-target organisms is still scarce since besides presenting multiple chemical structures, properties and modes of action, these compounds occur as complex mixtures. This study comprises a 15-day exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to mixtures (at environmentally relevant nominal concentrations) of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac (DCF) (250 ng L(-1) each) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) (75 ng L(-1)) (MIX 1) along with the addition of classical pro-oxidant copper (Cu) (5 μg L(-1)) (MIX 2). The goals included the assessment of oxidative stress, neurotoxic and endocrine effects on this sentinel species applying both a multibiomarker and gene expression (here and later gene expression is taken as synonym to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that it is also affected by, e.g. translation, and mRNA and protein stability) analysis approaches. The results revealed a swifter antioxidant response in digestive glands than in gills induced by MIX 1, nevertheless the presence of Cu in MIX 2 promoted a higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction. Neither mixture altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, while both triggered the formation of vitellogenin-like proteins in females confirming the xenoestrogenic effect of mixtures. All these results varied with respect to those obtained in previous single exposure essays. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed a catalase (CAT) and CYP4Y1 gene expression down- and upregulation, respectively, with no significant changes in mRNA levels of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Finally, this study highlights variable tissue and time-specific biomarker

  10. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE... established for each ingredient in § 341.74(d): (a) Oral antitussives. (1) Chlophedianol hydrochloride. (2... and 21 CFR 1308.15(c). (i) Codeine. (ii) Codeine phosphate. (iii) Codeine sulfate....

  11. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  12. Equivalence studies for complex active ingredients and dosage forms

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattycharyya, Lokesh; Dabbah, Roger; Hauck, Walter; Sheinin, Eric; Yeoman, Lynn; Williams, Roger,

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and its role in assessing the equivalence and inequivalence of biological and biotechnological drug substances and products—a role USP has played since its founding in 1820. A public monograph in theUnited States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary helps practitioners and other interested parties understand how an article’s strenght, quality, and purity should be controlled. Such a monograph is a standard to which all manufactured ingredi...

  13. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. 201.322 Section 201.322 Food and Drugs... containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. (a) People who... internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients may cause similar adverse effects. FDA concludes that...

  14. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  15. Crystal solvates of active pharmaceutical ingredients actual for industry of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Veldre, Kaspars

    2013-01-01

    Crystal solvates of active pharmaceutical ingredients actual for industry of Latvia ABSTRACT This doctoral thesis project is focused on investigation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), which are important for industry of Latvia. Crystal solvate search and screening was performed for compounds described and novel crystalline forms were obtained. Stability in acquisition, production and storage conditions was evaluated. Crystal structure determination was performed for selected A...

  16. Bioequivalence of Eslicarbazepine Acetate from Two Different Sources of its Active Product Ingredient in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Design, subjects and methods Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18–40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) form...

  17. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Activated Random Walkers: Facts, Conjectures and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ronald; Rolla, Leonardo T.; Sidoravicius, Vladas

    2010-02-01

    We study a particle system with hopping (random walk) dynamics on the integer lattice ℤ d . The particles can exist in two states, active or inactive (sleeping); only the former can hop. The dynamics conserves the number of particles; there is no limit on the number of particles at a given site. Isolated active particles fall asleep at rate λ>0, and then remain asleep until joined by another particle at the same site. The state in which all particles are inactive is absorbing. Whether activity continues at long times depends on the relation between the particle density ζ and the sleeping rate λ. We discuss the general case, and then, for the one-dimensional totally asymmetric case, study the phase transition between an active phase (for sufficiently large particle densities and/or small λ) and an absorbing one. We also present arguments regarding the asymptotic mean hopping velocity in the active phase, the rate of fixation in the absorbing phase, and survival of the infinite system at criticality. Using mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulation, we locate the phase boundary. The phase transition appears to be continuous in both the symmetric and asymmetric versions of the process, but the critical behavior is very different. The former case is characterized by simple integer or rational values for critical exponents ( β=1, for example), and the phase diagram is in accord with the prediction of mean-field theory. We present evidence that the symmetric version belongs to the universality class of conserved stochastic sandpiles, also known as conserved directed percolation. Simulations also reveal an interesting transient phenomenon of damped oscillations in the activity density.

  19. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Simple and direct determination of active ingredients in drugs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing number of drugs in the market and the need for their control requires new, simple, fast and accurate analytical methods. Iodine, iron, manganese, silver and sodium were determined by INAA in various pharmaceutical formulations, representing capsules, injectables, powders for injection, solutions and tablets. From the results it appears that NAA could be used as an official method for the determination of iron, manganese and silver in pharmaceutical products, in which these elements are present as active ingredients, as well as for the control of the concentration limits for iodine and sodium. (author)

  1. Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato

  2. Study on THz spectra of the active ingredients in the TCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, ShiHua; Wang, WenFeng; Liu, GuiFeng; Ge, Min; Zhu, ZhiYong

    2008-03-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has tremendous potential for applications to evaluate the quality of the drugs including the TCM. In this paper, the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy investigated two active ingredients: Andrographolide and Dehydroandrographoline, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. We also measured the mixtures of two active ingredients at the different ratio and the quantitative analysis is also applied to determine the contents of compound. The Terahertz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in identifying the components, evaluating the drugs sanitation and inspecting the quality of medicine including TCM.

  3. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs. PMID:26612271

  4. Role of herbal bioactives as a potential bioavailability enhancer for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Qureshi, Azra; Kumari, Leena; Vaishnav, Pramudita; Sharma, Mukesh; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    The current review emphasizes on the herbal bioenhancers which themselves do not possess inherent pharmacological activity of their own but when co-administered with Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), enhances their bioavailability and efficacy. Herbal bioenhancers play a crucial role in enhancing the bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antihypertensives, anticancer, antiviral, antitubercular and antifungal drugs at low doses. This paper highlights various natural compounds that can be utilized as an efficient bioenhancer. Several herbal compounds including piperine, quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, curcumin, and glycyrrhizin have demonstrated capability to improve the pharmacokinetic parameters of several potent API. This article also focuses on various United States patents on herbal bioenhancers, which has proved to be beneficial in improving oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids and certain herbal compounds. The present paper also describes proposed mechanism of action, which mainly includes absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. The herbal bioenhancers are easily available, safe, free from side effects, minimizes drug toxicity, shortens the duration of treatment, lowers the drug resistance problems and minimizes the cost of treatment. Inspite of the fact that herbal bioenhancers provide an innovative concept for enhancing the bioavailability of several potent drugs, there are numerous bioenhancers of herbal origin that are yet to be explored in several vital areas. These bioenhancers must also be implied to enhance the bioavailability and bioefficacy through routes other than the oral route of drug delivery. There is a vast array of unexploited plants which can be investigated for their drug bioenhancing potency. The toxicity profiles of these herbal bioenhancers must not be overlooked. Researches must be carried out to solve these issues and to

  5. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...

  6. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  7. 77 FR 48519 - Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    .... israelensis, Strain SUM-6218 at 100.0%. Product Type: microbial insecticide. Proposed Use: Manufacturing use..., Kalamazoo, MI 49008. Active Ingredient: GS-U-ACTX-Hv1a-SEQ2 at 30.00%. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed...%. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: For use on ornamental plants, turf, vegetables, fruits,...

  8. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. 343.22 Section 343.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC,...

  9. 78 FR 64937 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... type: Fungicide. Proposed uses: Greenhouse, field use, and home and garden use on various fruits and vegetables, cotton, hops, tobacco, fruit and nut trees, turf, and ornamentals. (BPPD) List of Subjects..., Japan. Active ingredient: Momfluorothrin. Product type: Insecticide. Proposed uses: Non-food...

  10. 21 CFR 358.710 - Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4) Salicylic acid, 1.8 to 3 percent. (5) Selenium...) Salicylic acid, 1.8 to 3 percent. (5) Selenium sulfide, 1 percent. (c) Active ingredients for the control of... used and the concentration of the coal tar present in the final product. (2) Salicylic acid, 1.8 to...

  11. Tregitope Peptides: The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of IVIG?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. De Groot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years ago, we reported the identification and characterization of several regulatory T-cell epitopes (now called Tregitopes that were discovered in the heavy and light chains of IgG (De Groot et al. Blood, 2008. When added ex vivo to human PBMCs, these Tregitopes activated regulatory T cells (Tregs, increased expression of the transcription factor FoxP3, and induced IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells. We have now shown that coadministration of the Tregitopes in vivo, in a number of different murine models of autoimmune disease, can suppress immune responses to antigen in an antigen-specific manner, and that this response is mediated by Tregs. In addition we have shown that, although these are generally promiscuous epitopes, the activity of individual Tregitope peptides is restricted by HLA. In this brief report, we provide an overview of the effects of Tregitopes in vivo, discuss potential applications, and suggest that Tregitopes may represent one of the “active pharmaceutical ingredients” of IVIg. Tregitope applications may include any of the autoimmune diseases that are currently treated almost exclusively with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG, such as Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN, as well as gene therapy and allergy where Tregitopes may provide a means of inducing antigen-specific tolerance.

  12. A simple and fast method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiperspirant cosmetics are tested for their active ingredient (aluminium chlorohydroxide) by conventional analytical techniques. Aluminium has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in all antiperspirant products and package forms available in the Greek market in order to develop a simple and fast method for quantization. The results show that neutron activation analysis could be established as an official method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics. The proposed method is compared with the existing official methods and an alternative sampling method for aerosol package is presented. (author)

  13. Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2007-05-11

    This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders: motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy, 12-step facilitation treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment and behavioral family counseling, and contingency management and community reinforcement approaches. The presumed active ingredients of these treatments are described in terms of how they exemplify the social processes highlighted by the four theories. The identified common components of effective treatment include support, goal direction, and structure; an emphasis on rewards that compete with substance use, a focus on abstinence-oriented norms and models, and attempts to develop self-efficacy and coping skills. Several issues that need to be addressed to enhance our understanding of the active ingredients involved in effective treatment are discussed, including how to develop measures of these ingredients, how well the ingredients predict outcomes and influence conceptually comparable aspects of clients' life contexts, and how much their influence varies depending upon clients' demographic and personal characteristics. PMID:17129682

  14. Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2007-05-11

    This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders: motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy, 12-step facilitation treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment and behavioral family counseling, and contingency management and community reinforcement approaches. The presumed active ingredients of these treatments are described in terms of how they exemplify the social processes highlighted by the four theories. The identified common components of effective treatment include support, goal direction, and structure; an emphasis on rewards that compete with substance use, a focus on abstinence-oriented norms and models, and attempts to develop self-efficacy and coping skills. Several issues that need to be addressed to enhance our understanding of the active ingredients involved in effective treatment are discussed, including how to develop measures of these ingredients, how well the ingredients predict outcomes and influence conceptually comparable aspects of clients' life contexts, and how much their influence varies depending upon clients' demographic and personal characteristics.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WATER EXTRACTS OF TRIKATU CHURNA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Malvankar* and M. M. Abhyankar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae. Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, lignin & saponins. The objective of study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of trikatu churna & its individual ingredients with their preliminary phytochemical study. The aqueous extracts of trikatu churna & its each ingredient were tested for antimicrobial activity against certain bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus by in vitro agar well diffusion method and the results are recorded as the zone of inhibition. Trikatu churna was found to possess higher extent of phytoconstituents with promising antimicrobial activity.

  16. A slow-release system of bacterial cellulose gel and nanoparticles for hydrophobic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yukari; Mazzarino, Leticia; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-01-01

    A combination of bacterial cellulose (BC) gel and amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles was investigated as a drug delivery system (DDS) for hydrophobic active ingredients. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) and retinol were used as the block copolymer and hydrophobic active ingredient, respectively. The BC gel was capable of incorporating copolymer nanoparticles and releasing them in an acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5.2) at 37 °C. The percentage of released copolymer reached a maximum value of approximately 60% after 6h and remained constant after 24h. The percentage of retinol released from the copolymer-containing BC gel reached a maximum value at 4h. These results show that the combination of BC gel and nanoparticles is a slow-release system that may be useful in the cosmetic and biomedical fields for skin treatment and preparation. PMID:25840273

  17. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  18. Validation of the quality control methods for active ingredients of Fungirex cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungirex cream is a two-drug product, that is, undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate over a suitable basis. Since this is a product not documented in the official monographs of the pharmacopoeia, simple analytical methods were suggested for quantitation of analytes of interest in the cream, which are useful for release of newly prepared cream batches. To validate two volumetric methods for the quality control of active ingredients in Fungirex cream

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  20. Release effect of the active ingredients using a radiation cross linking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seung Hyun; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Seok; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Yun [Dept. of Bioengineering, Division of Applied Chemical and Bio Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Typical radiation cross-linked hydrogels has the characteristic that high water content, but low emission efficiency of active ingredients. Therefore, the hydrogel was prepared by the addition to collagen, which is closely related to the formation of skin wrinkles in biocompatibility and highly water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC) in order to preparation of hydrogels has excellent emission efficiency of active ingredients. Hydrogels were prepared by dissolving CMC and collagen each of 0.5%, 10% concentration in deionized water. Then, prepared hydrogels are performed by gamma-radiation at 1, 3, 5 kGy irradiation dose. The results showed that the gel fraction of after irradiated 3 kGy hydrogel was higher than before irradiated gelation as long as the 55.3%. The swelling rate of irradiated 3 kGy hydrogel was lower than the non-irradiated sample. The compressive strength of 3 kGy irradiated hydrogel was the highest. The visco-elastic did not show any significant differences, even after irradiation. The CMC hydrogel in this study suggested a potential use as a material for the mask pack for improved emission efficiency of the active ingredient and anti-wrinkles.

  1. Comparison of Active Ingredient Content of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi Collected in Different Seasons Detected by HPLC-DAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Feng; CHEN Da-shuai

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the active ingredient content of Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata) and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) collected in different seasons. Methods:Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract the active ingredients in Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi, with methanol as the solvent. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was used to analyze the content of each ingredient, with chromatographic conditions as follows: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm); column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A) - acetonitrile (B); gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min; and detection wavelength: 225 nm. Results:All ingredients waiting for detection reached their peaks within 75 min, with excellent degree of separation and higher number of theoretical plates. Standard curves were drawn, and the mean value of phase relationship of each ingredient was >0.999. The content of active ingredients in lignans of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi showed tendency of increase ifrst and then decreased. In addition, all ingredients in Beiwuweizi reached their peaks in September while those in Nanwuweizi in August. Conclusion:This method can be used to detect the content of multiple ingredients in Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) simultaneously because it is simple in operation, precise in results and excellent in repeatability.

  2. Comparison of Active Ingredient Content of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi Collected in Different Seasons Detected by HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng YAO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the active ingredient content of Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis collected in different seasons. Methods: Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract the active ingredients in Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi, with methanol as the solvent. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection ℃; mobile phase: water (A - acetonitrile (B; gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min; and detection wavelength: 225 nm. (HPLC-DAD method was used to analyze the content of each ingredient, with chromatographic conditions as follows: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm; column temperature: 30 Results: All ingredients waiting for detection reached their peaks within 75 min, with excellent degree of separation and higher number of theoretical plates. Standard curves were drawn, and the mean value of phase relationship of each ingredient was >0.999. The content of active ingredients in lignans of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi showed tendency of increase first and then decreased. In addition, all ingredients in Beiwuweizi reached their peaks in September while those in Nanwuweizi in August. Conclusion: This method can be used to detect the content of multiple ingredients in Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis simultaneously because it is simple in operation, precise in results and excellent in repeatability.

  3. Soil sorption and leaching of active ingredients of Lumax® under mineral or organic fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Pusino, Alba

    2014-09-01

    The study describes the soil sorption of the herbicide Lumax®, composed of S-metolachlor (MTC), terbuthylazine (TBZ), and mesotrione (MST), as influenced by mineral and organic fertilizers. The investigation was performed on a sandy soil of an agricultural area designated as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone, where mineral and organic fertilizers were applied for many years. Two organic fertilizers, cattle manure and slurry, respectively, and a mineral fertilizer with a nitrification inhibitor, Entec®, were compared. According to the experiments, performed with a batch method, the sorption conformed to Freundlich model. The extent of sorption of Lumax® ingredients was closely related to their octanol-water partition coefficient Kow. The respective desorption was hysteretic. Leaching trials were carried out by using water or solutions of DOM or Entec® as the eluants. Only the elution with the mineral fertilizer promoted the leaching of Lumax® active ingredients.

  4. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  5. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literaturereports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipientinteractions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeuticcategories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic,bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  6. Studies of Active Ingredients in Cough Syrup by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tian-shu; WANG Ai-fang; WU Fang; SHI Guo-yue; FANG Yu-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The present paper covers a simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE) with amperometric detection(AD), for the separation and the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate. Under the optimal conditions, the three analytes were base-line separated completely within 16 min. Good linear relationships between the peak heights and the concentrations of the three analytes were obtained with the correlation coefficients better than 0.9993. The method was directly applied to the determination of the active ingredients in pharmaceutical preparations and the assay results were satisfactory.

  7. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    OpenAIRE

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended nitrogen removal. The removal of the APIs varied from no significant removal at the highest dose of ClO2 (20 mg/l) to 90% removal at a dose of 0.5 mg/l of the oxidant. From the low COD effluent, only 4 ...

  8. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic Acid functionality in polyethylene glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe;

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are attractive as excipients in the manufacture of drug products because they are water soluble and poorly immunogenic. They are used in various pharmaceutical preparations. However, because of their terminal hydroxyl groups, PEGs can participate in esterification...... reactions. In this study, kinetics of two active pharmaceutical ingredients, cetirizine and indomethacin possessing carboxylic acid functionality, has been studied in PEG 400 and PEG 1000 at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. HPLC-UV was applied for the determination of concentrations in the kinetic studies...

  9. Development and validation of stability indicating UPLC assay method for ziprasidone active pharma ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziprasidone, a novel antipsychotic, exhibits a potent highly selective antagonistic activity on D2 and 5HT2A receptors. Literature survey for ziprasidone revealed several analytical methods based on different techniques but no UPLC method has been reported so far. Aim: Aim of this research paper is to present a simple and rapid stability indicating isocratic, ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC method which was developed and validated for the determination of ziprasidone active pharmaceutical ingredient. Forced degradation studies of ziprasidone were studied under acid, base, oxidative hydrolysis, thermal stress and photo stress conditions. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination of ziprasidone drug was performed on a Supelco analytical column (100×2.1 mm i.d., 2.7 ΅m with 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH: 6.7 and acetonitrile (ACN as mobile phase with the ratio (55:45-Buffer:ACN at a flow rate of 0.35 ml/ min. For UPLC method, UV detection was made at 318 nm and the run time was 3 min. Developed UPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results and Conclusion: Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed during oxidative hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during basic hydrolysis. During method validation, parameters such as precision, linearity, ruggedness, stability, robustness, and specificity were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Developed UPLC method was successfully applied for evaluating assay of Ziprasidone active Pharma ingredient.

  10. Determination of active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhua; Lou, Changgang; Fang, Yuzhi; Ye, Jiannong

    2002-01-11

    High-performance capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was employed to analyse active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L., an important crude herb frequently used in Chinese medicines. Farrerol, quercetin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid are major important active ingredients. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, a 300-microm diameter carbon-disk electrode was used as the working electrode, which exhibits a good response at +950 mV (vs. saturated calomel electrodes) for six analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 16 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 9 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-6) M for all analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of Rhododendron dauricum L. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:11820277

  11. INFLUENCE OF A WAY OF CRUSHING ON ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burenina O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the researches of the influence of a way of crushing on activity of ingredients of concrete mix. It is shown that sand crushing by method of free kick in a planetary mill of AGO-2 allows not only to raise its specific surface, to receive the demanded particle size distribution, but also to improve quality of a surface of particles by removal, destruction of superficial inactive films. On a new surface of sand excess energy concentrates, the active centers are formed and there is a fixing of germs of new growths of products of hydration of cement in a place of an exit of dislocations to surfaces of crystals of sand that leads to substantial increase of chemical activity and reactionary ability of sand

  12. Methodological Establishment of HPLC-DAD for Determination of 10 Active Ingredients in Wuweizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng YAO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD method for the determination of active ingredients of multiple lignans in Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis so as to set up the standard for the quality control of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis. Methods: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm was applied, with detection condition as follows: column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A-acetonitrile (B; gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min and detection wavelength: 225 nm.Results: Ten ingredients in Beiwuweizi and 5 in Nanwuweizi were completely separately within 75 min. Peak area was in favorable linear relationship with concentration. In addition, the recovery rate was 96.87-103.29% and relative standard deviation (RSD was 0.68-2.09%.Conclusion: HPLC-DAD is simple and reliable with favorable repeatability, so it can be used for the determination of multiple lignans in Wuweizi.

  13. Methodological Establishment of HPLC-DAD for Determination of 10 Active Ingredients in Wuweizi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Feng; CHEN Da-shuai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of active ingredients of multiple lignans in Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata) and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) so as to set up the standard for the quality control of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis). Methods: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) was applied, with detection condition as follows: column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A)-acetonitrile (B); gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min and detection wavelength: 225 nm. Results: Ten ingredients in Beiwuweizi and 5 in Nanwuweizi were completely separately within 75 min. Peak area was in favorable linear relationship with concentration. In addition, the recovery rate was 96.87%-103.29% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.68%-2.09%. Conclusion: HPLC-DAD is simple and reliable with favorable repeatability, so it can be used for the determination of multiple lignans in Wuweizi.

  14. Life cycle analysis within pharmaceutical process optimization and intensification: case study of active pharmaceutical ingredient production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Denčić, Ivana; Hessel, Volker; Laribi, Yosra; Perrichon, Philippe D; Berguerand, Charline; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Loeb, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As the demand for new drugs is rising, the pharmaceutical industry faces the quest of shortening development time, and thus, reducing the time to market. Environmental aspects typically still play a minor role within the early phase of process development. Nevertheless, it is highly promising to rethink, redesign, and optimize process strategies as early as possible in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development, rather than later at the stage of already established processes. The study presented herein deals with a holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process targeting a low-volume, high-value API. Striving for process intensification by transfer from batch to continuous processing, as well as an alternative catalytic system, different process options are evaluated with regard to their environmental impact to identify bottlenecks and improvement potentials for further process development activities.

  15. Solubilization of active ingredients of different polarity in Pluronic® micellar solutions - Correlations between solubilizate polarity and solubilization site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kim, Viet; Prévost, Sylvain; Seidel, Karsten; Maier, Walter; Marguerre, Ann-Kathrin; Oetter, Günter; Tadros, Tharwat; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The solubilization of two pharmaceutically active ingredients (AI) with significantly different water solubility, namely carbamazepine and fenofibrate (solubility of 150ppm and 10ppm, respectively), has been investigated using a series of Pluronics® (Poloxamers) containing different ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (EO/PO) units in the molecule. The results show largely enhanced solubilization of fenofibrate by Pluronic® micelles that increases with the PPO chain length provided the temperature is above the critical micelle temperature (cmt). In contrast the more water-soluble carbamazepine only shows a moderate increase in solubilization upon addition of Pluronics®. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR experiments show that the solubilization of fenofibrate occurs in the core of the micelles, whereas carbamazepine shows no direct association with the micelles. These clearly different solubilization mechanisms for the two AIs were confirmed by Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments, which show that fenofibrate interacts only with the PPO core of the micelle, whereas carbamazepine interacts with both PPO and PEO similarly. Accordingly, the large enhancement of the solubilization of fenofibrate is related to the fact that it is solubilized within the PPO core of the Pluronic® micelles, while the much more moderate increase of carbamazepine solubility is attributed to the change of solvent quality due to the presence of the amphiphilic copolymer and the interaction with the EO and PO units in solution. PMID:27244594

  16. Isolation and characterization of process related impurities in anastrozole active pharmaceutical ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriyanna, S. G.; Basavaiah, K. [University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: hiriyannag@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Three impurities ranging from 0.08%-0.12% by peak area in anastrozole active pharmaceutical ingredient were detected by simple isocratic reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These impurities were isolated by prep-HPLC and were characterized by LC- MS/MS, GCMS and NMR experimental data. Based on the results obtained from different spectroscopic experiments, these impurities have been characterized as 2,2'-(5-((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methyl propanenitrile) (Impurity I), 2,2'-(5-methyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methylpropanenitrile) (Impurity II) and 2,2'-(5-(bromomethyl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methylpropanenitrile) (Impurity III). (author)

  17. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacies of four commercial insecticides and of two research compounds were tested against aphids (Aphis craccivora and Myzus persicae), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and red-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in intrinsic (oral administration), curative (direct contact...... information sets revealed that the intracellular localisation of active ingredients determines the performance of test compounds against different target pests because of different feeding behaviours: mites feed on mesophyll, and aphids and whiteflies mostly in the vascular system. Polar compounds have a slow...... adsorption into leaf cells and thus a favourable distribution into apoplast and xylem sap. Slightly lipophilic bases get trapped in vacuoles, which is a less suited place to control hemipteran pests but appropriate to control mites. Non-favourable cellular localisation led to a strong reduction...

  18. Application of instrumented nanoindentation in preformulation studies of pharmaceutical active ingredients and excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egart, Mateja; Janković, Biljana; Srčič, Stane

    2016-09-01

    Nanoindentation allows quantitative determination of a material's response to stress such as elastic and plastic deformation or fracture tendency. Key instruments that have enabled great advances in nanomechanical studies are the instrumented nanoindenter and atomic force microscopy. The versatility of these instruments lies in their capability to measure local mechanical response, in very small volumes and depths, while monitoring time, displacement and force with high accuracy and precision. This review highlights the application of nanoindentation for mechanical characterization of pharmaceutical materials in the preformulation phase (primary investigation of crystalline active ingredients and excipients). With nanoindentation, mechanical response can be assessed with respect to crystal structure. The technique is valuable for mechanical screening of a material at an early development phase in order to predict and better control the processes in which a material is exposed to stress such as milling and compression. PMID:27383883

  19. Evaluation of teratogenic effects of crocin and safranal, active ingredients of saffron, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Etemad, Leila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a widely used food additive for its color and taste. Crocin and safranal are two main components of this plant. Numerous studies are underway to introduce saffron and its active ingredients as pharmacological agents. Safety assessments of these compounds are important parts of this endeavor. In this study, the effects of crocin and safranal administrations during embryogenesis have been investigated in mice. A total of 75 BALB/c pregnant mice were divided into six experimental and control groups. Four experimental groups received intraperitoneal injection of crocin (200 mg/kg or 600 mg/kg) daily or safranal (0.075 ml/kg or 0.225 ml/kg) on gestational days (GDs) 6 to 15. Control groups received normal saline or paraffin as solvents of crocin and safranal. Dams were dissected on GD18 and embryos were collected. Routine maternal and fetal parameters were recorded. Macroscopic observation of external malformations was also performed. Fetuses were then selected for double skeletal staining with alizarin red and alcian blue. All experimental groups caused significant decrease in length and weight of fetuses when compared with the control groups and revealed malformations such as minor skeletal malformations, mandible and calvaria malformations, and growth retardation. Minor skeletal malformations were the most commonly observed abnormality, which were statistically significant when compared with the control groups (p < 0.05). The severities of malformations were comparable in the crocin- and safranal-treated groups. This study suggests that crocin or safranal can induce embryonic malformations when administered in pregnant mice. Due to the wide use of saffron, further elaborate studies to understand the malformation mechanisms of these ingredients are recommended. PMID:24097366

  20. Dissolution enhancement of active pharmaceutical ingredients by therapeutic deep eutectic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroso, Ivo M; Silva, João C; Mano, Francisca; Ferreira, Ana S D; Dionísio, Madalena; Sá-Nogueira, Isabel; Barreiros, Susana; Reis, Rui L; Paiva, Alexandre; Duarte, Ana Rita C

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutic deep eutectic system (THEDES) is here defined as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) having an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. In this work, THEDESs are proposed as enhanced transporters and delivery vehicles for bioactive molecules. THEDESs based on choline chloride (ChCl) or menthol conjugated with three different APIs, namely acetylsalicylic acid (AA), benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA), were synthesized and characterized for thermal behaviour, structural features, dissolution rate and antibacterial activity. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy showed that ChCl:PA (1:1), ChCl:AA (1:1), menthol:AA (3:1), menthol:BA (3:1), menthol:PA (2:1) and menthol:PA (3:1) were liquid at room temperature. Dissolution studies in PBS led to increased dissolution rates for the APIs when in the form of THEDES, compared to the API alone. The increase in dissolution rate was particularly noticeable for menthol-based THEDES. Antibacterial activity was assessed using both Gram-positive and Gram-negative model organisms. The results show that all the THEDESs retain the antibacterial activity of the API. Overall, our results highlight the great potential of THEDES as dissolution enhancers in the development of novel and more effective drug delivery systems. PMID:26586342

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term. PMID:22619927

  2. Dampened neural activity and abolition of epileptic-like activity in cortical slices by active ingredients of spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Maurizio; Elhamdani, Abdeladim; Camacho, Susana; Meystre, Julie; González, Stephanie Michlig; le Coutre, Johannes; Markram, Henry

    2014-10-31

    Active ingredients of spices (AIS) modulate neural response in the peripheral nervous system, mainly through interaction with TRP channel/receptors. The present study explores how different AIS modulate neural response in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of S1 neocortex. The AIS tested are agonists of TRPV1/3, TRPM8 or TRPA1. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin, eugenol, menthol, icilin and cinnamaldehyde, but not AITC dampen the generation of APs in a voltage- and time-dependent manner. This effect was further tested for the TRPM8 ligands in the presence of a TRPM8 blocker (BCTC) and on TRPM8 KO mice. The observable effect was still present. Finally, the influence of the selected AIS was tested on in vitro gabazine-induced seizures. Results coincide with the above observations: except for cinnamaldehyde, the same AIS were able to reduce the number, duration of the AP bursts and increase the concentration of gabazine needed to elicit them. In conclusion, our data suggests that some of these AIS can modulate glutamatergic neurons in the brain through a TRP-independent pathway, regardless of whether the neurons are stimulated intracellularly or by hyperactive microcircuitry.

  3. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  4. Collaborative Care for Patients With Severe Personality Disorders: Preliminary Results and Active Ingredients From a Pilot Study (Part I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, Barbara; Meijel, Berno van; Karman, Pieter; Koekkoek, Bauke; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Kerkhof, Ad; Beekman, Aartjan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test if a collaborative care program (CCP) with nurses in a coordinating position is beneficial for patients with severe personality disorders. DESIGN AND METHODS: A pilot study with a comparative multiple case study design using mixed methods investigating active ingredients and prelimi

  5. Effects of rhubarb and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in INTMNC of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Zhen Lin; De Lu Ma; Zhi Qing Cui; Yi Kang

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The recent studies have shown that rhubarb has not only the effect of removing stasis by purgation, but also intestinal barrier effects[1,2]. In order to further clarify the intestinal barrier mechanism of rhubarb, we studied the effects of rhubarb decoction and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in isolated intestinal mononuclear cells (INT-MNC)

  6. The protective effect of the earthworm active ingredients on hepatocellular injury induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Duan, Leng-Xin; Xu, Zheng-Shun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Xi, Shou-Min

    2016-08-01

    The earthworm is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. There are more than 40 prescriptions including earthworms in the "Compendium of Materia Medica". TCM theory holds that earthworms exert antispasmodic and antipyretic effects through the liver meridian to calm the liver. However, the clinical effect of earthworms on liver injury has not been clearly demonstrated. We have previously established a method to extract the active ingredients from earthworms (hereinafter referred to as EWAs) [1]. In the present study, we observed protective effect of the EWAs on tunicamycin-induced ERS (endoplasmic reticulum stress) model in human hepatic L02 cells. The results showed that the EWAs promote proliferation and reduced apoptosis of ERS model in L02 cells (P<0.01). The up-regulation of ERS-related proteins, including PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase), eIF2a (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a), ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein), in L02 cell under ERS was inhibited by treatment of the EWAs (P<0.01). In summary, our data suggest the EWAs can significant attenuate ERS-induced hepatocyte injury via PERK-eIF2a-ATF4 pathway. PMID:27470367

  7. Quantifying Amphibian Pesticide Body Burdens for Active Ingredients Versus Formulations Through Dermal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread pesticide applications throughout agricultural landscapes pose a risk to post-metamorphic amphibians leaving or moving between breeding ponds in terrestrial habitats. Recent studies indicate that the inactive ingredients in pesticide formulations may be equally or more...

  8. Chitosonic® Acid as a Novel Cosmetic Ingredient: Evaluation of its Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Hydration Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shyan Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosonic® Acid, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan, is a novel chitosan material that has recently been accepted by the Personal Care Products Council as a new cosmetic ingredient with the INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients name Carboxymethyl Caprooyl Chitosan. In this study, we analyze several important cosmetic characteristics of Chitosonic® Acid. Our results demonstrate that Chitosonic® Acid is a water-soluble chitosan derivative with a high HLB value. Chitosonic® Acid can form a nano-network structure when its concentration is higher than 0.5% and can self-assemble into a nanosphere structure when its concentration is lower than 0.2%. Chitosonic® Acid has potent antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Chitosonic® Acid also has moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. Additionally, Chitosonic® Acid exhibits good hydration activity for absorbing and retaining water molecules with its hydrophilic groups. From a safety point of view, Chitosonic® Acid has no cytotoxicity to L-929 cells if its concentration is less than 0.5%. Moreover, Chitosonic® Acid has good compatibilities with various normal cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, we propose that Chitosonic® Acid has the potential to be a widely used ingredient in various types of cosmetic products.

  9. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  10. Direct analysis of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-03-31

    Anodic stripping voltammetry, a classical electroanalytical method has been optimized to analyze trace Pd(II) in active pharmaceutical ingredient matrices. The electroanalytical approach with an unmodified glassy carbon electrode was performed in both aqueous and 95% DMSO/5% water (95/5 DMSO/H2O) solutions, without pretreatment such as acid digestion or dry ashing to remove the organics. Limits of detection (LODs) in the presence of caffeine and ketoprofen were determined to be 11 and 9.6 μg g(-1), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.7% and 2.3%, respectively. This method is simple, highly reproducible, sensitive, and robust. The instrumentation has the potential to be portable and the obviation of sample pretreatment makes it an ideal approach for determining lost catalytic metals in pharmaceutical-related industries. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of Pd(II) with Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the low μg L(-1) range indicates that this system is capable of simultaneous multi-analyte analysis in a variety of matrices. PMID:26965326

  11. Development of a solvate as an active pharmaceutical ingredient: Developability, crystallisation and isolation challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, Julien; Stevenson, Neil; Lee, Mei; Mallet, Franck; Ward, Richard; Aspin, Peter; Dennehy, Daniel Robert; Camus, Laure

    2012-03-01

    The preclinical development of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) begins with the selection of a solid state form. A solvate may be selected for development if it is sufficiently stable and if the solvent quantity administered to the patient is lower than the tolerated potential daily exposure (PDE). The selection and process development of a solvate is presented here. The initial crystallisation process gave poor control over the particle size distribution (PSD) and inclusion of additional crystallisation solvent in the crystal lattice. These two API attributes were controlled using micronised seeds and optimising the crystallisation conditions. After filtration, slurry washing with a second solvent was used to replace the high boiling point crystallisation solvent to improve the drying efficiency. The slurry washing was modelled and studied in the laboratory to control the level of unbound crystallisation solvent in the API. The API desolvation during slurry washing was studied by considering thermodynamics, by construction of the ternary phase diagram, and kinetics aspects. This work provides useful approaches and considerations to assess the risks specific to the controlled production of a solvate that are rarely presented in the literature.

  12. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  13. Consequences of New Approach to Chemical Stability Tests to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    There is a great need of broaden look on stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in comparison with current requirements contained in pharmacopeia. By usage of many modern analytical methods the conception of monitoring the changes of APIs during initial stage of their exposure to harmful factors has been developed. New knowledge must be acquired in terms of identification of each degradation products, especially volatile ones. Further research as toxicology prediction during in silico studies of determined and identified degradation products is necessary. In silico methods are known as computational toxicology or computer-assisted technologies which are used for predicting toxicology of pharmaceutical substances such as impurities or degradation products. This is a specialized software and databases intended to calculate probability of genotoxicity or mutagenicity of these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. Applying of new analytical approach is proposed as the usage of PAT tools, XRD, HS-SPME GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS for stability testing. Described improvements should be taken into account in case of each drug existing already in the market as well as being implemented as new one. PMID:26955356

  14. Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Vc Yinqiao Tablets by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U),Jin; WANG,Qing-Jiang; CHENG,Xi; LIU,Hai-Yan; HE,Pin-Gang; FANG,Yu-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    A simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD), has been developed for simultaneous determination of four active ingredients in Vc Yinqiao tablets including paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. A carbon-disk electrode was used as working electrode and 0.95 V (versus SCE) was selected as detection potential. The optimal conditions of CZE experiment were 30 mmol·L-1 borate solution (pH 9.5) as running buffer, 14 kV as separation voltage and 8 s (14 kV) as electro-kinetic sampling time. Under the selected optimum conditions, paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid could be perfectly separated within 22 min, and their detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 5 × 10-7 to 1×10-6 mol·L-1. This proposed method demonstrated good reproducibility with relative standard deviations of less than 3% for both migration time and peak current (n=7). The utility of this method was demonstrated by monitoring a kind of compound medicine named Vc Yinqiao tablets and the assay results were satisfactory.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of hederacoside C, an active ingredient in AG NPP709, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Myung; Yoon, Ji Na; Jung, Ji Won; Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Young June; Han, Chang Kyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Kang, Hee Eun

    2013-11-01

    1. Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and AG NPP709, a new botanical drug to treat acute respiratory infection and chronic inflammatory bronchitis. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetic properties remains limited. 2. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics of HDC in rats after intravenous administration of HDC (3, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) and after oral administration of HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709 (equivalent to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg HDC). 3. Linear pharmacokinetics of HDC were identified upon its intravenous administration at doses of 3-25 mg/kg. Intravenous administration of HDC results in relatively slow clearance (1.46-2.08 mL/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution at steady state (138-222 mL/kg), while oral administration results in a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of 0.118-0.250%. The extremely low F of HDC may be due to poor absorption of HDC from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and/or its decomposition therein. 4. The oral pharmacokinetics of HDC did not differ significantly among pure HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709. PMID:23607546

  16. Core-Shell Composite Hydrogels for Controlled Nanocrystal Formation and Release of Hydrophobic Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddoza, Abu Zayed Md; Godfrin, P Douglas; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-08-01

    Although roughly 40% of pharmaceuticals being developed are poorly water soluble, this class of drugs lacks a formulation strategy capable of producing high loads, fast dissolution kinetics, and low energy input. In this work, a novel bottom-up approach is developed for producing and formulating nanocrystals of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using core-shell composite hydrogel beads. Organic phase nanoemulsion droplets stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and containing a model hydrophobic API (fenofibrate) are embedded in the alginate hydrogel matrix and subsequently act as crystallization reactors. Controlled evaporation of this composite material produces core-shell structured alginate-PVA hydrogels with drug nanocrystals (500-650 nm) embedded within the core. Adjustable loading of API nanocrystals up to 83% by weight is achieved with dissolution (of 80% of the drug) occurring in as little as 30 min. A quantitative model is also developed and experimentally validated that the drug release patterns of the fenofibrate nanocrystals can be modulated by controlling the thickness of the PVA shell and drug loading. Thus, these composite materials offer a "designer" drug delivery system. Overall, our approach enables a novel means of simultaneous controlled crystallization and formulation of hydrophobic drugs that circumvents energy intensive top-down processes in traditional manufacturing. PMID:27249402

  17. Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-09-01

    The important number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) available on the market along with their potential adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystems, lead to the development of prioritization methods, which allow choosing priority molecules to monitor based on a set of selected criteria. Due to the large volumes of API used in hospitals, an increasing attention has been recently paid to their effluents as a source of environmental pollution. Based on the consumption data of a Swiss university hospital, about hundred of API has been prioritized following an OPBT approach (Occurrence, Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity). In addition, an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) allowed prioritizing API based on predicted concentrations and environmental toxicity data found in the literature for 71 compounds. Both prioritization approaches were compared. OPBT prioritization results highlight the high concern of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiviral drugs, whereas antibiotics are revealed by ERA as potentially problematic to the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, according to the predicted risk quotient, only the hospital fraction of ciprofloxacin represents a risk to the aquatic organisms. Some compounds were highlighted as high-priority with both methods: ibuprofen, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ritonavir, gabapentin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, raltegravir, propofol, etc. Analyzing consumption data and building prioritization lists helped choosing about 15 API to be monitored in hospital wastewaters. The API ranking approach adopted in this study can be easily transposed to any other hospitals, which have the will to look at the contamination of their effluents.

  18. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. PMID:22001843

  19. Co-crystallization: An approach to improve the performance characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen boding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API can be resolved using co-crystallization approach. Proper understanding of crystal structure of an API is required for successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co-former. This review article focus on explanation about co-crystals, intellectual property rights, their advantages and limitations. Co-crystallization can be achieved using different methods like co-grinding slurry based, solvent evaporation method, etc. Methods of co-crystallization are simple and increase the purity of the final product. Co-crystallization can be applied to the drugs prescribed in combination therapy. Stoichiometric composition of different drugs used in combination therapy can be co-crystallize to form one solid state form. Physicochemical properties of APIs such as solubility and stability can be improved using co-crystallization approach. With due regards co-crystallization should be used with caution because of some issues during manufacturing of final product.

  20. Direct analysis of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-03-31

    Anodic stripping voltammetry, a classical electroanalytical method has been optimized to analyze trace Pd(II) in active pharmaceutical ingredient matrices. The electroanalytical approach with an unmodified glassy carbon electrode was performed in both aqueous and 95% DMSO/5% water (95/5 DMSO/H2O) solutions, without pretreatment such as acid digestion or dry ashing to remove the organics. Limits of detection (LODs) in the presence of caffeine and ketoprofen were determined to be 11 and 9.6 μg g(-1), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.7% and 2.3%, respectively. This method is simple, highly reproducible, sensitive, and robust. The instrumentation has the potential to be portable and the obviation of sample pretreatment makes it an ideal approach for determining lost catalytic metals in pharmaceutical-related industries. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of Pd(II) with Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the low μg L(-1) range indicates that this system is capable of simultaneous multi-analyte analysis in a variety of matrices.

  1. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  2. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  3. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

  4. Acaricidal activity against Panonychus citri and active ingredient of the mangrove plant Cerbera manghas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yecheng; Yongmei Liao; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Linlin; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Qiuyan; Qing, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Cerbera manghas is a mangrove plant which possesses comprehensive biological activities. A great deal of research has been undertaken on the chemical constituents and medical functions of C. manghas; insecticidal and antifungal activities have also been reported, but the acaricidal activity has not been studied. In our study, the acaricidal activity and active substances of C. manghas were investigated using a spray method, which showed that the methanol extracts of the fruit, twigs and leaves exhibited contact activity against female adults of Panonychus citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 3.39 g L(-1), 4.09 g L(-1) and 4.11 g L(-1), respectively. An acaricidal compound was isolated from C. manghas by an activity-guided isolation method, and identified as (-)-17β-neriifolin, which is a cardiac glycoside. (-)-17β-Neriifolin revealed high contact activity against female adults, nymphae, larvae and eggs of P. citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 0.28 g L(-1), 0.29 g L(-1), 0.28 g L(-1) and 1.45 g L(-1), respectively. PMID:25918788

  5. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  6. Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA, showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity.

  7. 21 CFR 341.85 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in part 356 of this chapter should be used. (5) For permitted combinations containing camphor... camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the warnings for... containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the...

  8. Antifeedant Activity and Active Ingredients Against Plutella xylostella from Momordica charantia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts from the leaves of Momordica charantia, we obtained two most active compounds against the feeding of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella larvae. The antifeedant activity of momordicine Ⅰ and momordicine Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella were tested using leaf discs of cabbage in the laboratory. The results showed that momordicin Ⅰ and momordiein Ⅱ had significant antifeedant activity on the larvae of P. Xylostella, and momordicin Ⅱ was more active than momordicin Ⅰ. The concentrations for 50% antifeedant effects (AFC50) of momordicin Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of P. Xylostella were 76.69 and 116.24 μg mL-1, whereas that of momordicin Ⅰ was 144.08 and 168.42 μg mL-1, respectively. In addition, momordicin Ⅰ and momordicin Ⅱ had significant inhibitive effect on the rate of weight gain and survival of P. Xylostella larvae.

  9. 78 FR 3900 - Generic Drug User Fee-Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rate for the generic drug active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and finished dosage form (FDF) facilities user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2013. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), enacted the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, as......

  10. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.). PMID:26686675

  11. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P

    2004-03-01

    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  12. Special active ingredients and beauty-food%特种活性物及营养美容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了特种活性物及营养美容的理念。消费者目前对营养美容理念的兴趣越来越浓厚,使得营养美容产品逐渐成为市场营销的热点。配方师也热衷于将营养品与美容相结合,开发出营养美容产品,并将营养美容对身体的益处都囊括在产品配方中。介绍了几种最具潜力的营养美容成分以及特种活性物成分,并对其前景进行了展望。%The idea of special active ingredients and beauty-food are introduced briefly. Nowadays, the consumers become more and more interested in the concept of beauty-food, and the beauty-food product category has gradually become the hot topic of marketing. Formulators are eager to combine the benefits of nutrition with beauty in the formulations, and develop the beauty-food products. Some diet beauty ingredients with the greatest potential are introduced, and the future of the special active ingredients and the beauty-food are prospected here.

  13. The significance of different health institutions and their respective contributions of active pharmaceutical ingredients to wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Manuel; Olsson, Oliver; Fiehn, Rainer; Herrel, Markus; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been frequently found in the environment. It is, however, still not quite clear who is mainly responsible for API emissions. Hospitals have been considered to be the main contributing point sources for wastewater (WW) discharge of APIs. However, recent studies have shown that the contribution of hospitals to the input of APIs into the aquatic environment is quite low. Due to demographic change and the increase of psychiatric diseases, health institutions (HIs) such as psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes are likely to be important sources as well, but no data is available in this respect. This study aims to assess the impact of HIs and to provide a methodology to measure their respective contributions. Drawing on pharmaceutical consumption data for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, this study identified API usage patterns for a psychiatric hospital (146 beds), a nursing home (286 inhabitants), and a general hospital (741 beds), the latter of which comprises three separate locations. All the HIs are located in two sub-regions of a county district with about 400,000 citizens in southwestern Germany. A selection of neurological drugs was quantified in the sewer of these facilities to evaluate the correlation between consumption and emission. The API contribution of HIs was assessed by comparing the specific consumption in the facilities with the consumption in households, expressed as the emission potential (IEP). The study shows that the usage patterns of APIs in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home were different from the general hospital. Neurological drugs such as anticonvulsants, psycholeptics, and psychoanaleptics were mainly consumed in the psychiatric hospital and the nursing home (74% and 65%, respectively). Predicted and average measured concentrations in the effluent of the investigated HIs differed mostly by less than one order of magnitude. Therefore, the consumption-based approach is a useful method

  14. Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (Centevita™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maramaldi G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Federico Franceschi,1 Elian Lati21Indena SpA, Milan, Italy; 2Laboratoire BIO-EC, Longjumeau, FrancePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the topical efficacy of a new purified extract from Madagascar, Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica [L.] Urban, both on human explants and on human volunteers, in relation to skin wrinkling and skin protection against ultraviolet light exposure. The extract, with a peculiar content of biologically active molecules, was investigated as a novel anti-inflammaging and antiglycation agent. Its typical terpenes, known as collagen synthesis promoters, represent at least 45% of the extract. It also contains a polyphenolic fraction cooperating to the observed properties.Methods: C. asiatica purified extract was assayed on human skin explants maintained alive, and several parameters were evaluated. Among the most relevant, the thymine dimerization was evaluated by immunostaining. Malondialdehyde formation was evaluated as free-radical scavenging marker by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interleukin-1a was observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. The product was further evaluated as an antiglycation agent, being glycation quantified by the advanced glycation product carboxymethyl lysine. C. asiatica purified extract was also evaluated as an antiwrinkling agent in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Formulated in a simple oil-in-water emulsion, the extent of wrinkling was assessed by skin replicas, skin firmness, skin elasticity, and collagen density measurements.Results: C. asiatica purified extract could protect DNA from ultraviolet light-induced damage, decreasing the thymine photodimerization by over 28% (P<0.05. A reduced (26%, P<0.01 expression of interleukin-1α was also observed, supporting its anti-inflammatory potential. C. asiatica purified extract showed in vitro a total inhibition of carboxymethyl lysine formation induced by the

  15. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  16. Induced starburst and nuclear activity: Faith, facts, and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the origin of starburst and nuclear (nonstellar) activity in galaxies is reviewed. A physical understanding of the mechanism(s) that induce both types of activity requires one to address the following issues: (1) what is the source of fuel that powers starbursts and active galactic nuclei; and (2) how is it channeled towards the central regions of host galaxies? As a possible clue, the author examines the role of non-axisymmetric perturbations of galactic disks and analyzes their potential triggers. Global gravitational instabilities in the gas on scales approx. 100 pc appear to be crucial for fueling the active galactic nuclei.

  17. Active DNA demethylation by DNA repair: Facts and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermann, David; Weber, Alain R; Schär, Primo

    2016-08-01

    Pathways that control and modulate DNA methylation patterning in mammalian cells were poorly understood for a long time, although their importance in establishing and maintaining cell type-specific gene expression was well recognized. The discovery of proteins capable of converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to putative substrates for DNA repair introduced a novel and exciting conceptual framework for the investigation and ultimate discovery of molecular mechanisms of DNA demethylation. Against the prevailing notion that DNA methylation is a static epigenetic mark, it turned out to be dynamic and distinct mechanisms appear to have evolved to effect global and locus-specific DNA demethylation. There is compelling evidence that DNA repair, in particular base excision repair, contributes significantly to the turnover of 5mC in cells. By actively demethylating DNA, DNA repair supports the developmental establishment as well as the maintenance of DNA methylation landscapes and gene expression patterns. Yet, while the biochemical pathways are relatively well-established and reviewed, the biological context, function and regulation of DNA repair-mediated active DNA demethylation remains uncertain. In this review, we will thus summarize and critically discuss the evidence that associates active DNA demethylation by DNA repair with specific functional contexts including the DNA methylation erasure in the early embryo, the control of pluripotency and cellular differentiation, the maintenance of cell identity, and the nuclear reprogramming. PMID:27247237

  18. [Efficiency in the prescription of drugs. Impact of a health policy: automatic change to prescription by active ingredient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Landache, Isabel Elizondo; Braceras Izaguirre, Leire; Echeto García, Ainara; Gardeazabal Romillo, Maria José; Acevedo Heranz, Paloma

    2013-11-01

    In the Basque Country in June 2010 were changed in the electronic prescription system the treatments prescribed by a brand by active ingredients, all the patients who had prescribed these molecules: atorvastatin, clopidogrel, weekly risedronate and losartan-hydrochlorothiazide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of this change automated done in June 2010. Retrospective study of the prescriptions made in the Basque Country of the selected active ingredients. The use of generics of these molecules from May to December 2010 increased from 64 points to 87. Particularly clopidogrel increased from 6.25% in generic prescriptions to 93.76%, losartan + hydrochlorothiazide from 17.94% to 93.83%, 18.92% for atorvastatin acid and 96.03% risedronic 1.76% to 65.97%. If we make the estimation of the amount of active ingredient in generic containers that have been dispensed from June to December 2010. If they had dispensed brand drugs you get this quantity of total savings: 8 104 762.22 euros. This work suggests that a program to promote use of generics increased efficiency in the use of drugs. To promote the use of generic drugs is an efficiency measure implemented in the NHS and in the neighboring countries, in recent figures are reached 40% in securities of U.S.A packaging and around 65% in the Basque Country the consume in early 2010 was much lower than these figures stand at 20% and at the end of the year stood at 27% thanks to the measures taken. PMID:24404717

  19. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  20. FACT Assists Base Excision Repair by Boosting the Remodeling Activity of RSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Richard, John Lalith; Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Menoni, Hervé; Ouararhni, Khalid; Lone, Imtiaz Nisar; Roulland, Yohan; Papin, Christophe; Ben Simon, Elsa; Kundu, Tapas; Hamiche, Ali; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    FACT, in addition to its role in transcription, is likely implicated in both transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and DNA double strand break repair. Here, we present evidence that FACT could be directly involved in Base Excision Repair and elucidate the chromatin remodeling mechanisms of FACT during BER. We found that, upon oxidative stress, FACT is released from transcription related protein complexes to get associated with repair proteins and chromatin remodelers from the SWI/SNF family. We also showed the rapid recruitment of FACT to the site of damage, coincident with the glycosylase OGG1, upon the local generation of oxidized DNA. Interestingly, FACT facilitates uracil-DNA glycosylase in the removal of uracil from nucleosomal DNA thanks to an enhancement in the remodeling activity of RSC. This discloses a novel property of FACT wherein it has a co-remodeling activity and strongly enhances the remodeling capacity of the chromatin remodelers. Altogether, our data suggest that FACT may acts in concert with RSC to facilitate excision of DNA lesions during the initial step of BER.

  1. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5...-vinylacetate copolymers Pyrilamine maleate Salicylamide Salicylic acid Simethicone Sulfur Tannic acid Thymol... dihydrogen citrate Povidone-vinylacetate copolymers Salicylic acid Simethicone Tannic acid Topical...

  2. Validation of a method by gas chromatography for the determination of fatty acids that comprise the active ingredient D-004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-004 is a new active ingredient obtained from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits. This substance is mainly composed by a mixture of saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids, from 8 to 18 carbon atoms, and has shown to be effective in experimental model of prostate hyperplasia. A capillary gas chromatographic method for the determination of the fatty acids in D-004 was developed and validated. The acids were analyzed as methyl ester derivatives, which were obtained by reaction with 10 % acetyl chloride in methanol and separated in a BPX-5 wide-bore column using tridecanoic acid as internal standard. The specificity study showed no interferences regarding the determination of this mixture, once the samples were submitted to stress conditions. Determination of the total fatty acid content was linear (r > 0.999; CVs of the response factors and of the slopes lower than 5 and 2 %, respectively) and without bias in the studied concentration range, from 50 to 150 % of the nominal mass. In the accuracy study, over the range 80 to 120 % of the nominal fatty acid concentration, high recoveries (100.4 to 100.8 %) were reached. Good results were obtained in the repeatability and intermediate precision studies (CV < 2%), proving that the method is precise. These results support that this method is properly validated, being appropriate for the quality control and stability studies of this active ingredient

  3. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief.

  4. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief. PMID:23742288

  5. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qingcui; Wu, Ting; Fu, Liang; Ye, Jiannong

    2005-03-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ED) method was developed for the determination of the pharmacologically active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its extract phytopharmaceuticals in this work. Under the optimum conditions, nine analytes, baicalein, naringenin, scopoletin, kaempferol, apigenin, scutellarin, luteolin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid were separated within 24 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 1.0 x 10(-7) g/mL to 5.6 x 10(-7) g/mL for all nine analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of E. breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its phytopharmaceuticals with a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:15740914

  6. Quantification of potential impurities by a stability indicating UV-HPLC method in niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Saji; Bharti, Amber; Tharpa, Kalsang; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2012-02-23

    A sensitive, stability indicating reverse phase UV-HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of potential impurities of niacinamide active pharmaceutical ingredient. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 stationary phase in isocratic mode using simple mobile phase. Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. Major degradation of the drug substance was found to occur under oxidative stress conditions to form niacinamide N-oxide. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, precision, linearity and accuracy. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for niacinamide and its six impurities. Detection limit of impurities was in the range of 0.003-0.005% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 93.3% and 113.3% for all impurities.

  7. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athula B. Attygalle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 °C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  8. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI) mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athula B. Attygalle; Freneil B. Jariwala; Julius Pavlov; Zhihua Yang; Jason A. Mahr; Mabel Oviedo

    2014-01-01

    A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 1C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion) and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion) which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  9. Optimization of HS-GC-FID-MS Method for Residual Solvent Profiling in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using DoE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poceva Panovska, Ana; Acevska, Jelena; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Brezovska, Katerina; Petkovska, Rumenka; Dimitrovska, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    Within this research, a headspace (HS) gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry method was developed for profiling of residual solvents (RSs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Design of experiment was used for optimization of sample preparation, as well as for robustness testing of the method. HS equilibration temperature and dilution medium were detected as parameters with greater impact on the sensitivity, compared with the time used for equilibration of the samples. Regardless of the sample solubility, the use of water for sample preparation was found to be crucial for better sensitivity. The use of a well-designed strategy for method development and robustness testing, additional level of identification confidence, as well as use of internal standard provided a strong and reliable analytical tool for API fingerprinting, thus enabling the authentication of the substance based on the RS profile. PMID:26290585

  10. An Introduction to the Prequalification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients%WHO原料药预认证项目简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雯君; 梁毅

    2012-01-01

    Search the WHO website for guidanc e and technical documents for Prequalification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,and translate and compile the program.Conclusion:Learn the relevant regulations of international organization and requirements of technology in depth,to form the system of drug management which meets the international standards,only in this way can we enter the international market as soon as possible.%检索WHO药品预认证项目技术指南,翻译并整理原料药预认证项目的工作程序。结论:只有深入学习国际组织相关法规和技术要求、建立符合国际标准的监管体系,才能有效推进我国制药产品早日进入国际市场。

  11. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes – A process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    kg of product – was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical industry featuring different characteristic reaction times, as well as L–L separation and distillation-based solvent exchange......A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic...... the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested...

  12. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  13. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  14. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Aqeela Said Hamed AL Orimi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita). Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract>methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  15. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita. Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract> methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  16. Teen Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Childbearing among Latinos in the United States. Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    The Latino population is the fastest-growing major racial/ethnic group in the United States. By 2020, approximately 16 percent of the population will be Latino. This increase will be even more pronounced among teens. This fact sheet summarizes data from the National Vital Statistics Reports on reported sexual activity, pregnancy rates, and…

  17. 21 CFR 347.60 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeled for concurrent symptoms. (2) Combinations of skin protectant and first aid antiseptic active... § 347.50(b)(1), the required indications for first aid antiseptic drug products should be used....

  18. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds. Methods: The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique. Results: The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α- linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic> nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H. triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  19. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  20. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  1. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara;

    2013-01-01

    that avoiding trypsin to detach cells led to lower level of DNA damage in the negative control. Further, two commonly used herbicides (Dezormon and Optica trio) and their four active ingredients (4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid, 2...

  2. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  3. Understanding the Active Ingredients in an Effective Preschool Vocabulary Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Teacher and Child Talk during Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to identify the active ingredients in an effective professional development intervention focused on enhancing preschool vocabulary instruction, this study examines the frequency with which teachers and children discussed theme-related vocabulary words during shared book reading. Head Start teachers received 1 year of…

  4. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  5. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Adaszy?ska, Michalina; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  6. MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM (MDS: A UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY FOR DELIVERY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical industry, various controlled released dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation and topical preparation have more importance due to efficacy and patient compliance. Topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness and skin irritation and fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is overcome by microsponge delivery system. Microsponges are tiny sponge like spherical and highly porous micro-sized particles with a unique ability for entrapping actives. They offers programmable release active drug into the skin in order to reduce systemic exposure and minimize local cutaneous reactions to active. These MDS’s are closely related to microspheres, and used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over- the-counter (OTC skin care preparations, recently used in oral drug as well as biopharmaceuticals (peptides, proteins and DNA-based therapeutics drug delivery. The present review introduces microsponge technology along with its synthesis, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of MDS.

  7. Diffusion of active ingredients in textiles: a three step multiscale model

    OpenAIRE

    Goessens, Tineke; Malengier, Benny; Li, Pei; De Staelen, Rob H.

    2013-01-01

    Most practical textile models are based on a two scale approach: a one-dimensional fiber model and a fabric model. No meso-level is used in between, i.e. the yarn scale is neglected in this setup. For dense textile substrates this seems appropriate as the yarns connect everywhere, but for loose fabrics or scrims this approach cannot be kept. Specifically when one is interested in tracking an active component released by the fibers, the yarn level plays an important role. This is because the satu...

  8. Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid. To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-β1 levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P=0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P=0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P=0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly.

  9. Piperine, an active ingredient of black pepper attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Annie Deborah Harris Souriyan; Deborah Jackline; Mahaboob Khan Rasool

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of piperine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Methods: In mice, hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of acetaminophen (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.). Piperine (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) and standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) were given to mice, 30 min after the single injection of acetaminophen. After 4 h, the mice were decapitated. Activities of liver marker enzymes [(aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated in serum, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione) were determined in liver homogenate of control and experimental mice. Results: Acetaminophen induction (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) significantly increased the levels of liver marker enzymes, TNF-α, and lipid peroxidation, and caused the depletion of antioxidant status. Piperine and silymarin treatment to acetaminophen challenged mice resulted in decreased liver marker enzymes activity, TNF-α and lipid peroxidation levels with increase in antioxidant status. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate that piperine shows promising hepatoprotective effect as comparable to standard drug silymarin.

  10. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  11. Characterizing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Binding to Human Serum Albumin by Spin-Labeling and EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenschild, Till; Reichenwallner, Jörg; Enkelmann, Volker; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-08-26

    Drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) has been characterized by a spin-labeling and continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectroscopic approach. Specifically, the contribution of functional groups (FGs) in a compound on its albumin-binding capabilities is quantitatively described. Molecules from different drug classes are labeled with EPR-active nitroxide radicals (spin-labeled pharmaceuticals (SLPs)) and in a screening approach CW-EPR spectroscopy is used to investigate HSA binding under physiological conditions and at varying ratios of SLP to protein. Spectral simulations of the CW-EPR spectra allow extraction of association constants (KA ) and the maximum number (n) of binding sites per protein. By comparison of data from 23 SLPs, the mechanisms of drug-protein association and the impact of chemical modifications at individual positions on drug uptake can be rationalized. Furthermore, new drug modifications with predictable protein binding tendency may be envisaged. PMID:27460503

  12. Ginkgo biloba extracts: a review of the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Christian; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Wurglics, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is among the most favourite and best explored herbal drugs. Standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba represent the only herbal alternative to synthetic antidementia drugs in the therapy of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's diseases. The clinical efficiency of such standardized Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) is still controversial, but authors of numerous international clinical studies recommended the use of GBE in the described therapies.Extracts of Ginkgo biloba are a mixture of substances with a wide variety of physical and chemical properties and activities. Numerous pharmacological investigations lead to the conclusion that the terpene trilactones (TTL) and the flavonoids of GBE are responsible for the main pharmacological effects of the extract in the therapy of cognitive decline. Therefore, the quality of GBE products must be oriented on a defined quantity of TTL and flavonoids. Furthermore, because of their toxic potential the amount of ginkgolic acid should be less than 5 ppm.However, data on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, especially related to the central nervous system (CNS), which is the target tissue, are relatively rare. A few investigations characterize the TTL and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba pharmacokinetically in plasma and in the brain. Recent investigations show that significant levels of TTL and Ginkgo biloba flavonoids cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the CNS of rats after oral application of GBE. Knowledge about the pharmacokinetic behaviour of these substances is necessary to discuss the pharmacological results on a more realistic basis.

  13. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns of co-crystals containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) phloroglucinol and N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovski, Aleksandar; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ferretti, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    The active pharmaceutical ingredient phloroglucinol (PHL) has been taken as an illustrative molecule to explore the intermolecular interactions which can be established with other molecular entities to build PHL pharmaceutical co-crystals. The crystal structures of five newly synthesized co-crystals are reported, where PHL is crystallized with N-heterocycles, namely 2-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine (1), 2,4-dimethyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (2), 4-phenylpyridine (3), 2-hydroxypyridine (4) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (5). The structural characteristics of these co-crystals, as far as the hydrogen-bonding networks and the crystalline architectures are concerned, are strongly dependent on the chemical features of the coformer molecules, as well as on their size and shape. A detailed analysis of the intermolecular interactions established in all the PHL co-crystals of known structures has allowed the recognition of some regularities in the packing modes that can be useful in the design of new supramolecular adducts forming predictable structural motifs. PMID:27240764

  14. Direct Determination of ECD in ECD Kit: A Solid Sample Quantitation Method for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in Drug Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yu Chao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD is an essential imaging agent used in evaluating the regional cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Determination of active pharmaceutical ingredient, that is, L-Cysteine, N, N′-1,2-ethanediylbis-, diethyl ester, dihydrochloride (ECD in ECD Kit is a relevant requirement for the pharmaceutical quality control in processes of mass fabrication. We here presented a direct solid sample determination method of ECD in ECD Kit without sample dissolution to avoid the rapid degradation of ECD. An elemental analyzer equipped with a nondispersive infrared detector and a calibration curve of coal standard was used for the quantitation of sulfur in ECD Kit. No significant matrix effect was found. The peak area of coal standard against the amount of sulfur was linear over the range of 0.03–0.10 mg, with a correlation coefficient ( of 0.9993. Method validation parameters were achieved to demonstrate the potential of this method.

  15. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  16. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2-4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods.

  17. A Tape Method for Fast Characterization and Identification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the 2-18 THz Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissi, Eric Ofosu; Bawuah, Prince; Silfsten, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2015-03-01

    In order to find counterfeit drugs quickly and reliably, we have developed `tape method' a transmission spectroscopic terahertz (THz) measurement technique and compared it with a standard attenuated total reflection (ATR) THz spectroscopic measurement. We used well-known training samples, which include commercial paracetamol and aspirin tablets to check the validity of these two measurement techniques. In this study, the spectral features of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), such as aspirin and paracetamol are characterized for identification purpose. This work covers a wide THz spectral range namely, 2-18 THz. This proposed simple but novel technique, the tape method, was used for characterizing API and identifying their presence in their dosage forms. By comparing the spectra of the APIs to their dosage forms (powder samples), all distinct fingerprints present in the APIs are also present in their respective dosage forms. The positions of the spectral features obtained with the ATR techniques were akin to that obtained from the tape method. The ATR and the tape method therefore, complement each other. The presence of distinct fingerprints in this spectral range has highlighted the possibility of developing fast THz sensors for the screening of pharmaceuticals. It is worth noting that, the ATR method is applicable to flat faced tablets whereas the tape method is suitable for powders in general (e.g. curved surface tablets that require milling before measurement). Finally, we have demonstrated that ATR techniques can be used to screen counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  18. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations. PMID:25981449

  19. Health effects of Vaccinium myrtillus L.: evaluation of efficacy and technological strategies for preservation of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Monteleone, Domenico; Trombetta, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Bilberries are a rich dietary source of various phytonutrients, including anthocyanins which contribute greatly to their antioxidant capacity and have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. These include protection against cardiovascular disorders, age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and several degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protecting genomic DNA integrity. In recent years, sales of many dietary supplements/pharmaceutical products containing anthocyanins in various dosages and formulations have been made by advertising their wide range of beneficial effects. However, there is a heightened risk of distributing deteriorated formulations to consumers due to lax regulations, in particular those applicable to phytochemical characterization and extract standardization, and in terms of quality regarding the stability of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin pigments readily degrade during industrial processing and this can have a dramatic impact on color quality and may also affect nutritional/pharmaceutical properties. This review aims to summarize the main health effects of bilberry extract used in several food supplements/pharmaceutical formulations focusing on some important aspects of anthocyanin degradation during processing and storage. It will also describe the main technological strategies which can give active ingredients greater stability, solubility and dispersibility in order to enhance formulation quality which is of great interest to the consumer and industry due to its direct and indirect impact on consumer health.

  20. Quantitation of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients in powder blends using designed multivariate calibration models by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiyong; Worosila, Gregory D

    2005-05-13

    This research note demonstrates the simultaneous quantitation of a pharmaceutical active ingredient and three excipients in a simulated powder blend containing acetaminophen, Prosolv and Crospovidone. An experimental design approach was used in generating a 5-level (%, w/w) calibration sample set that included 125 samples. The samples were prepared by weighing suitable amount of powders into separate 20-mL scintillation vials and were mixed manually. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used in calibration model development. The models generated accurate results for quantitation of Crospovidone (at 5%, w/w) and magnesium stearate (at 0.5%, w/w). Further testing of the models demonstrated that the 2-level models were as effective as the 5-level ones, which reduced the calibration sample number to 50. The models had a small bias for quantitation of acetaminophen (at 30%, w/w) and Prosolv (at 64.5%, w/w) in the blend. The implication of the bias is discussed. PMID:15848006

  1. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  2. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09μg/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 μg/g and Cr = 14.3μg/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  3. Khaya grandifoliola C.DC: a potential source of active ingredients against hepatitis C virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani, Borris Rosnay Tietcheu; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Sass, Gabriele; Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Loscher, Christine; Mkounga, Pierre; Deloison, Gaspard; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Tiegs, Gisa; Séron, Karin; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we examined the antiviral properties of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC (Meliaceae) on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle in vitro and identified some of the chemical constituents contained in the fraction with the most antiviral activity. Dried bark powder was extracted by maceration in a methylene chloride/methanol (MCM) system (50:50; v/v) and separated on silica gel by flash chromatography. Infection and replication rates in Huh-7 cells were investigated by luciferase reporter assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay using subgenomic replicons, HCV pseudotyped particles, and cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), respectively. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cellular gene expression was analysed by qRT-PCR. The chemical composition of the fraction with the most antiviral activity was analysed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five fractions of different polarities (F0-F100) were obtained from the MCM extract. One fraction (KgF25) showed the strongest antiviral effect on LucUbiNeoET replicons at nontoxic concentrations. Tested at 100 µg/mL, KgF25 had a high inhibitory effect on HCV replication, comparable to that of 0.01 µM daclatasvir or 1 µM telaprevir. This fraction also inhibited HCVcc infection by mostly targeting the entry step. KgF25 inhibited HCV entry in a pan-genotypic manner by directly inactivating free viral particles. Its antiviral effects were mediated by the transcriptional upregulation of the haem oxygenase-1 gene and interferon antiviral response. Three constituents, namely, benzene, 1,1'-(oxydiethylidene)bis (1), carbamic acid, (4-methylphenyl)-, 1-phenyl (2), and 6-phenyl, 4-(1'-oxyethylphenyl) hexene (3), were identified from the active fraction KgF25 by GC-MS. Khaya grandifoliola contains ingredients capable of acting on different steps of the HCV life cycle. PMID:26843184

  4. 蒿属植物的农药活性及其有效成分%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Artemisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利娟; 桑晓清; 孙永艳; 杨文杰

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on pesticidal activities and the corresponding active ingredients of Artemisia are presented. Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia vestita, Artemisia parvijlora, Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia capillarie, Artemisia mongoli-ca, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia monosperma and Artemisia judaica possess insecticidal activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, borneol, camphor, caryophyllene, isoaryophyllene and farnesene. Artemisia annua, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia tournefortiana, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia taurica, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia molinieri, Artemisia stolonifera show fungicidal activities and the main active ingredients are camphor, cineole, borneol, flavonoids, olefins, terpene hydrocarbons, alkanes and organic acids. Artemisia caerulescens subsp. gallica, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia roxburghiana,Artenisia annua, Artemisia tridentate, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia taurica exhibit herbicide activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, camphor, arteether, monoterpenes and ses-quiterpenes. Artemisia absinthium shows nematicidal activity. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia dracunculus have mollusicidal activities. In all, Artemisia annua, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia borealis and Artemisia judaica show multiple activities and may be used as botanical pesticides.%综述了蒿属植物的杀虫、杀螨、杀菌、除草、杀线虫和杀软体动物活性及相应的有效成分.该属中具有杀虫杀螨活性的主要有黄花蒿、野艾蒿、苦艾、蒌蒿、毛莲蒿、西南牡蒿、大籽蒿、猪毛蒿、茵陈蒿、蒙古蒿、巴儿古津蒿、南亚蒿、犹地蒿和Artemisia monsperma等,其主要有效成分是桉树脑、龙脑、樟脑、石竹烯、异石竹烯和β-法呢烯等.该属中具有杀菌活性的主要有黄花蒿、银叶艾蒿

  5. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NITROGEN (N) APPLICATION ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC MATERIAL INGREDIENT OF SORREL (RUMEX ACETOSA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adiloğlu, Sevinç; Açıkgöz, Funda Eryılmaz; Dağlıoğlu, Figen; Barut Gök, Sıla; Altan, Deniz Damla

    2015-01-01

    In this study, The effect of different doses of nitrogen (N) application on the antioxidant activity and phenolic material ingredient of sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) are investigated. In the test, four various doses of nitrogen NH4NO3 fertilizer have been applied to the plants. As a result, it has been determined that the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) have parallels with the increase in the application of nitrogen.

  6. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract and some of its active ingredients as potential emulsion stabilizers: a new approach to the formation of multiple (W/O/W) emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskaite, Ugne; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Marksiene, Ruta; Jonaitiene, Laimute; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives are under intense investigations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate how the rosemary extract and some of its active ingredients [rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA)] affect technological characteristics of multiple emulsion. Formulation has been prepared by adding investigated solutions (10%) in water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion consisting of different lipophilic phases: olive oil and liquid paraffin, with 0.5% emulsifying agent (complex of sodium polyacrylate and polysorbate 20) under constant stirring with mechanical stirrer at room temperature. The emulsion parameters were evaluated using centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test, microscopical and texture analyses. Rosemary's triterpenic saponins UA and OA showed the highest emulsion stabilizing properties: they decreased CI from 3.26% to 10.23% (p rosemary active ingredients is not surfactant-like. Even though emulsifier itself at low concentration intends to form directly the multiple emulsion, the obtained results indicate that rosemary extract containing active ingredients does not only serve as functional cosmetic agent due to a number of biological activities, but also offer potential advantages as a stabilizer and an enhancer of W/O/W emulsions formation for dermopharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:26000558

  7. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  8. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marguí, Eva, E-mail: eva.margui@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi, E-mail: iqueralt@ictja.csic.es [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Solé Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hidalgo, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.hidalgo@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements.

  9. Measurement of low amounts of amorphous content in hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients with dynamic organic vapor sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Today, a variety of devices for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is available and many different formulations for optimized deposition in the lung are developed. However, during the production of powder inhalers, processing steps may induce changes to both, the carrier and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is well known that standard pharmaceutical operations may lead to structural changes, crystal defects and amorphous regions. Especially operations such as milling, blending and even sieving generate these effects. These disorders may induce re-crystallization and particle size changes post-production which have a huge influence on drug delivery and product stability. In this study, pilot tests with a polar solvent (water) and hydrophilic drug (Salbutamol sulfate) were performed to receive a first impression on further possible implementation of hydrophobic samples with organic solvents. Thereafter, a reliable method for the accurate detection of low amounts of amorphous content is described up to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5% for a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide). The organic vapor sorption method which is a gravimetric method quantifies exactly these low amounts of amorphous content in the hydrophobic powder once the suitable solvent (isopropanol), the correct p/p0 value (0.1) and the exact temperature (25°C) have been found. Afterward it was possible to quantitate low amorphous amounts in jet-milled powders (0.5-17.0%). In summary, the data of the study led to a clearer understanding in what quantity amorphous parts were generated in single production steps and how variable these parts behave to fully crystalline material. Nevertheless it showed how difficult it was to re-crystallize hydrophobic material with water vapor over a short period. For the individual samples it was possible to determine the single humidity at which the material starts to re-crystallize, the behavior against different nonpolar solvents and the calculation of the

  10. Fusion production of solid dispersions containing a heat-sensitive active ingredient by hot melt extrusion and Kinetisol dispersing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinunzio, James C; Brough, Chris; Hughey, Justin R; Miller, Dave A; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2010-02-01

    Many techniques for the production of solid dispersions rely on elevated temperatures and prolonged material residence times, which can result in decomposition of temperature-sensitive components. In this study, hydrocortisone was used as a model temperature-sensitive active ingredient to study the effect of formulation and processing techniques as well as to characterize the benefits of KinetiSol Dispersing for the production of solid dispersions. Preformulation studies were conducted using differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy to identify optimum carriers for the production of amorphous solid dispersions. After identification, solid dispersions were prepared by hot melt extrusion and KinetiSol Dispersing, with material characterized by X-ray diffraction, dissolution and potency testing to evaluate physicochemical properties. Results from the preformulation studies showed that vinylacetate:vinylpyrrolidone (PVPVA) copolymer allowed for hydrocortisone dissolution within the carrier at temperatures as low as 160 degrees C, while hydroxypropyl methylcellulose required temperatures upward of 180 degrees C to facilitate solubilization. Low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, a high glass transition temperature control, showed that the material was unable to solubilize hydrocortisone. Manufacturing process control studies using hot melt extruded compositions of hydrocortisone and PVPVA showed that increased temperatures and residence times negatively impacted product potency due to decomposition. Using KinetiSol Dispersing to reduce residence time and to facilitate lower temperature processing, it was possible to produce solid dispersions with improved product potency. This study clearly demonstrated the importance of carrier selection to facilitate lower temperature processing, as well as the effect of residence time on product potency. Furthermore, KinetiSol Dispersing provided significant advantages over hot melt extrusion due to the reduced

  11. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  12. Impact of alternative solid state forms and specific surface area of high-dose, hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using different solid state forms and specific surface area (TBET) of active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability and dissolution performance, the mono- and dihydrated crystalline forms of chlorothiazide sodium and chlorothiazide potassium (CTZK) salts were compared to alternative anhydrous and amorphous forms, as well as to amorphous microparticles of chlorothiazide sodium and potassium which were produced by spray drying and had a large specific surface area. The tablet hardness and tensile strength, porosity, and specific surface area of single-component, convex tablets prepared at different compression pressures were characterized. Results confirmed the complexity of the compressibility mechanisms. In general it may be concluded that factors such as solid-state form (crystalline vs amorphous), type of hydration (presence of interstitial molecules of water, dehydrates), or specific surface area of the material have a direct impact on the tabletability of the powder. It was observed that, for powders of the same solid state form, those with a larger specific surface area compacted well, and better than powders of a lower surface area, even at relatively low compression pressures. Compacts prepared at lower compression pressures from high surface area porous microparticles presented the shortest times to dissolve, when compared with compacts made of equivalent materials, which had to be compressed at higher compression pressures in order to obtain satisfactory compacts. Therefore, materials composed of nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) may be considered as suitable for direct compaction and possibly for inclusion in tablet formulations as bulking agents, APIs, carriers, or binders due to their good compactibility performance. PMID:23961942

  13. A target analogue imprinted polymer for the recognition of antiplatelet active ingredients in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meixia; Pang, Wensheng; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Siding; Hu, Juan

    2012-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a propyl gallate (PrG) molecular imprinted polymer as a cartridge stuffing material to isolate antiplatelet active ingredients. A macroporous polymer was synthesized utilizing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the crosslinking agent, PrG as the template molecule and 4-vinylpyridine (4-Vpy) as the functional monomer. Subsequently, PrG was removed by washing with methanol-glacial acetic acid (9:1, v/v). The molecular imprinted polymer recognized an active ingredient, protocatechuic acid, from a crude extract of the Chinese herbal medicine, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Danshen), using an on-line column switching solid phase extraction process. Pharmacological experiments showed that protocatechuic acid inhibits arachidonic acid (10 mg/kg) induced aggregation of rat platelets in vivo. This study provides an example of an application of separation-analysis technique for screening potentially bioactive compounds. PMID:21978827

  14. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  15. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method.

  16. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M.; Sullivan, John T.; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy–based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biolog...

  17. Influence of environmental factors on the contents of active ingredients and radical scavenging property of potentilla fruticosa in the main production areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts from Potentilla fruticosa have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibited antioxidant property, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemicals and properties on this species from different growing environment. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active ingredient contents and radical scavenging property of P. fruticosa from different production areas of China in order to discover a location could produce high-quality resources for pharmaceutical products. The contents of tannin, total flavonoids, and rutin were determined and varied within the range of 7.64 ± 0.43 ∼ 10.68 ± 0.67 percentage, 2.29 ± 0.34 ∼ 5.37 ± 0.36 percentage, and 0.19 ± 0.053 ∼ 0.79 ± 0.125 percentage, respectively. Radical scavenging property was quantified, with the IC /sub 50/ of 7.24 ± 0.423 to 17.23 ± 0.551 μ g mL-1. Principal component analysis, multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis were conducted to further analysis the relationship between the variations of active ingredients and radical scavenging capacity and growth environment. The results showed dominant environmental factors for these variations were rapidly available nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, pH, July average temperature, and annual sunshine duration. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between pH, annual sunshine duration and active ingredients and radical scavenging property (p<0.05). Considering the high active ingredient contents and strong radical scavenging property, leaf extracts from P. fruticosa could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant agent, and Huzhu Northern Mountain in Qinghai Province and E-mei Mountain in Sichuan Province were selected as favorable production locations. (author)

  18. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method. PMID:27439589

  19. In vitro effects of buyang huanwu decoction and its ingredients on inhibiting the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor to its receptor in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic action of traditional Chinese medicine compound is the comprehensive effect of various ingredients, and the interactions of various ingredients are closely correlated with the final effect. In order to reveal the compatibility mechanism of buyang huanwu decoction (BHD)'s prescription in treating and preventing ischemic cerebrovascular disease, we need to explore the effect and relation of ingredients in prescription except for considering the effect of each ingredient on the whole prescription.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of BHD and its ingredients in the prescription on the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor (PAFR)in rabbits in vitro, and to analyze the action of each ingredient in the prescription.DESIGN: A decomposed recipe study based on orthogonal test.SETTING: Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Five healthy adult New Zealand rabbits of either gender were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese medicine. The prescription herbal pieces were purchased from Foshan Kangpu Pharmaceuticals Company and Jianmin Pharmaceuticals Company, and were appraised by Professor Yanchen Xu from College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 3H-PAF was supplied by Amersham Co.,Ltd.(Specific activity:6.475 TBq/mmol;batch number:200402); PAF standard by Biomol Co., Ltd.(batch number: P1318V).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between September and December 2004. ① The seven influencing factors were selected: such as Shenghuangqi , Dangguiwei, Chishao, Dilong, Taoren, Honghua, Chuanxiong. Each factor was divided into two levels, selected or not selected. The tests were arranged according to L8 (27) orthogonal test table. ②The specific binding of 3H-PAF to its receptors in rabbits was measured by

  20. Drug Facts

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  1. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures.

  2. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures. PMID:2577452

  3. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  4. Drug Facts

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  5. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  6. Drug Facts

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  7. Drug Facts

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  8. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients. PMID:19562883

  9. A survey of the syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral drug combinations critical to access in emerging nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eloan Dos Santos; Antunes, Octavio Augusto Ceva; Fortunak, Joseph M D

    2008-09-01

    irrelevant, except for "advanced salvage" drugs such as enfuvirtide. In resource-poor settings cost is a huge factor that limits drug access, resulting in high rates of new infection and subsequent mortality. IP coverage, where granted, can keep access prices for essential ARVs higher than would otherwise be the case. Large, innovator companies have made drugs available at prices very close to the cost of manufacturing for "lowest income" countries. Generic providers in India and elsewhere provide the largest supply of drugs for the developing world. The recent issuance of Voluntary and Compulsory Licenses (VLs, CLs) through the World Trade Organization's TRIP (Treaty Respecting Intellectual Property) provisions arguably contribute to bringing down access prices. The utilization of improved science, pooled purchasing and intelligent procurement practices all definitely contribute to access. This work surveys the production processes for several critical ARVs. These are discussed in terms of scale up, raw material/intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) costs. In some cases new routes to APIs or critical intermediates are needed. Based on potential new chemistries, there are significant opportunities to reduce cost for a number of critical ARVs. PMID:18571246

  10. Active Ingredient Analysis of Tibet Cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum%西藏人工栽培灵芝活性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶恩铭; 刘涛; 次仁德吉; 宋博文

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the main active ingredient in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum, this article collected the local cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum as the raw materials, used anthrone-sulfuric acid spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, pre-column derivatization RP-HPLC method to analyze the main active ingredient. The results showed that the contents of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, triterpenoids, amino acids in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum were:1.199g/100g, 1.63%, 8.898g/100g. Compared with national coverage, the active ingredient of cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum is richer, and the acid and triterpenoids content is higher than that in other regions.%为了解西藏人工栽培灵芝的主要活性成分,采集当地栽培的灵芝为原材料,分别采用蒽酮-硫酸分光法、紫外分光光度法、柱前衍生化RP-HPLC方法,分析其主要活性成分。结果表明,西藏人工栽培的灵芝中灵芝多糖、三萜类、氨基酸含量依次为:1.199g/100g、1.63%、8.898g/100g,经与国内报道相比较,西藏人工灵芝活性成分比较丰富,氨基酸和三萜类含量高于其他区域。

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of the herbicide Garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr) in fish (Anguilla anguilla L.) using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria A; Gaivão, Isabel; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-09-01

    Triclopyr-based herbicides are broadly used worldwide for site preparation and forest vegetation management. Thus, following application, these agrochemicals can inadvertently reach the aquatic ecosystems. Garlon(®) is one of the most popular commercial denominations of this group of herbicides, considered as highly toxic to fish, even by its manufacturer. Although DNA is frequently regarded as a target of pesticide toxicity, the genotoxic potential of Garlon(®) to fish remains completely unknown. Hence, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr), clarifying the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the comet assay, implemented as the standard procedure, with an extra step involving DNA lesion-specific repair enzymes (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and endonuclease III), was used to identify DNA damage in blood cells of Anguilla anguilla L. Short-term exposures (1 and 3 days) to Garlon(®) and triclopyr were carried out, adopting environmentally realistic concentrations (67.6 and 270.5 µg L(-1) Garlon(®) and 30 and 120 µg L(-1) triclopyr). The results concerning the nonspecific DNA damage proved the risk of the herbicide Garlon(®) and its active ingredient triclopyr in both tested concentrations and exposure lengths. In addition, the higher genotoxic potential of the formulation, in comparison with the active ingredient, was demonstrated. When the additional breaks corresponding to net enzyme-sensitive sites were considered, none of the conditions revealed significant levels of oxidative damage. This identification of the genotoxic properties of triclopyr-based herbicides to fish highlights the need to develop less hazardous formulations, as well as the adoption of mitigation measures related to the application of these agrochemicals in the framework of forestry and agriculture sustainable management. PMID:24623388

  12. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid) from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafsa Deshmukh; Pradnya J. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3) using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3) with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated accordi...

  13. Quality control of tuirejieduling granules using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method and simultaneous determination of four main active ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tuirejieduling granule is a compound preparation made from four kinds of Chinese medicines. It is effective for anti-inflammation, antivirus, defervescence and anti-bacterium; however, its quality control standards have remained unknown. Objective: To establish a simple and accurate fingerprint method for quality control of the Tuirejieduling granule. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of the Tuirejieduling granule was used for the fingerprint analysis and the four selected active ingredients (epigoitrin, phillyrin, saikosaponin A and glycyrrhetinic acid in the extract were determined. The fingerprint method was performed on an Amethyst C18-P chromatography column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and aqueous phase (containing 0.5% H 3 PO 4 (v/v, pH 3.0. Results: Under the optimal chromatographic condition, twenty peaks were chosen as fingerprint peaks of the Tuirejieduling granules extractions. The similarities of 10 batches of Tuirejieduling granule was more than 0.99. This indicates that the different batches of Tuirejieduling granules were under the consistent quality control. Good linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges were obtained with the values of R2 higher than 0.99 for four studied active ingredients. The recoveries for spiked samples were in the range of 96.2-105.5%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the contents of active constituents in different batches of Tuirejieduling granule. Conclusion: The HPLC fingerprint was proved to be a reliable method for the quality control of Tuirejieduling granule.

  14. Effects of the glyphosate active ingredient and a formulation on Lemna gibba L. at different exposure levels and assessment end-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, M C; Rimoldi, F; Ronco, A E

    2007-11-01

    The use of formulations of the herbicide glyphosate in transgenic crops of the Pampa's plains of Argentina has extensively increased, though there is scarce information of its impact on non-target vascular plants from agro-ecosystem related surface waters. The sensitivity of a local clone of the macrophyte Lemna gibba L. to glyphosate active principle and Roundup Max formulation was studied in standardized laboratory conditions. Phytotoxic effects, considering the aquatic route, at a concentration range of glyphosate between 0.5 and 80 mg L(-1) as active ingredient during 10 days of exposure were assessed on plant population growth, frond growth, shape and number, total chlorophyll content and colony architecture. Exposure to 1 mg L(-1) of glyphosate (an expected environmental concentration) affects all the studied assessment endpoints, except for population growth and chlorophyll content. Equivalent concentrations of this herbicide as the active ingredient or RoundupMax indicate higher phytotocity of the formulation. Exposed plants at concentrations of herbicide between 1 and 7.5 mg L(-1) exhibit after two days a recovery of the multiplication rate. Frond aggregation and longer stipe was detected between 1 and 15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate, determining more open colony architecture. At higher concentrations of the herbicide fronds break-up. Comparisons with literature data indicate a higher sensitivity of the L. gibba local clone with respect to L. minor and algal species, and also a similar response to the herbicide in field experiments with the same species. PMID:17940715

  15. 77 FR 55488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Designation of Attorney in Fact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...: Designation of Attorney in Fact The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement... currently approved information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Designation of Attorney in Fact... immigration bond obligors a means to designate an attorney to accept on the obligor's behalf, the return...

  16. Drug Facts

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  17. Drug Facts

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  18. Analytical method (HPLC, validation used for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use and its finite product Tilodem 50, hydrosoluble powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finite product Tilodem 50 - hydrosoluble powder was acomkplished in the respect of last European Pharmacopoeia.The method for analysis used in this purpose was the compendial method „Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use” in EurPh. in vigour edition and represent a variant developed and validation „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the followings: Selectivity, Linearity, Linearity range, Detection and Quantification limits, Precision, Repeatability (intra day, Inter-Day Reproductibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Solutions’ stability and System suitability. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is consistent, in terms of quality, if it contains Tylosin A - minimum 80% and the amount of Tylosin A, B, C, D, at minimum 95%. Identification and determination of each component separately (Tylosin A, B, C, D is possible by chromatographic separation-HPLC. Validation of analytical methods is presented below.

  19. Hovenia dulcis Thunb extract and its ingredient methyl vanillate activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway and increase bone mass in growing or ovariectomized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Hyeon Cha

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV, one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis.

  20. 圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析%Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredients of Agaricus gennadii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白世俊; 包锦渊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the active ingredients of Agaricus gennadii. [Method] The water extraction method, alcohol extraction method and petroleum ether extraction method were used to extracted the chemical ingredients of Agaricus gennadii, and analyzed them. [Result]The results show that Agaricus gennadii contains protein,carbohydrates,organic acids,coumarin and lactones,etc. ,may also contains saponins and steroidal triterpenes,but does not contain alkaloids,cardiac glycosides,volatile oils,phenols and tannins,etc. [Conclusion] The study makes people to fully know Agaricus gennadii.%[目的]确定圆孢蘑菇(Agaricus gennadii)的有效成分.[方法]采用水提法、醇提法和石油醚提取法对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性提取和分析.[结果]圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷和甾体三萜类,不含生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类和鞣质等.[结论]该研究可使人们更加清楚地了解圆孢蘑菇.

  1. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  2. 抗心律失常天然活性成分的研究进展%Research progress of antiarrhythmic natural active ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永煌; 岑柏宏; 陈瑞晗; 曹静桦; 黄国杰; 梁燕玲; 董艳芬

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmias are common in the field of cardiovascular disease. In March 2013, World Health Organization reported that, in 2008 the population who died of cardiovascular disease has been as high as 17.3 million, and by 2030 will increase to 23.3 million. Sudden cardiac death accounts for about 40%-50%, while the majority of sudden cardiac death caused by arrhythmia, so the development of new drugs antiarrhythmic is urgent. In recent years, the development of chemical antiarrhythmic drugs getting into the bottleneck, the value of natural antiarrhythmic drug has gotten the world's attention again. At present, the active ingredient of natural antiarrhythmic drugs mainly are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins. By a comprehensive analysis of the reported literature, the article generalizes the research progress which is about the active ingredient of natural antiarrhythmic drug in nearly a decade, in order to provide certain basis for further study on the active ingredient of natural drugs.%心律失常是心血管领域的常见病、多发病。2013年3月世界卫生组织报道,2008年死于心脑血管疾病者高达1730万,而到2030年将增至2330万。其中心脏性猝死占40%~50%,而大多数心脏性猝死由心律失常所引发,故抗心律失常新药的研发刻不容缓。近几年化学抗心律药物的研发渐入瓶颈,天然药物抗心律失常的价值重新得到世界的关注。目前天然药物抗心律失常活性成分多为生物碱类、黄酮类、皂苷类。本研究通过综合分析已报道的相关文献,概括近几年抗心律失常的天然药物活性成分研究进展,为天然药物活性成分的进一步研究提供依据。

  3. Cell-based screening identifies the active ingredients from Traditional Chinese Medicine formula Shixiao San as the inhibitors of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed a phenotypic screening in human endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein (an in vitro model of atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction to identify the effective compounds in Shixiao San. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the cell-based screening method using atorvastatin as the positive control drug, this method was applied in screening Shixiao San and its extracts. The treatment of n-butanol fraction on endothelial cells exhibited stronger healing effects against oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced insult when compared with other fractions. Cell viability, the level of nitric oxide, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelin-1 were measured, respectively. The assays revealed n-butanol fraction significantly elevated the survival ratio of impaired cells in culture. In parallel, n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest inhibition of inflammation. The generation of prostaglandin-2 and adhesion molecule (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was obviously declined. Furthermore, n-butanol fraction suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and restored the activity of superoxide dismutase. Compounds identification of the n-butanol fraction was carried out by ultra high liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The active ingredients including quercetin-3-O-(2G-α-l-rhamnosyl-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside revealed the ability of anti-atherosclerosis after exposing on endothelial cells. The current work illustrated the pharmacology effect of Shixiao San and clearly indicated the major active components in Shixiao San. More importantly, the proposed cell-based screening method might be particularly suitable for fast evaluating the anti-atherosclerosis efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicines and screening out the

  4. 离子液体在活性药物成分中的应用%The application of ionic liquids in active pharmaceutical ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟坤燕; 齐明辉; 陈宜俍; 赵文杰; 任国宾

    2011-01-01

    离子液体具有独特的可调节的理化性能,近年来离子液体在活性药物成分中的应用成为国际上研究的前沿和热点.该文在介绍离子液体特性的基础上,综述了离子液体形式的活性药物成分的制备、表征和研究意义.%Ionic liquids (Ils) possess unique tunable physical and chemical properties. Recently, the application of Ils in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has become the frontier of international pharmaceutical research. The synthesis, characterization and significance of Ils-APIs are summarized based on the properties of Ils.

  5. Research Progress in the Active Ingredients of Rose & Rose Wine%玫瑰花有效成分及玫瑰花酒的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓燕; 沈才洪; 敖宗华; 杨学琴; 黄张君; 钟霞

    2014-01-01

    玫瑰花具有令人愉悦的香气,是一种适合开发保健酒的良好原料。主要对玫瑰花的有效成分、有效成分的提取方法、有效成分应用功能、玫瑰花酒生产等的研究进展作了简要的综述。%Rose has pleasant aroma and is suitable for the development of healthcare wine. In this paper, the research progress in the active ingre-dients of rose and their extraction and application, and the production of rose wine was reviewed.

  6. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...... to the stoichiometric ratio, leading the path to full process automation. The feedback control loop relies on NIR transmission measurements performed in a flow cell where, in contrast to labor-intensive offline HPLC analytical methods, the whole reaction product can be scanned in real time without sample dilution...... information about its dynamic behavior. This information is very useful for process control design, assessment of analytical tools and definition of sampling times. In this work, a systematic procedure for chemometric model building is followed, after which a discussion is made on some of the potential...

  7. Review on active ingredients from Cannabis sativa leaves and its pharmacological characteristics%汉麻叶活性成分及其药理特性的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军强; 何锦风; 何聪芬; 蒲彪; 李靖宇; 蒋勇

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis saliva leaves contains a variety of active ingredients, including cannabinoid and non -cannabinoid. Active ingredients from Cannahis saliva leaves have a high application value in the pharmacy and other fields. In this paper, the pharmacological characteristics of cannabinoid, non-cannabinoid and unknown active ingredients was summarized.%汉麻叶含有多种活性成分,包括大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物.汉麻叶的活性成分在医药等领域有极高的应用价值.本文就大麻酚类化合物,非大麻酚类化合物和未知活性成分的药理特性展开综述.

  8. Determination of everolimus in everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient by HPLC%HPLC法测定依维莫司原料药中依维莫司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉君; 沈海梅; 马海霞; 董大伟; 王越; 杨静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of everolimus in everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient. Methods The separation was performed on a Hypersil-ODS C18column with acetonitrile - water (70∶30) as mobile phases. The detection wavelength was set at 276 nm. The column temperature was 50℃. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min with injection volume of 10μL.Results Everolimus had good linearity in the ranges of 63 — 1 008μg/mL (r= 0.999 7). The average recovery was 100.45% with RSD 0.64% (n=9).Conclusion The method is simple and specific, and can be used effectively for quality control of everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient.%目的:建立HPLC法测定依维莫司原料药中依维莫司。方法采用Hypersil-ODS C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈–水(70∶30);检测波长:276 nm;柱温:50℃;体积流量:0.8 mL/min;进样量:10μL。结果依维莫司在63~1008μg/mL线性关系良好(r=0.9997),平均回收率为100.45%,RSD值为0.64%(n=9)。结论所建立的操作简便,专属性强,可用于依维莫司原料药的质量控制。

  9. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, Amy; Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-de; Allen, Sandra A; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef

    2015-12-01

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8-10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60-70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10-14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2±1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system.

  10. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago

  11. Rapid isolation and identification of active antioxidant ingredients from Gongju using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and postcolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gang; Niu, Yaru; Wang, Hong; Dong, Jing; Yuki, Hashi; Chen, Shizhong

    2012-05-30

    Flos Chrysanthemi (Gongju, GJ) is used to prepare a herbal tea that is commonly consumed as a health beverage in Asia and is believed to contain abundant beneficial antioxidants. To rapidly identify the chemical constituents and to obtain the profile related to antioxidant activity, an online analytical method combining high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-electrospray ionization-ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) and postcolumn derivatization (PCD) has been applied for a precise and thorough identification of the chemical constituents. Meanwhile, the antioxidant profile has also been characterized by directly measuring the scavenging activity of each compound for the free radical produced by DPPH. As a result, 13 compounds have been identified in GJ, 7 of which account for its antioxidant activity. The established LC-MS(n)-PCD system has proved to offer a useful strategy for correlating the chemical profile with the bioactivities of the components without their isolation and purification, and may be used for multicomponent analysis of active substances in other foods and herbs. PMID:22540938

  12. Antimicrobial activity of a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate (Olbas(®) Tropfen) in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoud, Razan; Sporer, Frank; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Plant extracts and essential oils have been widely studied and used as antimicrobial agents in the last decades. In our study we investigated the antimicrobial activities of Olbas(®) Tropfen (in the following named Olbas), a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate, in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients. Olbas (10 g) consists of three major components such as peppermint oil (5.3 g), eucalyptus oil (2.1 g), and cajuput oil (2.1 g) and of two minor constituents like juniper berry oil (0.3 g) and wintergreen oil (0.2 g). The composition of Olbas and the five individual essential oils were characterized by GLC-MS. According to GLC-MS analysis 1,8-cineol is the main component of the complex essential oil distillate followed by menthol and menthone. The minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations of Olbas and each of the single essential oils were evaluated in 17 species/strains of bacteria and fungi. Time-kill assay was performed to compare the microbicidal activity of Olbas and peppermint oil during several time intervals. Olbas displayed a high antimicrobial activity against all test strains used in this study, among them antibiotic resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus). Its antimicrobial activity was comparable to that of peppermint oil which was the most potent one of all individual essential oils tested. In the time kill assay Olbas as well as peppermint oil demonstrated similar microbicidal activities. Based on its wide antimicrobial properties Olbas can be a useful agent for the treatment of uncomplicated infections of skin and respiratory tract. PMID:22739414

  13. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  14. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  15. Mathematical Art-O-Facts: Activities to Introduce, Reinforce, or Assess Geometry & Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Catherine Jones

    2008-01-01

    This book is loaded with hands-on measurement and geometry activities that will get students rolling up their sleeves, excited to use their math skills. The author has created these activities to supplement a teacher's existing math curriculum. They are flexibly designed for use as either introductory, reinforcement, or assessment activities. This…

  16. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    capillary pressure (Laplace pressure) combined with a large number of pores per unit area offering low pressure drop. The separation device can easily be operated by means of a back-pressure regulator ensuring flow-independent separation efficiency. Simple monitoring and control strategies as well as...... scaling-up/out approaches are proposed, concluding that membrane-based L-L separation may become a standard unit operation for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing....... a PTFE membrane with 28 cm2 of active area. A less challenging separation of water and toluene was achieved at total flow rates as high as 80 mL/min, with potential to achieve even higher flow rates. The operability and flexibility of the membrane separator and a plate coalescer were compared...

  17. The slow relaxation dynamics in active pharmaceutical ingredients studied by DSC and TSDC: Voriconazole, miconazole and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joaquim J Moura; Diogo, Hermínio P

    2016-03-30

    The slow molecular mobility of three active pharmaceutical drugs (voriconazole, miconazole and itraconazole) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC). This study yielded the main kinetic features of the secondary relaxations and of the main (glass transition) relaxation, in particular their distribution of relaxation times. The dynamic fragility of the three glass formers was determined from DSC data (using two different procedures) and from TSDC data. According to our results voriconazole behaves as a relatively strong liquid, while miconazole is moderately fragile and itraconazole is a very fragile liquid. There are no studies in this area published in the literature relating to voriconazole. Also not available in the literature is a slow mobility study by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the amorphous miconazole. Apart from that, the results obtained are in reasonable agreement with published works using different experimental techniques.

  18. 黄芪的有效成分提取与纳滤提取应用分析%Active Ingredients Extracted and Nanofiltration Application in Astragalus Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立忠; 吴镝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the active ingredients of astragalus diarrhea extraction and nanofiltration extracted application,astragalus traditional extraction process improvements. Methods APS,saponins as subjects,the use of orthogonal experimental design and analysis of numerical range analysis by comparing the effects of different extraction temperature,time and number of ingredients,and the extraction process in boiling alcohol shen added effect of cel ulase,nanofiltration comparison,the evaporation method. Results The experimental results showed that the temperature < 80 ℃, extracting 2 times,and each time 60 min nanofiltration concentrated extract was the optimum water extraction of astragalus. Conclusion Compared to traditional boiling alcohol precipitation extraction,astragalus of nanofiltration extraction process in the economic,technical y strong advantages,it has some promotional value in guiding the preparation of manufacturing,clinical applications.%目的:分析黄芪的有效成分提取和纳滤提取的应用,对传统的黄芪提取工艺进行改进。方法将黄芪多糖、总皂甙作为实验对象,使用正交实验设计并用极差分析法分析数值,对比不同提取温度、时间和次数对成分含量的影响,并在水煮醇沉提取工艺中加入了纤维素酶,比较纳滤、蒸发方法的效果。结果实验表明温度<80℃、提取2次且每次60 min的纳滤浓缩提取是黄芪水提的最佳工艺。结论相比较传统水煮醇沉提取法,黄芪的纳滤浓缩提取工艺在经济、技术上有很强的优越性,在指导制剂生产、临床应用中具有一定的推广价值。

  19. Active Ingredients Extracted and Nanofiltration Application in Astragalus Extract%黄芪的有效成分提取与纳滤提取应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立忠; 吴镝

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析黄芪的有效成分提取和纳滤提取的应用,对传统的黄芪提取工艺进行改进。方法将黄芪多糖、总皂甙作为实验对象,使用正交实验设计并用极差分析法分析数值,对比不同提取温度、时间和次数对成分含量的影响,并在水煮醇沉提取工艺中加入了纤维素酶,比较纳滤、蒸发方法的效果。结果实验表明温度<80℃、提取2次且每次60 min的纳滤浓缩提取是黄芪水提的最佳工艺。结论相比较传统水煮醇沉提取法,黄芪的纳滤浓缩提取工艺在经济、技术上有很强的优越性,在指导制剂生产、临床应用中具有一定的推广价值。%Objective To analyze the active ingredients of astragalus diarrhea extraction and nanofiltration extracted application,astragalus traditional extraction process improvements. Methods APS,saponins as subjects,the use of orthogonal experimental design and analysis of numerical range analysis by comparing the effects of different extraction temperature,time and number of ingredients,and the extraction process in boiling alcohol shen added effect of cel ulase,nanofiltration comparison,the evaporation method. Results The experimental results showed that the temperature < 80 ℃, extracting 2 times,and each time 60 min nanofiltration concentrated extract was the optimum water extraction of astragalus. Conclusion Compared to traditional boiling alcohol precipitation extraction,astragalus of nanofiltration extraction process in the economic,technical y strong advantages,it has some promotional value in guiding the preparation of manufacturing,clinical applications.

  20. Development of Genotoxic Impurities Control in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient%原料药中基因毒性杂质控制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 徐彩虹; 陈仙; 胡爱玲; 楼朝; 金秀芳; 龚俊强; 陈轶群

    2015-01-01

    目的 介绍原料药(active pharmaceutical ingredient,API)中基因毒性杂质控制的法规要求、评估方法和控制方法.方法 通过学习欧美法规发展历史,理解国际高端市场对基因毒性杂质控制的监管期望,提出原料药中基因毒性杂质风险评估方法.结果与结论 企业基于半定量评估,结合清除研究数据,建立科学的控制策略,使实际工艺中所有可能涉及的基因毒性杂质风险得到明确鉴别和控制,是达到监管期望的有效途径.

  1. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Deshmukh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3 using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3 with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated according to the regulatory guidelines with respect to linearity, system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery. Detector response was linear for HPLC in the range of 0.04 to 0.16 mg/cm3. The system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery was assessed by calculating % COV for all these parameters which is less than two as expected. The recovery of the method for Gallic acid was found 98.94% which shows that method is accurate. The described method has the advantage of being rapid and easy hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of Gallic acid from Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

  2. Influence of Process Parameters on Content Uniformity of a Low Dose Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in a Tablet Formulation According to GMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muselík Jan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and production of tablets using direct compression of powder mixtures. The aim was to describe the impact of filler particle size and the time of lubricant addition during mixing on content uniformity according to the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process validation requirements. Processes are regulated by complex directives, forcing the producers to validate, using sophisticated methods, the content uniformity of intermediates as well as final products. Cutting down of production time and material, shortening of analyses, and fast and reliable statistic evaluation of results can reduce the final price without affecting product quality. The manufacturing process of directly compressed tablets containing the low dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API warfarin, with content uniformity passing validation criteria, is used as a model example. Statistic methods have proved that the manufacturing process is reproducible. Methods suitable for elucidation of various properties of the final blend, e.g., measurement of electrostatic charge by Faraday pail and evaluation of mutual influences of researched variables by partial least square (PLS regression, were used. Using these methods, it was proved that the filler with higher particle size increased the content uniformity of both blends and the ensuing tablets. Addition of the lubricant, magnesium stearate, during the blending process improved the content uniformity of blends containing the filler with larger particles. This seems to be caused by reduced sampling error due to the suppression of electrostatic charge.

  3. Monitoring the dissolution of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and TPGS in real time via IR spectroscopy during the manufacturing of liquid dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šašić, Slobodan; Palm, Andrew S; Tang, Degui

    2012-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor the dissolution of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and an excipient (vitamin E - TPGS) during manufacturing of a liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The goal of the analysis is to explore options for real-time, on screen, and quantitative monitoring of these two components by using an iC10 instrument. As is common, the first step in the approach is to create respective calibration models for the two components and then apply those models on the spectra obtained from scale-up batches. Interestingly, while the API dissolves at the room temperature, TPGS dissolves at an acceptable rate at 50 °C so both temperatures have to be considered. It is shown that univariate models of sufficient accuracy can be developed with a straightforward applicability to the scale-up batches spectra and providing reasonably accurate estimates of the API and TPGS concentrations. Some limitations of the software on the employed instrument may diminish the prospect for the quantitative analysis of the components of interest in this formulation. PMID:22871426

  4. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yikun; Tang, Zhuxing; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2007-10-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrcochemical detection (ED) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of seven active ingredients in the stems and roots of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation, including (+)-catechin, rutin, gentisic acid, vallinic acid, salicylic acid, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. The effects of working potential, pH, and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage, and injection time on CE-ED are systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the seven analytes could be completely separated within 23 min in a borax running buffer (pH 8.7). A good linear relationship is obtained over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) ranging from 5x10(-8) g/mL to 3x10(-7) g/mL for the analytes. The proposed method is successfully used in the analysis of real samples after a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results are satisfactory. PMID:17988450

  5. Study on cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredient extraction method%肉桂降糖活性成分提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢春连; 陆志科

    2014-01-01

    用乙醇回流提取法、超声波提取法、新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分。结果表明,新装置提取法比回流提取法、超声波提取法提取效率高,且快速简便。新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分的最佳条件为:多功能提取器装置,提取溶剂为95%乙醇,提取时间2 h,产品粗提率达21.0%。%Three methods were compared of preparing cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredients:the etha-nol refluxing extraction,ultrasonic extraction and the new device extraction. The results showed that the new device extraction was superior to ethanol refluxing extraction and ultrasonic extraction,and the meth-od was fast and simple. The best conditions of the method were:multi-extractor device,solvent of 95%ethanol,and the time of extraction was 2 h,the coarse product rate was 21. 0% .

  6. Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jin-Xing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078, and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1 plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL. However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD. Methods A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy. Results Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression. Conclusion IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  7. The cinnamon-oil ingredient trans-cinnamaldehyde fails to target Campylobacter jejuni strain KC 40 in the broiler chicken cecum despite marked in vitro activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, David; Martel, An; van Deun, Kim; van Immerseel, Filip; Heyndrickx, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of diarrheal disease in humans worldwide, with poultry products being a major source. Therefore, strategies to decrease Campylobacter colonization during primary production might aid in reducing the number of human campylobacteriosis cases. Several plant-derived compounds have been reported to possess anti-Campylobacter properties in vitro, so they could be promising candidates to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. To test this hypothesis, selected plant-derived antimicrobials (caffeic, gallic, protocatechuic, and vanillic acids, epigallocatechin gallate, trans-cinnamaldehyde, and thymol) were screened for anti-Campylobacter activity by determining MICs and setting up time-kill curves for C. jejuni strain KC 40. These experiments revealed marked antibacterial activity, especially for the cinnamon oil ingredient trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN). This compound was tested in a broiler chick seeder model; it was added to the feed in coated form at an effective concentration of 0.3 % from day-of-hatch for the entire 22-day duration of the experiment. At 14 days of age, one-third of the birds were inoculated with C. jejuni strain KC 40 and served as seeders. CIN was not able to reduce cecal Campylobacter colonization in this model, which was confirmed in a cecal loop experiment. Despite CIN concentrations much higher than the MIC, C. jejuni numbers were not reduced compared with those in nontreated ceca at 2 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, this study shows a marked discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo activity of CIN against C. jejuni strain KC 40. PMID:22004822

  8. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Earthquakes Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M; Sullivan, John T; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features) to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter) and solute linked carrier (influx transporter). Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70) were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and has been

  10. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter and solute linked carrier (influx transporter. Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70 were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and

  11. Analysis on the active ingredients of lavender honey from Xinjiang province%新疆薰衣草蜜活性成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘柳; 张琦; 毛秀丽; 黄俊逸

    2012-01-01

    The reduced sugar, amylase value, total protein, total phenolic acid and anti-oxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging activity test) of lavender honey, black locust honey and linden honey were determined and compared. The results showed that the content of amylase value, total phenolic acid and total protein in lavender honey are 14.8 mL/g.h, (200.8+6.9) IJg/g and (25.35+2.74) mg/100 g, respectively, all of which are higher than that of the other two kinds of honey, but the content of reduced sugar is lower, which is 74%. Three kinds of bee honeys have anti-oxidative activity. The scavenging capacities of lavender honey and linden honey don't exhibit an obvious difference, which are stronger than that of black locust honey. In addition, total phenolic acid content have no obvious correlation with anti-oxidative activities. It suggests that there are other active ingredients contributing to the anti-oxidative activities in honey.%以薰衣草蜜、洋槐蜜和椴树蜜3种蜂蜜为材料,对蜂蜜中的还原糖含量、淀粉酶值、蛋白质含量、总酚酸含量和它们清除DPPH自由基的能力进行分析。结果表明:薰衣草蜜中的淀粉酶值、总酚酸含量、蛋白质的含量分别为14.8mL/g·h、(200.8±6.9)μg/g和(25.35±2.74)mg/100g,均高于其他2种蜜,但还原糖含量比其他2种蜂蜜略低,为74%。3种蜂蜜均具有抗氧化的作用,薰衣草蜜与椴树蜜对DPPH自由基的清除能力相当,均高于洋槐蜜。总酚酸含量与抗氧化能力之间无明显相关性,说明蜂蜜中还含有其他的抗氧化活性成分。

  12. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  13. HPLC法测定达格列净原料药中有关物质%Determination of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈稳; 郑津津; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients.Methods HPLC method was adopted. The determination was carried out on Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.02 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - methanol - tetrahydrofuran (60∶35∶5) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detective wavelength was set at 220 nm, the column temperature was at 35℃, and the injection volume was 10μL.Results Dapagliflozin and its related substances had good separation. The LOQ of the related substances, such as Z1, Z2, F1, F2, and F3 were1.34, 1.54, 1.42, 1.71, and 2.11 ng, respectively. The average recoveries were 98.9%, 97.6%, 103.2%, 102.4%, and 102.8% with RSD values of 1.8%, 1.3%, 1.5%, 0.7%, and 1.7%, respectively.Conclusion The method is sensitive and accurate, and can be used for quality control of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients.%目的:建立达格列净原料药中有关物质的测定方法。方法采用 HPLC法。Diamonsil C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);以0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钠水溶液–甲醇–四氢呋喃(60∶35∶5)为流动相;体积流量1.0 mL/min;检测波长220 nm;柱温35℃;进样量为10μL。结果达格列净与各杂质的分离度良好,杂质Z1、Z2、F1、F2、F3的定量限分别为3.22、3.83、3.65、4.33、4.92 ng,平均回收率分别为98.9%、97.6%、103.2%、102.4%、102.8%,RSD值分别为1.8%、1.3%、1.5%、0.7%、1.7%。结论本方法检测灵敏度高,精密度好,可以用于达格列净原料药中有关物质的质量控制。

  14. Determination of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients%HPLC法测定安立生坦原料药中有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈保来; 李家春; 仲艳; 郭庆明; 沈旺; 王振中; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立安立生坦原料药中有关物质的测定方法。方法采用HPLC法。Waters Atlantis T3色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);以0.02%三氟乙酸水溶液–0.01%三氟乙酸乙腈溶液为流动相,进行梯度洗脱;柱温30℃;体积流量1.0 mL/min;自动进样器控温5℃;检测波长220 nm。结果安立生坦与各杂质的分离度良好,杂质Z1、Z2、Z3、Z4、DP1的定量限分别为2.14、2.54、2.44、2.45、2.41 ng,平均回收率分别为102.9%、96.0%、93.1%、104.6%、115.2%,RSD值分别为2.1%、4.6%、2.9%、2.7%、4.9%(n=10)。结论该方法检测灵敏度高,精密度好,可以用于安立生坦原料药中有关物质的质量控制。%Objective To establish a method for determination of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Waters Atlantis T3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) with mobile phase consisted of 0.02% trifluoroacetic acid - acetonitrile (containing 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid) with gradient elution. The temperature of column was set at 30℃. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with automatic injection volume of 5μL. The detective wavelength was set at 220 nm. Results Ambrisentan and its related substances could be separated completely. The LOQ of the related substances, such as Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, and DP1 were 2.14, 2.54, 2.44, 2.45, and 2.41 ng, respectively. They all had good linearity. The average recovery were 102.9%, 96.0%, 93.1%, 104.6%, and 115.2%with RSD values of 2.1%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 2.7%, and 4.9%(n = 10), respectively. Conclusion The method is sensitive and accurate, and can be used for quality control of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  15. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  16. Development and validation of a stability-indicating reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummala, Veera Raghava Raju; Lanka, Mohana Krishna

    2015-10-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating gradient reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and pharmaceutical formulation. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase of a gradient mixture. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.18 mL/min with column temperature of 30 degrees C and detection wavelength of 281 nm. The relative response factor values of (R*)-2-( benzylamino)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl) ethanol ((R x S*) NBV-), (R)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S)-2-((S)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino) ethanol ((RRSS) NBV-3), 1-(chroman-2-yl)-2-(2-(6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl amino) ethanol (monodesfluoro impurity), (S)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((R)-2 (S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol hydrochloride ((RSRS) NBV-3) and (R*)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S*)-2-((S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol ((R* S* S* S*) NBV-2) were 0.65, 0.91, 0.68, 0.92 and 0.91 respectively. Nebivolol formulation sample was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity and photolytic degradation. Nebivolol was found to degrade significantly under peroxide stress condition. The degradation products were well resolved from nebivolol and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the nebivolol peak was homogenous and pure in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 98%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to International Conference on Hormonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness. PMID:26930962

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? ...

  18. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  19. 21 CFR 310.544 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking deterrent. 310.544 Section 310.544 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a smoking deterrent. (a) Any product that bears labeling... or reduce smoking,” or similar claims is a smoking deterrent drug product. Cloves,...

  20. HRSA Data Fact Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Data Fact Sheets provide summary data about HRSA’s activities in each Congressional District, County, State,...

  1. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI–IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H–1H COSY NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Saji Thomas; Saroj Kumar Paul; Subhash Chandra Joshi; Vineet Kumar; Ashutosh Agarwal; Dharam Vir

    2014-01-01

    A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI–IT/MS) analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 1H–1H co...

  2. Fucoxanthin: A Promising Medicinal and Nutritional Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhang; Yibo Tang; Ying Zhang; Shuofeng Zhang; Jing Qu; Xu Wang; Ran Kong; Chunchao Han; Zhenquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, an allenic carotenoid, can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds. Recent studies have reported that fucoxanthin has many physiological functions and biological properties, such as antiobesity, antitumor, antidiabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective effects. Therefore, fucoxanthin can be used as both medicinal and nutritional ingredient to prevent and treat chronic diseases. Although fucoxa...

  3. Water soluble active ingredients of Danshen--review on the Salvianolic acids%丹参水溶性有效成分--丹酚酸研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冠华; 张均田

    2000-01-01

    Danshen-Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae,is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines,which has been used clinically in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases more than 20 centuries.The active ingredients of Danshen has been researched 5 decades by the modern methods.Many researchers investigated the pharmacological effects of water soluble ingredients of Danshen-salvianolic acids in vivo and in vitro.The results demonstrated that salvianolic acids have different pharmacological effects such as potent antioxidative effects,scavenging free radicals,protect neural cells against injuries caused by anoxia, etc.In present paper,the pharmacological effects of salvianolic acids and the mechanisms of their actions are reviewed based on the research results obtained in our laboratory and other authors.

  4. Pharmacodynamic Study and Active Ingredient of Endophyte in Medicinal Plants%药用植物内生菌活性成分及药效学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁仁伟; 邓毅

    2012-01-01

    查阅国内外近年相关文献,对药用植物内生菌代谢产物的种类及药效进行分析总结,概述药用植物内生菌的活性成分和药效学研究现状,提出药用植物内生菌可产生多种活性成分和药理作用,此项研究对于解决药用植物资源匮乏和发现新成分、新疗效具有重要价值.%Metabolites types of endophytes in medicinal plants and efficacy were analyzed and summarized; active ingredient and pharmacodynamic study of endophytes in medicinal plants were outlined through consulting associated literature at home and abroad in recent years, endophytes in medicinal plants can produce many kinds of active ingredients and pharmacological action. The study is valuable for covering scarcity of medicinal plants and discovering new ingredient and curative effects.

  5. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  6. Content of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient with Somatostatin by UPLC Method%UPLC法测定生长抑素原料药的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承军; 王秀梅; 王建良; 贾长久; 李兰兰

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立快速、准确、灵敏的测定生长抑素原料药的方法.方法:采用沃特世ACQUITY超高液相色谱系统(UPLC),以磷酸(取磷酸11 mL,加水900 mL,用三乙胺调pH至2.3,用水稀释至刻度1 000 mL处)为流动相,(A)-乙腈 (B)梯度洗脱,流速:0.3 mL/min;检测波长为215 nm;柱温45℃;进样体积2μL.结果:生长抑素在0.005 149 2~0.128 73 mg / mL范围内有良好的线性关系(R2= 0.999 3),平均回收率(n=9)为99.1%.结论:UPLC法检测快速、准确、灵敏度高、重复性好,为生长抑素原料药的质量控制提供了一种快速准确的方法.%Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and sensitive method to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with somatostatin. Method: Waters ACQUITY UPLC was adopted. Phosphoric acid-triethylamine buffer solution was as mobile phase A and acetonitrile as B, gradient elution was used with flow rate of 0.3 mL/min; detection wave length was 215 nm; column temperature was 45 ℃; injection volume was 2μL. Result: Somatostatin has a great linearity (R2 = 0.999 3) from 0.005 149 2 mg/mL to 0.128 73 mg/mL. Average recovery rate (n= 9) is 99.1%. Conclusion: UPLC method, which is rapid, accurate, sensitive and with good repeatability, could service for quality control of somatostatin (API).

  7. Reducing effect of saikosaponin A, an active ingredient of Bupleurum falcatum, on alcohol self-administration in rats: Possible involvement of the GABAB receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Lorrai, Irene; Carai, Mauro A M; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Mugnaini, Claudia; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2016-05-16

    Recent studies demonstrated that treatment with saikosaponin A (SSA) - an active ingredient of the medicinal herb, Bupleurum falcatum L. - selectively suppressed, likely via a GABAB receptor-mediated mechanism, intravenous self-administration of morphine and cocaine in rats [Yoon et al., 2012; 2013]. The present study was designed to investigate whether the capacity of SSA to suppress morphine and cocaine self-administration extends to oral alcohol self-administration. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were trained to lever-respond on a Fixed Ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested under the FR4 (measure of alcohol reinforcing properties) and Progressive Ratio (PR; measure of alcohol motivational properties) schedules of reinforcement. The possible involvement of the GABAB receptor system was investigated testing the effect of (a) pretreatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist, SCH50911, and (b) combined treatment with the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783. Treatment with SSA (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/kg, i.p.) markedly reduced lever-responding for alcohol, amount of self-administered alcohol, and breakpoint for alcohol (defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved in the PR experiment). Pretreatment with 2mg/kg SCH50911 (i.p.) resulted in a partial blockade of the reducing effect of 0.5mg/kg SSA on lever-responding for alcohol and amount of self-administered alcohol. Combination of per se ineffective doses of GS39783 (5mg/kg, i.g.) and SSA (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced lever-responding for alcohol and amount of self-administered alcohol. These results (a) extend to alcohol self-administration the capacity of SSA to suppress morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats and (b) suggest that the GABAB receptor system is likely part of the neural substrate underlying the reducing effect of SSA on

  8. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD.

  9. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  10. Effect of Different Processing Technology of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim on the Active Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity%加工工艺对苦茶槭有效成分和抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔成诚; 方成武; 张传标; 张明燕

    2016-01-01

    To study on the effects of different processing method of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim main active ingredient and antioxidant activity, used Acer Ginnala Maxim as raw material in different processing methods, HPLC method was used to measure main active ingredient content of gallic acid. DPPH method was used to determine the scavenging effect on free radicals. Result showed that Acer. Ginnala. Maxim processing method of Black tea, gallic acid content was ( 18. 49±1. 13) mg/g, higher than processing method of green tea of (12. 45±1. 92) mg/g and dried in shade of (14. 28±1. 13) mg/g. Antioxidant activity of the different processing methods of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim was in the following order:the method of green tea (0. 443 mg/mL) < the method of dried in shade (0. 726 mg/mL) < the method of black tea (1. 286 mg/mL) . From the angle of improve the content of Gallic acid and increased the antioxidant activity, the processing method of black tea was much better.%研究了不同加工工艺对苦茶槭主要活性成分和抗氧化活性的影响,以期筛选最适合苦茶槭加工方式。对所采集的苦茶槭鲜叶以不同加工方式进行加工处理,采取HPLC法对苦茶槭主要有效成分没食子酸含量进行检测。采用DPPH法评价不同加工方法苦茶槭自由基的抗氧化活动。结果显示,采用红茶加工法的苦茶槭没食子酸含量为(18.49依1.13) mg/g高于绿茶加工法(12.45依1.92) mg/g和自然阴干法(14.28依1.13) mg/g。不同加工方法的苦茶槭IC50依次为:绿茶工艺(0.443 mg/mL)<自然阴干(0.726 mg/mL)<红茶工艺(1.286 mg/mL)。从提高苦茶槭没食子酸含量,增加抗氧化活性角度建议采用红茶加工方法。

  11. Phlorizin, an Active Ingredient of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Increases Proliferative Potential of Keratinocytes with Inhibition of MiR135b and Increased Expression of Type IV Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Ryung; Nam, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Yang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jongsung; Date, Akira; Toyama, Kazumi; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    E. senticosus extract (ESE), known as antioxidant, has diverse pharmacologic effects. It is also used as an antiaging agent for the skin and phlorizin (PZ) is identified as a main ingredient. In this study, the effects of PZ on epidermal stem cells were investigated. Cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalents are used to test whether PZ affects proliferative potential of keratinocytes and how it regulates these effects. Skin equivalents (SEs) were treated with ESE and the results showed that the epidermis became slightly thickened on addition of 0.002% ESE. The staining intensity of p63 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is increased, and integrin α6 was upregulated. Analysis of ESE confirmed that PZ is the main ingredient. When SEs were treated with PZ, similar findings were observed. In particular, the expression of integrin α6, integrin β1, and type IV collagen was increased. Levels of mRNA for type IV collagen were increased and levels of miR135b were downregulated. All these findings suggested that PZ can affect the proliferative potential of epidermal cells in part by microenvironment changes via miR135b downregulation and following increased expression of type IV collagen. PMID:27042261

  12. Phlorizin, an Active Ingredient of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Increases Proliferative Potential of Keratinocytes with Inhibition of MiR135b and Increased Expression of Type IV Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Ryung Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E. senticosus extract (ESE, known as antioxidant, has diverse pharmacologic effects. It is also used as an antiaging agent for the skin and phlorizin (PZ is identified as a main ingredient. In this study, the effects of PZ on epidermal stem cells were investigated. Cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalents are used to test whether PZ affects proliferative potential of keratinocytes and how it regulates these effects. Skin equivalents (SEs were treated with ESE and the results showed that the epidermis became slightly thickened on addition of 0.002% ESE. The staining intensity of p63 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is increased, and integrin α6 was upregulated. Analysis of ESE confirmed that PZ is the main ingredient. When SEs were treated with PZ, similar findings were observed. In particular, the expression of integrin α6, integrin β1, and type IV collagen was increased. Levels of mRNA for type IV collagen were increased and levels of miR135b were downregulated. All these findings suggested that PZ can affect the proliferative potential of epidermal cells in part by microenvironment changes via miR135b downregulation and following increased expression of type IV collagen.

  13. [Antiperspirants and deodorants--ingredients and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, V A; Korting, H C

    1989-01-01

    Antitranspirants and deodorants gain more and more interest. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequently used active ingredients in commercial antitranspirants today. Aluminium chloride and propantheline bromide, the anticholinergic substance, are important alternatives although less common. Active ingredients of deodorants are mainly perfumes or bactericidal/bacteriostatic substances, such as triclosan. In addition, there are substances which are meant to bind offending smells (e.g. zinc ricinoleate) or to influence the skin surface pH (e.g. triethyl citrate). As in the cosmetics industry in general, both safety and efficacy of a product are major parameters in the experimental and clinical evaluation. Establishment of efficacy is based on olfactory tests in model situations as well as on the detection of associated effects (e.g. influence on cutaneous microflora). PMID:2656175

  14. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI-IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H-1H COSY NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saji Thomas; Saroj Kumar Paul; Subhash Chandra Joshi; Vineet Kumar; Ashutosh Agarwal; Dharam Vir

    2014-01-01

    A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI-IT/MS) analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 1H-1H correlation spectro-scopy (COSY) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Based on the spectroscopic and spectrometric data, unknown impurity was characterized as 5-carbamoyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl propionate.

  15. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI–IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H–1H COSY NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI–IT/MS analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR, 1H–1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Based on the spectroscopic and spectrometric data, unknown impurity was characterized as 5-carbamoyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl propionate.

  16. 复方卡力孜然凝胶剂主要活性成分体外经皮渗透%In vitro Percutaneous Penetration of Main Active Ingredient from Fufang Kali Ziran Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢建国; 王新春; 赵媛; 马建红; 薛桂蓬; 刘桂花

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同透皮促进剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分体外经皮渗透的影响,筛选有效的透皮吸收促进剂.方法:采用改良Franz扩散池法、离体鼠皮进行体外透皮试验,HPLC测定透皮吸收促进剂对3种有效成分补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素的累积透过量及透皮速率的影响.结果:不同促透剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂中补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素体外透皮吸收产生不同的影响,确定2%氮酮为促进剂时3种有效成分的促透效果最好.结论:2%氮酮能够促进复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分的有效渗透,透皮吸收过程符合Higuchi方程.%Objective: To study on effects of in vitro percutaneous penetration of different penetration enhancers for three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel, and to screen out effective transdermal absorption enhancers. Method;In vitro transdermal test was used by modified Franz diffusion cell method and in vitro rat skin, effect of cumulative penetration volume and penetration rate from transdermal absorption enhancers for three active ingredients ( psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole) was determined by HPLC. Result; Different enhancers were found to have different degree in vitro penetration enhancing effect on psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole in Fufang Kali Ziran gel,determined 2% azone had optimum promoting effect as enhancers to three active ingredients. Conclusion;2% azone could promote effective penetration of three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel. This process of penetration absorption could be in line with Higuchi equation.

  17. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  18. Food Ingredients as Anti-Obesity Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Matsushita, Mami

    2015-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis after cold exposure, and is involved in the regulation of energy expenditure and body fatness. BAT can be activated and recruited by not only cold exposure but also by various food ingredients including capsaicin in chili pepper and catechins in green tea, which would be easily and safely applicable to our daily life for preventing obesity. PMID:26421678

  19. Anti-Phytopthora capsici Activities and Potential Use as Antifungal in Agriculture of Alpinia galanga Swartz, Curcuma longa Linn, Boesenbergia pandurata Schut and Chromolaena odorata: Bioactivities Guided Isolation of Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilart Pompimon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant derived fungicides are now being subjects of many research groups. These secondary metabolites have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agrochemical research. The study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity and their potential use as fungicides in the agriculture of crude extracts and purified compounds derived from plants used in traditional medicines. Approach: Four medicinal plants including A. galanga, C. longa, B. pandurata and C. odorata were selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone or methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated their chemical structures. Disc mycelial growth inhibition was applied in order to determine their anti P. capsici activity and the field study was performed to determine their potential use in controlling fungal infection in chili plants compared with commercial fungicides such as captan and bio-control Trichoderma virens. Results: All crude extract inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus performed with similar efficacy. ED90 was equal to 300 ppm. Among plants studied B. pandurata was the most potent against P. capsici. The proposed active ingredients were pinostrobin and pinocembrin. In the field study, pinocembrin mediated the same anti P. capsici activity as captan. B. pandurata can protect chili from infection, thus increasing crop yield of chili comparable to Trichoderma virens. Conclusion: The results clearly showed that the extracts of the four plants studied could be considered as potential sources of novel fungicides. Particularly, B. pandurata has a very high potential as raw material for developing the antifungal molecule of non-petrochemical, naturally eco-friendly, easily obtainable and not toxic to human beings and environment, at least for use in chili growing.

  20. Application of Refractometry in Purification Technology of Active Ingredients from Citrus aurantium by Macroporous Resin%折光法在树脂精制枳实中有效成分的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文雪; 姚珍珍; 涂瑶生; 陈银芳; 宋小玲; 王跃生

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨折光法在大孔树脂纯化工艺中应用的可行性.方法:选取枳实提取物为研究对象,经AB-8型大孔吸附树脂精制有效部位,用水与50%乙醇洗脱,间隔取样,在线监测洗脱液的折光率并分析其变化规律,同时以HPLC和UV检测作为参比,判断洗脱过程中始点和终点.结果:枳实有效部位精制过程中水洗终点为第4 BV(折光率0),亦即50%乙醇洗脱始点,50%乙醇洗脱终点为第9 BV(折光率16).结论:折光法准确可靠、便捷快速,具有较强的实践指导意义.%Objective: To explore application feasibility of refractometry in purification technology of macroporous resin. Method: Taking extract of Citrus aurantium as research object, active ingredients in it was refined by AB-8 macroporous resin, washed with water and 50% ethanol, interval sampled, refractive ratio of eluent was monitored on line and analyzed its regularity. At the same time, HPLC and UV spectrophotometric method was used to determine hesperidin as references, and to judge initiation point and terminal point during elution. Result: In purification process of active ingredients from C. aurantium, water elution terminal point 4 BV ( refractive index 0) of which was the initiation point by 50% ethanol, 9 BV (refractive index 16) of 50% ethanol elution was the terminal point. Conclusion: Refractometry was accurate, reliable, convenient, quickly in purification technology of active ingredients of TCM, it had a strong practical significance.

  1. A comparative analysis of nutrition components and functional active ingredients in Avena nuda and Avena sativa%裸燕麦和皮燕麦的营养及功能活性成分对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑蕊; 王世霞; 幺杨; 婷婷; 刘珊; 任贵兴; 綦文涛

    2015-01-01

    The differences of nutrition components and active ingredient between Avena nuda and Avena sativa were compared.The contents of basic components (moisture and ash),nutritional compositions (starch,protein and fat)and functional active ingredient (flavonoids,polyphenols and oligosaccharide) in 5 kinds of Avena nuda and 3 kinds of Avena sativa were determined.The results showed that there were no significant differences in the contents of moisture and ash between Avena nuda and Avena sativa. The contents of crud fat,crud protein,stearic acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid,flavonoids and amino acid in Avena nuda were significantly higher than those in Avena sativa,while the contents of slowly digestible starch and stachyose in Avena nuda were significantly lower than those in Avena sativa. Both Avena nuda and Avena sativa had similar composition of nutritional and functional active ingredients but the contents of them higher in Avena nuda than in Avena sativa.%对比研究裸燕麦和皮燕麦营养组分及功能活性成分的差异。以5种裸燕麦和3种皮燕麦为材料,分别测定其中基本组分(水分和灰分)、营养组分(淀粉、蛋白质和脂肪)以及功能组分(黄酮、多酚和低聚糖等)的含量。结果表明,裸燕麦和皮燕麦的水分和灰分含量无显著性差异;裸燕麦在粗脂肪、粗蛋白、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、黄酮和氨基酸等营养及功能组分的含量方面显著高于皮燕麦,而慢消化淀粉和水苏糖2种组分含量显著低于皮燕麦。裸燕麦和皮燕麦含有相同种类的营养及功能组分,但裸燕麦的多种营养组分及功能组分含量高于皮燕麦。

  2. A preliminary analysis of the active ingredients from the seeds of Polygonum orientale against Mythimna separata%红蓼种子中杀黏虫活性成分的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚赛群; 胡冠芳; 刘敏艳; 张新瑞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对红蓼种子乙酸乙酯萃取物中具有潜在杀虫活性的化合物进行初步分析,为指导开发利用杀虫植物资源提供依据.[方法]采用硅胶柱层析和气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法,以5龄黏虫为试虫;对红蓼种子萃取物的有效杀虫活性成分进行分析,应用色谱峰面积归一法测定各组分的相对百分含量.[结果]极性(甲醇)组分共分离出37个色谱峰,鉴定了其中的35个组分,占总含量的94.46%.弱极性(二氯甲烷)组分共分离出39个色谱峰,鉴定出39个组分.[结论]从成分的化学结构推断,红蓼种子的杀虫活性可能存在于14种成分中,主要成分为酮、醇、开环萜和五环三萜烷类化合物.%[Objective] Active ingredients of the ethyl acetate fraction from seeds of Polygonum orientale Linn, were analyzed to provide the basis for the exploitation of the insecticidal plant resources. [Method] Insecticidal ingredients from the seeds of P. orientale fractions were analyzed against the 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker by using silica gel colurnn-chromatographer (CO and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative percentage of each composition was determined by area normalization. [Result] Thirty-seven peaks were found, 35 of which were identified, representing 94.46% of the total contents in polar fraction. Thirty-nine peaks were found, all of which were identified in low polar fraction. [Conclusion] It was deduced that the insecticidal active ingredients in P. orientale seeds were 14 chemical compounds, belonging to ketone, alcohol, terpene with open-ring and pentacyclic triterpene classes.

  3. The validation of the analytical method (HPLC, use for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, colistine sulphate and the finished product Colidem 50 – hydrosoluble powder, in SC DELOS impex ‘96 SRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neagu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finished product Colidem 50 - hydrosoluble powder is make according to European Pharmacopoeia, curent edition. The method for analysis use in this purpose is the compendial method „Colistine sulphate” in E.P. in current edition and represent a optimized variant, developed and validated „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the follow: Selectivity/Specificity, Linearity, Range of Linearity, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification, Precision (Repeatability - intra day, inter-Day Reproducibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Stability Solutions and System Suitability.

  4. 基于均匀设计法对酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的配伍研究%Uniform Designed Research on the Active Ingredients Assembling of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for Anti-depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen out the optimized compatibility proportion of three active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae foranti-depression.Methods Groups were ar anged fol owing uniform design. The forced swimming test,tail suspension test were car ied out to determine theanti-depressantactivity in mice.Mice immobility duration in forced swimming test and tail suspension test were observed.Results The optimized dosage of total fat y oil was 10mg/kg,total flavonoids was 100mg/kg and total saponins was 10mg/kg.Conclusion It would be possible to use uniform design combined with pharmacodynamics method in defining the optimized compatibility of active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae.%目的优选酸枣仁中3种抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍比例。方法根据均匀设计法进行分组,采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验,用小鼠不动时间作为药效学评价指标。结果酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最优配伍为总脂肪油10mg/Kg,总黄酮100mg/Kg,总皂苷10mg/Kg。验证实验证明,酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍组合抗抑郁疗效确切。结论应用均匀设计法与药效学相结合确定酸枣仁活性组分配伍的方法是可行的。

  5. Rapid Detection of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Weak Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Signal Drugs by Paper Substrate-Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectrometry%纸基-表面增强拉曼光谱法快速检测弱主药信号药品中的主药成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓; 陈梦云; 王磊; 张倩倩; 方芳; 苗丽; 陆峰

    2015-01-01

    A rapid detection method of active pharmaceutical ingredients( API) in weak API signal drugs by surface enhanced Raman scattering ( SERS) technology combined with paper substrate was established in this work. By soaking the filter paper in silver nanoparticles solution ( Ag NPs) to synthesize Ag NPs-paper as the substrate, and then the sample solution was dropping on the substrate with SERS detection. On the basis of strengthen ability of Ag NPs-paper, result of SERS detection and optimal preparation conditions, the fast identification method of weak API signal drugs was established. In this case, the SERS spectra of weak API signal drugs and their standards SERS spectra were obtained, where the correlation coefficient of weak API signal drug SERS spectra and its standard was more than 0. 9. The result showed that by this method, the low content API in weak API signal drugs could be well investigated, and the deficiencies of the normal Raman spectroscopy efficiently was also overcome. In conclusion, the synthesize method of Ag NPs-paper was simple, and the strengthen effect of this Ag NPs-paper on the intensity was obviously observed. Paper substrate-SERS method was simple, rapid and sensitive, and could be used to detect weak API signal drugs, presenting broad application prospects in the rapid detection of weak API signal drugs.%建立了弱主药信号药品中主药成分的纸基-表面增强拉曼光谱( SERS)快速检测方法。采用浸泡法制备纳米银溶胶滤纸SERS基底(简称银胶纸),将待检样品滴加于银胶纸上进行SERS检测。通过考察银胶纸制备条件、银胶纸增强能力、SERS检测结果,建立用于弱主药信号药品中主药成分的快速检测方法。通过本方法获得弱主药信号药品中主药成分的SERS图谱,与其对应标准品图谱的相关系数大于0.9,较好地检测出弱主药信号药品中的主药成分,有效克服了常规拉曼光谱分析的不足之处。新型银胶纸制备简

  6. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF NAGAKESHARA (MESUA FERREA LINN) - AN INGREDIENT IN VYAGHRIHAREETAKI AVALEHA

    OpenAIRE

    C Roshy Joseph; Ilanchezhian R; Patgiri Biswajyoti; CR Harish

    2010-01-01

    Herbs are staging a come-back and the herbal renaissance is “the happening” all over the globe. Ironical fact – Ayurvedic System of medicine is still struggling to reach the heights beyond numerous hurdles in its path. One such hurdle is controversy over botanical identity of drugs. Among the many drugs under controversy the drug nagakeshara is also one. The drug nagakeshara is found as an ingredient in many of the Ayurvedic formulations. Nagakeshara is an ingredient in Vyaghrihareetaki Avale...

  7. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  8. 羽裂蟹甲草对家蝇和白纹伊蚊的杀虫活性和活性成分%Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继光; 赵欢欢; 苗辉; 徐汉虹

    2012-01-01

    To study the insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica,the methanol extracts of C.tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus were bioassayed with feeding method and dipping method.The active ingredients of C.tangutica were isolated and identified.Results indicated that the methanol extracts from different parts of C.tangutica showed highly insecticidal activities against adult M.domestica and the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus.Nine compounds (stigmasterol,friedelin,7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin,umbelliferone,daphnetin,daphnetin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,quercetin,kaempferol and β-daucosterol) were isolated and identified from extracts of leaves and flowers of C.tangutica.Among them,friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol were firstly isolated from this plant.At 48 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of adult M.domestica caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the dosage of 500 μg/g were 88.33%,69.90% and 77.04%,respectively.At 72 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the concentration of 50 μg/g were 88.49%,72.22%and 71.06%,respectively.The studies suggest that C.tangutica would be a promising control agent on medical insects and deserves a further study.%为探明羽裂蟹甲草Cacalia tangutica的杀虫活性及其活性成分,通过拌糖饲喂法和浸渍法测定了羽裂蟹甲草甲醇提取物对家蝇Musca domestica成虫和白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus 4龄幼虫的毒杀活性,并采用色谱分离技术和现代波谱技术对羽裂蟹甲草中的化学成分进行了分离鉴定.结果表明:该植物不同部位甲醇提取物对家蝇成虫和白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫均具有较高的生物活性.从该植物叶和花甲醇提取物中分离鉴定了豆甾醇、无羁萜、7-羟基-8-甲氧基香豆素、7-羟基香豆素、7,8-二羟基香豆素、瑞香素-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、槲皮素

  9. Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan through its active ingredient loganin counteracts substance P-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling in rats with bladder hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Overt bladder afferent activation may exacerbate endogenous substance P (SP) release to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to hyperactive bladder. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (BWDHW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients by undefined mechanisms. We explored the possible mechanisms and the active components of BWDHW on exogenous SP-induced bladder hyperactivity. BWDHW contained six major components: loganin, paeoniflorin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and paeonol by high-performance liquid chromatography. In urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats, we evaluated transcystometrogram, pelvic afferent nerve activity by electrophysiologic recording techniques, ICAM-1 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ROS amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence method and possible ROS sources from the different leukocytes by specific stains in SP-treated bladder. BWDHW and its major component loganin dose-dependently inhibited H2 O2 and HOCl activity in vitro. Intragastrical BWDHW (250 mg/kg) and loganin (5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks did not affect the baseline micturition parameters. Intra-arterial SP (20 µg/rat) through neurokinin-1 receptor activation increased voiding frequency (shortened intercontraction intervals), pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, bladder ROS amount, neutrophils adhesion to venous endothelium, CD68 (monocyte/macrophage), and mast cell infiltration in the inflamed bladder. BWDHW and loganin pretreatment significantly depressed SP-enhanced pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and ROS amount, and subsequently improved bladder hyperactivity. In conclusion, our results suggest that BWDHW and its active component loganin improves bladder hyperactivity via inhibiting SP/neurokinin-1

  10. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC. PMID:25857875

  11. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC.

  12. Monetary policy, inflation and the level of economic activity in Brazil after the Real Plan: stylized facts from SVAR models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisne Céspedes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers some stylized facts about the short run fluctuations of the Brazilian economy after the Real Plan, giving special attention to the identification of the effects of monetary policy shocks. A distinctive feature of this article is the careful attention paid to monetary policy developments after the Real Plan when dividing our sample into two subsamples (1996:07-1998:08 and 1999:03-2004:12. We use directed acyclic graphs to identify the Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR models. In contrast with most SVAR analysis for Brazil, we found empirical evidence that supports the view that a contractionary monetary policy indeed reduces the price level.Este artigo obtém alguns fatos estilizados sobre as flutuações de curto prazo da economia brasileira após o Plano Real, dando atenção especial à identificação dos efeitos dos choques da política monetária. Dadas as alterações na política monetária, ocorridos após o Plano Real, optamos por dividir a nossa análise em dois subperíodos (1996:07-1998:08 e 1999:032004:12. Os modelos de Auto-Regressão Vetorial Estrutural (SVAR foram identificados através do uso de grafos acíclicos direcionados. Em contraste com a maioria das análises feitas para o Brasil, que adotam modelos SVAR, encontramos evidências de que uma política monetária contracionista reduz o nível geral de preços.

  13. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  14. The facts of the control actions for Saratov region medical organizations making medical activity's orders and standarts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsymbal D.E.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to analyse the results of the control actions of the Territorial body of the Federal service on surveillance in healthcare and social development of the Saratov region made to check medical activity's orders, standards. Material and methods. The study presents the results of the control actions the Territorial body of the Federal service on surveillance in healthcare and social development of the Saratov region made to check medical activity's orders, standards. We used the analytical method to make the research. Results. The study presents the percentage balance of different kinds of defects of medical activity's orders and standards which we got in the results of the control actions of medical organizations in 2013 and eight months of 2014. Conclusion. The study shows the high performance of the control actions of medical activity's orders and standards made by the Territorial body of the Federal service on surveillance in healthcare and social development.

  15. 美白活性原料的筛选及其特性研究%Study of selection and properties of active ingredients in whitening cosmetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 王勇刚; 李素霞; 韩福森; 吴巧玲; 王素英

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosinase inhibiting activity and anti-oxidizing capacity (scavenging activity against hydroxyl free radicals and super-oxidizing anionic free radicals in vitro) of extracts of twenty kinds of plant material, including green tea, grape seed and Brazil cherry were investigated. Experimental results showed that, all the extracts of twenty kinds of plant material display tyrosinase inhibiting activity and anti-oxidizing capacity in vitro with different extent;while the extracts from green tea, grape seed and Brazil cherry display very strong ty-rosinase inhibiting activity,which are much higher than that of arbutin. Further,the above-mentioned three extracts display significant scavenging activity against hydroxyl free radicals and super-oxdizing anionic free radicals in vitro. Thus the three kinds of plant material have the potential to be used in whitening cosmetics.%对绿茶、葡萄籽和巴西大樱桃等23种植物提取物对酪氨酸酶的抑制作用以及其抗氧化能力(清除羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的能力)进行了研究.实验结果表明,20种样品均表现出不同程度的酪氨酸酶抑制作用和抗氧化能力,其中绿茶、巴西大樱桃和葡萄籽提取物表现出极强的酪氨酸酶活性抑制率,且抑制活性远高于熊果苷;同时这3种植物提取物也表现出显著的清除羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的能力,具有应用于美白化妆品的潜力.

  16. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  17. 石榴籽油冷榨技术及活性成分生理作用研究%Pomegranate Seed Oil Cold Pressing and Physiological Role of Its Active Ingredient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    石榴籽油冷榨技术采用低温62℃,使脂肪氧化酶灭活,既可提高出油率,又可防止挥发油、多酚、维生素等活性物质的损失.冷榨技术与莘取法相比,出油率仅低3%-5%,但没有萃取溶剂有害物质的残留.本文介绍了冷榨技术工艺流程及操作要点,分析了石榴籽油的活性成分及其生理作用.%Pomegranate seed oil cold pressing technology inactives lipoxygenase at low temperature 62℃ ,which can increase oil yield and prevent the loss of volatile oils, polyphenols, vitamins and other active substances. Compared with extraction technology,oil yield of cold pressing technology is 3%-5% lower, but no harmful substances residues in extraction solvent. Process and operating points of cold pressing technology were introduced and physiological role of active ingredients in pomegranate seed oil was analyzed.

  18. Sodium in Your Diet: Using the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Sodium in Your Diet: Use the Nutrition Facts Label ... probably heard that most Americans eat too much sodium, and too much sodium can raise blood pressure – ...

  19. 阿莫西林原料药中有关物质的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS鉴定%Identification of related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients by UPLC-TOF-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷勇胜; 宋丽明; 郝英魁; 王云; 李瑜; 蒋庆峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:快速鉴定阿莫西林原料药中的有关物质。方法采用UPLC-TOF-MS/MS法测定。Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH色谱柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,1.7μm);流动相为乙酸铵体系;体积流量0.5 mL/min;检测波长254 nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL。电喷雾电离源;正离子检测;毛细管电压3.0 kV;离子源温度120℃;雾化气温度500℃;雾化气体积流量700 L/h;锥孔气体积流量50 L/h。结果推测了阿莫西林原料药中6个杂质的化学结构及其裂解规律,同时与欧洲药典中的杂质进行了比对归属。结论建立的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS的方法和实验数据可为阿莫西林原料药的质量控制提供了重要依据。%Objective To establish a rapid identification method for related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method was used. HPLC was carried out on Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7μm) with ammonium acetate solution as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 254 nm and injection volume was 10μL at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column temperature was set for 30℃. MS conditions were that a mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) (+) source for detection. Capillary voltage was 3.0 kV, and source temperature was 120℃. The desolvation temperature and flow rate of desolvation gas were 500℃ and 700 L/h. The flow rate of cone gas was 50 L/h. Results The structures and fragmentation regularities of six related substances in amoxicillin were elucidated according to their MS characteristics. At the same time, related substances were compared to the impurities from European Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method and results can establish a basis for quality control and stability study of amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  20. RP-HPLC测定水蛭中3种蝶啶类活性成分的含量%Content Determination of Three Pteridine Active Ingredients in Leech by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑云枫; 程建明; 彭国平

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立RP-HPLC测定水蛭药材中3种蝶啶类活性成分含量的方法.方法 采用Kromsail C18色谱柱,以甲醇:0.05%三氟乙酸水(20:80)为流动相,检测波长为354 nm,流速为1.0mL/min,柱温30℃.结果 在以上色谱条件下3种成分可以完全分离.水蛭甲素:Y=12.181 4X+0.075 3,r=0.999 6;(36.0~0.90) μg/mL,水蛭乙素:Y=12.024X-2.124 5,r=0.999 5;(40.4~1.01)μg/mL,水蛭丙素:Y=12.814 5X-3.686 l,r=0.999 8;(42.8~1.07) μg/mL.结论 该方法简单、快速,专属性好,可用于水蛭药材的质量控制方法之一.%OBJECTIVE To establish RP-HPLC determination of the content of three pteridine active ingredients in leech. METHODS Kromsail Cu chromatographic column was used with methanol to 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (20 '? 80) as mobile phase, detecting wave length of 354 nm, flow speed of 1.0 mL/min and column temperature of 30 "C. RESULTS Three active ingredients were separated on the conditions mentioned above. Hirudin A: Y=12.181 4X+0.075 3,r=0. 9996; (36.0~0.90)fig/mL. Hirudin B:Y = 12.024 X - 2.124 5, r=0.9995; (40. 4~1. 01)ng/mL. Hirudin C: Y = 12.814 5X-3.686 1, r=0.999 8; (42.8~1.07)f±g/mL. CONCLUSION The method proves to be easy and fast with good specificity, which can be used to control quality of leeches.

  1. Qualitative Confirmation of Active Ingredient of Arbutin in Pear Leaves and Quantitative Determination by HPLC%梨树叶中有效成分熊果苷的确证及HPLC检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁; 何强; 姚秉华; 孔祥虹

    2011-01-01

    目的 确证梨树叶中含有熊果苷,并建立高效液相色谱法测定梨树叶中熊果苷的含量.方法 将充分粉碎的梨树叶样品用甲醇提取,蒸去甲醇后用ENVITM- 18固相萃取柱净化,采用在线获取的紫外光谱及扫描质谱对熊果苷进行确证.高效液相色谱分析时用Inertsil ODS-3色谱柱分离,甲醇-水(1:9)洗脱,282 nm检测.结果 梨树叶样品中目标物的紫外吸收光谱及子离子扫描质谱图与熊果苷标准品相同.高效液相色谱法定量分析时线性关系良好,熊果苷的回收率>93%,RSD<2.1%.结论 梨树叶中含有熊果苷有效成分,高效液相色谱法检测梨树叶中熊果苷的含量简便、快速、准确.%OBJECTIVE To confirm arbutin as an ingredient in pear leaves, and develop a method for the determination of arbutin content in pear leaves by HPLC. METHODS The full powdered pear leaves were extracted with methanol, then cleanup was performed on ENVI-18 SPE columns after methanol boiled off. Qualitative confirmation using the UV spectrum and mass spectra was acquired on-line. HPLC was performed on Inertsil ODS-3 column with DAD detection wavelength of 282 nm using methanol-water( 1: 9) as mobile phase. RESULTS The UV spectrum and mass spectra of the target chromatographic peak were the same as arbutin standard. The HPLC method showed good linear relationship, the recoveries of arbutin were all more than 93% and RSD was less than 2.1%. CONCLUSION Arbutin is an active ingredient in pear leaves, and HPLC as the content analysis method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  2. Dielectronic recombination of Fe 3p^q ions: a key ingredient for describing X-ray absorption in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Badnell, N R

    2006-01-01

    We have carried-out multi-configuration Breit-Pauli AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations for the dielectronic recombination (DR) of Fe^{8+} - Fe^{12+} ions. We obtain total DR rate coefficients for the initial ground-level which are an order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to radiative recombination (RR), at temperatures where Fe 3p^q (q=2-6) ions are abundant in photoionized plasmas. The resultant total (DR+RR) rate coefficients are then an order of magnitude larger than those currently in use by photoionized plasma modeling codes such as CLOUDY, ION and XSTAR. These rate coefficients, together with our previous results for q=0 and 1, are critical for determining the ionization balance of the M-shell Fe ions which give rise to the prominent unresolved-transition-array X-ray absorption feature found in the spectrum of many active galactic nuclei. This feature is poorly described by CLOUDY and ION, necessitating an ad hoc modification to the low-temperature DR rate coefficients. Such modifications are no lo...

  3. 抗肝纤维化的中药有效成分及其作用机制研究进展%Advances in active ingredients and action mechanism of TCM in treatment of hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蕾; 邓华平; 席忠新; 李霞; 孙连娜

    2012-01-01

    肝纤维化是多数慢性肝病所共有的病理特征,肝纤维化逐步发展形成肝硬化,最终导致肝癌.本文将近年报道的具有抗HF作用的中药有效成分作简单综述,归纳为黄酮类、生物碱类、萜类、酚类化合物,并总结了各类有效成分抗HF的作用机制,为深入开展中药抗HF的研究提供一定的参考.%Hepatic fibrosis was the common feature of pathology in almost all patients with chronic liver injury, which led to cirrhosis gradually and liver cancer ultimately. The anti-hepatic fibrosis active ingredients from TCM, including flavones, alkaloids, terpenes and phenols compounds were reviewed with the action mechanism in this paper, which could provide some references for the further study about the anti-hepatic fibrosis of TCM.

  4. Research advances in garlic's main active ingredients and their pharmacological effects%大蒜主要活性成分及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽娜; 李峰杰; 陈坚; 李贻奎

    2014-01-01

    大蒜为广义百合科植物大蒜( Allium sativum L.)的鳞茎,具有防治心血管疾病、抗肿瘤及抗病原微生物等多方面的作用。该文通过查阅国内外文献,对大蒜的主要活性成分及药理作用进行综述,并针对国内大蒜研究中存在的问题和研究进展进行了初步的分析,为大蒜的进一步研究及新药开发提供一定的参考。%Garlic is a bulb from generalized liliaceous plant Alli-um sativum, it plays an essential role in the prevention and treat-ment of cardiovascular diseases, tumors and pathogenic microor-ganisms. Through consulting domestic and foreign references, the main active ingredients of garlic and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, the problems and achievement in Chinese research are also discussed. It can provide a certain reference for the further study of garlic and new drug development.

  5. Dynamic Determination of Active Ingredients in Introduced Echinacea purpurea%引种紫锥菊不同部位有效成分含量的动态测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩琳娜; 孙俊英; 郭庆梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究引种紫锥菊中有效成分的动态积累规律。方法:分别采用HPLC和比色法测定紫锥菊生长过程中不同部位菊苣酸和总多酚含量。结果:一年生紫锥菊中总多酚含量变化不大,不同时期不同部位的菊苣酸含量存在差异,各部位菊苣酸含量在盛花期达最大值。结论:紫锥菊采收期取决于菊苣酸含量。研究结果可为山东引种紫锥菊提供理论依据。%This study was aimed to analyze the dynamic accumulation of active ingredients of Echinacea purpurea. Contents of cichoric acid and total polyphenols in different parts through the whole growth process were determined by HPLC and colorimetry. The results showed that the content of total polyphenol changed little in annual plant. There were differences in content of cichoric acid of different parts in different periods. And the content reached the maximum at flowering stage. It was concluded that the harvest stage depended on the content of cichoric acid. The results provided theoretical basis for induced plant in Shandong province.

  6. Research Progress of TCM Medicinal Herbs and Their Active Ingredients in Anti-bacterial Biofilms of Caries%中草药及其活性成分抗龋病细菌生物膜研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉梅; 徐静舒

    2015-01-01

    龋病是一种最常见的慢性进行性口腔疾病。中草药与传统治疗龋病的药物(如氟化物)相比有诸多优势,因此,近年来中草药抗龋成为国内外众多学者关注的热点。龋病不是单因素疾病,龋病的发生与变形链球菌、血链球菌、内氏放线菌、黏性放线菌、乳酸杆菌形成的细菌生物膜密切相关。本文就中草药及其活性成分抗龋病细菌生物膜相关研究进行简要概述。%Caries is one of the most common chronic progressive oral diseases. TCM medicinal herbs have many advantages compared with traditional dental drugs for caries (such as fluoride). In recent years, cariogenic TCM medicinal herbs have attracted the attention of many domestic and foreign scholars. Caries is not caused by a single factor. The development of caries is closely related to bacterial biofilms that are formed by streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis, actinomyces inside, actinomyces and lactobacillus. Therefore, this article took a brief overview of TCM medicinal herbs and their active ingredients that inhibit the bacterial biofilms.

  7. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities. PMID:19168002

  8. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  9. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  10. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  11. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  12. CPR Facts and Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CPR & First Aid CPR Facts & Stats Why Learn CPR? Cardiac arrest – an electrical malfunction in the heart ... Alive” is a perfect match for this. About CPR & First Aid CPR Facts & Stats History of CPR ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  14. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  15. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most common ... depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves inflammation ...

  16. 76 FR 51935 - Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Child Nutrition Database, USDA Foods nutrition fact sheets, and information directly from the... Food and Nutrition Service Availability to School Food Authorities of Nutrition Information and Ingredient Lists for Foods Used in School Food Service: Request for Information AGENCY: Food and...

  17. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was interview

  18. STABILITY TESTING OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT [API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stability plays an important role in drug development process. It explains several factors that affect the quality of a drug substance or drug products varies with time under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light. Stability studies play a vital role to decide the re-test period and shelf life for the drug substance and recommended storage conditions of API. ICH and EMEA guidelines define stability data package for new drug substance or drug product that is sufficient for a registration application within the three regions of the EC, Japan and United States.

  19. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  20. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich agro-ma

  1. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  2. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effects of azone on TCM active in-gredients with different lipophilicity%氮酮对不同亲脂性中药有效成分的经皮促透作用研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景雁; 兰颐; 茹庆国; 王逸飞; 刘艳; 于竞新; 吴清

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of azone on transdermal absorption of TCM active ingre-dients with different lipophilicity, and further explore its percutaneous penetration enhancement effects on the complex TCM active ingredients. Methods Five model drugs, namely osthole, tetramethylpyrazine, ferulic acid, puerarin and geniposide, were selected based on their lipophilicity determined by logKo/w, and then tested using in vitro permeation studies in which Franz diffusion cellsand rat skin were em-ployed. Meanwhile, the association between the logKo/w values of model drugs and enhancement ratio ( ER) was established. Results Different concentrations of azone could significantly promote the trans-dermal absorption of all model drugs. The ER value gradually increased with the increase of the azone concentration withina certain concentration range. It, however, started to decrease when exceedinga cer-tain concentration level. The penetration enhancement ratio was roughly in parabolic curve relation with the drug lipophilicity after treatment with azone, and azone could achieve the optimal permeation effect for moderate hydrophilic drugs (an estimated logKo/w value of -0. 5). Conclusion azone could significant-ly promote the transdermal absorption of TCM components with different lipophilicity, and its penetration enhancement ratio was in parabolic curve relation with the drug lipophilicity.%目的:考察氮酮对不同亲脂性中药有效成分的经皮促透作用特征,探讨其对中药外用制剂中复杂成分的经皮促透效果。方法选择不同亲脂性中药有效成分,包括强亲脂性和强亲水性药物,即蛇床子素、川芎嗪、阿魏酸、葛根素、京尼平苷,采用体外透皮试验测定不同浓度氮酮对各药物的经皮促透吸收情况,并建立药物油水分配系数值( logKo/w )与其对应促透倍数间的相关性。结果氮酮对不同亲脂性药物均表现出显著经皮促透作用,并呈现先随

  3. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  4. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano, Martín; Flórez, María del Rosario; Queralt, Ignasi; Marguí, Eva

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH4F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g- 1 (Pd), 8.3 μg g- 1 (Pt) and 9.3 μg g- 1 (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g- 1 (Pd), 0.15 μg g- 1 (Pt) and 0.10 μg g- 1 (Rh) for pharmaceuticals.

  5. GC-MS Fingerprint of an Active Ingredients Group from Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi Powders%金玄痔科熏洗散有效部位制剂的GC-MS指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别文华; 刘蔚; 李力; 周道年

    2015-01-01

    目的::对金玄痔科熏洗散及有效部位新制剂进行GC-MS分析,建立了有效部位新制剂的GC-MS指纹图谱。方法:采用GC-MS方法对金玄痔科熏洗散及有效部位新制剂中的主要组分进行分析,并确定指纹图谱中的特征指纹信息。结果:对10个批次的有效部位新制剂进行了测定,并得到了较为理想的包含特征信息的有效部位新制剂的GC-MS指纹图谱。结论:方法重复性好,所建立的指纹图谱为金玄痔科熏洗散有效部位新制剂的质量控制提供了有效手段。%Objective:To analyze Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi powders ( JZX) and an active ingredients group ( AIG) obtained from JZX by GC-MS, and develop a characteristic fingerprint of AIG. Methods: A gas chromatography-mass spectrum ( GC-MS) method was applied to analyze the main compositions in JZX and AIG, and the characteristic fingerprint information in the fingerprint spectrum was determined. Results:Totally 10 batches of AIG were detected, and a promising GC-MS fingerprint spectrum containing characteristic information for AIG was obtained. Conclusion: The developed fingerprint with good repeatability can be successfully applied in the quality control of AIG.

  6. HPLC determination of 4 compounds in Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi powder and its active ingredients group%新老工艺的金玄痔科熏洗散4种成分含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔚; 叶晓川; 段雪云; 陈树和; 刘焱文

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立测定金玄痔科熏洗散(JZXS)及新工艺制备的金玄痔科熏洗散(AIG)中绿原酸、咖啡酸、金丝桃苷和木犀草素的HPLC分析方法.方法:采用Venusil XBP C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm);柱温30℃;流速1.0mL·min-1;流动相:乙腈-0.4%磷酸水溶液,梯度洗脱;进样量10μL;检测波长为335nm.结果:绿原酸、咖啡酸、金丝桃苷、木犀草素的线形范围分别和回归方程分别为0.760~4.560μg (r=0.999 9),Y=2 254.9X+ 131.66;0.058~0.348μg (r=0.999 9),Y=3 610.8X+7.913 5;0.046~0.276 μg(r=0.999 9),y=1 446.7X+2.124 3;0.024~0.144μg(r=0.999 9),y=2 344.5 X -0.716 2;JZXS 平均加样回收率(n=5)分别为97.4%(RSD=1.8%),98.6%(RSD=2.3%)和97.8%(RSD=2.9%);AIG平均加样回收率(n=5)为97%(RSD=1.2%),97.3%(RSD=2.5%),98.12% (RSD=2.7%)和96.9% (RSD=1.9%).结论:该方法专属性好,准确度高,为进一步完善JZXS的质量标准提供了科学依据,并为该传统制剂二次开发为创新中药品种奠定了基础.%OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside and luteoloside in Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi powder(JZXS) and its active ingredients group(AIG). METHODS RP-HPLC was used, the separation was performed on Venusil XBP C18 (250 m×4. 6 mm,5μm) column by gradient elution with acetonitrile -0. 4% phosphoric acid as the mobil phase. The detection wavelength was set at 335 nm and the flow rate was 1. 0 mL·min-1 , and column temperature was 30 ℃. RESULTS The linear ranges were 0. 760-4. 560μg (Y = 2 254. 9X + 131. 66, r = 0. 999 9) for chlorogenic acid, 0. 058 - 0. 348μg (Y = 3 610. 8X +7. 913 5, r=0.9999) for caffeic acid, 0. 046 - 0. 276μg (Y = 1 446.7X + 2. 124 3, r= 0. 999 9) for hyperoside and 0. 024 - 0. 144μg (Y= 2 344. 5X - 0. 716 2,r= 0. 999 9) for luteoloside. The recoveries (n = 5) were 97. 4%(RSD= 1. 8%) ,98. 6%(RSD=2. 3%) and 97. 8%(RSD= 2. 9%), respectively in Jinxuan Zhike Xunxi paoder, and

  7. 基于均匀设计的中药有效组分复方配伍研究%Uniform designed research on the active ingredients assembling of Chinese herbal for antioxidative capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸿; 吴彦; 马琰岩; 吕俊海; 李晶哲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find a suitable way of quantitative composition-activity relationship of Chinese herbal for antioxidative capacity based on uniform design. Method Chinese herbal active ingredient formula was composed of Total flavonoids of Glycyrrhiza (TFG) , ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) , Total fa-vonoids of epimedium (TFE) and astragaloside (AST) . The herbal efficacy was detected by scavenging the free radical of DPPH in vitro, and the mathematical model was constructed to describe the connection between different combinations and their antioxidative capacity by the method of LARS regression. Result The best effect was in the ratio of TFG 0. 8 mg/ml,GBE 3.144 mg/ml,TFE 0.024 mg/ml,AST 0.036 mg/ml. Conclusion Uniform designed research is one of efficient ways to describe the quantitative composition-activity relationship.%目的 探索基于均匀设计的中药抗氧化有效组分复方的研究分析方法.方法 采用均匀设计和改进最小角回归分析,对甘草总黄酮、银杏叶提取物、淫羊藿总黄酮和黄芪总苷组成的中药组分复方不同配比体外清除DPPH自由基的作用进行研究.结果 通过分析获得了中药组分配伍清除DPPH的回归方程,优化组合后进行药效学验证,结果显示该中药组分配伍最佳剂量组合为甘草总黄酮0.8 mg/ml、银杏叶提取物3.144 mg/ml、淫羊藿总黄酮0.024 mg/ml和黄芪总苷0.036 mg/ml.结论 上述中药组分配伍后能有效清除DPPH自由基;本实验采用的均匀设计结合改进最小角回归分析适合"非线性、小样本"生物实验数据数据分析,为筛选评价抗氧化中药有效组分复方提供了合适的研究方法.

  8. Infertility Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Infertility fact sheet ePublications Infertility fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) ... to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) involves transferring eggs and sperm into the ...

  9. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ingredients such as fruits, nuts, chives or other vegetables used or blended with cottage cheese shall be... cottage cheese may first be soaked for 15 to 20 minutes in a cold 25 to 50 ppm chlorine solution...

  10. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Škrtić; Manuela Grčević; Zlata Kralik; Gordana Kralik

    2012-01-01

    Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as f...

  11. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich agro-materials in specific components such as protein. Electrostatic separation recently emerged as a novel dry separation process and it relies on electrostatic forces for separation. Though the potential of electrostati...

  12. Extraction of active ingredients in Honey suckle and their function in cosmetics%金银花活性成分提取及其抗氧化和抑菌功效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小锋; 原增艳; 许平辉

    2012-01-01

    利用超声波预处理结合乙醇回流提取法从金银花中提取活性成分,通过响应面分析法设计实验,得到了较佳的提取工艺:超声波预处理30.9 min,乙醇的体积分数为73.7%,提取温度为68.5℃,每次提取2.1h,提取2次,在此条件下绿原酸提取率达到88.39%.通过与阳性物质Vc比较检验了提取物的功效,证明金银花提取物具有较好的体外抗氧化能力;通过对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、黑曲霉的抑制分析,证明金银花提取物具有良好的抑菌防腐能力.%Active ingredients in Honey suckle were extracted by ultrasonic -aided ethanol method. The optimal processing conditions for the extraction were identified by using the software "Design Expert 7. 1. 3 Tril". Pretreatment time is 30. 9 min under aid of ultrasonic wave. Ethanol with volume fraction of 73. 7% was used as the solvent. Temperature was 68. 5 ℃. Extraction of two times was operated with each of 2. 1 h. Under the afore - said conditions, yield of chlorogenic acid achieves 88.39%. Comparing with positive material vitamin C,the efficacy of the extract was investigated and experimental results showed that the extract has a good in - vitro antioxidation capability. Bacteriostasis tests were carried out against colibacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger and the results showed that the Honey suckle extract has strong bacteriostatic and antiseptic capabilities.

  13. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH4F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g−1 (Pd), 8.3 μg g−1 (Pt) and 9.3 μg g−1 (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g−1 (Pd), 0.15 μg g−1 (Pt) and 0.10 μg g−1 (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration. • 6–9 μg g−1 (catalysts) and 0.1–0

  14. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resano, Martín, E-mail: mresano@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Flórez, María del Rosario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi [Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera ICTJA-CSIC, Sole Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marguí, Eva [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH{sub 4}F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 8.3 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 9.3 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 0.15 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 0.10 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration.

  15. Optimization of Extraction Process of Anti-tumor Active Ingredient in Clematis manshurica Rupr%东北铁线莲中抗肿瘤活性成分的提取工艺优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晨; 翟兴英; 李翔; 张武岗; 唐琍萍; 张凌; 冯育林; 杨世林

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish extraction technology for anti-tumor active ingredient of W2 [3-O-a-L-pyran rhamnose- ( 1 → 6 ) -β-Z)-glucopyranosyl- ( 1 → 4 ) -β-D-glucopyranosyl- ( 1 → 4 ) -β-D-ribopyranose-(1→3) - α-i-pyran rhamnose- ( 1 → 2 ) -α-L-arabinopyranosyl oleanolic acid saponins ] from Clematis manshurica Rupr. Method: With the content of W2 as index, which was determined by HPLC, effects of extraction time, extraction solvent, liquid-solid ratio and extraction times on extraction technology were investigated by single factor test and orthogonal test, then to determine optimum technology of W2. Result: Optimum extraction process of W2 was as following: reflux extracted 2 times with 12 times the amount of 30% ethanol, 2.5 hours per time. Conclusion: Optimized technology was reasonable, stable and feasible, which could provide a experimental basis for the follow-up research of C. manshurica Rupr.%目的:建立东北铁线莲中抗肿瘤活性成分W2[3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖-(1→6)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖-(1→4)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖-(1→4)-β-D-吡喃核糖-(1→3)-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖-(1→2)-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖齐墩果酸皂苷]的提取工艺.方法:以W2提取量为指标,采用HPLC测定W2含量,通过正交试验和单因素试验考察提取溶媒、提取时间、料液比、提取次数对提取工艺的影响,确定W2最佳提取工艺.结果:最佳提取工艺为30%乙醇提取2.5h,料液比1∶12,提取2次.结论:优选的提取工艺合理、稳定、可行,为东北铁线莲后续研究提供实验依据.

  16. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Health › Myth vs Fact › Adrenal Fatigue Myth vs. Fact Adrenal Fatigue January 2015 Download PDFs ... science. This fact sheet was created to address myths about adrenal fatigue and to provide facts on ...

  17. 菊花活性成分Parthenolide对人鼻咽癌CNE2细胞线粒体功能和半胱天冬酶活性的影响%Influence of active ingredient of chrysanthemum Parthenolide on mitochondrial function of CNE2 cell of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and caspase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 林育纯; Shen Han-Ming; Yang Cheng-Feng; Ong Choon-Nam

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parthenolide (PN) is the pricipal component of sesquiterpene lactones contained in some aromatic herbs. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) occurs worldwide is one of highest incidence malignant tumor in south China. It is essential that using the PN as the therapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine to develop the modern rehabilitation for NPC.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of sesquiterpene lactones(SLs), the active ingredient of chrysanthemum, on the mitochondrial function of NPC cell and activating passage of caspase. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in this study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Completed by the Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University with object of poorly differentiated CNE2 cell strain.INTERVENTION: Parthenolide is given and the dose-reaction and time effect are observed. The cellular mitochondrial function is detected with MTT color reaction, cellular caspase-9 and -3 activity were measured with substrate fluorescence spectrum, the release of mitochondrial cytochromic C(CytC) and cleavage segment of caspase-3 proenzyme were detected with protein immunity blotting; and specific inhibitor was applied for the blocking passage experiment of cellular caspase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: cellular mitochondrial function, cellular caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, release of mitochondrial CytC and cleavage of caspase-3 proenzyme. RESULTS: After acted by PN( 1 - 100 μmol/L) for 12 hours and 24 hours, MTT color reaction inhibition rate grows obviously with the dose, indicating dose-dependence (Pearson's γ=0. 7322, 0. 7703, P < 0. 05), IC50 was 252.94 μmol/L and 49.63 μmol/L respectively; but without rising of caspase-9 and -3 activity, release of CytC and formation of caspase-3 proenzyme cleavage. Affected by PN and caspase inhibitor at same time, caspase-9 and -3 activity were apparently lower than that of control and singlePN effect. (t=9. 146, 8.280, 27.325, 27.450, P

  18. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin. (author)

  19. NF Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Learn About NF Facts & Statistics NF1 NF2 Schwannomatosis About Us Foundation News & Events Employment Opportunities About ... classified into three distinct types; NF1, NF2 and schwannomatosis. They are caused by different genes, located on ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About ... more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get ...

  1. Medications: Myths Versus Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications: Myths Versus Facts Updated:Aug 30,2016 Taking medication ... Association volunteer. Here are some of the top myths about taking cardiovascular medication: I feel OK, so ...

  2. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  3. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  4. International waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  5. International waste management fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs

  6. Fact Finding Nuclear Energy; Fact Finding Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lako, P. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Blom, F.J.; Van Gemert, F. [Sociaal-Economische Raad SER, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Facts and figures on nuclear energy are presented to enable a discussion on the role of nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The following issues are presented: Nuclear technology, safety and security (including non-proliferation and protection against terrorism); Environmental aspects (including greenhouse gas emissions of the nuclear energy lifecycle); Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits); Policy issues (including sustainable development); Social acceptance of nuclear energy; Knowledge infrastructure for nuclear energy in the Netherlands; and Nuclear power in long term energy scenarios for the Netherlands and Europe. Using two long-term energy scenarios the report also presents a social impact analysis of an increasing share of nuclear power in the Dutch electricity supply. [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn feiten en gegevens over kernenergie verzameld op basis van bestaande inzichten en een veelheid aan literatuur (fact finding). Voor technologische expertise heeft ECN zich laten bijstaan door de Nucleair Research and consultancy Group (NRG). Op basis van de fact-finding studie bereidt de SER een advies voor over de rol van kernenergie in de toekomstige nationale elektriciteitsproductie. In de eerste acht hoofdstukken worden feiten en gegevens gepresenteerd over verschillende onderwerpen die bij kernenergie van belang zijn. In Hoofdstuk 2 wordt de kernenergietechnologie beschreven, inclusiefde veiligheid van kernenergie besproken, omdat die nauw met de technologie samenhangt. Hierbij gaat het om de technische veiligheid van de installaties, maar ook om beveiliging tegen misbruik van technologie en nucleair materiaal, waaronder beveiliging tegen terrorisme. De milieuaspecten door radioactiviteit en door emissies van kooldioxide die met het gebruik van kernenergie samenhangen

  7. Facts in artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Bindhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  8. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  9. Fact Sheet on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... items) NIMH (7 items) Share Fact Sheet on Stress Download PDF Download ePub Q&A on Stress for Adults: How it affects your health and ... to avoid more serious health effects. What is stress? Stress can be defined as the brain's response ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  11. Main facts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  12. Main facts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  13. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  14. DER 86: main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the important facts among the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (E.D.F.): new applications of electric power for customers, protection of environment, classical equipments for power plants and nuclear equipments, monitoring and control of power plants, electrical equipments, development and operation of electrical networks, informatics and office automation

  15. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. It ... that are needed for normal blood clotting. Vitamin K is also needed for making important bone proteins. ...

  16. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  17. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  18. Identification of uniformity in Pravastatin Sodium Tablets and crystallographic form in their active pharmaceutical ingredient by NIRS method%近红外光谱法鉴别普伐他汀钠片及其原料药晶型的一致性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿颖; 程奇蕾; 何兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立全覆盖抽样的普伐他汀钠片的近红外光谱法一致性检验模型,考察制剂工艺的差别和原料药晶型的差异,通过稳健、准确、代表性强的近红外光谱一致性模型实现普伐他汀钠片的快速检验和筛查。方法对评价性抽验抽取的5个企业中的4个共65批样品建立普伐他汀钠片近红外一致性检验模型,并对4个厂家的原料药的近红外光谱图进行比较。结果建立了4个厂家普伐他汀钠片剂的近红外一致性模型,预测成功率均为100%;4种原料药和1种无定型粉末的近红外光谱图显示不同晶型光谱图具有差异。结论近红外光谱法能够用于快速鉴别质量工艺稳定的普伐他汀钠片产品,对制剂工艺进行考察,并能够区分不同晶型的原料药。%Objective To develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) uniformity models for sampling of Pravastatin Sodium Tablets from overall manufactures in Chinese market, to evaluate the uniformity of Pravastatin Sodium Tablets and their active pharmaceutical ingredients, and provide robust, accurate, and representative uniformity models. Methods NIRS models for 65 batches of tablets were built for four individual manufactures from five manufactures. The active pharmaceutical ingredients form the four manufactures and an amorphous powder were investigated by comparing NIR spectrum. Results Uniformity Models for the four different manufactures were built with prediction rate 100%, respectively. The spectra of four active pharmaceutical ingredients and an amorphous powder showed differences in various crystallographic forms of NIRS. Conclusion It demonstrates the potential of NIRS being a rapid and highly effective method for the identification of Pravastatin Sodium Tablats, the investigation of their preparation process, and the discrimination of the active pharmaceutical ingredients from their various crystallographic forms.

  19. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  20. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  1. Controlling Flows Of Two Ingredients For Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Huel H.

    1995-01-01

    Closed-loop servo control subsystem incorporated, as modification, into system controlling flows of two ingredients mixed and sprayed to form thermally insulating foams on large tanks. Provides steady flows at specified rates. Foams produced smoother and of higher quality. Continued use of system results in substantial reduction in cost stemming from close control of application of foam and consequent reduced use of material.

  2. Nutriproteomics: facts, concepts, and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, S.; Luge, T.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is a basic component of life. Nowadays, human nutrition research focuses amongst others on health-related aspects of food ingredients and extracts, and on analyzing the outcomes of specific diets. Usually, food ingredients such as bioactive peptides come in complex matrices. Single compounds, multiple interactions thereof and the underlying food matrix can vary physiological response of the organism. Proteins and peptides derived from food and beverages can cause adverse allergic re...

  3. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  4. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiese-Smith, Deneille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Highley, Aaron M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Behrens, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  5. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  6. Where Students Shop for Nutrition Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching PreK-8, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Describes a school tour launched by a supermarket to familiarize children with basic facts about nutrition and healthful eating. Discusses visits to a perishable foods department, a shopping activity, a recipe preparation activity, and Food Pyramid activity. Suggests making enquiries about such tours with local supermarket chains and bringing it…

  7. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries . Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  8. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-04-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  9. Arteriosclerosis: facts and fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C; Fishbein, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Arterial vascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Every physician learns about the pathology of these diseases in medical school. All pathologists evaluate arterial disease in surgical pathology and/or autopsy specimens. All clinicians encounter patients with clinical manifestations of these diseases. With such a common and clinically-important group of entities one would think there would be a general understanding of the "known" information that exists. That is, physicians and scientists should be able to separate what is fact and what is fancy. This review article is intended to generate thought in this regard.

  10. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  11. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of active ingredients in technical zhongshengmycin%中生菌素原药有效成分高效液相色谱-串联质谱分析方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔港; 魏少鹏; 姬志勤

    2012-01-01

    建立了采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)分析中生菌素(zhongshengmycins)原药中各有效成分(链丝菌素A~F)的方法.原药用去离子水超声辅助提取后经离心过滤,反相离子对高效液相色谱分离,二级质谱检测,标准样品定量离子外标法定量.结果表明:在15.63~500μg/mL质量浓度范围内,中生菌素原药各组分的仪器响应值与进样质量浓度之间呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R2>0.990 5;方法具有较好的精密度和准确度,6次重复进样,其相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.33% ~ 1.96%之间;在0.1、0.5和1μg/mg 3个添加水平下,各组分的回收率在98.2%~101.1%之间.样品实测结果表明:供试原药中链丝菌素D的含量最高,为297.65 μg/g;其次是链丝菌素B、C和F,含量分别为247.77、285.64和115.92 μg/g;链丝菌素A和E的含量较低,分别为15.63和19.60 μg/g.该方法能满足中生菌素原药中各有效成分定性及定量分析的要求.%A reliable method for determination of active ingredients in technical zhongshengmycin material was established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The active ingredients in technique material were extracted by the ultrasound-assisted method, and then the aqueous extract was cleaned up by centrifugation and filtration. After separated by reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, the characteristic MS/MS ions were detected by mass spectrometer and quantified with external standard method. A good linear relationship between response and concentration was obtained in the range of 15.63 -500 μg/mL,and its correlation coefficient was above 0.990 5. The relative standard derivations for different ingredients were in the range of 0. 33% - 1. 96%. The recovery rates for different ingredients were 98. 2% -101. 1% in the spiking levels of 0. 1,0. 5 and 1 μg/mg. The contents of streptothricins D,B,C,F,A and E in the tested technical

  13. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  14. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  15. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  16. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  17. Facts on Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This folder contains twelve two-page leaflets (fact sheets) which answer questions posed about UK NIREX Ltd, its operations and radioactive waste. NIREX (the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) is the organisation responsible for implementing the British Government's policy for the disposal of most low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste produced in the United Kingdom. The questions posed are; what is NIREX. What is radioactivity. What is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste, what are the options. What is a radioactive waste repository. Some aspects of such a repository are then explained - how engineered barriers work, how geological barriers work, how long can concrete last, how is the radioactive waste transported, how are repository sites identified. The last two leaflets consider why do we need research, and look at radioactive waste management worldwide. The answers are in non-technical language and are short. (UK)

  18. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  20. Diabetes Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trans fat, and sodium. Limit processed foods and sugary foods and drinks. Getting active . Aim for 30 minutes of physical ... trans fat, and sodium. Limit processed foods and sugary foods and drinks. Getting active . Aim for 30 minutes of physical ...

  1. Tests Comparing of Benzylpenicillin Potassium Industry Salt and Benzylpenicillin Potassium Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient by Methods in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia%利用兽药典方法对青霉素钾工业盐和原料药的检测比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嫄; 于丽娜; 韩宁宁; 龚旭昊; 王静文; 郝利华; 赵晖

    2016-01-01

    In order to distinguish between benzylpenicillin potassium industry salt and benzylpenicillin potassium active pharmaceutical ingredient,4 bathes of industry salt samples and 4 bathes of active pharmaceutical ingredient samples offered by 4 different veterinary drug manufacturers respectively were identified according to quality standards in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia 2010 version.Results of those 8 batches of samples were all in compliance with the standards,however,finding no distinguish differences between industry salt and active pharmaceutical ingredient,which might indicate that quality standard of benzylpenicillin potassium need to be improved in order to enhance quality control of the finished drug -benzylpeninicillin potassium for injection.%为了辨别青霉素钾工业盐和青霉素钾原料药,依据《中国兽药典》中青霉素钾的质量标准,对四家青霉素原料药生产企业提供的4批青霉素钾工业盐和4批青霉素钾原料药进行了检测,项目包括性状、鉴别、吸光度、结晶性、溶液澄清度与颜色、青霉素聚合物、干燥失重、不溶性微粒、酸碱度、有关物质、细菌内毒素、可见异物、无菌和含量测定。结果表明,8批样品均符合现行兽药典青霉素钾标准中各项规定,但结果无法用以区分青霉素钾工业盐和青霉素钾原料药,提示青霉素钾的质量标准需进一步完善,以提高对成品药———注射用青霉素钾的质量控制。

  2. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  3. 白芷、石菖蒲对冲和膏处方中主要成分经皮渗透作用的影响%Influence of Angelica dahurica and Acorus tatarinowii on Transdermal Permeation Role of Active Ingredients from Chonghe Gel Prescription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚静; 孙士真; 张德芹; 田慧; 彭淑娟; 王艳明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of Angelica dahurica and Acorus tatarinowii on in vitro percutaneous permeation of active ingredients from Chonghe gel. Method; Improved Franz-type diffusion cell was used, with isolated rat skin as transdermal barrier, with the content of paeoniflorin and osthole as indexes which was determined by HPLC, effect of A. dahurica, A. tatarinowii alone and their compatibility combination on promote transparent role of main ingredients from Chonghe gel were investigated, respectively. Result; Enhancement ratios (ER) of A. dahurica and A. tatarinowii alone on percutaneous penetration of peoniflorin were 0. 84, 1. 02, while ER of osthole were 1. 54, 0. 79. Percutaneous penetration role of peoniflorin and osthole by compatibility combination of A. dahurica and A. tatarinowii could reach optimum level, ER of peoniflorin and osthole were 1.00, 1. 89. Conclusion; A. dahurica and A. tatarinowii used jointly could benefit to transdermal permeation of active ingredients, which had important role on therapeutic effect of Chonghe gel.%目的:考察佐使药白芷、石菖蒲对冲和膏中主要成分经皮渗透的影响.方法:采用改良Franz透皮扩散池,大鼠离体皮肤为渗透屏障,以芍药苷和蛇床子素为指标,HPLC测定其含量,分别考察白芷、石菖蒲及其配伍联用对冲和膏主要成分促透作用的影响.结果:白芷、石菖蒲单用对芍药苷经皮渗透的增渗倍数分别为0.84,1.02,对蛇床子素的增渗倍数分别为1.54,0.79;配伍联用后芍药苷和蛇床子素的经皮渗透均达到最佳水平,增渗倍数分别1.00,1.89.结论:白芷、石菖蒲配伍联用可促进主要成分的经皮渗透,对冲和膏处方药效的发挥具有重要的佐使作用.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  5. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U-14C]triadimenol in the formulation as [14C]Baytan 075 FS and [14C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG)

  6. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  7. A skin sensitization risk assessment approach for evaluation of new ingredients and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerberick, G F; Robinson, M K

    2000-06-01

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of new ingredients or products is critical before their introduction into the marketplace. The risk assessment process described in this article involves evaluation of skin sensitization hazard, consideration of all potential human exposures, comparative ingredient/product benchmarking, and, when appropriate, the management of the risk. In this article, a risk assessment process is reviewed along with a description of the risk assessment tools that are employed for evaluating a new ingredient or product. The basic process we use for evaluating the skin sensitization risk of a new product or ingredient is considered a no effect/safety factor approach. The tools used for conducting a risk assessment include structure activity relationship analysis, exposure assessment, preclinical testing (e.g., local lymph node assay [LNNA]) and clinical testing (e.g., human repeat insult patch testing [HRIPT]). The skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this paper has been used successfully for many years for the safe introduction of new products into the marketplace. This process is dynamic--it can be applied to a diversity of product categories (e.g., shampoo, transdermal drug). In summary, the skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this article allows one to carefully assess the skin sensitization potential of a new ingredient or product so that it can be safely introduced into the marketplace.

  8. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk ... Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene ...

  10. Facts about Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Life Stage Vitamin A (mcg/day as RAE) Males, ages 14+ 900 Females, ages 14+ 700 Pregnancy 770* Breastfeeding 1,300 mcg = micrograms RAE = Retinol Activity Equivalents *Pregnant women should avoid supplemental, ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Health Take steps to lead an active, healthy life with diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank ...

  12. Narcolepsy: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... onset narcolepsy can interfere with psychological, social, and cognitive function and development and can undermine academic and ... is asleep to document abnormalities in the sleep cycle. It records heart and respiratory rates, electrical activity ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ... glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk ... Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Health Take steps to lead an active, healthy life with diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your ... of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  20. Reinforcing Power Grid Transmission with FACTS Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chertkov, Misha

    2013-01-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed into the grid to relieve congestion created by load growth or fluctuations of intermittent renewable generation. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to those that can be represented by modification of the inductance of the transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the $l_1$ norm of the FACTS-associated inductance correction subject to constraints enforcing that no line of the system exceeds its thermal limit. We develop off-line heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) where at each step the constraints are linearized analytically around the current operating point. The algorithm is accelerated further with a version of the cutting plane method greatly reducing the number of active constraints during the optimization, while checking feasibility of the non-active constraints post...

  1. 黄芪有效部位对糖尿病大鼠Na+-K+-ATP酶活性及AMPK蛋白表达的影响%Effects of astragalus active ingredients on Na+-K+-ATPase and AMP-activated protein kinase protein expression in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范颖; 李楠; 孙云峰; 马哲; 林庶茹

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过研究糖尿病模型大鼠胰腺组织钠-钾-ATP酶(Na+-K+-ATP)活性、腺苷酸激活蛋白激酶(AMPK)活性及肝、骨骼肌组织AMPK蛋白表达的变化,探讨黄芪有效部位对糖尿病大鼠能量代谢的影响.方法:SD大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、中药对照组、黄芪组、黄酮组、多糖组、皂苷组、酮糖组、酮苷组、糖苷组、酮糖苷组,共11组,每组14只.由链脲佐菌素( 52mg/kg)诱导糖尿病大鼠模型,造模同日给予黄芪及其有效部位进行干预.观测30日,检测血糖,生化法分析胰腺组织Na+-K+-ATP酶的活性,ELISA法分析胰腺AMPK活性,Western Blot法分析肝、骨骼肌组织AMPK蛋白表达.结果:糖尿病模型大鼠血糖显著升高(P<0.01),胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、AMPK水平以及肝、骨骼肌AMPK蛋白表达均显著降低(P<0.01);与模型组比较,黄芪组、黄酮组、酮糖组、酮糖苷组血糖降低( P<0.05,P<0.01),胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、AMPK水平显著升高(P<0.01),酮苷组血糖下降、胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性升高(P<0.01),皂苷组、糖苷组胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性升高(P<0.01).结论:黄芪、黄芪黄酮及含黄芪黄酮的有效部位能够降低糖尿病大鼠的血糖,其机制可能与改善Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、上调AMPK水平及蛋白表达有关.%Objective: This study is designed to evaluate the effect of astragalus active ingredients on energy metabolism in diabetic rats by studying Na+-K+-ATPase and AMPK in pancreas and AMPK protein expression in liver and skeletal muscle. Methods: Diabetes rats were induced by STZ (52mg/kg, peritioneal injection). Diabetic rats were administered by Astragalux radix and its active ingredients for 30 days from the day of STZ pj. Astragalus radix active ingredients were astragalux radix group (AS), astragalus flavonoids group (ASF), astragalus polysaccharides group (ASP), and astragalosides group (ASS), astragalus flavonolids and polysaccharides group (ASF

  2. Optimization of ingredients for formulating a diabetic dietary supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Kanika; Thompkinson, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    A diabetic dietary supplement comprising of multiple ingredients was designed based on recommendation of Indian Council of Medical Research for a diabetic adult. Central composite rotatable design using three variables (ingredient source) and five responses comprising of sensory and physico-chemical attributes were used for computation of an optimized solution. All the responses fitted well into quadratic equation with R2 > 0.80. The optimum levels of ingredient combinations recommended with ...

  3. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes(MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient,heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it.

  4. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W D; Wei, X L; Wu, D Y; Li, J; Sheng, H Z

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes (MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient, heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it. PMID:11590726

  5. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed.

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office ...

  7. Developing Thinking Strategies for Addition Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Larry P.

    1999-01-01

    Presents activities that allow primary grade students to develop specific thinking strategies for basic facts such as counting on, using doubles, and making 10 in problem-solving settings. Discusses other topics such as probability, spatial sense, and money. Offers rich opportunities for reasoning and communication. (ASK)

  8. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  9. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... method, including actual or theoretical chemical action. (f) If an ingredient is a derivative or... terms of percent volume of absolute alcohol at 60 °F. (15.56 °C.). (e) A derivative or preparation of a... ingredient does not indicate that it is a derivative or preparation of the parent substance named in...

  10. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous bottle

  11. 银杏叶提取物单体成分对血小板磷酸二酯酶3活性的作用研究%Effects of the main monomer ingredients of Ginkgo Biloba extract on phosphodiesterase 3 activity of platelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍; 郝勇; 刘雁; 彭凯润; 丁素菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the main monomer ingredients of EGB on platelet aggregation and platelet PDE3 activity in vitro, and to find out which ingredients can inhibit PDE3 activity. Methods Platelets were collected and purified from healthy volunteers who have not taken any medicines two weeks before collections. Then to observe the effect of each ingredient on the inhibition of platelet aggregation and platelet PDE3 activity. Various concentrations of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C and ginkgolide J were applied in experiment respectively. Blank control was set. Results After treated by 1μmol/L, 10μmol/L, and 100μmol/L quercetin respectively, inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by ADP were (47.30±13.80)%, (49.00±11.00)%, (45.90±9.88)%, induced by PAF were (47.30±13.80)%, (49.00±11.00)%, and (45.90±9.88)%, and had notable differences with blank control. The same concentration of Kaempferol, isorhamnetin, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C and ginkgolide J all inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP or PAF, Treated by the same concentration of quercetin, platelet PDE3 activity were (1163.02±523.52) pmol·(mg protein)-1·min-1, (930.98±324.09) pmol·(mg protein)-1·min-1, (820.70± 283.14) pmol·(mg protein)-1·min-1 respectively, and had notable differences with blank control. However, treated by Kaempferol, isorhamnetin, ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C and ginkgolide J respectively, the PDE3 activity had no statistically significant difference with that of blank controls. No statistical difference was found between the results induced by ADP and by PAF in each ingredient groups. In quercetin group, correlation analysis showed that there were no correlation between inhibition of platelet aggregation and PDE3 activity(r=0.263, r=-0.013). Conclusion All the monomer ingredients of EGB inhibit platelet aggregation, but only quercetin inhibits PDE3 activity, and the other

  12. Ingredients for an Integrated Dinner: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In 1966, Simon and Garfunkel combined the English traditional "Scarborough Fair" with a counter melody. This is one of the manifold techniques of the Kontrapunktik described by Bach around 1745 in "The Art of the Fugue": combining completely different and seemingly independent melodies (or motifs) into a coherent piece of music, pleasant for the audience. This achievement, transposed into Computer Science, could be of great benefit for geo services as we look at the currently disparate situation: On the one hand, we have metadata - traditionally, they are understood as being small in volume, but rich in content and semantics, and flexibly queryable through the rich body of technologies established over several decades of database research, centering around query languages like SQL. On the other hand, we have data themselves, such as remote sensing and other measured and observed data sets - they are considered difficult to interpret, semantic-poor, and only for clumsy download, as they are the main constituent of what we today call Big Data. The traditional advantages of databases, such as information integration, query flexibility, and scalability seem to be unavailable. These are the melodies that require a kontrapunctic harmonization, leading to a Holy Grail where different information categories enjoy individually tailored support, while an overall integrating framework allows seamless and convenient access and processing by the user. Most of the data categories to be integrated are well known in fact: ontologies, geospatial meshes, spatiotemporal arrays, and free text constitute major ingredients in this orchestration. For many of them, isolated solutions have been presented, and for some of them (like ontologies and text) integration has been achieved already; a complete harmonic integration, though, is still lacking as of today. In our talk, we detail our vision on such integration through query models and languages which merge established concepts and novel

  13. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  14. Pinellas Plant facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  15. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  16. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  17. Tonsillotomy: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, J P; Savva, K; Dahm, J D; Werner, J A

    2015-04-01

    instruments, Diode-LASER, and other instruments. Instruments were not specified for 1,815 patients. Data for operation time, intraoperative bleeding, return to normal diet, analgesic intake were in favor for SIPT/TT and ablation procedures. Regrowth and tonsillitis occurred in rates of 8 years are definitely not commonly accepted as contraindication for SIPT, TT or ablation procedures. There is a strong evidence that pain is less after SIPT, TT and tonsil ablation resulting in an earlier return to normal diet and activity. Large, well-designed randomized controlled trials with an adequate follow-up are necessary to determine whether the procedure is capable to replace TE to resolve upper airway obstruction resulting from tonsillar hypertrophy as well as recurrent episodes of tonsillitis in children and adults.

  18. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  19. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  20. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  1. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  2. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Resources COPD en Español Related Links Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Air Quality, Fires, and Volcanic Eruptions ...

  3. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  4. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  5. Facts and Figures on Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Position Statements AAPM Facts and Figures on Pain Overview What is Chronic Pain? Incidence of Pain, ... of them. Back to Top What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2016 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures download the full report: ... or even slowed. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2015, 15.9 million family ...

  7. Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Jaundice & Kernicterus Homepage Facts Information for Familes Cal's Story Guidelines & Tools for Healthcare Professionals Free Materials ... Cerebral Palsy Hearing Loss in Children Intellectual Disabilities [PDF - 279 KB] Developmental Disabilities A-Z Index of ...

  8. Standardized extract of Syzygium aqueum: a safe cosmetic ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, U D; Ling, L T; Manaharan, T; Sivapalan, V; Subramaniam, T; Helme, M H; Masilamani, T

    2011-06-01

    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry. PMID:21284663

  9. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA...

  11. Effect of formulated ingredients on rapidly disintegrating oral tablets prepared by the crystalline transition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masaaki; Narisawa, Shinji; Matsubara, Koji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Minoru; Handa, Tetsurou

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this article was to determine the optimal ingredients for the rapidly disintegrating oral tablets prepared by the crystalline transition method (CT method). The effect of ingredients (diluent, active drug substance and amorphous sugar) on the characteristics of the tablets was investigated. The ingredients were compressed and the resultant tablets were stored under various conditions. The oral disintegration time of the tablet significantly depended on diluents, due to differences in the penetration of a small amount of water in the mouth and the viscous area formed inside the tablet. The oral disintegration time was 10-30 s for tablets with a tensile strength of approximately 1 MPa, when erythritol, mannitol or xylitol was used as the diluent. The increase in the tensile strength of tablets containing highly water-soluble active drug substances during storage was as large as that of tablets without active drug substances, while the increase in the tensile strength of tablets containing low water-soluble active drug substances was small. It was therefore found that highly water-soluble active drug substances were more suitable for the formulation prepared by the CT method than low water-soluble active drug substances. Irrespective of the type of amorphous sugar (amorphous sucrose, lactose or maltose) used, the porosity of tablets with 1 MPa of tensile strength was 30-40%, and their oral disintegration time was 10-20 s. The optimal ingredients for rapidly disintegrating oral tablets with reasonable tensile strength and disintegration time were therefore determined from these results. PMID:16462059

  12. Performance of FACTS equipment in Meshed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, E.; Povh, D. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Modern power electronic devices such as thyristors and GTOs have made it possible to design controllable network elements, which will play a considerable role in ensuring reliable economic operation of transmission systems as a result of their capability to rapidly change active and reactive power. A number of FACTS elements for high-speed active and reactive power control will be described. Control of power system fluctuations in meshed systems by modulation of active and reactive power will be demonstrated using a number of examples. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs.

  13. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  14. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  15. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  16. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  17. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  18. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  19. 辣木的有效成分、保健功能和开发利用研究进展%Research Progress on Active Ingredients, Health Care Functions, Development and Utilization of Moringa oleifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹; 管俊岭; 许玫; 李涛; 陈文品

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera belongs to Moringaceae Moringa Adans'hot tropical deciduous woody vegetables and oil crops, having a high nutritional value and unique biological activity, with great development potential. This article reviewed the extraction of moringa oil, protein, total flavonoids et al;and the function of anti-oxidation and protecting the liver, lowering blood sugar and blood fat, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory and other health functions,besides, the development and utilization were also reviewed, hoping to provide a reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of Moringa oleifera resources.%辣木(Moringa oleifera)是辣木科辣木属的热带落叶木本蔬菜及油料作物,有着丰富的营养价值和独特的生物活性,极具开发潜力。从辣木有效成分辣木油、蛋白质、总黄酮等的提取,抗氧化及保护肝脏、降血糖、降血脂、抗菌消炎等保健功能和开发利用等方面进行综述,为辣木资源的研究利用提供参考。

  20. 番茄红素有效成分的提取工艺及其解酒机理的研究%Extraction of Lycopene Active Ingredients and Study on Its Hangover-Cure Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫佳; 陈家树

    2016-01-01

    探讨番茄提取物解酒作用机理,为中药解酒保肝药物的开发提供依据.观察比较番茄提取物与解酒护肝胶囊对小鼠肝脏匀浆中ADH、SOD的酶活力的影响.结果表明,番茄提取物能够明显提高ADH、SOD活力.番茄红素提取物通过提高ADH、SOD活力以达到其解酒的作用,并能减缓酒精进入血液中的速度,进而对抗酒精性肝损伤.%The hangover-cure mechanism of tomato extracts was explored to provide reference for the development of traditional Chinese medi-cine with hangover-cure and hepato-protective functions. In the experiments, the effects of tomato extracts and hangover-cure&hepato-protec-tive capsule on the activities of ADH and SOD in liver homogenates were compared. The results suggested that, tomato extracts could signifi-cantly improve ADH and SOD vitality and further achieve satisfactory hangover-cure effects, and slow down the speed of alcohol into the bloodstream and further prevent alcohol-induced liver damage.

  1. Active ingredients of olive oil processing wastes and their comprehensive utilization technique:a review%橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    在橄榄油的生产加工过程中产生了大量的富含生物活性物质的废弃物,这些废弃物均未得到有效的开发利用,造成了极大的资源浪费和环境污染.实现橄榄油加工废弃物的高值化综合开发利用是实现油橄榄产业可持续发展的重要保障之一.结合国内外研究报道,总结了橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术的研究现状,旨在为橄榄油加工废弃物的综合开发利用提供可行思路和技术参考.%Abundant wastes with bioactive compounds are produced during olive oil production. Those wastes are not utilized reasonably and lead to the problems of resource waste and environmental pollution. Comprehensive exploitation and utilization of olive oil processing wastes ( OPW) with high value is one of the most important strategies for olive industry achieving sustainable development. The active ingredients in OPW and their comprehensive utilization techniques were summarized so as to provide a feasible solu-tion and technical reference for OPW.

  2. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment and Management for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients from Pharmaceutical Wastewater%制药废水药物活性成分的环境影响评价与管理初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妮; 王峰; 周振

    2011-01-01

    The influence of active pharmaceutical ingredients(API) on the aquatic environment has been increasingly concerned in recent years.The main pathways of API into the environment are through waste discharge from pharmaceutical enterprises,excretion from the body and irrational disposal of unused or expired pharmaceuticals.The ratio between predicted environmental concentration(PEC) and predicted no effect concentration(PNEC) was introduced to evaluate the environmental risk of API in an API management practice,and the environmental risk includes both the effect of API on the aquatic environment and its disturbance to the biological wastewater treatment plant.The method can be applies to the environment management of API for both pharmaceutical enterprises and governmental authorities.%药物活性成分(API)对水环境的影响近年来日益引起关注。API可通过制药企业的废弃物排放、未完全被吸收利用的API排泄以及过期药物的不合理处置三种途径进入水体。通过具体案例分析介绍了制药企业采用预测环境浓度(PEC)和预测无效应浓度(PNEC)的比值对API的环境风险进行评估的方法,API的环境风险包括对自然水体的影响和对污水生物处理系统的干扰。该方法可作为API环境影响分析评价的有效工具用于制药企业的环境管理或者政府部门的监管工作中。

  4. Determination of Polyphenols Ingredients Present in Areca Husk and Its Antioxidant Activity%槟榔壳多酚组分及抗氧化活性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李专; 祁静; 赵松林

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed for the simultaneous determination of betel nut shell in a variety of phenolic compounds by high performance capillary electrophoresis method,analyzed the separation effect of different concentrations and pH values of buffer on 10 analytes,finally determined the best electrolytic buffer was 0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0 borate buffer,UV detection wavelength 280 nm,separation voltage 20 kV.The method is simple and fast,within 20 min 10 kinds of phenolic materials can be completely separated,the detection limit is 0.5~4.5 mg/L.In addition,this article further determines of the betel nut shell polyphenol antioxidant activity,by using three evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of index,namely:the DPPH free radical scavenging ability,reduction ability as well as ABTS free radical scavenging ability.%建立测定槟榔壳中多种酚类物质的高效毛细管电泳方法,分析不同浓度和不同pH值硼酸缓冲液对10种标准品的分离效果,最后确定最佳缓冲液为0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0的硼酸缓冲液,紫外检测波长为280 nm,分离电压为20 kV.方法简便快速,能在20 min之内将10种酚类物质完全分离开,检测限为0.5~4.5 mg/L.此外,进一步测定了槟榔壳多酚的抗氧化活性,选用3个评价抗氧化能力的指标,即:对DPPH自由基的清除能力、对还原能力以及对ABTS自由基的清除能力.

  5. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Vogel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermogenic (TRM supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective: To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design: Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9 or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14 for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results: Significant (p<0.05 group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05 within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG, creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL, eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73, globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL, A/G (+0.27±0.23, and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL, and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion: Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05 intragroup

  6. Study on processing condition of extracting natural Rosemary active antioxidant ingredient%超临界二氧化碳萃取天然迷迭香抗氧化剂有效成分工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐振窍

    2009-01-01

    迷迭香原料采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取迷迭香精油后,残渣经干燥、粉碎,采用超临界二氧化碳提取残渣中抗氧化剂的有效成分,并以鼠尾草酸、鼠尾草酚含量作为衡量工艺的主要指标,以产品的物性和得率作为衡量工艺参数的优劣.采用L9 (33)正交实验考察压力、温度、萃取时间对产品得率等因素的影响;在正交基础上通过单因素分析水携带剂对成品物性、得率以及有效成分的影响.通过正交实验发现:当压力为40MPa、温度80℃、萃取时间2.5h可以达到较好的得率和有效成分含量,但产品为膏状类,不利于工业化生产;通过单因素实验发现:当压力为40MPa、温度80℃、水携带剂含量20%、萃取时间2.5h,产品总得率达到7.2%,鼠尾草酸含量达到32%,鼠尾草酚含量达到8.1%,产品呈粉末状、气味淡,有利于工业化生产和应用.%Rosemary active antioxidant extraction is studied.After water distillation extraction and drying,grinding process,the powder was then extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide(SFE-CO2).two aspects were considered in the evaluation:(1)the total yield of extracted effective component of the antioxidants,and (2)the physical appearance of the products.The processing parameters including pressure,temperature and extracting time are optimized by orthogonality test using L9 (33).We found that under the condition of pressure 40MPa,temperature 80℃ and extraction time 2.5 hours,the yield was the highest but with the product as a paste,which was not suitable for industrial application.When the condition changed to pressure 40MPa,temperature 80℃,water carrier content 20% and extraction time 2.5 hours,the yield of the product reached to 7.2%,the content of carsonic acid was 32%,the content of carnosol was 8.1%.The final product was a powder which make this condition best for industrial application.

  7. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous bottlenecks when dealing with untreated or large streams: a trade-off between mass transfer and hydraulic permeability, a high pressure drop and susceptibility to plugging and fouling. The large equipmen...

  9. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli

    OpenAIRE

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H.

    2012-01-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and comm...

  10. Nuclear EMP: ingredients of an EMP protection engineering methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental methodology of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection engineering is described. Operations performed within the framework of this methodology are discussed. These operations, along with problem constraints and data, constitute the essential ingredients needed to implement the overall engineering methodology. Basic definitions and descriptions of these essential ingredients are provided. The issues discussed represent the first step in developing a methodology for protecting systems against EMP effects

  11. SACTob Recommendation on Tobacco Product Ingredients and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization,

    2003-01-01

    Historically, cigarettes and other tobacco products have been exempt from health and safety standards for ingredients and emissions that are typically applied to other consumed products including foods, beverages and drugs (1, 2, 3). Although some countries have begun to develop and apply standards for allowable ingredients, there are no globally accepted standards or guidelines (2). Presently limits on emissions from tobacco products have not been implemented with the exception of estimates ...

  12. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Sood V; Dewan S

    1994-01-01

    Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35%) being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5...

  13. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying...

  14. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... period represents a quantity that provides 10,000 U.S.P. units of vitamin A and 400 U.S.P. units of... is used in a 24-hour period represents a quantity that provides 10,000 U.S.P. units of vitamin A...

  15. Synthesis of cinacalcet: an enantiopure active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

    OpenAIRE

    Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Leiva Martínez, Rosana; Escolano Mirón, Carmen; Vázquez Cruz, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Cinacalcet hydrochloride is the only approved drug acting as calcimimetic, a new class of compds. used in the therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma. Several generic drug manufacturers and research groups from academia have reported alternative approaches to this mol., mainly from (R)​-​(+)​-​1-​(1-​naphthyl)​ethylamine. There are mainly three strategies that have been used to couple this readily accessible enantiopure amine to the other part of the mol.: amide for...

  16. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gram, 30 milligrams of chlortetracycline hydrochloride in a suitable ointment base. (d) Neomycin sulfate ointment containing, in each gram, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin in a suitable water soluble or oleaginous ointment base. (e) Neomycin sulfate cream containing, in each gram, 3.5 milligrams of neomycin...

  17. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vitamin A and 400 U.S.P. Units cholecalciferol. (f) Colloidal oatmeal, 0.007 percent minimum; 0.003... combination with colloidal oatmeal in accordance with § 347.20(a)(4). (m) Petrolatum, 30 to 100 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... formulated in a solid dosage form to be dissolved in the mouth. (u) Camphor identified in § 341.14(b)(1) may... aromatics (camphor (54 milligrams (mg)), menthol (80 mg), methyl salicylate (11 mg), and lavender oil (4...

  19. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Salicylic acid 0.5 to 2 percent. (d) Sulfur 3 to 10 percent. (e) Sulfur 3 to 8 percent when combined in... § 333.320(b). (d) Salicylic acid, 0.5 to 2 percent. (e) Sulfur, 3 to 10 percent. (f) Sulfur, 3 to...

  20. Back Pain Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACA News Digital Edition Archives: ACA News Articles Advertising Opportunities News Newsroom News Releases Letters to the Editor Facts About Chiropractic Chiropractic in the Media ACA Radio Chiropractic Cares Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram LinkedIn Advocacy Regulatory Policy Issue ...

  1. Norms and facts in measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakel, J. van

    1984-01-01

    Publications concerned with the foundations of measurement often accept uncritically the theory/observation and the norm/fact distinction. However, measurement is measurement-in-a-context. This is analysed in the first part of the paper. Important aspects of this context are: the purpose of the part

  2. Facts Speak Louder Than Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Is the Western world ignoring the real truth about Tibet?In order to separate Tibet from China, the Dalai Lama has always severely criticized China’s Tibet policy and his words have been echoed by some Western media and politicians. But facts prove that these criticisms are totally groundless.

  3. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    This fact sheet on institutional racism contains statistics on white control of the economy, health, housing, education, the media, and government. It also shows the oppression of minorities in these areas. The areas of wealth, the stock exchange, business, banks, unions, poverty, and unemployment, are discussed in terms of economy. Health matters…

  4. NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists…

  5. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  6. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  7. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  8. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  9. Protective effect of active ingredients of Kang Fu Ling on PC12 cells oxidative injury induced by microwave irradiation%抗辐灵活性成分对微波辐射致PC12细胞氧化应激损伤的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊俊; 白宏英; 彭瑞云; 赵黎; 王运良; 胡韶华; 张雪岩; 徐志秀; 郝延辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the three active ingredients of a Chinese traditional medicine compound named Kang Fu Ling( KFL) against PC12 cells oxidative damage induced by microwave radiation.Methods PC12 cells were differentiated into neuros induced by nerve growth factor ( NGF ) .PC12 cells were incubated for 48 hours after astragalosides,total paeony glycoside and tanshinones were added at different concentrations (1, 3, or 9 μg/ml) .The cells in the control group were cultivated with the only medium of the same volume.Then, cells were irradiated with 30 mW/cm2 microwave for 6 minutes.The morphology of PC12 cells was observed under an inverted microscope soon before and after irradiation and the cell viability was measured by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium ( MTT) colorimetry.Reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was determined using active oxygen probe 2′, 7′-dichlorodihyarofluolescen diacetde ( DCFH-DA ) while malonyldialdehyde(MDA) was measured in the homogenate of PC12 cells through thiobarbituric acid ( TBA) reactive substance assay.Results The cell morphology of each group showed no obvious difference.6 h after irradiation, the viability of irradiation control group measured by MTT declined apparently(P<0.01)compared with the normal control group.The 3 μg/ml astragalosides treatment group increased the viability of PC12 cells after microwave exposure ( P <0.01).The contents of ROS and MDA were increased after irradiation(P<0.01).However, in the three active ingredients of Kang Fu Ling treatment groups, both ROS and MDA were much lower than in irradiation control group.Conclusion Astragalosides, total paeony glycoside and tanshinones, which are the three active ingredients of Kang Fu Ling, all have protective effect against PC12 cell injury caused by microwave radiation,possibly by scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress injury.%目的:观察抗辐灵活性成分黄芪总苷、赤芍总苷和丹参酮对微波辐射致PC12细胞氧化

  10. 新鲜冰冻血浆、普通冰冻血浆与去冷沉淀血浆部分有效成分的对比%Contrast of the Active Ingredients Between Fresh Frozen Plasma、Ordinary Frozen Plasma and Plasma Cryoprecipitate Reduced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓝生; 庄文; 陈镇奇; 林昂

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解新鲜冰冻血浆、普通冰冻血浆与去冷沉淀血浆中部分有效成分的实际含量,为临床选择不同血浆输注提供实验室依据.方法 采集23袋(200 ml/袋)ACD-B血液保存液保存的血液,4 h内分离制备新鲜冰冻血浆,各袋均留2份标本;1份同新鲜冰冻一起置-35℃保存,于第3天速融后检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量;1份置4℃保存21 d后检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量;新鲜冰冻血浆于第3天取出制备冷沉淀,留取去冷沉淀血浆标本1份检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量.结果 去冷沉淀血浆中的血浆蛋白和凝血因子含量均低于普通冰冻血浆与新鲜冰冻血浆(P<0.001),普通冰冻血浆与新鲜冰冻血浆中的血浆蛋白无差别(P>0.001),普通冰冻血浆中的凝血因子含量低于新鲜冰冻血浆(P<0.001).结论 新鲜冰冻血浆、普通冰冻血浆与去冷沉淀血浆有效成分各不相同,在临床上不能等同使用.%Objective To know about some of the actual amount of active ingredient in fresh frozen plasma, ordinary frozen plasma and plasma cryoprecipitate reduced , so as to provide experimental evidence for different selection of plasma infusion. Method Collected 23 bags of whole blood ( ACD-B ,200 ml) , separated and prepared of fresh frozen plasma in 4 hours. Each bag took two samples ,one saved with the fresh frozen plasma in refrigerator of - 35℃ , thawed and checked total protein, albumin, fibrinogen, factor V, factor Ⅷ, factor Ⅹ after 3 days; the othcr one saved in refrigerator of 4℃ , thawed and checked total protein. albumin , fibrinogen ,factor V , factor Ⅷ , factor Ⅹ after 21 days. The fresh frozen plasma separated and prepared of cryoprecipitate after 3 days, took samples of the plasma cryoprecipitate reduced to check total protein、albumin.fibrinogen、factor V

  11. Determination of the Transfer Rate of Six Active Ingredients of Chinese Herbs in Purpose-made Cigarette and its Smoke by HPLC%HPLC法测定试制卷烟及烟气中6种中草药活性成分的转移率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 赵瑜; 贺冬秀; 谭新良; 陈波; 杨华武

    2011-01-01

    为评价添加中草药成分的卷烟中活性成分向烟气中的转移率,建立了测定卷烟及其烟气中的岩白菜素,黄芩苷,甘草苷,丹皮酚,五味子素,罗汉果苷等六种成分含量的高效液相色谱法.方法:HypersilC18-ODS 5μm(200×4.6 mm);流动相:A= B =0.2%磷酸水,乙睛,梯度洗脱;检测波长:205 nn ;进样量:10 μL;流速:1 mL/min.结果:6种中草药成分在一定范围内线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.998,RSD都小于4.0%(n=6),加标回收率在97.6%~100.3%之间.结论:六种成分中岩白菜素,丹皮酚及五味子素的转移率较高:分别为7.37%,15.26%,9.30%.本方法操作简单,精密度好,准确度高,可用于卷烟及烟气中六种成分的测定.%To evaluate transfer rate of active ingredient of Chinese herbs from the purpose-made cigarette to its smoke,a new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for determinating the six compounds in the cigarette and its smoke simultaneously.Six analytes were Bergenin, Baicalin, Glycyrrhizin, Paeonol, Schisandrin, Mangosteen and Glycosides, respectively.Methods: Hypersil C18-ODS 5 μm ( 200 × 4.6 mm);mobile phase: A = 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid, B = acetonitrile; gradient elution; detection wavelength: 205 nm;injection volume:10 μL;flow rate:1 mL/min.Results: All six herbal ingredients had a good linear relationship in a certain range, correlation coefficients were greater than 0.998, the relative standard deviation were less than 4.0%(n = 6), recovery rates were in the range of 97.6% ~ 100.3 %.Conclusions: Among the six components, Bergenin,Paeonol and Schisandrin have higher transfer rate: Bergenin 7.37%, Paeonol 15.26%, Schisandrin 9.30%.The proposed method was found to be simple, precise and accurate and it is suitable for the simultaneous determination of six active components in the cigarette and its smoke.

  12. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease. PMID:20626172

  13. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease.

  14. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.

  15. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Technology to Market subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot’s record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage.

  16. Health Economics : some stylized facts

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe ULMANN

    2003-01-01

    The study of the stylized facts of economic growth has allowed an advance of this field of economic analysis in its empirical and theorical works. Today, Health Economics is faced with new requirements of society, i.e. better care at a sustainable cost. Furthermore, since the problems linked with health care system and with the health status are more and more connected with the economic sphere, a global approach of Health Economics proves necessary. Prior to the development of such an approac...

  17. Norms and facts in measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Brakel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Publications concerned with the foundations of measurement often accept uncritically the theory/observation and the norm/fact distinction. However, measurement is measurement-in-a-context. This is analysed in the first part of the paper. Important aspects of this context are: the purpose of the particular measurement; everything we know; everything we can do; and the empirical world. Dichotomies, such as definition versus empirical law, are by themselves not very useful because the ‘rules of ...

  18. Teaching Chemistry for All Its Worth: The Interaction between Facts, Ideas, and Language in Lavoisier's and Priestley's Chemistry Practice: The Case of the Study of the Composition of Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Both Lavoisier and Priestley were committed to the role of experiment and observation in their chemistry practice. According to Lavoisier the physical sciences embody three important ingredients; facts, ideas, and language, and Priestley would not have disagreed with this. Ideas had to be consistent with the facts generated from experiment and…

  19. The establishment and evaluation of near infrared universal model to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mei Xiong; Xiang Zhong Song; Chang Zhou Chen; Hong Ping Lin; Guo Tang; Yue Huang; Jia Duan; Shun Geng Min

    2012-01-01

    A near infrared universal quantitative analysis model was established to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC (hikernalisation) by the PLS (partial least squares) algorithm,the model predictive ability was evaluated by the external inspection method.The model was established among samples containing the same active ingredient from five different companies,and the model determination coefficient R2 and RMSECV (root mean square error of cross validation) were 0.9997 and 0.0223,respectively,the relative error between predicted value and chemical value of the testing set samples was between -2.71% and 3.36%,which indicated that the method to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC by the established universal model can meet the need of pesticide market monitoring.

  20. Effects of Some Topological Ingredients on the Evolutionary Ultimatum Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽丽; 张建雄; 唐万生; 张维

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at figuring out the crucial topological ingredients which affect the outcomes of the ultimatum game located on different networks, encompassing the regular network, the random network, the smallworld network, and the scale-free network. With the aid of random interchanging algorithm, we investigate the relations between the outcomes of the ultimatum game and some topological ingredients, including the average range, the clustering coefficient and the heterogeneity, and so forth. It is found that for the regular, random and small-work networks, the average range and the clustering coefficient have evident impacts on the ultimatum game, while for the scale-free network, the original degree heterogeneity and the underlying rich-club characterizations are the mainly important topological ingredients that influence the outcomes of ultimatum game substantially.

  1. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....

  2. Solid rocket propellant waste disposal/ingredient recovery study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of facility and operating costs of alternate methods shows open burning to be the lowest cost incineration method of waste propellant disposal. The selection, development, and implementation of an acceptable alternate is recommended. The recovery of ingredients from waste propellant has the probability of being able to pay its way, and even show a profit, when large consistent quantities of composite propellant are available. Ingredients recovered from space shuttle waste propellant would be worth over $1.5 million. Open and controlled burning are both energy wasteful.

  3. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  4. Optimization of processing parameters and ingredients for development of low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kumar, A; Kumbhar, B K; Dar, B N

    2015-02-01

    Increasing demand of low calorie and high fibre containing products give impetus to dairy industry for development of a well palatable low calorie dairy products like paneer. The objective of the present study was to develop low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer. The ingredients were chosen for low-fat fibre- supplemented paneer to reduce the cost and calorie content besides providing the functional benefits. Optimization of ingredients was carried out in terms of independent variables viz wheat bran (0.4-0.8 %), maltodextrin (1-5 %), coagulation temperature (60-80 °C) and amount of citric acid solution (150-210 ml). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to design the experiments and to select the optimum levels of ingredients. Paneer was made by using different levels of ingredients by coagulating hot milk using citric acid solution followed by pressing and dipping in chilled water for texturization. These parameters were evaluated in terms of physico-chemical parameters viz water activity, pH and acidity. Instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) of paneer during optimization trials was done using TAXT 2i Texture Analyzer. The textural responses namely hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were measured via Texture Analyzer. The sensory properties namely flavor, appearance, body and texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability of paneer samples were evaluated by a semi-trained panel of judges using 9-point hedonic scale. Full second order polynomial was developed to predict each response. All the textural and sensory responses were statistically analysed.

  5. Marine & Hydrokinetic Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program. The program supports the development of advanced water power devices that capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients. The program works to promote the development and deployment of these new technologies, known as marine and hydrokinetic technologies, to assess the potential extractable energy from rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters, and to help industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity.

  6. Identification on a fungi isolated from deep sea and analysis on the physical and chemical properties of active ingredient%一株抗植物致病真菌的深海霉菌的鉴定和活性成分理化性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽维; 敖敬群; 陈新华

    2013-01-01

    从印度洋深海底泥中分离到一株真菌S2915,经ITS基因序列分析及显微形态观察,鉴定S2915为支顶孢属Acremonium sp.真菌.其发酵液对5株植物致病真菌有明显的抑制作用.经硫酸铵沉淀后的抗菌活性分析,可以初步判断该抗菌活性成分为蛋白类物质,且最佳硫酸铵饱和浓度为70%(m/m).初步分析了该抗菌粗蛋白的理化性质,结果表明,该活性物质具有很好的耐热性,经60、80、100℃甚至121℃处理后,活性均无明显差异;耐强酸强碱,在pH值为2~12范围内活性不受影响;紫外照射0~12h及用蛋白酶K、胰蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶处理后,活性均没有减弱;但对多种有机溶剂比较敏感,经三氯甲烷、乙酸乙酯、乙醚和丙酮处理后,抗菌活性受到不同程度的抑制,其抑制率分别为35%、25.7%、22.9%、12.9%.证明该抗菌活性物质高效、稳定,可用于抗真菌农药的开发应用.%In this study,a fungi strain named S2915 was isolated from the sediments of deep-sea Indian Ocean.According to ITS sequence analysis and microscopic morphology observation,this fungi was identified as Acremonium sp..The fermented broth from S2915 exhibited apparent inhibition on 5 plant pathogenic fungi,including Rhizoctonia solani Ktihn,Sclerotinia sclerrotiorum,Trichoderma viride,Alternaria longipes and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.When the fermentation broth was precipitated by ammonium sulfate,the precipitate remained anti-fungi activity.Thus we preliminary concluded that this anti-fungi active ingredient was a protein-like substance.The optimum ammonium sulfate saturation was 70% (m/m).To learn the physical and chemical properties of this anti-fungi active substance,we treated it with different temperature,pH values and with ultraviolet-irradiation,organic solvents or protease digestion.And its anti-fungi activity after treatment was evaluated.The results showed that the antifungal activity of crude protein

  7. Temporal Cognition: A Key Ingredient of Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eManiadakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing the flow of time is an important capacity of biological systems that is involved in many ways in the daily activities of humans and animals. However, in the field of robotics, the key role of time in cognition is not adequately considered in contemporary research, with artificial agents focusing mainly on the spatial extent of sensory information, almost always neglecting its temporal dimension. This fact significantly obstructs the development of high level robotic cognitive skills, as well as the autonomous and seamless operation of artificial agents in human environments. Taking inspiration from biological cognition, the present work puts forward time perception as a vital capacity of artificial intelligent systems and contemplates the research path for incorporating temporal cognition in the repertoire of robotic skills.

  8. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  9. Consumer preferences for different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté...

  10. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Kumar; Rashmi Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low crit...

  11. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Herbal Products... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the International Code of Botanical... ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent...

  12. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains...

  13. 7 CFR 58.634 - Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  14. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more-and-more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  15. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back

  16. Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions This page ... All Responses Is there a scientific consensus on climate change? The major scientific agencies of the United ...

  17. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  18. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  19. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  20. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W. [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A. [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc.

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  1. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  2. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  3. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  4. Indian food ingredients and cancer prevention - an experimental evaluation of anticarcinogenic effects of garlic in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Archana; Ghosh, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Das, Sukta

    2004-01-01

    The major food items of Indian cuisine include rice, wheat, diary products, and abundant fruits and vegetables. Beside these, there are several kinds of herbs and spices as important ingredients, containing many phytochemicals with medicinal properties, adding taste to Indian cuisine. An impressive body of data exists in support of the concept that Indian food ingredients can be used in preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and mortality of different types of cancers because of their antioxidative, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Vital ingredients used in Indian cooking include turmeric, cloves, ginger, aniseed, mustard, saffron, cardamom and garlic Garlic is an indispensable ingredient of Indian food and this report concerns the chemopreventive efficacy of garlic in an azoxymethane induced rodent colon carcinogenesis model. The effect of garlic was evaluated in terms of aberrant crypt foci, putative preneoplastic lesions in the colon. In addition, cell proliferation and levels of apoptosis were determined and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein was analyzed. Following treatment, significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, as well as suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 activity were observed, associated with significant reduction in the incidence of aberrant crypt foci. The study points to combined protective effects of garlic components on colon carcinogenesis. PMID:15244513

  5. Scholar-activating teaching materials for quantum physics. Pt. 2. Basic facts of quantum physics and heuristic methods; Schueleraktivierende Unterrichtsmaterialien zur Quantenphysik. T. 2. Grundfakten der Quantenphysik und heuristische Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, Horst

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally in the center of interest on quantum physics referring to schools the question lies, whether electrons and photons are now particles or waves, a question, which is often characterized by the phrase ''wave-particle dualism'', which notoriously not exists in its original meaning. Against that by the author - basing on important preparatory works of Kueblbeck and Mueller - a new concept for the treatment of quantum physics for the school was proposed, which puts ''basic facts'' in the foreground, comparable with the Kueblbeck-Mueller ''characteristic features''. The ''basic facts'' are similar to axioms of quantum physics, by means of which a large number of experiments and phenomena can be ''explained'' at least qualitatively - in a heuristic way -. Instead of the so-called ''wave-particle dualism'' here uncertainty and complementarity are put in the foreground. The new concept is in the Internet under http://www.forphys.de extensively presented with many further materials. In the partial volumes of this publication manifold and carefully elaborated teaching materials are presented, by means of which scholars can get themselves the partial set of quantum physics referring to schools by different methods like learn at stations, short referates, Internet research, group puzzle, the query-sheet or the card-index method etc. In the present 2. part materials for the ''basic facts'' of quantum physics are prepared, by which also modern experiments can be interpreted. Here deals it with the getting of knowledge and application of the ''basic Facts''. This pursues also by real scholar experiments, simulations and analogy tests. The scholars obtain so more simply than generally a deeper insight in quantum physics.

  6. Contaminant and nutrient concentrations of natural ingredient rat and mouse diet used in chemical toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G N; Knapka, J J

    1987-08-01

    The NIH-07 open formula natural ingredient rat and mouse ration is the standard diet for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity studies conducted for the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Contaminant and nutrient concentrations were determined in 2 to 94 lots of this diet used in the NTP toxicology studies. All nutrient concentrations were equivalent to or greater than the requirements for rats and mice as set forth by the National Research Council. Aflatoxins, Hg, chlorinated hydrocarbons except methoxychlor, organophosphates except malathion, estrogenic activity, and Salmonella sp. were not present at the detectable levels. Fluorine, As, Cd, Pb, Se, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, nitrate, nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ethylene dibromide, methoxychlor, malathion, and trypsin inhibitor activity were present at or above the detectable levels. Five lots of diet had nitrosamine content of 100 to 273 ppb and 7 lots had 2.08 to 3.37 ppm of Pb. All other lots of NIH-07 diet used for NTP toxicology studies contained low levels of the contaminants. After determination of the contaminant concentrations in the 94 lots of diet and the contaminant concentrations in natural ingredients used in formulating NIH-07 diet, maximum allowable levels of contaminants were established and a flexible scoring system for acceptability of each lot of diet for chemical toxicology studies was developed. By prescreening ingredients such as fish meal for heavy metals and nitrosamines, and applying the flexible scoring system proposed, more than 95% of the lots of NIH-07 diet produced during the last 3 years had scores of greater than or equal to 95 out of 100 points and were considered acceptable for toxicology studies.

  7. Hashish e principio attivo: considerazioni medico-legali su una casistica / Haschich et principe actif : considérations médico-légales à partir d’une liste de cas / Hashish and its active ingredient: forensic-medical considerations from a case-record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Doriana Antonella

    2012-10-01

    the leaves of the plant and contains THC in a percentage from 6 to 15%. The drug samples analyzed at the Laboratorio della Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Lazio (ARPALazio in a three year time 2007-2009 were hashish for 54,10% out of the whole analyze drug sampling.The amount of the main active ingredient is between 6 and 8% for the three year time analysis 2007-2009. The cases exceeding the threshold amount of 500 mg as established by the Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica of 9th October 1990 n.309 relating to the unpunishable possession for private personal use were 5,81%. This percentage does not confirm the existence of big international drug trafficking but of “small drug dealers and/or consumers”.This can be explained by considering that if the amount of THC is always low, also the cases exceeding the allowed threshold quantity will be few. Furthermore, if the amount of THC in the sample is between 6-8%, the rest of the substance is made up of other elements such as contaminants, cutting agents and adulterants which alter the laboratory test drug results by hiding the THC contents that will be traced only through more sophisticated techniques.

  8. Facts and fictions about polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol(-1), conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol(-1) in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences.

  9. Photobiology Research Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Photobiology Research Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL. The photobiology group's research is in four main areas: (1) Comprehensive studies of fuel-producing photosynthetic, fermentative, and chemolithotrophic model microorganisms; (2) Characterization and engineering of redox enzymes and proteins for fuel production; (3) Genetic and pathway engineering of model organisms to improve production of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels; and (4) Studies of nanosystems using biological and non-biological materials in hybrid generation. NREL's photobiology research capabilities include: (1) Controlled and automated photobioreactors and fermenters for growing microorganisms under a variety of environmental conditions; (2) High-and medium-throughput screening of H{sub 2}-producing organisms; (3) Homologous and heterologous expression, purification, and biochemical/biophysical characterization of redox enzymes and proteins; (4) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gases, metabolites, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins; (5) Genetic and pathway engineering and development of novel genetic toolboxes; and (6) Design and spectroscopic characterization of enzyme-based biofuel cells and energy conversion nanodevices.

  10. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships. PMID:25190832

  11. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  12. FACT - Monitoring Blazars at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Balbo, M; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Freiwald, J; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2015-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) was built on the Canary Island of La Palma in October 2011 as a proof of principle for silicon based photosensors in Cherenkov Astronomy. The scientific goal of the project is to study the variability of active galatic nuclei (AGN) at TeV energies. Observing a small sample of TeV blazars whenever possible, an unbiased data sample is collected. This allows to study the variability of the selected objects on timescales from hours to years. Results from the first three years of monitoring will be presented. To provide quick flare alerts to the community and trigger multi-wavelength observations, a quick look analysis has been installed on-site providing results publicly online within the same night. In summer 2014, several flare alerts were issued. Results of the quick look analysis are summarized.

  13. Neutrino masses From fantasy to facts

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    Theory suggests the existence of neutrino masses, but little more. Facts are coming close to reveal our fantasy: solar and atmospheric neutrino data strongly indicate the need for neutrino conversions, while LSND provides an intriguing hint. The simplest ways to reconcile these data in terms of neutrino oscillations invoke a light sterile neutrino in addition to the three active ones. Out of the four neutrinos, two are maximally-mixed and lie at the LSND scale, while the others are at the solar mass scale. These schemes can be distinguished at neutral-current-sensitive solar & atmospheric neutrino experiments. I discuss the simplest theoretical scenarios, where the lightness of the sterile neutrino, the nearly maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing, and the generation of $\\Delta {m^2}_\\odot$ & $\\Delta {m^2}_{atm}$ all follow naturally from the assumed lepton-number symmetry and its breaking. Although the most likely interpretation of the present data is in terms of neutrino-mass-induced oscillations, one...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  15. Evaluation of different natural ingredients as satiety inductors

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Nuno Eduardo dos Anjos Serra

    2012-01-01

    Using natural ingredients to combat obesity has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional therapies which present many side effects. Satiety induction by the ingestion of certain natural compounds has been proven to be an interesting strategy. In this context, the present study had the following objectives: - Isolation of rucola, watercress and spinach, plum and tomato waste and cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica extracts, rich in compounds with the potential to induce a prolonge...

  16. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proctor Enola K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research.

  17. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  18. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals.

  19. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  20. 40 CFR 174.705 - Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inert ingredients from sexually compatible plant. 174.705 Section 174.705 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient...