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Sample records for active hair bundle

  1. Reaction–diffusion model of hair-bundle morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobo, Adrian; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Our senses of hearing and balance rest upon the activity of hair cells, the ear’s sensory receptors. Each hair cell detects mechanical stimuli with its hair bundle, an organelle comprising 10–300 cylindrical, actin-filled stereocilia. A bundle’s structure is highly stereotyped: the stereocilia stand erect in a regular, hexagonal array and display a monotonic gradient in length along one axis. This precise organization is key to the operation of the hair bundle: mutations that disturb the morp...

  2. Reaction-diffusion model of hair-bundle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, Adrian; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-10-28

    The hair bundle, an apical specialization of the hair cell composed of several rows of regularly organized stereocilia and a kinocilium, is essential for mechanotransduction in the ear. Its precise organization allows the hair bundle to convert mechanical stimuli to electrical signals; mutations that alter the bundle's morphology often cause deafness. However, little is known about the proteins involved in the process of morphogenesis and how the structure of the bundle arises through interactions between these molecules. We present a mathematical model based on simple reaction-diffusion mechanisms that can reproduce the shape and organization of the hair bundle. This model suggests that the boundary of the cell and the kinocilium act as signaling centers that establish the bundle's shape. The interaction of two proteins forms a hexagonal Turing pattern--a periodic modulation of the concentrations of the morphogens, sustained by local activation and long-range inhibition of the reactants--that sets a blueprint for the location of the stereocilia. Finally we use this model to predict how different alterations to the system might impact the shape and organization of the hair bundle.

  3. Reaction–diffusion model of hair-bundle morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, Adrian; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The hair bundle, an apical specialization of the hair cell composed of several rows of regularly organized stereocilia and a kinocilium, is essential for mechanotransduction in the ear. Its precise organization allows the hair bundle to convert mechanical stimuli to electrical signals; mutations that alter the bundle’s morphology often cause deafness. However, little is known about the proteins involved in the process of morphogenesis and how the structure of the bundle arises through interactions between these molecules. We present a mathematical model based on simple reaction–diffusion mechanisms that can reproduce the shape and organization of the hair bundle. This model suggests that the boundary of the cell and the kinocilium act as signaling centers that establish the bundle’s shape. The interaction of two proteins forms a hexagonal Turing pattern—a periodic modulation of the concentrations of the morphogens, sustained by local activation and long-range inhibition of the reactants—that sets a blueprint for the location of the stereocilia. Finally we use this model to predict how different alterations to the system might impact the shape and organization of the hair bundle. PMID:25313064

  4. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

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    Valeria Zampini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  5. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

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    Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  6. Hair bundles are specialized for ATP delivery via creatine kinase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, J.B.; Streijger, F.; Beynon, A.J.; Peters, T.; Gadzala, L.; McMillen, D.; Bystrom, C.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Wallimann, T.; Gillespie, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    When stimulated strongly, a hair cell's mechanically sensitive hair bundle may consume ATP too rapidly for replenishment by diffusion. To provide a broad view of the bundle's protein complement, including those proteins participating in energy metabolism, we used shotgun mass spectrometry methods to

  7. Sensory transduction: the 'swarm intelligence' of auditory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jörg

    2011-08-23

    In vertebrate hair cells, the hair bundle is responsible for the conversion of mechanical vibrations into electrical signals. In a combined experimental and computational tour de force, a group of researchers now presents a quantitative model that explains how the bundle's specific microarchitecture gives rise to its exquisite mechanosensory properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Steady-state stiffness of utricular hair cells depends on macular location and hair bundle structure

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    Spoon, Corrie; Moravec, W. J.; Rowe, M. H.; Grant, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal properties of head movement are encoded by vestibular hair cells in the inner ear. One of the most striking features of these receptors is the orderly structural variation in their mechanoreceptive hair bundles, but the functional significance of this diversity is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hair bundle structure is a significant contributor to hair bundle mechanics by comparing structure and steady-state stiffness of 73 hair bundles at varying locations on the utricular macula. Our first major finding is that stiffness of utricular hair bundles varies systematically with macular locus. Stiffness values are highest in the striola, near the line of hair bundle polarity reversal, and decline exponentially toward the medial extrastriola. Striolar bundles are significantly more stiff than those in medial (median: 8.9 μN/m) and lateral (2.0 μN/m) extrastriolae. Within the striola, bundle stiffness is greatest in zone 2 (106.4 μN/m), a band of type II hair cells, and significantly less in zone 3 (30.6 μN/m), which contains the only type I hair cells in the macula. Bathing bundles in media that break interciliary links produced changes in bundle stiffness with predictable time course and magnitude, suggesting that links were intact in our standard media and contributed normally to bundle stiffness during measurements. Our second major finding is that bundle structure is a significant predictor of steady-state stiffness: the heights of kinocilia and the tallest stereocilia are the most important determinants of bundle stiffness. Our results suggest 1) a functional interpretation of bundle height variability in vertebrate vestibular organs, 2) a role for the striola in detecting onset of head movement, and 3) the hypothesis that differences in bundle stiffness contribute to diversity in afferent response dynamics. PMID:21918003

  9. Hair cell bundles: flexoelectric motors of the inner ear.

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    Kathryn D Breneman

    Full Text Available Microvilli (stereocilia projecting from the apex of hair cells in the inner ear are actively motile structures that feed energy into the vibration of the inner ear and enhance sensitivity to sound. The biophysical mechanism underlying the hair bundle motor is unknown. In this study, we examined a membrane flexoelectric origin for active movements in stereocilia and conclude that it is likely to be an important contributor to mechanical power output by hair bundles. We formulated a realistic biophysical model of stereocilia incorporating stereocilia dimensions, the known flexoelectric coefficient of lipid membranes, mechanical compliance, and fluid drag. Electrical power enters the stereocilia through displacement sensitive ion channels and, due to the small diameter of stereocilia, is converted to useful mechanical power output by flexoelectricity. This motor augments molecular motors associated with the mechanosensitive apparatus itself that have been described previously. The model reveals stereocilia to be highly efficient and fast flexoelectric motors that capture the energy in the extracellular electro-chemical potential of the inner ear to generate mechanical power output. The power analysis provides an explanation for the correlation between stereocilia height and the tonotopic organization of hearing organs. Further, results suggest that flexoelectricity may be essential to the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of non-mammalian hearing organs at high auditory frequencies, and may contribute to the "cochlear amplifier" in mammals.

  10. Hair cell bundles: flexoelectric motors of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Kathryn D; Brownell, William E; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Microvilli (stereocilia) projecting from the apex of hair cells in the inner ear are actively motile structures that feed energy into the vibration of the inner ear and enhance sensitivity to sound. The biophysical mechanism underlying the hair bundle motor is unknown. In this study, we examined a membrane flexoelectric origin for active movements in stereocilia and conclude that it is likely to be an important contributor to mechanical power output by hair bundles. We formulated a realistic biophysical model of stereocilia incorporating stereocilia dimensions, the known flexoelectric coefficient of lipid membranes, mechanical compliance, and fluid drag. Electrical power enters the stereocilia through displacement sensitive ion channels and, due to the small diameter of stereocilia, is converted to useful mechanical power output by flexoelectricity. This motor augments molecular motors associated with the mechanosensitive apparatus itself that have been described previously. The model reveals stereocilia to be highly efficient and fast flexoelectric motors that capture the energy in the extracellular electro-chemical potential of the inner ear to generate mechanical power output. The power analysis provides an explanation for the correlation between stereocilia height and the tonotopic organization of hearing organs. Further, results suggest that flexoelectricity may be essential to the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of non-mammalian hearing organs at high auditory frequencies, and may contribute to the "cochlear amplifier" in mammals.

  11. Somatic motility and hair bundle mechanics, are both necessary for cochlear amplification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Anthony W; Ricci, Anthony J

    2011-03-01

    Hearing organs have evolved to detect sounds across several orders of magnitude of both intensity and frequency. Detection limits are at the atomic level despite the energy associated with sound being limited thermodynamically. Several mechanisms have evolved to account for the remarkable frequency selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity of these various hearing organs, together termed the active process or cochlear amplifier. Similarities between hearing organs of disparate species provides insight into the factors driving the development of the cochlear amplifier. These properties include: a tonotopic map, the emergence of a two hair cell system, the separation of efferent and afferent innervations, the role of the tectorial membrane, and the shift from intrinsic tuning and amplification to a more end organ driven process. Two major contributors to the active process are hair bundle mechanics and outer hair cell electromotility, the former present in all hair cell organs tested, the latter only present in mammalian cochlear outer hair cells. Both of these processes have advantages and disadvantages, and how these processes interact to generate the active process in the mammalian system is highly disputed. A hypothesis is put forth suggesting that hair bundle mechanics provides amplification and filtering in most hair cells, while in mammalian cochlea, outer hair cell motility provides the amplification on a cycle by cycle basis driven by the hair bundle that provides frequency selectivity (in concert with the tectorial membrane) and compressive nonlinearity. Separating components of the active process may provide additional sites for regulation of this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the somatic electrical circuit on spontaneous mechanical oscillations of inner ear hair bundles

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    Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Strimbu, C. Elliott; Fredrickson, Lea; Kao, Albert; Bozovic, Dolores

    2010-03-01

    Under in vitro conditions, uncoupled hair bundles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) sacculus have been shown to exhibit spontaneous oscillations. We used a high-speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera to track the movements of hundreds of cells in parallel from dozens of preparations. We found that innate bundle movements exhibit a complex profile with multiple periodicities. Experiments inhibiting the electrical resonance in the cell body show a strong effect on the mechanical oscillations of the hair bundles. This indicates that the electrical oscillation is coupled with the mechanical oscillations of the hair bundles.

  13. Evidence for two populations of hair bundles in the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis.

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    Menard, Shelcie S; Watson, Glen M

    2017-06-01

    Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length. Immediately after CD treatment, when only CD-resistant hair bundles are present, nematocyst discharge is normal into targets touched to tentacles in the absence of vibrations (i.e., baseline) but fails to increase normally in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz, a key frequency. After CD treatment, the abundance of hair bundles recovers to control levels within three hours. At 2h after CD treatment, when CD-resistant and CD-sensitive hair bundles are both present, but a full-recovery is not yet complete, somewhat enhanced discharge of nematocysts occurs into targets touched to tentacles in the presence of nearby vibrations at 56Hz (at least as compared to the response of CD-treated animals to contact with test probes in the absence of vibrations). Additionally, at 2h after CD-treatment, prey capture recovers to normal. Thus, two populations of hair bundles may be present on tentacles of sea anemones: those that are CD-resistant and those that are CD-sensitive. The functions of these hair bundles may be distinct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

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    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  15. A link between planar polarity and staircase-like bundle architecture in hair cells.

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    Tarchini, Basile; Tadenev, Abigail L D; Devanney, Nicholas; Cayouette, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Sensory perception in the inner ear relies on the hair bundle, the highly polarized brush of movement detectors that crowns hair cells. We previously showed that, in the mouse cochlea, the edge of the forming bundle is defined by the 'bare zone', a microvilli-free sub-region of apical membrane specified by the Insc-LGN-Gαi protein complex. We now report that LGN and Gαi also occupy the very tip of stereocilia that directly abut the bare zone. We demonstrate that LGN and Gαi are both essential for promoting the elongation and differential identity of stereocilia across rows. Interestingly, we also reveal that total LGN-Gαi protein amounts are actively balanced between the bare zone and stereocilia tips, suggesting that early planar asymmetry of protein enrichment at the bare zone confers adjacent stereocilia their tallest identity. We propose that LGN and Gαi participate in a long-inferred signal that originates outside the bundle to model its staircase-like architecture, a property that is essential for direction sensitivity to mechanical deflection and hearing. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Subdiffusion in hair bundle dynamics: The role of protein conformational fluctuations

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    Sharma, Rati; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2012-12-01

    The detection of sound signals in vertebrates involves a complex network of different mechano-sensory elements in the inner ear. An especially important element in this network is the hair bundle, an antenna-like array of stereocilia containing gated ion channels that operate under the control of one or more adaptation motors. Deflections of the hair bundle by sound vibrations or thermal fluctuations transiently open the ion channels, allowing the flow of ions through them, and producing an electrical signal in the process, eventually causing the sensation of hearing. Recent high frequency (0.1-10 kHz) measurements by Kozlov et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 2896 (2012)], 10.1073/pnas.1121389109 of the power spectrum and the mean square displacement of the thermal fluctuations of the hair bundle suggest that in this regime the dynamics of the hair bundle are subdiffusive. This finding has been explained in terms of the simple Brownian motion of a filament connecting neighboring stereocilia (the tip link), which is modeled as a viscoelastic spring. In the present paper, the diffusive anomalies of the hair bundle are ascribed to tip link fluctuations that evolve by fractional Brownian motion, which originates in fractional Gaussian noise and is characterized by a power law memory. The predictions of this model for the power spectrum of the hair bundle and its mean square displacement are consistent with the experimental data and the known properties of the tip link.

  17. Hair greying is associated with active hair growth.

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    Choi, H I; Choi, G I; Kim, E K; Choi, Y J; Sohn, K C; Lee, Y; Kim, C D; Yoon, T J; Sohn, H J; Han, S H; Kim, S; Lee, J H; Lee, Y H

    2011-12-01

    Hair greying is an obvious sign of ageing in humans. White (nonpigmented) hair is thicker than black (pigmented) hair. The growth rate of white hair is also significantly higher than that of black hair. However, the mechanism underlying this is largely unknown. To examine the association between hair greying and hair growth patterns by evaluating expression of the genes or proteins related to hair growth in white and black hairs. Morphological characteristics were observed in eyebrow and scalp hairs. The differential expression of genes was analysed in black and white hairs from human scalp by a microarray analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry for genes and proteins related to hair growth were performed in black and white hairs. Keratin and keratin-associated protein (KRTAP) genes in white hair were upregulated at least two-fold in comparison with black hair in a microarray analysis. Upregulation of selected keratin genes and KRTAP4 isoform genes in white hair was validated by RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for KRT6, KRT14/16 and KRT25 was increased in the hair follicle of white hair compared with black hair. Gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) was downregulated in white hair compared with black hair. However, gene expression of FGF7 was upregulated in white hair compared with black hair. Expression of genes and proteins associated with active hair growth is upregulated in white (nonpigmented) hair compared with black (pigmented) hair. These results suggest that hair greying is associated with active hair growth. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Effects of DAPT and Atoh1 overexpression on hair cell production and hair bundle orientation in cultured Organ of Corti from neonatal rats.

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    Li-Dong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals, hair cells do not undergo spontaneous regeneration when they are damaged and result in permanent hearing loss. Previous studies in cultured Organ of Corti dissected from neonatal animals have shown that both DAPT (r-secretase inhibitor in the Notch signal pathway treatment and Atoh1 overexpression can induce supernumerary hair cells. The effects of simultaneous DAPT treatment and Atoh1 over expression in the cells of cultured Organ of Corti from neonatal rats are still obscure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we set out to investigate the interaction of DAPT treatment and Atoh1 overexpression as well as culture time and the location of basilar fragment isolated form neonatal rat inner ear. Our results showed that DAPT treatment induced more hair cells in the apical turn, while Atoh1 overexpression induced more extra hair cells in the middle turn of the cultured Organ of Corti. When used together, their effects are additive but not synergistic. In addition, the induction of supernumerary hair cells by both DAPT and Atoh1 overexpression is dependent on the treatment time and the location of the cochlear tissue. Moreover, DAPT treatment causes dramatic changes in the orientation of the stereociliary bundles of hair cells, whereas Atoh1 overexpression didn't induce drastic change of the polarity of stereociliary bundles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results suggest that DAPT treatment are much more potent in inducing supernumerary hair cells than Atoh1 overexpression and that the new hair cells mainly come from the trans-differentiation of supporting cells around hair cells. The orientation change of stereociliary bundle of hair cells may be attributed to the insertion of the newly formed hair cells. The immature hair bundles on the newly formed hair cells may also contribute to the overall chaos of the stereociliary bundle of the sensory epithelia.

  19. The circular F-actin bundles provide a track for turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria in Arabidopsis root hair.

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    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The movement of organelles in root hairs primarily occurs along the actin cytoskeleton. Circulation and "reverse fountain" cytoplasmic streaming constitute the typical forms by which most organelles (such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus in plant root hair cells engage in bidirectional movement. However, there remains a lack of in-depth research regarding the relationship between the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton and turnaround organelle movement in plant root hair cells.In this paper, Arabidopsis seedlings that had been stably transformed with a GFP-ABD2-GFP (green fluorescent protein-actin-binding domain 2-green fluorescent protein construct were utilized to study the distribution of bundles of filamentous (F-actin and the directed motion of mitochondria along these bundles in root hairs. Observations with a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that there were widespread circular F-actin bundles in the epidermal cells and root hairs of Arabidopsis roots. In root hairs, these circular bundles primarily start at the sub-apical region, which is the location where the turnaround movement of organelles occurs. MitoTracker probes were used to label mitochondria, and the dynamic observation of root hair cells with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that turnaround mitochondrial movement occurred along circular F-actin bundles.Relevant experimental results demonstrated that the circular F-actin bundles provide a track for the turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria.

  20. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Holly A.; Nguyen, Lynn Y. [Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Tran, Vy M.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam [Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Kuberan, Balagurunathan [Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Rabbitt, Richard D. [Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Neuroscience Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Otolaryngology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  1. The BEACH protein LRBA is required for hair bundle maintenance in cochlear hair cells and for hearing.

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    Vogl, Christian; Butola, Tanvi; Haag, Natja; Hausrat, Torben J; Leitner, Michael G; Moutschen, Michel; Lefèbvre, Philippe P; Speckmann, Carsten; Garrett, Lillian; Becker, Lore; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Kessels, Michael M; Oliver, Dominik; Kneussel, Matthias; Kilimann, Manfred W; Strenzke, Nicola

    2017-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) belongs to the enigmatic class of BEACH domain-containing proteins, which have been attributed various cellular functions, typically involving intracellular protein and membrane transport processes. Here, we show that LRBA deficiency in mice leads to progressive sensorineural hearing loss. In LRBA knockout mice, inner and outer hair cell stereociliary bundles initially develop normally, but then partially degenerate during the second postnatal week. LRBA deficiency is associated with a reduced abundance of radixin and Nherf2, two adaptor proteins, which are important for the mechanical stability of the basal taper region of stereocilia. Our data suggest that due to the loss of structural integrity of the central parts of the hair bundle, the hair cell receptor potential is reduced, resulting in a loss of cochlear sensitivity and functional loss of the fraction of spiral ganglion neurons with low spontaneous firing rates. Clinical data obtained from two human patients with protein-truncating nonsense or frameshift mutations suggest that LRBA deficiency may likewise cause syndromic sensorineural hearing impairment in humans, albeit less severe than in our mouse model. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Gating energies and forces of the mammalian hair cell transducer channel and related hair bundle mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, SM; Kros, CJ

    2000-01-01

    We quantified the molecular energies and forces involved in opening and closing of mechanoelectrical transducer channels in hair cells using a novel generally applicable method. It relies on a thermodynamic description of the free energy of an ion channel in terms of its open probability. The

  3. Daple coordinates organ-wide and cell-intrinsic polarity to pattern inner-ear hair bundles.

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    Siletti, Kimberly; Tarchini, Basile; Hudspeth, A J

    2017-12-26

    The establishment of planar polarization by mammalian cells necessitates the integration of diverse signaling pathways. In the inner ear, at least two systems regulate the planar polarity of sensory hair bundles. The core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins coordinate the orientations of hair cells across the epithelial plane. The cell-intrinsic patterning of hair bundles is implemented independently by the G protein complex classically known for orienting the mitotic spindle. Although the primary cilium also participates in each of these pathways, its role and the integration of the two systems are poorly understood. We show that Dishevelled-associating protein with a high frequency of leucine residues (Daple) interacts with PCP and cell-intrinsic signals. Regulated by the cell-intrinsic pathway, Daple is required to maintain the polarized distribution of the core PCP protein Dishevelled and to position the primary cilium at the abneural edge of the apical surface. Our results suggest that the primary cilium or an associated structure influences the domain of cell-intrinsic signals that shape the hair bundle. Daple is therefore essential to orient and pattern sensory hair bundles. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Simulation of the response of the inner hair cell stereocilia bundle to an acoustical stimulus.

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    Sonya T Smith

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hearing relies on a cochlear hydrodynamic sensor embodied in the inner hair cell stereocilia bundle. It is presumed that acoustical stimuli induce a fluid shear-driven motion between the tectorial membrane and the reticular lamina to deflect the bundle. It is hypothesized that ion channels are opened by molecular gates that sense tension in tip-links, which connect adjacent stepped rows of stereocilia. Yet almost nothing is known about how the fluid and bundle interact. Here we show using our microfluidics model how each row of stereocilia and their associated tip links and gates move in response to an acoustical input that induces an orbital motion of the reticular lamina. The model confirms the crucial role of the positioning of the tectorial membrane in hearing, and explains how this membrane amplifies and synchronizes the timing of peak tension in the tip links. Both stereocilia rotation and length change are needed for synchronization of peak tip link tension. Stereocilia length change occurs in response to accelerations perpendicular to the oscillatory fluid shear flow. Simulations indicate that nanovortices form between rows to facilitate diffusion of ions into channels, showing how nature has devised a way to solve the diffusive mixing problem that persists in engineered microfluidic devices.

  5. Progressive hearing loss and gradual deterioration of sensory hair bundles in the ears of mice lacking the actin-binding protein Eps8L2.

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    Furness, David N; Johnson, Stuart L; Manor, Uri; Rüttiger, Lukas; Tocchetti, Arianna; Offenhauser, Nina; Olt, Jennifer; Goodyear, Richard J; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Dai, Yuhai; Hackney, Carole M; Franz, Christoph; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Masetto, Sergio; Jones, Sherri M; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Richardson, Guy P; Kachar, Bechara; Marcotti, Walter

    2013-08-20

    Mechanotransduction in the mammalian auditory system depends on mechanosensitive channels in the hair bundles that project from the apical surface of the sensory hair cells. Individual stereocilia within each bundle contain a core of tightly packed actin filaments, whose length is dynamically regulated during development and in the adult. We show that the actin-binding protein epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8)L2, a member of the Eps8-like protein family, is a newly identified hair bundle protein that is localized at the tips of stereocilia of both cochlear and vestibular hair cells. It has a spatiotemporal expression pattern that complements that of Eps8. In the cochlea, whereas Eps8 is essential for the initial elongation of stereocilia, Eps8L2 is required for their maintenance in adult hair cells. In the absence of both proteins, the ordered staircase structure of the hair bundle in the cochlea decays. In contrast to the early profound hearing loss associated with an absence of Eps8, Eps8L2 null-mutant mice exhibit a late-onset, progressive hearing loss that is directly linked to a gradual deterioration in hair bundle morphology. We conclude that Eps8L2 is required for the long-term maintenance of the staircase structure and mechanosensory function of auditory hair bundles. It complements the developmental role of Eps8 and is a candidate gene for progressive age-related hearing loss.

  6. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  7. Amiloride causes changes in the mechanical properties of hair cell bundles in the fish lateral line similar to those induced by dihydrostreptomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM

    1998-01-01

    Amiloride is a known blocker of the mechano-electrical transduction current in sensory hair cells. Measurements of cupular motion in the lateral line organ of fish now show that amiloride concurrently changes the micromechanical properties of the hair cell bundles. The effects of amiloride on the

  8. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfei Li; Mingnuan Han; Pei Lin; Yanran He; Jie Yu; Ronghua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio,...

  9. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  10. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP. Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00% than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%. However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression.

  11. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; He, Yanran; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase activity drives hair follicle stem cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimee, Flores; John, Schell; Abby, Krall; David, Jelinek; Matilde, Miranda; Melina, Grigorian; Daniel, Braas; White Andrew, C; Jessica, Zhou; Nick, Graham; Thomas, Graeber; Pankaj, Seth; Denis, Evseenko; Hilary, Coller; Jared, Rutter; Heather, Christofk; Lowry William, E

    2017-01-01

    Summary While normally dormant, Hair Follicle Stem Cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation. Conversely, genetically promoting lactate production in HFSCs through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (Mpc1) deletion accelerated their activation and the hair cycle. Finally, we identify small molecules that increase lactate production by stimulating Myc levels or inhibiting Mpc1 carrier activity and can topically induce the hair cycle. These data suggest that HFSCs maintain a metabolic state that allow them to remain dormant and yet quickly respond to appropriate proliferative stimuli. PMID:28812580

  13. Activating Hair Follicle Stem Cells via R-spondin2 to Stimulate Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew A; Li, Jingtao; Liu, Bo; Hunter, Daniel; Pyles, Malcolm; Gillette, Martin; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Abo, Arie; Oro, Anthony; Helms, Jill A

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is required for the development of the hair follicle, and for inciting the growth (anagen) phase of the hair cycle. Most strategies to enhance Wnt signaling for hair growth create a state of constitutive Wnt activation, which leads to neoplastic transformation of the epithelial hair matrix. Using Axin2(LacZ/+) and Axin2(Cre/+)R26R(mTmG/+) reporter mice and RNA analyses, we show that Wnt signaling is elevated during anagen, is reduced at the onset of catagen, and can be reamplified in the skin and surrounding hair follicles via intradermal injection of recombinant R-spondin2 protein. Using Lgr5(LacZ/+) reporter mice, we demonstrate that this amplified Wnt environment leads to activation of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive stem cells in the hair follicle. The onset of catagen is repressed by R-spondin2 injection, and the anagen phase persists. As a consequence, hair shafts grow longer. We conclude that R-spondin2 treatment activates hair follicle stem cells and therefore may have therapeutic potential to promote hair growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Jang, S.G.; Chung, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 10 4 -10 6 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  15. Activation of ganglion cells and axon bundles using epiretinal electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Lauren E; Ganesan, Karthik; Goetz, Georges A; Madugula, Sasidhar S; Bhaskhar, Nandita; Fan, Victoria; Li, Peter; Hottowy, Pawel; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Sher, Alexander; Litke, Alan M; Mitra, Subhasish; Chichilnisky, E J

    2017-09-01

    Epiretinal prostheses for treating blindness activate axon bundles, causing large, arc-shaped visual percepts that limit the quality of artificial vision. Improving the function of epiretinal prostheses therefore requires understanding and avoiding axon bundle activation. This study introduces a method to detect axon bundle activation on the basis of its electrical signature and uses the method to test whether epiretinal stimulation can directly elicit spikes in individual retinal ganglion cells without activating nearby axon bundles. Combined electrical stimulation and recording from isolated primate retina were performed using a custom multielectrode system (512 electrodes, 10-μm diameter, 60-μm pitch). Axon bundle signals were identified by their bidirectional propagation, speed, and increasing amplitude as a function of stimulation current. The threshold for bundle activation varied across electrodes and retinas, and was in the same range as the threshold for activating retinal ganglion cells near their somas. In the peripheral retina, 45% of electrodes that activated individual ganglion cells (17% of all electrodes) did so without activating bundles. This permitted selective activation of 21% of recorded ganglion cells (7% of expected ganglion cells) over the array. In one recording in the central retina, 75% of electrodes that activated individual ganglion cells (16% of all electrodes) did so without activating bundles. The ability to selectively activate a subset of retinal ganglion cells without axon bundles suggests a possible novel architecture for future epiretinal prostheses. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Large-scale multielectrode recording and stimulation were used to test how selectively retinal ganglion cells can be electrically activated without activating axon bundles. A novel method was developed to identify axon activation on the basis of its unique electrical signature and was used to find that a subset of ganglion cells can be activated at single

  16. Somatic motility and hair bundle mechanics, are both necessary for cochlear amplification?

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Anthony W.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Hearing organs have evolved to detect sounds across several orders of magnitude of both intensity and frequency. Detection limits are at the atomic level despite the energy associated with sound being limited thermodynamically. Several mechanisms have evolved to account for the remarkable frequency selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity of these various hearing organs, together termed the active process or cochlear amplifier. Similarities between hearing organs of disparate species provi...

  17. Kif3a regulates planar polarization of auditory hair cells through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Conor W.; Lu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Auditory hair cells represent one of the most prominent examples of epithelial planar polarity. In the auditory sensory epithelium, planar polarity of individual hair cells is defined by their V-shaped hair bundle, the mechanotransduction organelle located on the apical surface. At the tissue level, all hair cells display uniform planar polarity across the epithelium. Although it is known that tissue planar polarity is controlled by non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery that establishes the V-shape of the hair bundle is poorly understood. Here, we show that the microtubule motor subunit Kif3a regulates hair cell polarization through both ciliary and non-ciliary mechanisms. Disruption of Kif3a in the inner ear led to absence of the kinocilium, a shortened cochlear duct and flattened hair bundle morphology. Moreover, basal bodies are mispositioned along both the apicobasal and planar polarity axes of mutant hair cells, and hair bundle orientation was uncoupled from the basal body position. We show that a non-ciliary function of Kif3a regulates localized cortical activity of p21-activated kinases (PAK), which in turn controls basal body positioning in hair cells. Our results demonstrate that Kif3a-PAK signaling coordinates planar polarization of the hair bundle and the basal body in hair cells, and establish Kif3a as a key component of the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery, which acts in concert with the tissue polarity pathway. PMID:21752934

  18. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1982-01-01

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24 Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  19. Centering perspectives on Black women, hair politics, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae

    2014-05-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women's health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities.

  20. Frequency-dependent properties of a fluid jet stimulus : Calibration, modeling, and application to cochlear hair cell bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinklo, Theo; Meulenberg, Cecil J. W.; van Netten, Sietse M.

    The investigation of small physiological mechanosensory systems, such as hair cells or their accessory structures in the inner ear or lateral line organ, requires mechanical stimulus equipment that allows spatial manipulation with micrometer precision and stimulation with amplitudes down to the

  1. Dopamine Modulates the Activity of Sensory Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Cecilia; Trapani, Josef G; Pacentine, Itallia; Maeda, Reo; Sheets, Lavinia; Mo, Weike; Nicolson, Teresa

    2015-12-16

    The senses of hearing and balance are subject to modulation by efferent signaling, including the release of dopamine (DA). How DA influences the activity of the auditory and vestibular systems and its site of action are not well understood. Here we show that dopaminergic efferent fibers innervate the acousticolateralis epithelium of the zebrafish during development but do not directly form synapses with hair cells. However, a member of the D1-like receptor family, D1b, tightly localizes to ribbon synapses in inner ear and lateral-line hair cells. To assess modulation of hair-cell activity, we reversibly activated or inhibited D1-like receptors (D1Rs) in lateral-line hair cells. In extracellular recordings from hair cells, we observed that D1R agonist SKF-38393 increased microphonic potentials, whereas D1R antagonist SCH-23390 decreased microphonic potentials. Using ratiometric calcium imaging, we found that increased D1R activity resulted in larger calcium transients in hair cells. The increase of intracellular calcium requires Cav1.3a channels, as a Cav1 calcium channel antagonist, isradipine, blocked the increase in calcium transients elicited by the agonist SKF-38393. Collectively, our results suggest that DA is released in a paracrine fashion and acts at ribbon synapses, likely enhancing the activity of presynaptic Cav1.3a channels and thereby increasing neurotransmission. The neurotransmitter dopamine acts in a paracrine fashion (diffusion over a short distance) in several tissues and bodily organs, influencing and regulating their activity. The cellular target and mechanism of the action of dopamine in mechanosensory organs, such as the inner ear and lateral-line organ, is not clearly understood. Here we demonstrate that dopamine receptors are present in sensory hair cells at synaptic sites that are required for signaling to the brain. When nearby neurons release dopamine, activation of the dopamine receptors increases the activity of these mechanosensitive

  2. Monitoring intracellular calcium ion dynamics in hair cell populations with Fluo-4 AM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri J Spinelli

    Full Text Available We optimized Fluo-4 AM loading of chicken cochlea to report hair-bundle Ca(2+ signals in populations of hair cells. The bundle Ca(2+ signal reported the physiological state of the bundle and cell; extruding cells had very high bundle Fluo-4 fluorescence, cells with intact bundles and tip links had intermediate fluorescence, and damaged cells with broken tip links had low fluorescence. Moreover, Fluo-4 fluorescence in the bundle correlated with Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels; mechanically activating transduction channels increased the Fluo-4 signal, while breaking tip links with Ca(2+ chelators or blocking Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels each caused bundle and cell-body Fluo-4 fluorescence to decrease. These results show that when tip links break, bundle and soma Ca(2+ decrease, which could serve to stimulate the hair cell's tip-link regeneration process. Measurement of bundle Ca(2+ with Fluo-4 AM is therefore a simple method for assessing mechanotransduction in hair cells and permits an increased understanding of the interplay of tip links, transduction channels, and Ca(2+ signaling in the hair cell.

  3. Sustained epithelial beta-catenin activity induces precocious hair development but disrupts hair follicle down-growth and hair shaft formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, Katja; Järvinen, Elina; Birchmeier, Walter; Taketo, Makoto M; Mikkola, Marja L; Thesleff, Irma

    2008-03-01

    During embryonic and postnatal development, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is involved in several stages of hair morphogenesis from placode formation to hair shaft differentiation. Using a transgenic approach, we have investigated further the role of beta-catenin signaling in embryonic hair development. Forced epithelial stabilization of beta-catenin resulted in precocious and excessive induction of hair follicles even in the absence of Eda/Edar signaling, a pathway essential for primary hair placode formation. In addition, the spacing and size of the placodes was randomized. Surprisingly, the down-growth of follicles was suppressed and hair shaft production was severely impaired. Gene and reporter expression analyses revealed elevated mesenchymal Wnt activity, as well as increased BMP signaling, throughout the skin that was accompanied by upregulation of Sostdc1 (Wise, ectodin) expression. Our data suggest that BMPs are downstream of Wnt/beta-catenin and that their interplay may be a critical component in establishing correct patterning of hair follicles through the reaction-diffusion mechanism.

  4. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Lisa S; Muhs, Stefanie; Schiewek, Johanna; Grüb, Saskia; Nalaskowski, Marcus; Lin, Yuan-Na; Wikman, Harriet; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Lange, Tobias; Wellbrock, Jasmin; Konietzny, Anja; Mikhaylova, Marina; Windhorst, Sabine

    2017-12-15

    High expression of the actin bundling protein Fascin increases the malignancy of tumor cells. Here we show that fascin expression is up-regulated in more malignant sub-cell lines of MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to parental cells. Since also parental MDA-MB-231 cells exhibit high fascin levels, increased fascin expression was termed as "hyperexpression". To examine the effect of fascin hyperexpression, fascin was hyperexpressed in parental MDA-MB-231 cells and metastasis was analyzed in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice. In addition, the effect of fascin mutants with inactive or constitutively active actin bundling activity was examined. Unexpectedly, we found that hyperexpression of both, wildtype (wt) and mutant fascin strongly increased metastasis in vivo , showing that the effect of fascin hyperexpression did not depend on its actin bundling activity. Cellular assays revealed that hyperexpression of wt and mutant fascin increased adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells while transmigration and proliferation were not affected. Since it has been shown that fascin controls adhesion by directly interacting with microtubules ( MTs), we analyzed if fascin hyperexpression affects MT dynamics. We found that at high concentrations fascin significantly increased MT dynamics in cells and in cell-free approaches. In summary our data show that strong expression of fascin in breast cancer cells increases metastasis independent of its actin bundling activity. Thus, it seems that the mechanism of fascin-stimulated metastasis depends on its concentration.

  5. New method in the criminalistics: neutron-activation analysis of the human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, I.; Simonits, A.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the neutron activation analysis for the examination of human hair for criminological purposes is discussed. Earlier Nal scintillation detector and 256-channels analyzer were used and only form trace elements could be detected in the hair. Recently using Ge/Li detector and a 1024-channels analyzer 11 trace elements were detected in the human hair. (H.E.)

  6. Developing an active artificial hair cell using nonlinear feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bryan S.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2015-09-01

    The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. These cells have inspired a variety of artificial hair cells (AHCs) to serve as biologically inspired sound, fluid flow, and acceleration sensors and could one day replace damaged hair cells in humans. Most of these AHCs rely on passive transduction of stimulus while it is known that the biological cochlea employs active processes to amplify sound-induced vibrations and improve sound detection. In this work, an active AHC mimics the active, nonlinear behavior of the cochlea. The AHC consists of a piezoelectric bimorph beam subjected to a base excitation. A feedback control law is used to reduce the linear damping of the beam and introduce a cubic damping term which gives the AHC the desired nonlinear behavior. Model and experimental results show the AHC amplifies the response due to small base accelerations, has a higher frequency sensitivity than the passive system, and exhibits a compressive nonlinearity like that of the mammalian cochlea. This bio-inspired accelerometer could lead to new sensors with lower thresholds of detection, improved frequency sensitivities, and wider dynamic ranges.

  7. Efferent control of the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castellano-Muñoz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown.We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca(2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position.The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent.

  8. Size Scaling and Bursting Activity in Thermally Activated Breakdown of Fiber Bundles

    KAUST Repository

    Yoshioka, Naoki

    2008-10-03

    We study subcritical fracture driven by thermally activated damage accumulation in the framework of fiber bundle models. We show that in the presence of stress inhomogeneities, thermally activated cracking results in an anomalous size effect; i.e., the average lifetime tf decreases as a power law of the system size tf ∼L-z, where the exponent z depends on the external load σ and on the temperature T in the form z∼f(σ/T3/2). We propose a modified form of the Arrhenius law which provides a comprehensive description of thermally activated breakdown. Thermal fluctuations trigger bursts of breakings which have a power law size distribution. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  9. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation. In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8-19 spermatids in the rat testis is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES, respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic and antimony in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Isono, Hideo; Kozuka, Hiroshi.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and antimony in human hair samples is studied. The sample of hair (100 mg) irradiated for 5 hours with a neutron flux of 2.1x10 12 n/cm 2 s was decomposed with a sulfuric-nitric acid mixture after addition of each 5 mg of arsenic and antimony as carrier. Arsine and stibine were evolved from the solution of decomposed hair by reduction with 3 g of granular zinc and were absorbed in 0.1N iodine solution for half an hour. Metal arsenic was separated from iodine solution by precipitation with sodium hypophosphite, followed by precipitation of antimony as sulfide with thioacetamide. These precipitates were dissolved and their gamma-ray spectra were measured with a well type 3''x3'' NaI(TI) detector equipped with a 200 channel pulse-height analyzer. After the measurement of gamma-ray spectra, the chemical yields were determined by colorimetric methods. The relative standard deviations were 7% and 4% for 0.01 μg As and 0.024 μg Sb, respectively. The sensitivity of this method was estimated to be 1x10 -3 μg for arsenic and 2x10 -3 μg for antimony. (auth.)

  11. Raman-active modes in homogeneous and inhomogeneous bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbai, K; Rahmani, A; Chadli, H [Laboratoire de Physique des materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Universite Moulay Ismail, Faculte des Sciences, BP 11201, Zitoune, 50000 Meknes (Morocco); Sauvajol, J-L [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux (UMR CNRS 5587), Universite Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: rahmani@fs-umi.ac.ma

    2009-01-28

    In the present work, the non-resonant Raman-active modes are calculated for several diameters, chiralities and sizes for homogeneous and inhomogeneous bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (BWCNTs), using the spectral moment's method (SMM). Additional intense Raman-active modes are present in the breathing-like modes (BLM) spectra of these systems in comparison with a single fully symmetric A{sub 1g} mode characteristic of isolated nanotubes (SWCNTs). The dependence of the wavenumber of these modes in terms of diameters, lengths and number of tubes was investigated. We found that, for a finite (in)homogeneous bundle, additional breathing-like modes appear as a specific signature.

  12. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  13. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  14. Physiological Preparation of Hair Cells from the Sacculus of the American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B; Salvi, Joshua D

    2017-03-17

    The study of hearing and balance rests upon insights drawn from biophysical studies of model systems. One such model, the sacculus of the American bullfrog, has become a mainstay of auditory and vestibular research. Studies of this organ have revealed how sensory cells hair can actively detect signals from the environment. Because of these studies, we now better understand the mechanical gating and localization of a hair cell's transduction channels, calcium's role in mechanical adaptation, and the identity of hair cell currents. This highly accessible organ continues to provide insight into the workings of hair cells. Here we describe the preparation of the bullfrog's sacculus for biophysical studies on its hair cells. We include the complete dissection procedure and provide specific protocols for the preparation of the sacculus in specific contexts. We additionally include representative results using this preparation, including the calculation of a hair bundle's instantaneous force-displacement relation and measurement of a bundle's spontaneous oscillation.

  15. Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-nan; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-10

    Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent.

  16. Root hair deformation activity of nodulation factor and their fate on Vicia sativa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Geurts, R.; Franssen, H.; Spaink, H.P.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1994-01-01

    We used a semiquantitative root hair deformation assay for Vicia sativa (vetch) to study the activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae nodulation (Nod) factors. Five to 10 min of Nod factor-root interaction appears to be sufficient to induce root hair deformation. The first deformation is

  17. Supporting cells eliminate dying sensory hair cells to maintain epithelial integrity in the avian inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jonathan E; Daudet, Nicolas; Warchol, Mark E; Gale, Jonathan E

    2010-09-15

    Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed β-actin-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study how sensory epithelia responded during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell trauma. We found that glial-like supporting cells used two independent mechanisms to rapidly eliminate dying hair cells. Supporting cells assembled an actin cable at the luminal surface that extended around the pericuticular junction and constricted to excise the stereocilia bundle and cuticular plate from the hair cell soma. Hair bundle excision could occur within 3 min of actin-cable formation. After bundle excision, typically with a delay of up to 2-3 h, supporting cells engulfed and phagocytosed the remaining bundle-less hair cell. Dual-channel recordings with β-actin-EGFP and vital dyes revealed phagocytosis was concurrent with loss of hair cell integrity. We conclude that supporting cells repaired the epithelial barrier before hair cell plasmalemmal integrity was lost and that supporting cell activity was closely linked to hair cell death. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 did not prevent bundle excision but prolonged phagocytic engulfment and resulted in hair cell corpses accumulating within the epithelium. Our data show that supporting cells not only maintain epithelial integrity during trauma but suggest they may also be an integral part of the hair cell death process itself.

  18. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  19. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge and lower (hair bulb segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  20. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Luo, Long-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Qiong; Xu, Shi-Zheng; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge) and lower (hair bulb) segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC) in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT) in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  1. Cultural hair practices, physical activity, and obesity among urban African-American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Felesia; O'Brien-Richardson, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Hair holds cultural meaning and value for women of African descent. The values placed on hair type and hair style date back to preslavery days. There is a small body of literature that addresses the relationship between cultural hair practices and physical inactivity among black women. Understanding this is important because inactivity during childhood and adolescent years contributes to increased weight-related morbidity and mortality during adult years. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cultural hair practices, physical activity, and obesity among urban African-American adolescent girls. A convenience sample of 50 African-American girls completed questionnaires and were weighed and measured for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Cultural hair practices such as the amount of money (p = .047) and time (p = .015) spent on hair maintenance were associated with decreased physical activity but were not associated with BMI. Inactivity during adolescence can result in obesity, a major cause of chronic health conditions that contribute to morbidity and mortality as an adult. When nurse practitioners understand and appreciate the cultural differences and beliefs around cultural hair practices they will be able to develop culturally appropriate strategies that will aid in weight loss. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Macrophages contribute to the cyclic activation of adult hair follicle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellana, Donatello; Paus, Ralf; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    in number because of apoptosis before the onset of epithelial hair follicle stem cell activation during the murine hair cycle. This process is linked to distinct gene expression, including Wnt transcription. Interestingly, by mimicking this event through the selective induction of macrophage apoptosis...... in early telogen, we identify a novel involvement of macrophages in stem cell activation in vivo. Importantly, the macrophage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Wnt production delays hair follicle growth. Thus, perifollicular macrophages contribute to the activation of skin epithelial stem cells...

  3. Hair mercury association with selenium, serum lipid spectrum, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of the research is to estimate the dependence between hair mercury content, hair selenium, mercury-to-selenium ratio, serum lipid spectrum, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in 63 adults (40 men and 23 women). Serum triglyceride (TG) concentration in the high-mercury group significantly exceeded the values obtained for low- and medium-mercury groups by 72 and 42 %, respectively. Serum GGT activity in the examinees from high-Hg group significantly exceeded the values of the first and the second groups by 75 and 28 %, respectively. Statistical analysis of the male sample revealed similar dependences. Surprisingly, no significant changes in the parameters analyzed were detected in the female sample. In all analyzed samples, hair mercury was not associated with hair selenium concentrations. Significant correlation between hair mercury content and serum TG concentration (r = 0.531) and GGT activity (r = 0.524) in the general sample of the examinees was detected. The respective correlations were observed in the male sample. Hair mercury-to-selenium ratios significantly correlated with body weight (r = 0.310), body mass index (r = 0.250), serum TG (r = 0.389), atherogenic index (r = 0.257), and GGT activity (r = 0.393). The same correlations were observed in the male sample. Hg/Se ratio in women did not correlate with the analyzed parameters. Generally, the results of the current study show the following: (1) hair mercury is associated with serum TG concentration and GGT activity in men, (2) hair selenium content is not related to hair mercury concentration, and (3) mercury-to-selenium ratio correlates with lipid spectrum parameters and GGT activity.

  4. Actin is bundled in activation-tagged tobacco mutants that tolerate aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Abdul; Nick, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A panel of aluminum-tolerant (AlRes) mutants was isolated by protoplast-based T-DNA activation tagging in the tobacco cultivar SR1. The mutants fell into two phenotypic classes: a minority of the mutants were fertile and developed similarly to the wild type (type I), the majority was male-sterile and grew as semi-dwarfs (type II). These traits, along with the aluminum tolerance, were inherited in a monogenic dominant manner. Both types of mutants were characterized by excessive bundling of actin microfilaments and by a strongly increased abundance of actin, a phenotype that could be partially phenocopied in the wild type by treatment with aluminum chloride. The actin bundles could be dissociated into finer strands by addition of exogenous auxin in both types of mutants. However, actin microfilaments and leaf expansion were sensitive to blockers of actin assembly in the wild type and in the mutants of type I, whereas they were more tolerant in the mutants of type II. The mutants of type II displayed a hypertrophic development of vasculature, manifest in form of supernumerary leaf veins and extended xylem layers in stems and petioles. Whereas mutants of type I were characterized by a normal, but aluminum-tolerant polar auxin-transport, auxin-transport was strongly promoted in the mutants of type II. The phenotype of these mutants is discussed in terms of reduced endocytosis leading, concomitantly with aluminum tolerance, to changes in polar auxin transport.

  5. Activation of CHK1 in Supporting Cells Indirectly Promotes Hair Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jadali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory hair cells of the inner ear are exquisitely sensitive to ototoxic insults. Loss of hair cells after exposure to ototoxic agents causes hearing loss. Chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin causes hair cell loss. Cisplatin forms DNA mono-adducts as well as intra- and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. DNA cisplatin adducts are repaired through the DNA damage response. The decision between cell survival and cell death following DNA damage rests on factors that are involved in determining damage tolerance, cell survival and apoptosis. Cisplatin damage on hair cells has been the main focus of many ototoxic studies, yet the effect of cisplatin on supporting cells has been largely ignored. In this study, the effects of DNA damage response in cochlear supporting cells were interrogated. Supporting cells play a major role in the development, maintenance and oto-protection of hair cells. Loss of supporting cells may indirectly affect hair cell survival or maintenance. Activation of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K signaling was previously shown to promote hair cell survival. To test whether activating PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival after cisplatin damage, cochlear explants from the neural subset (NS Cre Pten conditional knockout mice were employed. Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN activates PI3K signaling in multiple cell types within the cochlea. Supporting cells lacking PTEN showed increased cell survival after cisplatin damage. Supporting cells lacking PTEN also showed increased phosphorylation of Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1 levels after cisplatin damage. Nearest neighbor analysis showed increased numbers of supporting cells with activated PI3K signaling in close proximity to surviving hair cells in cisplatin damaged cochleae. We propose that increased PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival through phosphorylation of CHK1 and increased survival of supporting cells indirectly increases hair cell

  6. Hair growth promoting activity of cedrol isolated from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan; Guan, Jian; Qu, Fan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco is traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. However, there has been no report on its main active ingredient responsible for the hair growth activity. In the current work, cedrol as a major constituent from P. orientalis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth in vivo. Different concentrations of cedrol (10, 20 and 30mg/mL) were applied topically over the shaved skin of C57BL/6 mice and monitored for 21days. Results indicated that cedrol significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, particularly for the female mice. Both male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol required shorter time than the blank control and 2% minoxidil groups at different growth stages. Compared with the blank control (8.87mm) and 2% minoxidil (9.94mm) groups at 21days, the hair length of female mice treated with 30mg/mL cedrol showed a remarkable increase with the value of 11.07mm. Hair in male and female mice groups treated with 30mg/mL cedrol was heavier than the 2% minoxidil (38.2 and 35.9mg, respectively) groups with the weight of 42.6 and 45.2mg, respectively. Further observation of the hair follicle demonstrated that cedrol exerted a remarkable effect on the hair follicle length. These findings suggested that cedrol may be the main active ingredient of P. orientalis and have the potential of becoming a new hair growth promoter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of clustered cells in human hair follicle responsible for MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity: consequences for the regulation of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrousse, F; Boisnic, S; Branchet, M C; Beranger, J Y; Godeau, G; Breton, L; Bernard, B A; Mahé, Y F

    2001-06-01

    The control of human hair follicle growth and differentiation is dependent upon several well-identified factors, including androgens, cytokines, and growth factors. In humans, alopecia androgenetica is a common aging process thought to be regulated through complex genetic imbalances, which also involve several of these crucial identified factors (and probably others not yet characterized), alone or in combination. Among these factors, epidermal growth factor (EGF), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, play a pivotal role, as evidenced by their direct inhibitory effects on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. Following such treatments, the in vitro growth of hair follicles was rapidly arrested and deleterious modifications of hair morphology were also observed. Because these cytokines act, at least partly, through the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and because tissue remodeling occurs during the hair cycle, we attempted to identify and localize MMP in the human pilosebaceous unit. We used zymography to observe human hair follicles in culture in vitro. We observed that human hair follicles in culture in vitro mainly and almost exclusively produce MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities. Furthermore, after stimulation with EGF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), MMP-9 production was strongly increased. Using immunohistochemistry, we then precisely localized MMP-9 in the lower part of the inner root sheath (Henle's layer) of control human anagen hair follicles. Cytokine- and EGF-induced upregulation of MMP-9 in the lower epithelial compartment of the human hair bulb is a major mechanism through which hair follicle involution, observed in alopecia, may occur.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Herber, R.F.M.

    1981-11-01

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  9. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1975-01-01

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .sec -1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  11. Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Pleasantine; Mo, Rong; Fu, Hong; Grachtchouk, Marina; Kim, Peter C W; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Hui, Chi-chung

    2003-01-15

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a critical role in hair follicle development and skin cancer, but how it controls these processes remains unclear. Of the three Gli transcription factors involved in transducing Shh signals in vertebrates, we demonstrate here that Gli2 is the key mediator of Shh responses in skin. Similar to Shh(-/-) mice, Gli2(-/-) mutants exhibit an arrest in hair follicle development with reduced cell proliferation and Shh-responsive gene expression, but grossly normal epidermal differentiation. By transgenic rescue experiments, we show that epidermal Gli2 function alone is sufficient to restore hair follicle development in Gli2(-/-) skin. Furthermore, only a constitutively active form of Gli2, but not wild-type Gli2, can activate Shh-responsive gene expression and promote cell proliferation in Shh(-/-) skin. These observations indicate that Shh-dependent Gli2 activator function in the epidermis is essential for hair follicle development. Our data also reveal that Gli2 mediates the mitogenic effects of Shh by transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 in the developing hair follicles. Together, our results suggest that Shh-dependent Gli2 activation plays a critical role in epithelial homeostasis by promoting proliferation through the transcriptional control of cell cycle regulators.

  12. Therapeutic strategy for hair regeneration: Hair cycle activation, niche environment modulation, wound-induced follicle neogenesis and stem cell engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Shan-Chang; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lei, Mingxing; Wang, Ling Mei; Widelitz, Randall B.; Hughes, Michael W.; Jiang, Ting-Xing; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are major new advancements in the fields of stem cell biology, developmental biology, regenerative hair cycling, and tissue engineering. The time is ripe to integrate, translate and apply these findings to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Readers will learn about new progress in cellular and molecular aspects of hair follicle development, regeneration and potential therapeutic opportunities these advances may offer. Areas covered Here we use hair follicle formation to illustrate this progress and to identify targets for potential strategies in therapeutics. Hair regeneration is discussed in four different categories. (1) Intra-follicle regeneration (or renewal) is the basic production of hair fibers from hair stem cells and dermal papillae in existing follicles. (2) Chimeric follicles via epithelial-mesenchymal recombination to identify stem cells and signaling centers. (3) Extra-follicular factors including local dermal and systemic factors can modulate the regenerative behavior of hair follicles, and may be relatively easy therapeutic targets. (4) Follicular neogenesis means the de novo formation of new follicles. In addition, scientists are working to engineer hair follicles, which require hair forming competent epidermal cells and hair inducing dermal cells. Expert opinion Ideally self-organizing processes similar to those occurring during embryonic development should be elicited with some help from biomaterials. PMID:23289545

  13. Calcium balance and mechanotransduction in rat cochlear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurg, Maryline; Nam, Jong-Hoon; Chen, Qingguo; Fettiplace, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Auditory transduction occurs by opening of Ca(2+)-permeable mechanotransducer (MT) channels in hair cell stereociliary bundles. Ca(2+) clearance from bundles was followed in rat outer hair cells (OHCs) using fast imaging of fluorescent indicators. Bundle deflection caused a rapid rise in Ca(2+) that decayed after the stimulus, with a time constant of about 50 ms. The time constant was increased by blocking Ca(2+) uptake into the subcuticular plate mitochondria or by inhibiting the hair bundle plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) pump. Such manipulations raised intracellular Ca(2+) and desensitized the MT channels. Measurement of the electrogenic PMCA pump current, which saturated at 18 pA with increasing Ca(2+) loads, indicated a maximum Ca(2+) extrusion rate of 3.7 fmol x s(-1). The amplitude of the Ca(2+) transient decreased in proportion to the Ca(2+) concentration bathing the bundle and in artificial endolymph (160 mM K(+), 20 microM Ca(2+)), Ca(2+) carried 0.2% of the MT current. Nevertheless, MT currents in endolymph displayed fast adaptation with a submillisecond time constant. In endolymph, roughly 40% of the MT current was activated at rest when using 1 mM intracellular BAPTA compared with 12% with 1 mM EGTA, which enabled estimation of the in vivo Ca(2+) load as 3 pA at rest. The results were reproduced by a model of hair bundle Ca(2+) diffusion, showing that the measured PMCA pump density could handle Ca(2+) loads incurred from resting and maximal MT currents in endolymph. The model also indicated the endogenous mobile buffer was equivalent to 1 mM BAPTA.

  14. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  15. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo.Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice.Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  16. Post-Transcriptional Regulation Prevents Accumulation of Glutathione Reductase Protein and Activity in the Bundle Sheath Cells of Maize1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastori, Gabriela M.; Mullineaux, Philip M.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) activity was assayed in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L. var H99) from plants grown at 20°C, 18°C, and 15°C. The purity of each fraction was determined by measuring the associated activity of the compartment-specific marker enzymes, Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, respectively. GR activity and the abundance of GR protein and mRNA increased in plants grown at 15°C and 18°C compared with those grown at 20°C. In all cases GR activity was found only in mesophyll fractions of the leaves, with no GR activity being detectable in bundle sheath extracts. Immunogold labeling with GR-specific antibodies showed that the GR protein was exclusively localized in the mesophyll cells of leaves at all growth temperatures, whereas GR transcripts (as determined by in situ hybridization techniques) were observed in both cell types. These results indicate that post-transcriptional regulation prevents GR accumulation in the bundle sheath cells of maize leaves. The resulting limitation on the capacity for regeneration of reduced glutathione in this compartment may contribute to the extreme chilling sensitivity of maize leaves. PMID:10712529

  17. Neutron activation analysis of trace metals in the hair and organs of small animals treated chronically with Hg and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, S.; Hashimoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the secretion of exogenous toxic metals into hair, the relation between their concenrations in hair and in organs, and the metal shift Hg or Mn was orally administered to Guinea pigs for protracted periods. The distributions of metals in hair and organs were examined by means of neutron activation analysis. It was found that the administration of Hg at high dose resulted in abnormally high Hg levels in hair from the 2nd dosing week and in organs after 25 weeks of dosing, and in a reduced motor activity after 25 weeks of administration. There occurred metal shifts in hair as well. Administration of Mn at high doses, on the other hand, showed no such biological influences, although a dose-dependent increase of Mn in hair was detected with time. (author)

  18. Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection. PMID:22778226

  19. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

    2015-05-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products.

  20. Undariopsis peterseniana Promotes Hair Growth by the Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin and ERK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Jeon, You-Jin; Hwang, Eun-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Hyun, Jin-Won; Kwon, Soon-Young; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2017-05-05

    In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Undariopsis peterseniana , an edible brown alga, on hair growth. The treatment of vibrissa follicles with U. peterseniana extract ex vivo for 21 days significantly increased the hair-fiber lengths. The U. peterseniana extract also significantly accelerated anagen initiation in vivo. Moreover, we found that U. peterseniana extract was able to open the K ATP channel, which may contribute to increased hair growth. The U. peterseniana extract decreased 5α-reductase activity and markedly increased the proliferation of dermal papilla cells, a central regulator of the hair cycle. The U. peterseniana extract increased the levels of cell cycle proteins, such as Cyclin D1, phospho(ser780)-pRB, Cyclin E, phospho-CDK2, and CDK2. The U. peterseniana extract also increased the phosphorylation of ERK and the levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins such as glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin. These results suggested that the U. peterseniana extract had the potential to influence hair growth by dermal papilla cells proliferation through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and ERK pathways. We isolated a principal of the U. peterseniana extract, which was subsequently identified as apo-9'-fucoxanthinone, a trichogenic compound. The results suggested that U. peterseniana extract may have a pivotal role in the treatment of alopecia.

  1. Static length changes of cochlear outer hair cells can tune low-frequency hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Ciganović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea not only transduces sound-induced vibration into neural spikes, it also amplifies weak sound to boost its detection. Actuators of this active process are sensory outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, whereas the inner hair cells transduce the resulting motion into electric signals that propagate via the auditory nerve to the brain. However, how the outer hair cells modulate the stimulus to the inner hair cells remains unclear. Here, we combine theoretical modeling and experimental measurements near the cochlear apex to study the way in which length changes of the outer hair cells deform the organ of Corti. We develop a geometry-based kinematic model of the apical organ of Corti that reproduces salient, yet counter-intuitive features of the organ's motion. Our analysis further uncovers a mechanism by which a static length change of the outer hair cells can sensitively tune the signal transmitted to the sensory inner hair cells. When the outer hair cells are in an elongated state, stimulation of inner hair cells is largely inhibited, whereas outer hair cell contraction leads to a substantial enhancement of sound-evoked motion near the hair bundles. This novel mechanism for regulating the sensitivity of the hearing organ applies to the low frequencies that are most important for the perception of speech and music. We suggest that the proposed mechanism might underlie frequency discrimination at low auditory frequencies, as well as our ability to selectively attend auditory signals in noisy surroundings.

  2. Activation analysis of human hair as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1986-01-01

    Recent development and uses of neutron activation techniques for human hair analyses are reviewed. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) appears to have the potential to be used as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring. Principally, two types of NAA procedure are in use nowadays for multi-element analyses of human scalp hair. The more common of these is the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) consisting in a single short-term (3 to 10 hours) exposure of hair to a beam of neutrons in a nuclear reactor, followed by two measurements of gamma-ray spectra at 2 to 3 days and 3 to 4 weeks after the irradiation. The following microelements can be commonly determined by this type of activation procedure: As, Au, Br, Cu, K, La, Na, Sb, Sm, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. The other procedure involves the use of radiochemical separation techniques and is employed for quantitative determinations of elements that are not easily determined by INAA (Mo, Cd, Ni, etc.), or in cases where there is a need to achieve the lowest possible limits of analytical determination. The accuracy of NAA techniques is strongly dependent on the hair sampling and hair sample processing methods used. The analytical error of this method may vary within the range of 5 to 15%. Its applicability as a tool for monitoring the environmental pollution level is demonstrated on an example of groups of individuals living in areas differing by the degree of environmental pollution. The use of other biological materials, such as mammalian hair, for the purpose of environmental exposure monitoring is also considered. (author)

  3. The Microtubule-Associated Protein MAP18 Affects ROP2 GTPase Activity during Root Hair Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Erfang; Zheng, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Ming; Fu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of the polar site are important for root hair tip growth. We previously reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) functions in controlling the direction of pollen tube growth and root hair elongation. Additionally, the Rop GTPase ROP2 was reported as a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth in Arabidopsis. Both loss of function of ROP2 and knockdown of MAP18 lead to a decrease in root hair length, whereas overexpression of either MAP18 or ROP2 causes multiple tips or a branching hair phenotype. However, it is unclear whether MAP18 and ROP2 coordinately regulate root hair growth. In this study, we demonstrate that MAP18 and ROP2 interact genetically and functionally. MAP18 interacts physically with ROP2 in vitro and in vivo and preferentially binds to the inactive form of the ROP2 protein. MAP18 promotes ROP2 activity during root hair tip growth. Further investigation revealed that MAP18 competes with RhoGTPase GDP DISSOCIATION INHIBITOR1/SUPERCENTIPEDE1 for binding to ROP2, in turn affecting the localization of active ROP2 in the plasma membrane of the root hair tip. These results reveal a novel function of MAP18 in the regulation of ROP2 activation during root hair growth. PMID:28314794

  4. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  5. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  6. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  7. Aging of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  8. β-Catenin activation regulates tissue growth non-cell autonomously in the hair stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschene, Elizabeth R; Myung, Peggy; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Sun, Thomas Yang; Taketo, Makoto M; Saotome, Ichiko; Greco, Valentina

    2014-03-21

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for tissue regeneration. However, it is unclear how β-catenin controls stem cell behaviors to coordinate organized growth. Using live imaging, we show that activation of β-catenin specifically within mouse hair follicle stem cells generates new hair growth through oriented cell divisions and cellular displacement. β-Catenin activation is sufficient to induce hair growth independently of mesenchymal dermal papilla niche signals normally required for hair regeneration. Wild-type cells are co-opted into new hair growths by β-catenin mutant cells, which non-cell autonomously activate Wnt signaling within the neighboring wild-type cells via Wnt ligands. This study demonstrates a mechanism by which Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls stem cell-dependent tissue growth non-cell autonomously and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive coordinated regeneration.

  9. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  10. Calcium microdomains at presynaptic active zones of vertebrate hair cells unmasked by stochastic deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozzi, Mario; Lelli, Andrea; Mammano, Fabio

    2008-08-01

    Signal transduction by auditory and vestibular hair cells involves an impressive ensemble of finely tuned control mechanisms, strictly dependent on the local intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). The study of Ca(2+) dynamics in hair cells typically combines Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators (dyes), patch clamp and optical microscopy to produce images of the patterns of fluorescence of a Ca(2+) indicator following various stimulation protocols. Here we describe a novel method that combines electrophysiological recordings, fluorescence imaging and numerical simulations to effectively deconvolve Ca(2+) signals within cytoplasmic microdomains that would otherwise remain inaccessible to direct observation. The method relies on the comparison of experimental data with virtual signals derived from a Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion model based on a realistic reconstruction of the relevant cell boundaries in three dimensions. The model comprises Ca(2+) entry at individual presynaptic active zones followed by diffusion, buffering, extrusion and release of Ca(2+). Our results indicate that changes of the hair cell [Ca(2+)](i) during synaptic transmission are primarily controlled by the Ca(2+) endogenous buffers both at short (hair cell endogenous Ca(2+) buffers and Ca(2+)-ATPases. We finally show that experimental fluorescence data collected during Ca(2+) influx are not interpreted correctly if the [Ca(2+)](i) is estimated by assuming that Ca(2+) equilibrates instantly with its reactants. In our opinion, this approach is of potentially general interest as it can be easily adapted to the study of Ca(2+) dynamics in diverse biological systems.

  11. Forensic and environmental aspects of neutron activation analysis of single human hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1976-01-01

    A new analytical procedure consisting of special washing step, irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 , and Ge(Li) spectrometry enabled to determine as many as 14 elements in a 3 cm segment of a single human hair by neutron activation analysis. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were studied using a new statistical criterion for elimination/identification and an appropriate computer program was constructed. Hair dimensions as measured microscopically were used as additional individualizing attributes. It was shown that despite the dif--ficulties originating from from a relatively large intrinsic variation of the trace element concentration over one head, elimination of most or nearly all of the ''suspects'' could be achieved in simulated cases. Distincly elevated levels of Au as well as Cu and Ag were found in hair of some groups of persons working under specific conditions thus confirming the importance of the environmental factor related to some kinds of occupation. (author)

  12. Hair cell mechano-transduction : Its influence on the gross mechanical characteristics of a hair cell sense organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanNetten, Sietse M.

    1997-01-01

    The complex mechanical behaviour of a hair cell bundle appears to be a direct consequence of the gating forces on the individual transduction channels. The mechanical molecular interactions involved in transduction channel gating, therefore, also bear a reciprocal influence, via the hair bundles; on

  13. The potentials and limitations of using neutron activation analysis data on human hair as a forensic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Kuis, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of hair samples from a group of 300 vounteers, involving nearly 12 000 elemental analyses, indicates that while neutron-activation-analysis data have distinct potentials to develop useful forensic evidence, there are several limitations to its routine applications. The multi-elemental analyses of hair-wash samples were done using multiple neutron irradiation and high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. All neutron irradiations were performed in the Penn State TRIGA Reactor at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . The gamma-ray spectrometric measurements utilized a 40 cm 3 high resolution Ge(Li) detector. This detector, in association with a software oriented programmable multichannel analyzer with a 12 K core size, was used for gamma ray spectrometric measurements. The data were recorded on computer-compatible magnetic tape. The quantitative measurements of only 22 elements were reported from both the hair samples and the ''hair-wash''. These elements are Ti, I, Br, Mn, Cu, V, Cl, Al, Na, Ca, Se, Hg, Cr, Au, Sb, Ag, Sc, Zn, Co, Fe, and La. In expressing the analytical results of ''hair-wash'' samples, the weight of hair from which the hair-wash originated was used to calculate the results in terms of the weight of hair. (T.G.)

  14. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  15. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair bulb. This is where the hair's color pigment, or melanin, is produced. Most people lose about ... diabetes or thyroid disease , can interfere with hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can ...

  16. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as ... in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread ...

  17. The Walking Dead: sequential nuclear and organelle destruction during hair development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L A; Harland, D P; Jarrold, B B; Connolly, J E; Davis, M G

    2017-11-27

    Transition of hair shaft keratinocytes from actively respiring, nucleated cells to structural cells devoid of nucleus and cytoplasm, is key to hair production. This form of cell "death", or cornification, requires cellular organelle removal to allow the cytoplasm to become packed with keratin filament bundles that further require cross-linking to create a strong hair fibre. Although these processes are well described in epidermal keratinocytes, there is a lack of understanding of such mechanisms specifically in the hair follicle. To gain insights into cornification mechanisms within the hair follicle and thus improve our understanding of normal hair physiology. Scalp biopsies and hair pluck samples were obtained from healthy human donors and analysed microscopically following immunohistochemical staining. A focal point of respiratory activity was evident in keratogenous zone cells within the hair shaft that also exhibited nuclear damage. Nuclear degradation occurred via both caspase-dependant and -independent pathways. Conversely, mitophagy was driven by Bnip3L and restricted to the boundary of the keratogenous zone at Adamson's Fringe. We propose a model of stepwise living-dead transition within the first 1 mm of hair formation, whereby fully functional, nucleated cells first consolidate required functions by degrading nuclear DNA, yet continue to respire and provide the source of ROS required for keratin cross-linking. Finally, as the cells become packed with keratin bundles, Bnip3L expression triggers mitophagy to rid the cells of the last remaining "living" characteristic thus completing the march from "living" to "dead" within the hair follicle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of the active substances in herbs used for hair treatment. III. Isolation of hair-regrowth substances from Polygara senega var. latifolia TORR. et GRAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, H; Inaoka, Y; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Fukazawa, H; Tsuji, K

    1999-11-01

    Four active principles, 1, 2, 3 and 4, were isolated from Polygara senega var. latifolia TORR. et GRAY by a combination of partition and column chromatography on silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (ODS), monitored by a hair-regrowth activity assay. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 were identified as senegose A, senegin II, senegin III, and senegasaponin b by comparison of their spectral data with those of authentic samples.

  19. Evaluation of endogenous contamination using hair as biomonitor by K0 parametric neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Neves, Otaviano F.; Batista, Jose R.; Maia, Elene Cristina P.

    2000-01-01

    The environment of the work is an important source of pollutant exposition to human beings. The main goal of this paper is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. The hair samples as biomonitors were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. The samples for a Comparative Group were collected from individuals not exposed to a specific environment. The k 0 -neutron activation analysis was applied on the elemental determination. The Comparative Group presented no significant difference compared to literature. Therefore the very high values exhibited by the Workers' Group suggest endogenous contamination. The GBW09101 'Human Hair' Shangai Institute of Nuclear Research, China, Reference Material was also evaluated presenting good agreement to certified and information values. The elements Ag, Al, As Au, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V and Zn were determined. (author)

  20. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Yukio; Ishida, Norio

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124 Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  1. Hair growth-promoting effect of Aconiti Ciliare Tuber extract mediated by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Phil-June; Moon, Byoung-San; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Na; Kim, Ah-Reum; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Park, Won-Seok; Choi, Kang-Yell; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2012-11-02

    The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in hair follicle morphogenesis by stimulating bulge stem cells. This study was to obtain the activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway from natural products and to determine whether this activator can induce anagen hair growth in mice. To identify materials that activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, 800 natural product extracts were screened using pTOPFlash assay and neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation assay. A selected extract was further tested for its effects on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human immortalized dermal papilla cell (iDPC) and the proliferation in iDPC and immortalized rat vibrissa DPC (RvDP). Finally, hair growth-promoting effects were evaluated in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Aconiti Ciliare Tuber (ACT) extract was one of the most active materials in both pTOPFlash and NPC differentiation assays. It promoted the differentiation of NPC cells even under proliferation-stimulating conditions (basic fibroblast growth factor: bFGF). It also increased ALP activity and proliferation of iDPC in dose-dependent manners, and it stimulated the induction of the anagen hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that ACT extract activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by enhancing β-catenin transcription and has the potential to promote the induction of hair growth via activation of the stem cell activity of the dermal papilla cells. This is the first report indicating benefits of ACT extract in hair loss prevention by triggering the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and induction of the anagen hair growth in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Phair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, A.; Hamidatou Alghem, L.; Beladel, B.; Mokhtari, O.E.K.; Bendaas, A.; Benamar, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  4. Neutron, gamma and Roentgen fluorescent activation analysis of hair of children suffering from bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, O.A.; Belov, A.G.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Gustova, M.V.; Kusmenko, L.G.; Perelygin, V.P. E-mail: pergam@cv.jinr.ru; Zaverioukha, O.S

    2001-06-01

    The aim of present study was the multiparametric study of dangerous microelements content in the hair of children under school and primary school age which included 12 children ill with bronchial asthma and 11 control group persons in the town of Troitsk, Moscow Region. The hair specimens with weight 15-220 mg were analysed with the application of epithermal neutron activation analysis conducted at experimental installation REGATA and neutron source-unique Pulsed Fast Reactor IBR-2, with the application of combined gamma-neutron irradiation at Microtron MT-25 and with Roentgen Fluorescence Analysis device of JINR. The data of elements content in hair were obtained with solid state track detectors and semiconductor electronic spectrometers. The solid state track detectors provide the determination of U, Th, Bi and Be elements at the level of sensitivity up to 10{sup -8}-10{sup -9} g/g. These data were compared with more representative information about dangerous microelements concentration obtained with NAA and RFA analyses. The obtained concentrations of most elements vary in a wide range, but in agreement with the known data. The highest degree of element dispersion was observed for U, Th, Pb, I, Br, Sb, Co, K and Be (the radiation coefficient was higher than 100-200%). The presented analysis of results shows that in the clinical picture there is some proved correlation between an increased content of some element in hair and symptoms of their accumulation in the organism of ill children, the revelation of which is the basic idea of our examination.

  5. Neutron, gamma and Roentgen fluorescent activation analysis of hair of children suffering from bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, O.A.; Belov, A.G.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Gustova, M.V.; Kusmenko, L.G.; Perelygin, V.P.; Zaverioukha, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of present study was the multiparametric study of dangerous microelements content in the hair of children under school and primary school age which included 12 children ill with bronchial asthma and 11 control group persons in the town of Troitsk, Moscow Region. The hair specimens with weight 15-220 mg were analysed with the application of epithermal neutron activation analysis conducted at experimental installation REGATA and neutron source-unique Pulsed Fast Reactor IBR-2, with the application of combined gamma-neutron irradiation at Microtron MT-25 and with Roentgen Fluorescence Analysis device of JINR. The data of elements content in hair were obtained with solid state track detectors and semiconductor electronic spectrometers. The solid state track detectors provide the determination of U, Th, Bi and Be elements at the level of sensitivity up to 10 -8 -10 -9 g/g. These data were compared with more representative information about dangerous microelements concentration obtained with NAA and RFA analyses. The obtained concentrations of most elements vary in a wide range, but in agreement with the known data. The highest degree of element dispersion was observed for U, Th, Pb, I, Br, Sb, Co, K and Be (the radiation coefficient was higher than 100-200%). The presented analysis of results shows that in the clinical picture there is some proved correlation between an increased content of some element in hair and symptoms of their accumulation in the organism of ill children, the revelation of which is the basic idea of our examination

  6. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  7. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Dabelsteen, Sally

    2010-01-01

    a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph......-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators...

  8. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Nieuwendijk, B.J.T.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Teunissen, G.J.A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  9. Mercury determination in dentist's hair and nails by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Munita, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The mercury in scalp hair and fingernails of a group of dentists who usually handle with this toxic element in their profession is determined. The results were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The experimental procedure was based on the evaluation of the 197 Hg photopeak area, whose half life is 65h. After at a neutron fluxo of 5x10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 , the activity of the samples were measured by using a solid state Ge (Li) detector coupled to a 4.096 channel pulse height analyser. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Hair-growth stimulation by conditioned medium from vitamin D3-activated preadipocytes in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Kyung; Ha, Soogyeong; Huh, Scarlett Yoona; Park, Seung Beom; Kim, Sangyoon; Yang, Yoolhee; Kim, Daejin; Hur, Dae Young; Jeong, Hyuk; Bang, Sa Ik; Park, Hyunjeong; Cho, Daeho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, immature adipocyte lineage cells have been suggested as a potential hair-growth stimulator. Diverse studies have been attempted to find methods for the preconditioning of immature adipocyte lineage cells. The present study investigates the effect of conditioned medium (CM) from vitamin D3 (Vd3) pre-activated preadipocytes on hair-growth ability. To test the effect of CM from Vd3 pre-activated preadipocytes on hair-growth efficiency in mice, we compared the differences in hair regenerated after injecting CM from mouse preadipocytes pre-activated with or without Vd3. Next, to determine the regulating factors, the VEGF level was measured by ELISA and angiogenesis level was evaluated by IHC. Finally, the signaling mechanism was investigated by inhibitor kinase assay and western blotting. The CM from Vd3 pre-activated preadipocyte injection markedly promoted the ability of hair regeneration in mice. The VEGF levels were increased by Vd3 treatment in vitro and the CM from Vd3 pre-activated preadipocytes significantly increased the angiogenesis in vivo, suggesting the involvement of angiognensis in the hair regeneration induced by CM from pre-activated preadipocytes. In signaling study, Vd3-enhanced VEGF production was reduced by an ERK1/2 inhibitor and the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased by treatment with Vd3. This has been the first report on CM from Vd3 pre-activated preadipocyte displaying stimulatory effects on hair growth via the enhancement of angiogenesis in a hairless-induced C57BL/6 mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  12. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  13. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  14. Interactive user's application to Genie 2000 spectroscopy system for automation of hair neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiev, S.A.; Danilova, E.A.; Kadirova, M.; Kadirov, U.S.; Kist, A.A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Rakhmanov, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In recent years lower plants such as mosses or lichens and for arid countries bark and leaves of tree have been used as biomonitors in environmental studies. Alongside with plants the trace elemental human hair composition also has been used as an indicator of pollution of natural and industrial environments. Because of convenience, easy access, nondestruction of sampling, and also preservation of information for a long time period, human hair even more often and widely used in various researches. In the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan hair trace element analysis in environment monitoring and mapping and in health status studies have been used. Scientist of activation analysis laboratory always has a lot of routine work on biological objects analysis, so they regularly improved applied nuclear techniques. At present one of such good work-out technique is consider a hair multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis using single comparator standard method. Since in frames of the 'Enhanced nuclear techniques for materials identification' STCU project, the Radioanalytical Center (RAC) was created in October 2004, for analysis such objects as metals and alloys, minerals and ores, hydrogeological samples, technological products, soils, fertilizers, biological samples, foodstuff, water, sediments, construction materials, as well as materials of unknown composition the unique equipment of RAC have been used. For example, human hair analysis has performed on the base of HP Ge-detector with high resolution gamma-spectrometer of Canberra Industries, Inc. Genie-2000 Spectroscopy System of Canberra spectrometers, represents the true state of the art in spectroscopy software platforms. Genie 2000 is a comprehensive set of capabilities for acquiring and analyzing spectra from Multichannel Analyzers (MCA). Its functions include MCA control, spectral display and manipulation, basic spectrum analysis and

  15. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with dark hair because the melanin (colored pigment) in the hair absorbs more of the light, ... medications can reduce hair growth by blocking androgen production. Doctors often prescribe oral contraceptives in conjunction with ...

  16. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  17. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  18. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  19. STAT5 Activation in the Dermal Papilla Is Important for Hair Follicle Growth Phase Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Julien M D; Roy, Edwige; Ellis, Jonathan J; Francois, Mathias; Brooks, Andrew J; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-09-01

    Hair follicles are skin appendages that undergo periods of growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and rest (telogen) regulated by their mesenchymal component, the dermal papilla (DP). On the basis of the reports of its specific expression in the DP, we investigated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) activation during hair development and cycling. STAT5 activation in the DP began in late catagen, reaching a peak in early anagen before disappearing for the rest of the cycle. This was confirmed by the expression profile of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, a STAT5 target in the DP. This pattern of expression starts after the first postnatal hair cycle. Quantification of hair cycling using the Flash canonical Wnt signaling in vivo bioluminescence reporter found that conditional knockout of STAT5A/B in the DP targeted through Cre-recombinase under the control of the Sox18 promoter resulted in delayed anagen entry compared with control. Microarray analysis of STAT5 deletion versus control revealed key changes in tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor ligands, known for their role in inducing anagen entry. We conclude that STAT5 activation acts as a mesenchymal switch to trigger natural anagen entry in postdevelopmental hair follicle cycling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  1. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in in vitro culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Liu, Ben; Chen, Xianyan; Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Wenjia; Yang, Changsheng; Ji, Bin; Wan, Miaojian

    2018-04-01

    Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair growth. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth in numerous clinical studies, in which 655-nm red light was found to be most effective and practical for stimulating hair growth. We evaluated whether 655-nm red light + light-emitting diode (LED) could promote human hair growth by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. An in vitro culture of human hair follicles (HFs) was irradiated with different intensities of 655-nm red light + LED, 21 h7 (an inhibitor of β-catenin), or both. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression of β-catenin, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, and Lef1 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The 655-nm red light + LED not only enhanced hair shaft elongation, but also reduced catagen transition in human hair follicle organ culture, with the greatest effectiveness observed at 5 min (0.839 J/cm 2 ). Additionally, 655-nm red light + LED enhanced the expression of β-catenin, p-GSK3β, and Lef1, signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in the hair matrix. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in vitro and therefore may serve as an alternative therapeutic option for alopecia.

  2. Activation of free sperm and dissociation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) of an endangered viviparous fish, Xenotoca eiseni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yang, Huiping; Torres, Leticia; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of sperm motility activation for viviparous fishes has been limited to study of several species in Poeciliidae, and the dissociation of sperm bundles is even less understood. The goal of this study was to use the endangered Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model to investigate the activation of sperm from viviparous fishes by study of free sperm and spermatozeugmata (unencapsulated sperm bundles). The specific objectives were to evaluate the effects of: (1) osmotic pressure and refrigerated storage (4 °C) on activation of free sperm, (2) osmotic pressure, ions, and pH on dissociation of spermatozeugmata, and (3) CaCl 2 concentration and pH on sperm membrane integrity. Free sperm were activated in Ca 2+ -free Hanks' balanced salt solution at 81-516 mOsmol/kg. The highest motility (19 ± 6%) was at 305 mOsmol/kg and swim remained for 84 h. Glucose (300-700 mOsmol/kg), NaCl (50-600 mOsmol/kg), and KCl, MgCl 2 , and MnCl 2 at 5-160 mM activated sperm within spermatozeugmata, but did not dissociate spermatozeugmata. CaCl 2 at 5-160 mM dissociated spermatozeugmata within 10 min. Solutions of NaCl-NaOH at pH 11.6 to 12.4 dissociated spermatozeugmata within 1 min. The percentage of viable cells had no significant differences (P = 0.2033) among different concentrations of CaCl 2 , but it was lower (P < 0.0001) at pH 12.5 than at pH between 7.0 and 12.0. Overall, this study provided a foundation for quality evaluation of sperm and spermatozeugmata from livebearing fishes, and for development of germplasm repositories for imperiled goodeids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair As a Barrier to Physical Activity among African American Women: A Qualitative Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Coe, Kathryn; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Hooker, Steven P; Mathis, LaTanya; Keller, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    African American (AA) women face unique sociocultural barriers to physical activity (PA) engagement. Such barriers may contribute to their low PA levels and high cardiometabolic disease burden. One particular barrier reported among AA women in recent research is that being physically active can have an undesirable effect on the hairstyles and hair maintenance of many AA women. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to this barrier have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study is to explore hairstyle maintenance as a barrier to PA among AA women and to identify effective strategies to overcome this barrier in the design of a culturally relevant PA intervention. A qualitative study design was used. Data were collected from the focus groups comprising 23 sedentary and obese AA women (median age = 38.1 years, median body mass index = 39.8 kg/m 2 ). Content analysis was used to analyze these focus group data. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative narratives of participants: (1) impact of perspiration on hair and hairstyle maintenance, (2) image and social comparisons, and (3) solutions to overcome hair-related barriers to PA. For impact of perspiration and hairstyle maintenance, participants described how perspiring while engaging in PA negatively impacts many of their hairstyles. Participants further discussed how time and monetary burdens associated with PA-related hairstyle maintenance further contributed to this issue. Findings for the theme of image and social comparison focused on how an AA woman's hairstyle is an important part of the image and the social comparisons made by non-AAs regarding the hairstyles and maintenance practices of AA women. For solutions to hairstyle maintenance barriers, participant described a variety of potential styling techniques that may help alleviate PA-related maintenance concerns, including braids, locks, and natural hairstyles. However, no styling technique was uniformly endorsed by all

  4. Hair As a Barrier to Physical Activity among African American Women: A Qualitative Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney P. Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAfrican American (AA women face unique sociocultural barriers to physical activity (PA engagement. Such barriers may contribute to their low PA levels and high cardiometabolic disease burden. One particular barrier reported among AA women in recent research is that being physically active can have an undesirable effect on the hairstyles and hair maintenance of many AA women. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to this barrier have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study is to explore hairstyle maintenance as a barrier to PA among AA women and to identify effective strategies to overcome this barrier in the design of a culturally relevant PA intervention.MethodsA qualitative study design was used. Data were collected from the focus groups comprising 23 sedentary and obese AA women (median age = 38.1 years, median body mass index = 39.8 kg/m2. Content analysis was used to analyze these focus group data.ResultsThree key themes emerged from the qualitative narratives of participants: (1 impact of perspiration on hair and hairstyle maintenance, (2 image and social comparisons, and (3 solutions to overcome hair-related barriers to PA. For impact of perspiration and hairstyle maintenance, participants described how perspiring while engaging in PA negatively impacts many of their hairstyles. Participants further discussed how time and monetary burdens associated with PA-related hairstyle maintenance further contributed to this issue. Findings for the theme of image and social comparison focused on how an AA woman’s hairstyle is an important part of the image and the social comparisons made by non-AAs regarding the hairstyles and maintenance practices of AA women. For solutions to hairstyle maintenance barriers, participant described a variety of potential styling techniques that may help alleviate PA-related maintenance concerns, including braids, locks, and natural hairstyles. However, no styling

  5. The structural and functional differentiation of hair cells in a lizard's basilar papilla suggests an operational principle of amniote cochleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, M Eugenia; Kozlov, Andrei S; Hudspeth, A J

    2007-10-31

    The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea are of two distinct types. Inner hair cells are responsible for transducing mechanical stimuli into electrical responses, which they forward to the brain through a copious afferent innervation. Outer hair cells, which are thought to mediate the active process that sensitizes and tunes the cochlea, possess a negligible afferent innervation. For every inner hair cell, there are approximately three outer hair cells, so only one-quarter of the hair cells directly deliver information to the CNS. Although this is a surprising feature for a sensory system, the occurrence of a similar innervation pattern in birds and crocodilians suggests that the arrangement has an adaptive value. Using a lizard with highly developed hearing, the tokay gecko, we demonstrate in the present study that the same principle operates in a third major group of terrestrial animals. We propose that the differentiation of hair cells into signaling and amplifying classes reflects incompatible strategies for the optimization of mechanoelectrical transduction and of an active process based on active hair-bundle motility.

  6. Premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  7. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  8. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on hu...

  9. The Growth of Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  10. Strategic Aspects of Bundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Marion

    2008-01-01

    The increase of bundle supply has become widespread in several sectors (for instance in telecommunications and energy fields). This paper review relates strategic aspects of bundling. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze profitability of bundling strategies according to the degree of competition and the characteristics of goods. Moreover, bundling can be used as price discrimination tool, screening device or entry barriers. In monopoly case bundling strategy is efficient to sort consumers in different categories in order to capture a maximum of surplus. However, when competition increases, the profitability on bundling strategies depends on correlation of consumers' reservations values. (author)

  11. Tourist activated networks: Implications for dynamic bundling and en-route recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    structure. The results indicate that the tourist-activated network for the destination is rather sparse and that there are clearly differences in core and peripheral nodes. The findings illustrate the structure of a tourist-activated network and provide implications for technology design and tourism...... marketing....

  12. Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

    2014-06-16

    Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months.

  13. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (pnicotine was 0.92. A hair nicotine cut-off value of 5.68 ng/mg, with a sensitivity of 94.2% and specificity of 87.0%, was identified as the optimal cut-off value for separating active from passive smokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  14. Electron transfer activity of a de novo designed copper center in a three-helix bundle fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plegaria, Jefferson S; Herrero, Christian; Quaranta, Annamaria; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we characterized the intermolecular electron transfer (ET) properties of a de novo designed metallopeptide using laser-flash photolysis. α3D-CH3 is three helix bundle peptide that was designed to contain a copper ET site that is found in the β-barrel fold of native cupredoxins. The ET activity of Cuα3D-CH3 was determined using five different photosensitizers. By exhibiting a complete depletion of the photo-oxidant and the successive formation of a Cu(II) species at 400 nm, the transient and generated spectra demonstrated an ET transfer reaction between the photo-oxidant and Cu(I)α3D-CH3. This observation illustrated our success in integrating an ET center within a de novo designed scaffold. From the kinetic traces at 400 nm, first-order and bimolecular rate constants of 10(5) s(-1) and 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) were derived. Moreover, a Marcus equation analysis on the rate versus driving force study produced a reorganization energy of 1.1 eV, demonstrating that the helical fold of α3D requires further structural optimization to efficiently perform ET. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW) [de

  16. Blockade of S100A3 activity inhibits murine hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W; Deng, Q; Yu, X L; Yuan, Y S; Gao, J; Li, J J; Zhou, L; Xia, P; Han, G Y Q; Han, W; Yu, Y

    2015-10-28

    Using mouse gene expression microarray analysis, we obtained dynamic expression profiles of the whole genome in a depilation-induced hair growth mouse model. S100A3 expression increased during the anagen phase and returned to normal during the telogen phase. The effects of S100A3 blockade on the hair growth cycle were examined in mice after subcutaneous injection of an anti-mouse S100A3 antibody. Protein localization of S100A3 was confined to the hair shafts during the anagen phase and the sebaceous glands during the telogen phase. S100A3 blockade delayed hair follicle entry into the anagen phase, decreased hair elongation, and reduced the number of hair follicles in the subcutis, which correlated with the downregulated expression of hair growth induction-related genes in vivo. The present study demonstrates that anti-S100A3 antibody inhibits mouse hair growth, suggesting that S100A3 can be used as a target for hair loss treatment.

  17. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 3 (2011), s. 769-772 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * Hair * Arsenic poisoning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  18. ACh-induced hyperpolarization and decreased resistance in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppi, Lauren A; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Drury, Hannah R; Jobling, Phillip; Callister, Robert J; Migliaccio, Americo A; Jordan, Paivi M; Holt, Joseph C; Rabbitt, Richard D; Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2018-01-01

    In the mammalian vestibular periphery, electrical activation of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) has two effects on afferent activity: 1) it increases background afferent discharge and 2) decreases afferent sensitivity to rotational stimuli. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying these two contrasting afferent responses remain obscure, we postulated that the reduction in afferent sensitivity was attributed, in part, to the activation of α9- containing nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (α9*nAChRs) and small-conductance potassium channels (SK) in vestibular type II hair cells, as demonstrated in the peripheral vestibular system of other vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the predominant EVS neurotransmitter ACh on vestibular type II hair cells from wild-type (wt) and α9-subunit nAChR knockout (α9 -/- ) mice. Immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase revealed there were no obvious gross morphological differences in the peripheral EVS innervation among any of these strains. ACh application onto wt type II hair cells, at resting potentials, produced a fast inward current followed by a slower outward current, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and decreased membrane resistance. Hyperpolarization and decreased resistance were due to gating of SK channels. Consistent with activation of α9*nAChRs and SK channels, these ACh-sensitive currents were antagonized by the α9*nAChR blocker strychnine and SK blockers apamin and tamapin. Type II hair cells from α9 -/- mice, however, failed to respond to ACh at all. These results confirm the critical importance of α9nAChRs in efferent modulation of mammalian type II vestibular hair cells. Application of exogenous ACh reduces electrical impedance, thereby decreasing type II hair cell sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Expression of α9 nicotinic subunit was crucial for fast cholinergic modulation of mammalian vestibular type II hair cells. These findings show a multifaceted

  19. Neutron activation analysis for some toxic elements in the hair of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hair samples of 26 workers involved in small scale gold mining, popularly called “Galamsée,” have been analysed using thermal NAA for mercury and other elements including As and Sb, all considered as toxic. The following elements have been found in these hair samples Hg. As, Sb, Sm, Ho, Zn, La, Na, K, Au and Br.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in human hair by using a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Takayuki

    1997-01-01

    Recently, hair has been used for diagnosis of various diseases as well as blood and urine since hair is one of excretory tissues for various elements in humans. Many elements are excreted in hairs at higher concentrations than those in blood and urine. Therefore, it seems possible to estimate the effects of radiation exposure in the past. Here, the levels of elements in hairs were determined by radiation analysis using nuclear reactor. When mercury level was compared among the hairs from various countries of the world, the levels of Japanese and English were 4 ppm or more, significantly higher than around 2 ppm for the subjects in other countries. The levels were higher in cities than in the suburbs in any country, indicating that the differences might be due to air pollution. Furthermore, it was found that radioactive levels of some elements in hair were dependent on sex, especially for Ca, Cu etc. and on preexposure to a perm for Br, Ca, Mg etc. In addition, neutron analysis was indicated to be available for diagnosis of some diseases; the aluminum concentration in hairs was significantly lower in the patients with Alzheimer's disease than those with cerebrovascular diseases and the control subjects. The levels of As, Co, Cd and Hg in hairs were demonstrated to be several hundred fold higher in a woman named Otaki who died in nearly 1829 than those levels of the modern Japanese women, showing that various toxic materials such as cosmetics were used in those days. (M.N.)

  1. Simvastatin protects auditory hair cells from gentamicin-induced toxicity and activates Akt signaling in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Yves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, known as statins, are commonly used as cholesterol-lowering drugs. During the past decade, evidence has emerged that statins also have neuroprotective effects. Research in the retina has shown that simvastatin, a commonly used statin, increases Akt phosphorylation in vivo, indicating that the PI3K/Akt pathway contributes to the protective effects achieved. While research about neuroprotective effects have been conducted in several systems, the effects of statins on the inner ear are largely unknown. Results We evaluated whether the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase is present within the rat cochlea and whether simvastatin is able to protect auditory hair cells from gentamicin-induced apoptotic cell death in a in vitro mouse model. Furthermore, we evaluated whether simvastatin increases Akt phosphorylation in the organ of Corti. We detected 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase mRNA in organ of Corti, spiral ganglion, and stria vascularis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Moreover, we observed a dose-dependent and significant reduction of hair cell loss in organs of Corti treated with simvastatin in addition to gentamicin, as compared to samples treated with gentamicin alone. The protective effect of simvastatin was reversed by addition of mevalonate, a downstream metabolite blocked by simvastatin, demonstrating the specificity of protection. Finally, Western blotting showed an increase in organ of Corti Akt phosphorylation after simvastatin treatment in vitro. Conclusion These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of statins in the inner ear, mediated by reduced 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase metabolism and Akt activation.

  2. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions can cause hair loss, including: Hormonal changes. Hormonal changes and imbalances can cause temporary hair loss. This could be due to pregnancy, childbirth or the onset of menopause. Hormone levels are also affected by the thyroid ...

  3. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  4. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  5. Inhibitory activities of some traditional Chinese herbs against testosterone 5α-reductase and effects of Cacumen platycladi on hair re-growth in testosterone-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Rong-weng; Yin, Xi-quan; Lao, Zi-zhao; Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Qing-guang; Yu, Liang-wen; Lai, Xiao-ping; Wan, Yu-hua; Li, Geng

    2016-01-11

    Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been used for hundreds of years for hair blackening and hair nourishing, and now many of them are commonly used in Chinese herbal shampoo to nourish the hair and promote hair growth. The present study was performed to screen 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines, evaluate its hair growth promoting activity in vivo, and further investigate its effects on androgen metabolism and the expression of 5αR II in hair follicles. Nine TCM which were dried, ground and extracted by maceration with 75% ethanol or distilled water were used for screening 5αR inhibitors, and enzymes were extracted from the rat epididymis. The leaves of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-androgenic activity. Skin color was observed daily and the hair re-growth was assessed by assigning the hair growth score. The longitudinal sections of hair follicles were used for observing follicle morphology, classifying of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis and calculate the average score. The transverse sections were used for determination of hair follicle counts. Testosterone (T), Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and Estradiol (E2) levels in serum and skin tissue were detected by ELISA kits. The immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the influence of CP-ext on 5αR expression in dorsal skin. We found the extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GL-ext), Polygonum multiflori (PM-ext), Cacumen platycladi (CP-ext) and Cynomorium songaricum (CS-ext) showed stronger 5αR inhibitory activity. CP-ext (5mg and 2mg/mouse/day) could significantly shorten the time of the dorsal skin darkening and got longhaired (Phair re-growth promoting activity. Furthermore the histological data of hair follicles in each group showed that CP-ext could promote the growth of hair follicle and slowed down hair follicles enter the telogen. What's more CP-ext significantly reduced DHT levels and down-regulated the expression of

  6. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  7. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani, Marie-Paule; Bertails, Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  8. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  9. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  10. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  11. The structural and functional differentiation of hair cells in a lizard’s basilar papilla suggests an operational principle of amniote cochleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, M. Eugenia; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea are of two distinct types. Inner hair cells are responsible for transducing mechanical stimuli into electrical responses, which they forward to the brain through a copious afferent innervation. Outer hair cells, which are thought to mediate the active process that sensitizes and tunes the cochlea, possess a negligible afferent innervation. For every inner hair cell there are approximately three outer hair cells, so only a quarter of the hair cells directly deliver information to the central nervous system. Although this is a surprising feature for a sensory system, the occurrence of a similar innervation pattern in birds and crocodilians suggests that the arrangement has an adaptive value. Using a lizard with highly developed hearing, the tokay gecko, we demonstrate in the present study that the same principle operates in a third major group of terrestrial animals. We propose that the differentiation of hair cells into signaling and amplifying classes reflects incompatible strategies for the optimization of mechanoelectrical transduction and of an active process based on active hair-bundle motility. PMID:17978038

  12. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  14. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-09

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  15. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult bullfrogs were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 (mu) M gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence of absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest sterocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier times than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the same sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  16. Root Hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  17. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  18. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  19. Contraction of cross-linked actomyosin bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Marcq, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Cross-linked actomyosin bundles retract when severed in vivo by laser ablation, or when isolated from the cell and micromanipulated in vitro in the presence of ATP. We identify the timescale for contraction as a viscoelastic time τ, where the viscosity is due to (internal) protein friction. We obtain an estimate of the order of magnitude of the contraction time τ ≈ 10-100 s, consistent with available experimental data for circumferential microfilament bundles and stress fibers. Our results are supported by an exactly solvable, hydrodynamic model of a retracting bundle as a cylinder of isotropic, active matter, from which the order of magnitude of the active stress is estimated.

  20. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation.

  2. Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development

    OpenAIRE

    Mill, Pleasantine; Mo, Rong; Fu, Hong; Grachtchouk, Marina; Kim, Peter C.W.; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.; Hui, Chi-chung

    2003-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a critical role in hair follicle development and skin cancer, but how it controls these processes remains unclear. Of the three Gli transcription factors involved in transducing Shh signals in vertebrates, we demonstrate here that Gli2 is the key mediator of Shh responses in skin. Similar to Shh−/− mice, Gli2−/− mutants exhibit an arrest in hair follicle development with reduced cell proliferation and Shh-responsive gene expression, but grossly normal epid...

  3. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  4. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As 2 O 3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g -1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g -1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As 2 O 3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As 2 O 3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  5. Work in the coordinated programme on neutron activation analysis of pollutants in human hair, using research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzel, E.

    1978-11-01

    Scalp hair samples from the population of four different regions in Austria (Vienna, Burgenland, East Tyrol and Vorarlberg) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for As, Sb, Cd, Hg, Br and Zn. For each representative group, the range of concentrations, the geometric mean with the antilog of the logarithmic standard deviation and the median were determined. The distribution histogrammes were also given for the frequency as a function of the concentration. The means of concentrations were in the normal range. Thus, no contamination for the population in total could be suspected. A different picture was observed for the Burgenland group. There was a tail of high concentrations of As and Sb superposed upon the usual log-normal distribution. This tail was due to contamination from mines for a part of the Burgenland group. Increased levels of Cd and Zn were also found for this subgroup. This study demonstrated the validity of analysis of scalp hair for the primary monitoring of trace element contamination of man. For this purpose hair has definite advantages over other human specimen available in vivo such as blood or urine

  6. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...

  7. Value based care and bundled payments: Anesthesia care costs for outpatient oncology surgery using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Guzman, Alexis B; Rubio, Augustin C; Frenzel, John C; Feeley, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    With the movement towards bundled payments, stakeholders should know the true cost of the care they deliver. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) can be used to estimate costs for each episode of care. In this analysis, TDABC is used to both estimate the costs of anesthesia care and identify the primary drivers of those costs of 11 common oncologic outpatient surgical procedures. Personnel cost were calculated by determining the hourly cost of each provider and the associated process time of the 11 surgical procedures. Using the anesthesia record, drugs, supplies and equipment costs were identified and calculated. The current staffing model was used to determine baseline personnel costs for each procedure. Using the costs identified through TDABC analysis, the effect of different staffing ratios on anesthesia costs could be predicted. Costs for each of the procedures were determined. Process time and costs are linearly related. Personnel represented 79% of overall cost while drugs, supplies and equipment represented the remaining 21%. Changing staffing ratios shows potential savings between 13% and 28% across the 11 procedures. TDABC can be used to estimate the costs of anesthesia care. This costing information is critical to assessing the anesthesiology component in a bundled payment. It can also be used to identify areas of cost savings and model costs of anesthesia care. CRNA to anesthesiologist staffing ratios profoundly influence the cost of care. This methodology could be applied to other medical specialties to help determine costs in the setting of bundled payments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs...

  9. Single- vs. double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a new aspect of knee assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Łukasz; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have compared single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the knee joint during activities involving change-of-direction maneuvers and knee rotation. This study examined whether the type of ACLR contributes to postphysiotherapy outcomes, with an emphasis on knee function assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. Fifteen male patients after SB ACLR and 15 male patients after DB ACLR took part in the same physiotherapy program. Twenty-four weeks after ACLR, both groups underwent anterior laxity measurement, pivot shift tests, range of movement and joint circumference measurements, subjective assessment of pain and stability levels in the knee joint, peak torque measurement of the muscles rotating the tibia toward the femur, and a run test with maximal speed and change-of-direction maneuvers. Comparative analysis did not show any differences between the results of anterior tibial translation, pivot shift test, range of movement and joint circumference, and subjective assessment of pain and knee joint stability levels. No differences were noted between the groups in peak torque values obtained from the muscles responsible for internal and external tibial rotation or results of the run test. The data obtained from this study can be used by research teams to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various study protocols involving surgical and physiotherapy treatment. The data are especially useful when combined with the clinical assessment of patients who would like to return to sport.

  10. The ABCDEF Implementation Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Marra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term morbidity, long-term cognitive impairment and hospitalization-associated disability are common occurrence in the survivors of critical illness, with significant consequences for patients and for the caregivers. The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing ICU patient recovery and outcomes. The ABCDEF bundle includes: Assess, Prevent, and Manage Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT and Spontaneous Breathing Trials (SBT, Choice of analgesia and sedation, Delirium: Assess, Prevent, and Manage, Early mobility and Exercise, and Family engagement. The purpose of this review is to describe the core features of the ABCDEF bundle.

  11. Use of body hair and beard hair in hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2013-08-01

    For many hair restoration patients with limited scalp donor hair it is possible to use nonhead hair sources to increase the potential follicle supply. Follicular unit extraction provides the hair restoration surgeon with a useful surgical means for accessing this valuable source of donor reserve. Nonhead hair can also be used to restore eyebrows, eyelashes, and moustaches. This article focuses on the use of body hair and beard in hair restoration. Discussed are the indications and effective techniques for performing hair transplants using non head hair donor sources, along with the pitfalls and risks of this surgical modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Peter; Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan

    2008-03-01

    The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis.

  13. Preliminary report: NIF laser bundle review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    As requested in the guidance memo 1 , this committe determined whether there are compelling reasons to recommend a change from the NIF CDR baseline laser. The baseline bundle design based on a tradeoff between cost and technical risk, which is replicated four times to create the required 192 beams. The baseline amplifier design uses bottom loading 1x4 slab and flashlamp cassettes for amplifier maintenance and large vacuum enclosures (2.5m high x 7m wide in cross-section for each of the two spatial filters in each of the four bundles. The laser beams are arranged in two laser bays configured in a u-shape around the target area. The entire bundle review effort was performed in a very short time (six weeks) and with limited resources (15 personnel part-time). This should be compared to the effort that produced the CDR design (12 months, 50 to 100 personnel). This committee considered three alternate bundle configurations (2x2, 4x2, and 4x4 bundles), and evaluated each bundle against the baseline design using the seven requested issues in the guidance memo: Cost; schedule; performance risk; maintainability/operability; hardware failure cost exposure; activation; and design flexibility. The issues were reviewed to identify differences between each alternate bundle configuration and the baseline

  14. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour. Th...

  16. Hair growth-promotion effects of different alternating current parameter settings are mediated by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Ki Min; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Young Min; Kang, Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Electrical stimulation is being used in variable skin therapeutic conditions. There have been clinical studies demonstrating the positive effect of electrical stimuli on hair regrowth. However, the underlying exact mechanism and optimal parameter settings are not clarified yet. To investigate the effects of different parameter settings of electrical stimuli on hair growth by examining changes in human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and by observing molecular changes in animal tissue. In vitro, cultured hDPCs were electrically stimulated with different parameter settings at alternating current (AC). Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The Ki67 expression was measured by immunofluorescence. Hair growth-related gene expressions were measured by RT-PCR. In animal model, different parameter settings of AC were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of rabbit for 8 weeks. Expression of hair-related genes in the skin of rabbit was examined by RT-PCR. At low voltage power (3.5 V) and low frequency (1 or 2 MHz) with AC, in vitro proliferation of hDPCs was successfully induced. A significant increase in Wnt/β-catenin, Ki67, p-ERK and p-AKT expressions was observed under the aforementioned settings. In animal model, hair regrowth was observed in the entire stimulated areas under individual conditions. Expression of hair-related genes in the skin significantly increased on the 6th week of treatment. There are optimal conditions for electrical stimulated hair growth, and they might be different in the cells, animals and human tissues. Electrical stimuli induce mechanisms such as the activation of Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK pathway in hair follicles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  18. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  19. Functional near infrared brain imaging with a brush-fiber optode to improve optical contact on subjects with dense hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Wildey, Chester; Francis, Robert; Tian, Fenghua; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Liu, Hanli; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Alexandrakis, George

    2011-03-01

    A major obstacle in functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and imaging is poor optical contact of the optodes with the scalp due to obstruction by hair. To overcome this problem a novel brush-fiber extension was made as an attachment to existing commercial flat-face fiber bundle optodes. The goal was that the brush-fiber extension would thread through hair and improve optical contact on subjects with dense hair. Simulations and experiments were performed to assess the magnitude of these improvements. Firstly, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of photon propagation through the scalp with hair and hair follicles was performed showing a drop in light transmission for different hair densities in the range of 3 to 9 dB. Similar levels of signal loss at individual optodes were determined experimentally in preliminary measurements on a human subject, when comparisons were made for finger tapping activation measurements with and without the brush-fiber extensions. The effects of such losses on reconstructed images were also simulated by using neutral density filters during tissue phantom measurements. As brush-fibers attenuated the signal by approximately 2.5 dB due to imperfect optical contact with the flat-face optode tips we explored the idea of using larger diameter brush-fibers to overcome that loss.

  20. VEGF induces proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei; Man, Xiao-Yong [Department of Dermatology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009 (China); Li, Chun-Ming [Department of Dermatology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University School of Medicine, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330000 (China); Chen, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Jiong; Cai, Sui-Qing; Lu, Zhong-Fa [Department of Dermatology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009 (China); Zheng, Min, E-mail: minz@zju.edu.cn [Department of Dermatology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the strongest regulators of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate major functional effects of VEGF. Previously, we have localized both VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human hair follicles. In this study, we further defined the expression and roles of VEGFR-2 on human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis separately, and localization of VEGFR-2 was defined by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on DP cells was analyzed by MTT assays and specific inhibitors. Finally, the role of VEGF involved in the signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 showed strong signal on cultured human DP cells in vitro. Exogenous VEGF{sub 165} stimulated proliferation of DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this stimulation was blocked by a VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody (MAB3571) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). VEGF{sub 165}-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by MAB3571 and PD98059, while the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and AKT were not changed by VEGF{sub 165}. Taken together, VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the expression of VEGFR-2 on cultured human dermal papilla (DP) cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF{sub 165} stimulated proliferation of human DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This stimulation was through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK.

  1. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  2. Baicalin increases hair follicle development by increasing canonical Wnt/β‑catenin signaling and activating dermal papillar cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fei; Yi, Wen-Juan; Miao, Fang; Su, Meng-Yun; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Baicalin is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine commonly used for hair loss, the precise molecular mechanism of which is unknown. In the present study, the mechanism of baicalin was investigated via the topical application of baicalin to reconstituted hair follicles on mice dorsa and evaluating the effect on canonical Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in the hair follicles and the activity of dermal papillar cells. The results indicate that baicalin stimulates the expression of Wnt3a, Wnt5a, frizzled 7 and disheveled 2 whilst inhibiting the Axin/casein kinase 1α/adenomatous polyposis coli/glycogen synthase kinase 3β degradation complex, leading to accumulation of β‑catenin and activation of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling. In addition, baicalin was observed to increase the alkaline phosphatase levels in dermal papillar cells, a process which was dependent on Wnt pathway activation. Given its non‑toxicity and ease of topical application, baicalin represents a promising treatment for alopecia and other forms of hair loss. Further studies of baicalin using human hair follicle transplants are warranted in preparation for future clinical use.

  3. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  4. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  5. Hair pain (trichodynia): frequency and relationship to hair loss and patient gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Barbara; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2002-01-01

    Patients complaining of hair loss frequently claim that their hair has become painful. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of this phenomenon and its relationship to hair loss. Patients seeking advice for hair loss either spontaneously reported or were questioned about painful sensations of the scalp. Hair loss activity was quantified by a hair pull, daily count and wash test. Telogen percentage was obtained by a hair pluck. The scalp surface was examined by dermatoscopy. Of 403 examined patients, 20% of women and 9% of men reported hair pain, irrespective of the cause and activity of hair loss. A minority presented scalp telangiectasia. This strongly correlated with hair pain. Hair pain (trichodynia) affects a significant proportion of patients complaining of hair loss and may increase the anxiety. The symptom neither allows discrimination of the cause nor correlates with the activity of hair loss. A higher prevalence of female patients might be connected to gender-related differences in pain perception in relation to anxiety. The role of vasoactive neuropeptides in the interaction between the central nervous system and skin reactivity is discussed. In the absence of any correlation with quantitative parameters of hair loss or specific morphologic changes of the scalp, management remains empiric and tailored to the individual. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  7. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  8. Flow in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, G.; Mayer, G.

    2005-01-01

    For power upgrading VVER-440 reactors we need to know exactly how the temperature measured by the thermocouples is related to the average outlet temperature of the fuel assemblies. Accordingly, detailed knowledge on mixing process in the rod bundles and in the fuel assembly head have great importance. Here we study the hydrodynamics of rod bundles based on the results of direct numerical and large eddy simulation of flows in subchannels. It is shown that secondary flow and flow pulsation phenomena can be observed using both methodologies. Some consequences of these observations are briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Standard-model bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan; Donagi, Ron; Ovrut, Burt; Pantev, Tony; Waldram, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family of genus one fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds with fundamental group ${\\mathbb Z}/2$. On each Calabi-Yau $Z$ in the family we exhibit a positive dimensional family of Mumford stable bundles whose symmetry group is the Standard Model group $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and which have $c_{3} = 6$. We also show that for each bundle $V$ in our family, $c_{2}(Z) - c_{2}(V)$ is the class of an effective curve on $Z$. These conditions ensure that $Z$ and $V$ can be used for a phenomenologically relevant compactification of Heterotic M-theory.

  10. The Histone Chaperone NRP1 Interacts with WEREWOLF to ActivateGLABRA2in Arabidopsis Root Hair Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Rong, Liang; Luo, Qiang; Wang, Baihui; Zhou, Nana; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Chi; Feng, Haiyang; Zheng, Lina; Shen, Wen-Hui; Ma, Jinbiao; Dong, Aiwu

    2017-02-01

    NUCLEOSOME ASSEMBLY PROTEIN1 (NAP1) defines an evolutionarily conserved family of histone chaperones and loss of function of the Arabidopsis thaliana NAP1 family genes NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1 ( NRP1 ) and NRP2 causes abnormal root hair formation. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that NRP1 interacts with the transcription factor WEREWOLF (WER) in vitro and in vivo and enriches at the GLABRA2 ( GL2 ) promoter in a WER-dependent manner. Crystallographic analysis indicates that NRP1 forms a dimer via its N-terminal α-helix. Mutants of NRP1 that either disrupt the α-helix dimerization or remove the C-terminal acidic tail, impair its binding to histones and WER and concomitantly lead to failure to activate GL2 transcription and to rescue the nrp1-1 nrp2-1 mutant phenotype. Our results further demonstrate that WER-dependent enrichment of NRP1 at the GL2 promoter is involved in local histone eviction and nucleosome loss in vivo. Biochemical competition assays imply that the association between NRP1 and histones may counteract the inhibitory effect of histones on the WER-DNA interaction. Collectively, our study provides important insight into the molecular mechanisms by which histone chaperones are recruited to target chromatin via interaction with a gene-specific transcription factor to moderate chromatin structure for proper root hair development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  12. Functional Utrastructure of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) Digestive Hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Świątek, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Digestive structures of carnivorous plants produce external digestive enzymes, and play the main role in absorption. In Lentibulariaceae, the ultrastructure of digestive hairs has been examined in some detail in Pinguicula and Utricularia, but the sessile digestive hairs of Genlisea have received very little attention so far. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by expanding their morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization. Methods Several imaging techniques were used, including light, confocal and electron microscopy, to reveal the structure and function of the secretory hairs of Genlisea traps. This report demonstrates the application of cryo-SEM for fast imaging of whole, physically fixed plant secretory structures. Key Results and Conclusion The concentration of digestive hairs along vascular bundles in subgenus Genlisea is a primitive feature, indicating its basal position within the genus. Digestive hairs of Genlisea consist of three compartments with different ultrastructure and function. In subgenus Tayloria the terminal hair cells are transfer cells, but not in species of subgenus Genlisea. A digestive pool of viscous fluid occurs in Genlisea traps. In spite of their similar architecture, the digestive-absorptive hairs of Lentibulariaceae feature differences in morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:17550910

  13. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  14. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  15. The Logic of Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, John; Yang, Taewon

    2015-12-01

    Since the work of Crown (J. Natur. Sci. Math. 15(1-2), 11-25 1975) in the 1970's, it has been known that the projections of a finite-dimensional vector bundle E form an orthomodular poset ( omp) {P}(E). This result lies in the intersection of a number of current topics, including the categorical quantum mechanics of Abramsky and Coecke (2004), and the approach via decompositions of Harding (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348(5), 1839-1862 1996). Moreover, it provides a source of omps for the quantum logic program close to the Hilbert space setting, and admitting a version of tensor products, yet having important differences from the standard logics of Hilbert spaces. It is our purpose here to initiate a basic investigation of the quantum logic program in the vector bundle setting. This includes observations on the structure of the omps obtained as {P}(E) for a vector bundle E, methods to obtain states on these omps, and automorphisms of these omps. Key theorems of quantum logic in the Hilbert setting, such as Gleason's theorem and Wigner's theorem, provide natural and quite challenging problems in the vector bundle setting.

  16. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  17. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Pairwise coupling of hair cell transducer channels links auditory sensitivity and dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Sietse M.; Meulenberg, Cecil J. W.; Lennan, George W. T.; Kros, Corne J.

    Hair cells in the inner ear provide the basis for the exquisite hearing capabilities of mammals. These cells transduce sound-induced displacements of their mechanosensitive hair bundle into electrical currents within a fraction of a millisecond and with nanometer fidelity. Excitatory displacements

  19. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  20. Buckling behavior of individual and bundled microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilypour, Mohammad; Peyro, Mohaddeseh; Peter, Stephen J; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-04-07

    As the major structural constituent of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs) serve a variety of biological functions that range from facilitating organelle transport to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cell. Neuronal MTs exhibit a distinct configuration, hexagonally packed bundles of MT filaments, interconnected by MT-associated protein (MAP) tau. Building on our previous work on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension, this study is focused on exploring the compression scenarios. Intracellular MTs carry a large fraction of the compressive loads sensed by the cell and therefore, like any other column-like structure, are prone to substantial bending and buckling. Various biological activities, e.g., actomyosin contractility and many pathological conditions are driven or followed by bending, looping, and buckling of MT filaments. The coarse-grained model previously developed in our lab has been used to study the mechanical behavior of individual and bundled in vivo MT filaments under uniaxial compression. Both configurations show tip-localized, decaying, and short-wavelength buckling. This behavior highlights the role of the surrounding cytoplasm and MAP tau on MT buckling behavior, which allows MT filaments to bear much larger compressive forces. It is observed that MAP tau interconnections improve this effect by a factor of two. The enhanced ability of MT bundles to damp buckling waves relative to individual MT filaments, may be interpreted as a self-defense mechanism because it helps axonal MTs to endure harsher environments while maintaining their function. The results indicate that MT filaments in a bundle do not buckle simultaneously implying that the applied stress is not equally shared among the MT filaments, that is a consequence of the nonuniform distribution of MAP tau proteins along the bundle length. Furthermore, from a pathological perspective, it is observed that axonal MT bundles are more vulnerable to failure in

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  2. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  3. How does high-frequency sound or vibration activate vestibular receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, I S; Grant, J W

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism by which vestibular neural phase locking occurs and how it relates to classical otolith mechanics is unclear. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that sound and vibration both cause fluid pressure waves in the inner ear and that it is these pressure waves which displace the hair bundles on vestibular receptor hair cells and result in activation of type I receptor hair cells and phase locking of the action potentials in the irregular vestibular afferents, which synapse on type I receptors. This idea has been suggested since the early neural recordings and recent results give it greater credibility.

  4. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  5. Implementing the care bundle approach in the ICU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... Intensive care standards can only be maintained by quality control of ICU facilities, activities ... The care bundle approach provides a practical tool to implement evidence-based practice in critical care. Care bundles ... algorithm provides a useful bedside tool in the practical implementation of the guideline.

  6. Bundled payments in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-02-01

    As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the concept of bundled payments and the potential applications of bundled payments in orthopedic surgery. 2. For specific situations, outline a clinical episode of care, determine the participants in a bundling situation, and define care protocols and pathways. 3. Recognize the importance of resource utilization management, quality outcome measurement, and combined economic-clinical value in determining the value of bundled payment arrangements. 4. Identify the implications of bundled payments for practicing orthopedists, as well as the legal issues and potential future directions of this increasingly popular alternative payment method. Bundled payments, the idea of paying a single price for a bundle of goods and services, is a financial concept familiar to most American consumers because examples appear in many industries. The idea of bundled payments has recently gained significant momentum as a financial model with the potential to decrease the significant current costs of health care. Orthopedic surgery as a field of medicine is uniquely positioned for success in an environment of bundled payments. This article reviews the history, logistics, and implications of the bundled payment model relative to orthopedic surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Aging in hair follicle stem cells and niche microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jiang; Ho, Bryan Siu-Yin; Qian, Ge; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Bigliardi, Paul Lorenz; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2017-10-01

    Hair graying and hair loss are prominent and common characteristics of the elderly population. In some individuals these processes can significantly impact their quality of life, leading to depression, anxiety and other serious mental health problems. Accordingly, there has been much interest in understanding the complex physiological changes within the hair follicle in the aging individual. It is now known that hair follicles represent a prototypical stem cell niche, where both micro- and macroenvironmental influences are integrated alongside stem cell-stem cell and stem cell-stem niche interactions to determine hair growth or hair follicle senescence. Recent studies have identified imbalanced stem cell differentiation and altered stem cell activity as important factors during hair loss, indicating new avenues for the development of therapeutic agents to stimulate hair growth. Here, we pull together the latest findings on the hair follicle stem cell niche and the multifactorial interactions underlying the various forms of hair loss. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  9. The Atiyah bundle and connections on a principal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be the fiber bundle constructed as in (1.1) for the universal principal G-bundle. In a work in progress, we hope to show that the universal G-connection can be realized as a fiber bundle over C(EG). Turning this around, we hope to get an alternative construction of the universal G-connection. Also, this approach may yield a ...

  10. Exploratory monitoring of air pollutants for mutagenicity activity with the Tradescantia stamen hair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, L A; Van't Hof, J; Hayes, C G; Burton, R M; de Serres, F J

    1978-12-01

    The Tradescantia genetic system developed by the late Dr. Arnold H. Sparrow for the study of effects of ionizing radiation is applicable to chemical mutagen detection. Early radiobiological data demonstrated that the stamen hairs were sensitive to as little as 0.25 rad of x-rays and that the number of cells showing a phenotypic change in pigmentation from blue to pink plateaus after approximately 21 days of chronic, low-level irradiation. Exposures to the air pollutants SO(2), NO(2), and O(3) and to vapors of mutagens such as 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) demonstrated the usefulness of the system as a detector of chemical mutagens. A significant number of phenotypic changes was observed following exposures to as little as 0.14 ppm of DBE. The maximum sensitivity of the system is obtained with long-term or chronic exposures because the response increases linearly in proportion to the duration of exposure up to 21 days. To monitor industrial sites for atmospheric mutagens a mobile laboratory was designed to support plant culture in the field. Environment-controlled growth chambers were installed in a trailer so that both ambient air fumigations and concurrent clean-air control exposures could be made. Sites monitored by the mobile laboratory were: Elizabeth, N. J.; Charleston, W. Va.; Birmingham, Ala.; Baton Rouge, La.; Houston, Tex.; Upland, Calif.; Magna, Utah; and Grand Canyon, Ariz. The latter site at Grand Canyon served as a clean air control study. Atmospheric contaminants from petroleum and chemical processing plants generated a significant number of phenotypic pigment changes that were 17 to 31% above the control levels; contaminants from steel and copper smelters, automotive combustion products and photochemical compounds were negative. Chemical analyses are underway to identify the atmospheric mutagens at the sites that showed a positive response.

  11. Comparison of Echocardiographic Markers of Cardiac Dyssynchrony and Latest Left Ventricular Activation Site in Heart Failure Patients with and without Left Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi-Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Roomi, Zahra Savand; Kasemisaeid, Ali; Sadeghian, Hakimeh

    2013-04-01

    Several echocardiographic markers have been introduced to assess the left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony. We studied dyssynchrony markers and the latest LV activation site in heart failure patients with and without left bundle branch block (LBBB). Conventional echocardiography and tissue velocity imaging were performed for 78 patients (LV ejection fraction ≤ 35%), who were divided into two groups: LBBB (n = 37) and non-LBBB (n = 41). Time-to-peak systolic velocity (Ts) was measured in 12 LV segments in the mid and basal levels. Seven dyssynchrony markers were defined: delay and standard deviation (SD) of Ts in all and basal segments, septal-lateral and anteroseptal-posterior wall delay (at the basal level), and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD). The LBBB patients had significantly higher QRS duration and IVMD. The posterior wall was the latest activated site in the LBBB and the inferior wall was the latest in the non-LBBB patients. The most common dyssynchrony marker in the LBBB group was the SD of Ts in all segments (73%), whereas it was Ts delay in the basal segments in the non-LBBB group (48.8%). Ts delay and SD of all LV segments, septal lateral delay, septal-to-posterior wall delay by M-mode, pre-ejection period of the aortic valve, and IVMD were significantly higher in the LBBB group than in the non-LBBB group. Also, 29.3% of the non-LBBB and 10.8% of the LBBB patients did not show dyssynchrony by any marker. The number of patients showing dyssynchrony by ≥ 3 markers was remarkably higher in the LBBB patients (73% vs. 43.9%, respectively; p value = 0.044). The LBBB patients presented with a higher prevalence of dyssynchrony according to the frequently used echocardiographic markers. The latest activation site was different between the groups.

  12. Origin of inner ear hair cells: morphological and functional differentiation from ciliary cells into hair cells in zebrafish inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masashi; Ota, Yukiko; Inoue, Maya; Oda, Yoichi

    2011-03-09

    Auditory and vestibular functions in vertebrates depend on the transduction of sound vibration or head acceleration into electrical responses in inner ear hair cells. Mechanoelectrical transduction occurs at the tip of stereocilia, which are polarized to form an orientational arrangement that determines directional sensitivity. It remains to be clarified when and how premature hair cells acquire their specialized structure and function in living animals. The developmental origin of inner ear hair cells has been studied in vivo in zebrafish embryos. Tether cells, a small number of ciliated cells associated with an "ear stone" (or otolith) in the embryonic zebrafish inner ear, are believed to be precocious hair cells. However, whether or not tether cells acquire hair bundles and mechanosensitivity remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the morphological and functional development of tether cells. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that stereocilia appeared on the tether cell apex in a polarized arrangement at 22 h postfertilization (hpf). Labeling with FM1-43, a marker of functional mechanotransduction channels, and the in vivo electrophysiological recording of mechanotransducer responses in the developing inner ear demonstrated that tether cells acquired direction-selective mechanosensitivity at 23 hpf. These results revealed that tether cells begin to function as hair cells within an hour after the appearance of a polarized array of stereociliary bundles. Thus, the ciliary cells morphologically and functionally differentiate into the first sensory hair cells in the inner ear of the zebrafish.

  13. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  14. Interprofessional Perspectives on ABCDE Bundle Implementation: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Leanne M; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Mion, Lorraine C

    The ABCDE bundle is a multifaceted, interprofessional intervention that is associated with reduced ventilator and delirium days as well as increased likelihood of mobility in intensive care. The aim of this study is to describe organizational domains that contribute to variation in ABCDE bundle implementation as reported by intensive care unit providers and to examine the capability of a conceptual framework for identifying variation in ABCDE bundle implementation. We conducted 2 separate focus groups that included nurses, respiratory therapists, occupational and physical therapists (N = 16) from the surgical and medical intensive care units at 1 academic medical center. All participants had experience performing ABCDE bundle activities. Variation in how the ABCDE bundle was interpreted and executed within and across disciplines was noted. Organizational facets, the physical environment, labor quantity and quality, task burden, provider attitudes, and patient characteristics were noted to influence ABCDE bundle execution. The difficulty coordinating and implementing early mobility was emphasized. The number of disciplines required to perform an activity and individual component complexity was reported to influence ABCDE bundle implementation. Nurses repeatedly described challenges with coordinating care across disciplines. Small tests of change, adequate staffing, interprofessional training and protocol development efforts, and role modeling may be effective methods for successful ABCDE bundle implementation.

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  16. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    OpenAIRE

    Tr?eb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people?s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today?s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of heal...

  17. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆.

  18. Kernel bundle EPDiff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    In the LDDMM framework, optimal warps for image registration are found as end-points of critical paths for an energy functional, and the EPDiff equations describe the evolution along such paths. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Kernel Bundle Mapping (LDDKBM) extension of LDDMM allows scale space...... information to be automatically incorporated in registrations and promises to improve the standard framework in several aspects. We present the mathematical foundations of LDDKBM and derive the KB-EPDiff evolution equations, which provide optimal warps in this new framework. To illustrate the resulting...

  19. Managing bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.

  20. Handtool assists in bundling cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tool makes it possible to bundle electrical cables in channel or "tray" without requiring cables be lifted out. Procedure for bundling is faster and less awkward than lifting method. Used with commercially-available plastic ribbons that tie cables together, tool guides ribbon along tray wall, through bracket at bottom of tray, and up opposite wall. One end of ribbon locks in other end, securing cable bundle.

  1. Infinitesimal bundles and projective relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.T.

    1973-01-01

    An intrinsic and global presentation of five-dimensional relativity theory is developed, in which special coordinate conditions are replaced by conditions of Lie invariance. The notion of an infinitesimal bundle is introduced, and the theory of connexions on principal bundles is extended to infinitesimal bundles. Global aspects of projective relativity are studied: it is shown that projective relativity can describe almost any space-time. In particular, it is not necessary to assume that the electromagnetic field have a global potential. (author)

  2. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiewicz P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project. Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  3. Muon bundles from the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Rybczyński, M.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wilk, G.

    2018-02-01

    Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project). Significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles is found. Estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic provenance. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  4. Stimulation of hair follicle stem cell proliferation through an IL-1 dependent activation of γδT-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Abhik; Pincha, Neha; Rana, Isha; Ghosh, Subhasri; Witherden, Deborah; Kandyba, Eve; MacLeod, Amanda; Kobielak, Krzysztof; Havran, Wendy L

    2017-01-01

    The cutaneous wound-healing program is a product of a complex interplay among diverse cell types within the skin. One fundamental process that is mediated by these reciprocal interactions is the mobilization of local stem cell pools to promote tissue regeneration and repair. Using the ablation of epidermal caspase-8 as a model of wound healing in Mus musculus, we analyzed the signaling components responsible for epithelial stem cell proliferation. We found that IL-1α and IL-7 secreted from keratinocytes work in tandem to expand the activated population of resident epidermal γδT-cells. A downstream effect of activated γδT-cells is the preferential proliferation of hair follicle stem cells. By contrast, IL-1α-dependent stimulation of dermal fibroblasts optimally stimulates epidermal stem cell proliferation. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation and function of epidermal cell–immune cell interactions and into how components that are classically associated with inflammation can differentially influence distinct stem cell niches within a tissue. PMID:29199946

  5. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  6. MAVEN SWIA Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated MAVEN SWIA data, including ion velocity distributions, energy spectra, and density, temperature, and velocity moments from...

  7. The Atiyah bundle and connections on a principal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    correspond to the connections on EG. The pull back of EG to C(EG) has a tautological connection. We investigate the curvature of this tautological connection. Keywords. Principal bundle; connection; Atiyah bundle. 1. Introduction. Fix a Lie group G. Its Lie algebra will be denoted by g. Let M be a connected C. ∞ manifold.

  8. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  9. Hair Growth Promoting and Anticancer Effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1 Inhibitors Isolated from Different Parts of Alpinia zerumbet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Taira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1 is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (KOG and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%–180% and 132%–226%, respectively, at 10–100 μM. MTD (2,5-bis(1E,3E,5E-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl-2,5-dihydrofuran and TMOQ ((E-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yloctahydro-1H-quinolizine showed growth-promoting activity around 164% and 139% at 10 μM, respectively. The hair cell proliferation induced by these compounds was significantly higher than that of minoxidil, a commercially available treatment for hair loss. Furthermore, the isolated compounds from alpinia exhibited anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 in the range of 67–99 μM. Regarding the mechanism underlying their action, we hypothesized that the anti-alopecia and anticancer activities of these compounds could be attributed to the inhibition of the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

  10. Application of neutron activation analysis to evaluate the health status of equines by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Avila, R.L.; Piasentin, R.M.; Saiki, M.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to evaluate the clinical status of equines, belonging to the Military Police of Sao Paulo State, by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair. Comparison of the results obtained in these analyses with reference values indicated Zn deficiency in the equines, Fe is in the minimum limit and the elements Cu and Mn are within the normal range. (author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, P.; Bueno, M.I.; Bortoleto, G.G.; Hoffmann, G.; Van den Ingh, T.S.; Rothuizen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu...

  12. Evaluation of the permeability of hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres to hair follicles and their hair growing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Hara, Kaori; Tsukada, Yusuke; Huang, C C; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Arakaki, Minoru; Okayasu, Hajime; Mimura, Haruko; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the process of encapsulating hair growing ingredients in the PLGA nanospheres by emulsion solvent diffusion method and investigates the feasibility of using the PLGA nanospheres as the DDS (Drug delivery System) carriers for delivering various hair growing ingredients to hair follicles. In-vitro and in-vivo tests were conducted to verify the performances of encapsulated PLGA nanospheres with three different hair growing ingredients. In the in-vitro tests, the scalp-pore permeability of hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres (dispersed in the PBS solution) was examined using human scalp biopsies in a modified Bronaugh diffusion chamber in comparison to that of the control samples containing the hair growing ingredient in the PBS solution. Furthermore, the hair growing effect of the encapsulated PLGA nanospheres was evaluated with the C3H mice in the in-vivo tests. By observing the fluorescence intensity of the ingredients, as shown in the cross-section photographs of the human scalp biopsies, it was found that the dispersion liquids containing hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres exerted a scalp-pore permeability 2.0- to 2.5-fold more marked than that of the control samples. Also, the hair growing activities were enhanced by using the encapsulated PLGA nanospheres, which transformed the hair growth cycle from the resting phase to the growing phase. As a result, the degree of hair growth was improved significantly. These results suggested that the PLGA nanosphere can be a new DDS carrier for delivering hair growing ingredients and drugs to the hair follicles.

  13. A prospective comparative study of clinical and functional outcomes between anatomic double bundle and single bundle hamstring grafts for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Nag, Hira Lal; Chowdhury, Buddhadev; Sankineani, Sukesh Rao; Naranje, Sameer M

    2015-09-01

    Despite a number of studies comparing postoperative stability and function after anatomic single bundle and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, it remains unclear whether double bundle reconstruction has better functional outcome than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To compare the subjective functional outcome as well as clinical stability in patients treated with either anatomic single bundle or anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in the postoperative functional outcome and clinical stability between anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared to single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. We prospectively followed 40 patients out of which, 20 patients were operated for anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction and other 20 patients underwent anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Patient evaluation using the laxity tests and outcome scales was done preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 48 months after the surgery. Clinical stability was assessed by Lachman test, Pivot shift test and Delhi active test. Functional outcome was assessed by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Modified Cincinnati scores. Patients in both groups were evaluated at regular intervals for a minimum period of 48 months (mean 51 months, range 48-56 months). For all subjective scores, double bundle group patients reported statistically significant higher scores compared to single bundle group patients. Graded stability results of the Lachman, and Pivot shift tests were significantly higher in the anatomically reconstructed double bundle patient group. We suggest that functional outcome and clinical stability may be better with anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as compared to anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright

  14. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  15. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth / For Kids / Help! It's Hair Loss! ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  16. CANFLEX fuel bundle impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Park, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the impact test of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Impact test is performed to determine and verify the amount of general bundle shape distortion and defect of the pressure tube that may occur during refuelling. The test specification requires that the fuel bundles and the pressure tube retain their integrities after the impact test under the conservative conditions (10 stationary bundles with 31kg/s flow rate) considering the pressure tube creep. The refuelling simulator operating with pneumatic force and simulated shield plug were fabricated and the velocity/displacement transducer and the high speed camera were also used in this test. The characteristics of the moving bundle (velocity, displacement, impacting force) were measured and analyzed with the impact sensor and the high speed camera system. The important test procedures and measurement results were discussed as follows. 1) Test bundle measurements and the pressure tube inspections 2) Simulated shield plug, outlet flange installation and bundle loading 3) refuelling simulator, inlet flange installation and sensors, high speed camera installation 4) Perform the impact test with operating the refuelling simulator and measure the dynamic characteristics 5) Inspections of the fuel bundles and the pressure tube. (author). 8 refs., 23 tabs., 13 figs.

  17. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  18. Sasakian and Parabolic Higgs Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Mj, Mahan

    2018-03-01

    Let M be a quasi-regular compact connected Sasakian manifold, and let N = M/ S 1 be the base projective variety. We establish an equivalence between the class of Sasakian G-Higgs bundles over M and the class of parabolic (or equivalently, ramified) G-Higgs bundles over the base N.

  19. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  20. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  1. From Yeast to Hair Dryers: Effective Activities for Teaching Environmental Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Kathleen A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on four experiments and/or activities that were used to stimulate student interest in environmental science. Makes the case that varying classroom activities in the environmental science classroom makes the teaching and learning experience more alive and vital to both instructor and student. (Author/MM)

  2. A search for arsenic in hair and nail remains of former President Zachary Taylor by neutron activation analysis (A historical perspective)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.; Dyer, F.F.; Nichols, G.R. II.

    1992-01-01

    In June of 1991 a collaborative investigation to determine the arsenic content of hair and nail remains of former president Zachary Taylor was established between the Analytical Chemistry Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Two samples of both hair and nail were irradiated and analyzed in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory at the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The results of these analyses were key in disproving a theory that the former president had been poisoned by the ingestion of arsenic. In this presentation the analysis procedure is described, results presented, and the series of events that led up to this investigation taking place at ORNL is explained from a historical perspective

  3. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  4. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.

    2007-01-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle

  5. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lithium chloride promotes the odontoblast differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tengfei; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Rong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and partial reprogramming of stem cells. Postnatal neural crest cells (NCCs) can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells due to their multi-potential property, but further endeavors need to be made to promote odontogenic differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells (hfNCCs). This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) promotes odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs. Change of proliferation, β-catenin and pluripotency markers of hfNCCs were examined after treatment with LiCl. An in vitro odontoblast differentiation model of hfNCCs was built using dental cell conditioned media (DC-CM). The effects of LiCl on odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs showed that proliferation and expression of β-catenin in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments were increased in the LiCl-treated hfNCCs, and the pluripotency marks, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and Nanog, were more highly expressed in the LiCl-treated group than in the control group. The odontoblast markers such as DSP, DMP1 and Runx2, could be detected in hfNCCs induced by DC-CM, but in LiCl -treated group all three markers had stronger expression. Expression of β-catenin in the nuclear of LiCl-treated hfNCCs induced by DC-CM was higher than in the other groups. The data indicate that the Wnt pathway activator LiCl can promote proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs, and chemical approaches are of benefit in obtaining more desirable seed cell types for cell-based therapies. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Modified 37-element bundle dryout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, A., E-mail: ab.tahir@amec.com [AMEC NSS Ltd., Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Analysis, Ontario (Canada); Parlatan, Y., E-mail: yuksel.parlatan@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Nuclear Safety Projects, Ontario (Canada); Kwee, M., E-mail: marc.kwee@brucepower.com [Bruce Power., Nuclear Safety Analysis and Support, Ontario (Canada); Liauw, W., E-mail: wie.kiong.liauw@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Nuclear Safety Projects, Ontario (Canada); Hadaller, G.; Fortman, R., E-mail: ghadaller@sternlab.com, E-mail: rfortman@sternlab.com [Stern Labs Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Heat Transport Systems (HTS) of the Canadian nuclear reactors are ageing. One of the effects of ageing is the non-uniform change in the dimension of the reactor pressure tubes through the mechanism of diametral creep. The mechanism has the global effect of increasing channel flows and decreasing the reactor header-to-header pressure drop. However, the increased flow is not distributed uniformly through the fuel bundle cross-section because the bundle tends to settle at the bottom of the pressure tube leaving a crescent shaped space on the top. This portion experiences the bulk of the increased flow, as it offers the path of least hydraulic resistance. As a result of this flow bypass, the coolant flows through some of the interior-subchannels of the fuel bundle are reduced. For a given flow, inlet temperature and exit pressure, flow bypass in the top of the channel reduces flow from the interior subchannels and consequently reduces the Critical Heat Flux (CHF). To recover some of the reduction in dryout power, OPG started a program in 2004 to examine possible modifications to the reference 37-element bundles that may result in an increase in dryout powers for the uncrept and crept pressure tube. Under accident conditions, where CHF is a concern, the ideal design is one where all fuel elements reach dryout at the same time. The ASSERT subchannel code was used to explore potential modifications to the 37-element bundle that may result in increased dryout powers in an uncrept and crept pressure tube. In addition analysis of post-dryout tests in 37-element bundle were examined to explore the potential of increasing the dryout power of the reference 37-element bundle by slightly modifying the bundle geometry. A small reduction of the centre element in the bundle was selected as an approach to enhance the dryout power of the bundle. CHF tests of the modified bundle were performed. The measurement confirmed that the modified bundle has higher dryout powers than the

  8. Using Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes of Hair to Teach about Sustainable Agriculture through Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Jennifer M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    The call for reform of science education is nearly three decades old (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), but the implementation of such education improvements in the form of active learning techniques in large enrollment classes remains difficult. Here we present a class project designed to increase student involvement and…

  9. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  10. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    that proper hair growth can be expected after about 9 months after transplantation. Preoperative laboratory studies to be performed include Hb%, blood counts including platelet count, bleeding and clotting time (or prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, blood chemistry profile including sugar. Methods : Follicular unit hair transplantation is the gold standard method of hair transplantation; it preserves the natural architecture of the hair units and gives natural results. Mini-micro-grafting is a method hair transplantation involving randomly assorted groups of hairs, with out consideration of their natural configuration of follicular units, under loupe or naked eye examination. Mini-grafts consist of 4-5-6 hairs while micro-grafts consist of 1-3 hairs. Punch gives ugly cosmetically unacceptable results and should no longer be used. Patient Selection : Hair transplantation can be performed in any person with pattern hair loss, with good donor area, in good general health and reasonable expectations. Caution should be exercised in, very young patients whose early alopecia is still evolving, patients with Norwood grade VI or VII with poor density, patients with unrealistic expectations, and patients with significant systemic health problems. Medical therapy: Most patients will need concurrent medical treatment since the process of pattern hair loss is progressive and may affect the remaining hairs. Manpower : Hair transplantation is a team effort. Particularly, performing large sessions, needs a well trained team of trained assistants. Anesthesia: 2% lignocaine with adrenaline is generally used for anesthesia; tumescent technique is preferred. Bupivacaine has been used by some authors in view of its prolonged duration of action. Donor dissection : Strip dissection by single blade is recommended for donor area. Steromicroscopic dissection is recommended for dissection of hair units in follicular unit transplantation; mini-micro-grafting does not need

  11. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and

  12. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  13. Evaluating big deal journal bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Theodore C; Courant, Paul N; McAfee, R Preston; Williams, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Large commercial publishers sell bundled online subscriptions to their entire list of academic journals at prices significantly lower than the sum of their á la carte prices. Bundle prices differ drastically between institutions, but they are not publicly posted. The data that we have collected enable us to compare the bundle prices charged by commercial publishers with those of nonprofit societies and to examine the types of price discrimination practiced by commercial and nonprofit journal publishers. This information is of interest to economists who study monopolist pricing, librarians interested in making efficient use of library budgets, and scholars who are interested in the availability of the work that they publish.

  14. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Si

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the k o -NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The K o -NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  15. Mutations in ap1b1 cause mistargeting of the Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump in sensory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Clemens Grisham

    Full Text Available The hair cells of the inner ear are polarized epithelial cells with a specialized structure at the apical surface, the mechanosensitive hair bundle. Mechanotransduction occurs within the hair bundle, whereas synaptic transmission takes place at the basolateral membrane. The molecular basis of the development and maintenance of the apical and basal compartments in sensory hair cells is poorly understood. Here we describe auditory/vestibular mutants isolated from forward genetic screens in zebrafish with lesions in the adaptor protein 1 beta subunit 1 (ap1b1 gene. Ap1b1 is a subunit of the adaptor complex AP-1, which has been implicated in the targeting of basolateral membrane proteins. In ap1b1 mutants we observed that although the overall development of the inner ear and lateral-line organ appeared normal, the sensory epithelium showed progressive signs of degeneration. Mechanically-evoked calcium transients were reduced in mutant hair cells, indicating that mechanotransduction was also compromised. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular defects in ap1b1 mutants, we examined the localization of basolateral membrane proteins in hair cells. We observed that the Na(+/K(+-ATPase pump (NKA was less abundant in the basolateral membrane and was mislocalized to apical bundles in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Accordingly, intracellular Na(+ levels were increased in ap1b1 mutant hair cells. Our results suggest that Ap1b1 is essential for maintaining integrity and ion homeostasis in hair cells.

  16. Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Horst, Johannes; van Dijk, Pim; van Netten, Sietse

    1993-01-01

    The last decade revealed to auditory researchers that hair cells can not only detect and process mechanical energy, but are also able to produce it. Thanks to the active hair cell, ears can produce otoacoustic emissions. This book gives the newest insights into the biophysics and physiology of

  17. Semicircular canals circumvent Brownian Motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500...... nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above...... differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (

  18. Local mechanisms for loud sound-enhanced aminoglycoside entry into outer hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhe; Kachelmeier, Allan; Furness, David N; Steyger, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Loud sound exposure exacerbates aminoglycoside ototoxicity, increasing the risk of permanent hearing loss and degrading the quality of life in affected individuals. We previously reported that loud sound exposure induces temporary threshold shifts (TTS) and enhances uptake of aminoglycosides, like gentamicin, by cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Here, we explore mechanisms by which loud sound exposure and TTS could increase aminoglycoside uptake by OHCs that may underlie this form of ototoxic synergy. Mice were exposed to loud sound levels to induce TTS, and received fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) for 30 min prior to fixation. The degree of TTS was assessed by comparing auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) before and after loud sound exposure. The number of tip links, which gate the GTTR-permeant mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels, was determined in OHC bundles, with or without exposure to loud sound, using scanning electron microscopy. We found wide-band noise (WBN) levels that induce TTS also enhance OHC uptake of GTTR compared to OHCs in control cochleae. In cochlear regions with TTS, the increase in OHC uptake of GTTR was significantly greater than in adjacent pillar cells. In control mice, we identified stereociliary tip links at ~50% of potential positions in OHC bundles. However, the number of OHC tip links was significantly reduced in mice that received WBN at levels capable of inducing TTS. These data suggest that GTTR uptake by OHCs during TTS occurs by increased permeation of surviving, mechanically-gated MET channels, and/or non-MET aminoglycoside-permeant channels activated following loud sound exposure. Loss of tip links would hyperpolarize hair cells and potentially increase drug uptake via aminoglycoside-permeant channels expressed by hair cells. The effect of TTS on aminoglycoside-permeant channel kinetics will shed new light on the mechanisms of loud sound-enhanced aminoglycoside uptake, and consequently on ototoxic synergy.

  19. Local Mechanisms for Loud Sound-Enhanced Aminoglycoside Entry into Outer Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loud sound exposure exacerbates aminoglycoside ototoxicity, increasing the risk of permanent hearing loss and degrading the quality of life in affected individuals. We previously reported that loud sound exposure induces temporary threshold shifts (TTS and enhances uptake of aminoglycosides, like gentamicin, by cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs. Here, we explore mechanisms by which loud sound exposure and TTS could increase aminoglycoside uptake by OHCs that may underlie this form of ototoxic synergy.Mice were exposed to loud sound levels to induce TTS, and received fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR for 30 minutes prior to fixation. The degree of TTS was assessed by comparing auditory brainstem responses before and after loud sound exposure. The number of tip links, which gate the GTTR-permeant mechanoelectrical transducer (MET channels, was determined in OHC bundles, with or without exposure to loud sound, using scanning electron microscopy.We found wide-band noise (WBN levels that induce TTS also enhance OHC uptake of GTTR compared to OHCs in control cochleae. In cochlear regions with TTS, the increase in OHC uptake of GTTR was significantly greater than in adjacent pillar cells. In control mice, we identified stereociliary tip links at ~50% of potential positions in OHC bundles. However, the number of OHC tip links was significantly reduced in mice that received WBN at levels capable of inducing TTS.These data suggest that GTTR uptake by OHCs during TTS occurs by increased permeation of surviving, mechanically-gated MET channels, and/or non-MET aminoglycoside-permeant channels activated following loud sound exposure. Loss of tip links would hyperpolarize hair cells and potentially increase drug uptake via aminoglycoside-permeant channels expressed by hair cells. The effect of TTS on aminoglycoside-permeant channel kinetics will shed new light on the mechanisms of loud sound-enhanced aminoglycoside uptake, and consequently on ototoxic

  20. Amino acid substitution converts WEREWOLF function from an activator to a repressor of Arabidopsis non-hair cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji

    2012-02-01

    Root hair cell or non-hair cell fate determination in Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is model system for plant cell development. Two types of MYB transcription factors, the R2R3-type MYB, WEREWOLF (WER), and an R3-type MYB, CAPRICE (CPC), are involved in this cell fate determination process. To study the molecular basis of this process, we analyzed the functional relationship of WER and CPC. WER-CPC chimeric constructs were made from WER where all or parts of the MYB R3 region were replaced with the corresponding regions from CPC R3, and the constructs were introduced into the cpc-2 mutant. Although, the WER gene did not rescue the cpc-2 mutant 'small number of root hairs' phenotype, the WER-CPC chimera with two amino acids substitution (WC6) completely rescued the cpc-2 mutant phenotype. Furthermore, the WER-CPC chimera with 37 amino acids substitution (WC5) excessively rescued the cpc-2 mutant and induced 2.5 times more root hairs than wild-type. Consistent with this phenotype, GL2 gene expression was strongly reduced in WC5 in a cpc-2 background. Our results suggest that swapping at least two amino acids is sufficient to convert WER to CPC function. Therefore, these key residues may have strongly contributed to the selection of these important functions over evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean so hair oils don't clog your pores. If you're washing your hair every day ... in curly hair. Relaxers containing lye can cause skin irritation and hair breakage. Although "no lye" relaxers ...

  2. MAVEN SWEA Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated electron energy/angle (3D) distributions, pitch angle distributions, and omni-directional energy spectra. Tables of sensitivity...

  3. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  4. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0344-5. Line bundles and flat connections. INDRANIL BISWAS1,∗ and GEORG SCHUMACHER2. 1School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005, India. 2Fachbereich Mathematik und ...

  5. MAVEN LPW Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains fully calibrated, science quality data produced by the LPW instrument. The data include spacecraft potential, electric field waveforms and wave...

  6. MAVEN EUV Modelled Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains solar irradiance spectra in 1-nm bins from 0-190 nm. The spectra are generated based upon the Flare Irradiance Spectra Model - Mars (FISM-M)...

  7. MAVEN SEP Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The maven.sep.calibrated Level 2 Science Data Bundle contains fully calibrated SEP data, as well as the raw count data from which they are derived, and ancillary...

  8. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...

  9. Atrio-His bundle tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechenmacher, C

    1975-01-01

    The atrio-His bundle tracts are very rare; only two have been found in 687 hearts studied histologically. These tracts have a similar appearance to those of the atrioventricular bundle and form a complete bypass of the atrioventricular node. In their presence the electrocardiogram may show a short or normal PR interval. They may be responsible for some cases of very rapid ventricular response to supraventricular arrhythmias. Images PMID:1191446

  10. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-06-29

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs by using a green-fluorescent-protein-talin reporter and shown to form a dense mesh in the apex of the growing tip. The kojak gene, which encodes a protein similar to the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, is needed in the first stages of hair growth. A role for LRX1, a leucine-rich repeat extensin, in determining the morphology of the cell wall of root hairs has been established using reverse genetics. The new information can be integrated into a general and more advanced view of how these specialized plant cells grow.

  11. Holomorphic bundles over elliptic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture we shall examine holomorphic bundles over compact elliptically fibered manifolds. We shall examine constructions of such bundles as well as (duality) relations between such bundles and other geometric objects, namely K3-surfaces and del Pezzo surfaces. We shall be dealing throughout with holomorphic principal bundles with structure group GC where G is a compact, simple (usually simply connected) Lie group and GC is the associated complex simple algebraic group. Of course, in the special case G = SU(n) and hence GC = SLn(C), we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant. In the other cases of classical groups, G SO(n) or G = Sympl(2n) we are considering holomorphic vector bundles with trivial determinant equipped with a non-degenerate symmetric, or skew symmetric pairing. In addition to these classical cases there are the finite number of exceptional groups. Amazingly enough, motivated by questions in physics, much interest centres around the group E8 and its subgroups. For these applications it does not suffice to consider only the classical groups. Thus, while often first doing the case of SU(n) or more generally of the classical groups, we shall extend our discussions to the general semi-simple group. Also, we shall spend a good deal of time considering elliptically fibered manifolds of the simplest type, namely, elliptic curves

  12. Promotion Effect of Apo-9'-fucoxanthinone from Sargassum muticum on Hair Growth via the Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin and VEGF-R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Il; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Hyun, Jin-Won; Koh, Young-Sang; Lee, Nam Ho; Ko, Mi-Hee; Ko, Chang-Sik; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Sargassum muticum extract and apo-9'-fucoxanthinone, a principal component of S. muticum, on hair growth. When rat vibrissa follicles were treated with S. muticum extract for 21 d, the hair-fiber lengths for the vibrissa follicles increased significantly. Treatment with the S. muticum extract and the EtOAc fraction of the S. muticum extract markedly increased the proliferation of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and decreased the 5α-reductase activity. In addition, the EtOAc fraction of the S. muticum extract significantly promoted anagen initiation in C57BL/6 mice. Especially, apo-9'-fucoxanthinone, an active constituent from the S. muticum extract, caused an increase in DPC proliferation and a decrease in 5α-reductase activity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of apo-9'-fucoxanthinone on the proliferation of DPCs, we examined the level of various signaling proteins. Apo-9'-fucoxanthinone increased the level of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins such as phospho(ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and phospho(ser552)-β-catenin, whereas apo-9'-fucoxanthinone did not affect the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling proteins such as Smad2/3. These results suggest that apo-9'-fucoxanthinone from S. muticum could have the potential for hair growth with DPC proliferation via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the VEGF-R2 pathway.

  13. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair.

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  15. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  16. Anti-HIV-1 activity of cellulose acetate phthalate: synergy with soluble CD4 and induction of "dead-end" gp41 six-helix bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Jiang, Shibo; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K

    2002-04-30

    Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a promising candidate microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens, was shown to inactivate HIV-1 and to block the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. It did not interfere with virus binding to CD4. Since CD4 is the primary cellular receptor for HIV-1, it was of interest to study CAP binding to HIV-1 complexes with soluble CD4 (sCD4) and its consequences, including changes in the conformation of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 within virus particles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to study CAP binding to HIV-1-sCD4 complexes and to detect gp41 six-helix bundles accessible on virus particles using antibodies specific for the alpha-helical core domain of gp41. 1) Pretreatment of HIV-1 with sCD4 augments subsequent binding of CAP; 2) there is synergism between CAP and sCD4 for inhibition of HIV-1 infection; 3) treatment of HIV-1 with CAP induced the formation of gp41 six-helix bundles. CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct sites on HIV-1 IIIB and BaL virions and their simultaneous binding has profound effects on virus structure and infectivity. The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target cells thus preventing infection.

  17. Anti-HIV-1 activity of cellulose acetate phthalate: Synergy with soluble CD4 and induction of "dead-end" gp41 six-helix bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP, a promising candidate microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens, was shown to inactivate HIV-1 and to block the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. It did not interfere with virus binding to CD4. Since CD4 is the primary cellular receptor for HIV-1, it was of interest to study CAP binding to HIV-1 complexes with soluble CD4 (sCD4 and its consequences, including changes in the conformation of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 within virus particles. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to study CAP binding to HIV-1-sCD4 complexes and to detect gp41 six-helix bundles accessible on virus particles using antibodies specific for the α-helical core domain of gp41. Results 1 Pretreatment of HIV-1 with sCD4 augments subsequent binding of CAP; 2 there is synergism between CAP and sCD4 for inhibition of HIV-1 infection; 3 treatment of HIV-1 with CAP induced the formation of gp41 six-helix bundles. Conclusions CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct sites on HIV-1 IIIB and BaL virions and their simultaneous binding has profound effects on virus structure and infectivity. The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target cells thus preventing infection.

  18. The activity of spontaneous action potentials in developing hair cells is regulated by Ca(2+-dependence of a transient K+ current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Levic

    Full Text Available Spontaneous action potentials have been described in developing sensory systems. These rhythmic activities may have instructional roles for the functional development of synaptic connections. The importance of spontaneous action potentials in the developing auditory system is underpinned by the stark correlation between the time of auditory system functional maturity, and the cessation of spontaneous action potentials. A prominent K(+ current that regulates patterning of action potentials is I(A. This current undergoes marked changes in expression during chicken hair cell development. Although the properties of I(A are not normally classified as Ca(2+-dependent, we demonstrate that throughout the development of chicken hair cells, I(A is greatly reduced by acute alterations of intracellular Ca(2+. As determinants of spike timing and firing frequency, intracellular Ca(2+ buffers shift the activation and inactivation properties of the current to more positive potentials. Our findings provide evidence to demonstrate that the kinetics and functional expression of I(A are tightly regulated by intracellular Ca(2+. Such feedback mechanism between the functional expression of I(A and intracellular Ca(2+ may shape the activity of spontaneous action potentials, thus potentially sculpting synaptic connections in an activity-dependent manner in the developing cochlea.

  19. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.F.; Qian, Q.F.; Feng, X.Q.; Zhang, P.Q.; Liu, N.Q.; Feng, W.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  20. Frontier in hair loss and trichoscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam Elghblawi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin surfaces have always been examined using dermoscopy, a familiar tool which is useful to magnify and examine skin especially in cases of pigmented skin lesions. However, to examine the hair and scalp, a practical tool called trichoscopy has surfaced recently and has proven to be handy and functional in diagnosing most hair-related diseases. It is also referred to as dermoscopy of the hair and the scalp. It can aid in assessing active diseases in the scalp and hair, such as yellow dots, dystrophic hairs, cadaverized black dots, white dots, and exclamation mark hairs – all of which denote specific criteria for hair diseases. Trichoscopy is a very newly developed non-invasive technique for hair image analysis. It permits non-invasive visualization of hair shafts at higher intensification (about ×70 and ×100 and enables measurement of hair shaft width without the need for removing hair for diagnostic reasons. Moreover, it helps in vivo visualization of the epidermal portion of hair follicles and perifollicular epidermis (orifices. Consequently, it is valuable as it permits the inspection of structures that are otherwise not seen by the naked eye. Trichoscopy is the new frontier for the diagnosis of hair and scalp disease. Nowadays, a trichoscope is considered a must for dermatologists and it is a hot topic in the treatment of hair diseases. There is pooled evidence that the utilization of trichoscopy in the clinical setting for evaluating hair disorders can improve its diagnostic capability beyond simple clinical scrutiny. Trichoscopy can identify both hair shaft and hair opening abnormalities without the need for hair sampling, as well as distinguish between different scalp and hair diseases. Furthermore, it can give easy and quick evaluation of the hair with a follow-up to determine progress and prognosis of the disease with photos. It can also aid in some genetic hair shaft dystrophies such as trichorrhexis nodosa, trichorrhexis

  1. The use of human hair as biodosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔHpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  3. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  4. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  5. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  6. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  7. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Cryopreservation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) from endangered livebearing goodeids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Torres, Leticia; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2018-04-14

    More than half of fishes in the family Goodeidae are considered to be endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. Sperm cryopreservation is an effective tool for conserving genetic resources of imperiled populations, but development of protocols with livebearing fishes faces numerous challenges including the natural packaging of sperm into bundles. In this study the cryopreservation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) of three goodeids species was evaluated. Sperm quality was evaluated by activation with NaCl-NaOH solution (at 300 mOsmol/kg and pH 11.8), and analysis of dissociable bundles and dissociation duration. Using Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model, the effects of cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, and glycerol) with different concentrations (5-15% v/v %), equilibration exposure times (1-60 min), cooling rates (5-40 °C/min), concentrations (4 × 10 4 -4 × 10 6 bundles/ml), buffers (HBSS, PBS and NaCl), and buffer osmolalities (200-400 mOsmol/kg) were investigated. After cooling and thawing, sperm bundles maintained their packed form. A specific protocol was developed (10% dimethyl sulfoxide, 20-min equilibration, 10 °C/min cooling rate, 4 × 10 6 bundles/ml, and 300 mOsmol/kg HBSS). This protocol yielded 89 ± 5% of post-thaw dissociable bundles with 209 ± 10 s of dissociation duration for X. eiseni, 96 ± 9% with 814 ± 14 s for Blackfin Goodea (Goodea atripinni), and 66 ± 2% with 726 ± 25 s for Striped Goodeid (Ataeniobius toweri). This is the first study of cryopreservation of sperm within bundles for livebearing fishes and provides a basis for establishment of germplasm repositories for goodeids and other livebearers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. BiSet: Semantic Edge Bundling with Biclusters for Sensemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Maoyuan; Mi, Peng; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2016-01-01

    Identifying coordinated relationships is an important task in data analytics. For example, an intelligence analyst might want to discover three suspicious people who all visited the same four cities. Existing techniques that display individual relationships, such as between lists of entities, require repetitious manual selection and significant mental aggregation in cluttered visualizations to find coordinated relationships. In this paper, we present BiSet, a visual analytics technique to support interactive exploration of coordinated relationships. In BiSet, we model coordinated relationships as biclusters and algorithmically mine them from a dataset. Then, we visualize the biclusters in context as bundled edges between sets of related entities. Thus, bundles enable analysts to infer task-oriented semantic insights about potentially coordinated activities. We make bundles as first class objects and add a new layer, "in-between", to contain these bundle objects. Based on this, bundles serve to organize entities represented in lists and visually reveal their membership. Users can interact with edge bundles to organize related entities, and vice versa, for sensemaking purposes. With a usage scenario, we demonstrate how BiSet supports the exploration of coordinated relationships in text analytics.

  10. The effect of various copper sources on the trace elements profile in the hair, plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Jančíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment with 20 mares (3.6–19.8 years old divided into 3 groups we evaluated the effect of supplementation with various sources of copper on the trace elements profile in the hair, blood plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses. The horses were stabled in box stalls (similar dimension with feeding pump, with the access to a paddock or walker. All mares received the same basic feed ration that was supplemented with various form of copper (Cu in the organic form – proteinate - Bioplex Cu vs. Cu in the inorganic form – CuSO4.5H2O in amount of 120 mg per day for the mares in experimental groups. The contents of trace elements in hair and faeces were established using the atomic absorption spectrometry; in the plasma using direct colorimetric determination.Significant difference between mares receiving copper in organic and inorganic form (P The mares receiving Bioplex-Cu excreted lower amount of copper in the faeces. These had well-balanced levels of Cu in the plasma and deposited less Cu in the hair than the mares with addition of copper sulphate. In our experiment, it seems to be better available copper in the organic form than in the inorganic form for the organism of horses.Nevertheless, interpretation of these results is very difficult. Evaluation the impact of various sources of copper on the elements profile; assessed using skin derivates, plasma or other parameters should be subjected to further observation.

  11. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  12. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes.

  13. Circumferential ′ Woolly Hair Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Woolly hair naevus presents as a circumscribed area of tightly coiled hair since birth, in an individual of non-negroid origin. We report a 10 year old boy of Indian origin who presented with woolly hair in the periphery of the scalp and normal straight hair in the center-mimicking a straight hair naevus.

  14. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  15. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  16. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical ...

  17. Small RNAs derived from lncRNA RNase MRP have gene-silencing activity relevant to human cartilage–hair hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Leslie E.; Kosmyna, Brian; Moskowitz, David; Bebawee, Remon; Rahimzadeh, Joseph; Kutchko, Katrina; Laederach, Alain; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Giliani, Silvia; Bouhassira, Eric; Frenette, Paul; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Rogler, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Post-transcriptional processing of some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) reveals that they are a source of miRNAs. We show that the 268-nt non-coding RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease, (RNase MRP), is the source of at least two short (∼20 nt) RNAs designated RMRP-S1 and RMRP-S2, which function as miRNAs. Point mutations in RNase MRP cause human cartilage–hair hypoplasia (CHH), and several disease-causing mutations map to RMRP-S1 and -S2. SHAPE chemical probing identified two alternative secondary structures altered by disease mutations. RMRP-S1 and -S2 are significantly reduced in two fibroblast cell lines and a B-cell line derived from CHH patients. Tests of gene regulatory activity of RMRP-S1 and -S2 identified over 900 genes that were significantly regulated, of which over 75% were down-regulated, and 90% contained target sites with seed complements of RMRP-S1 and -S2 predominantly in their 3′ UTRs. Pathway analysis identified regulated genes that function in skeletal development, hair development and hematopoietic cell differentiation including PTCH2 and SOX4 among others, linked to major CHH phenotypes. Also, genes associated with alternative RNA splicing, cell proliferation and differentiation were highly targeted. Therefore, alterations RMRP-S1 and -S2, caused by point mutations in RMRP, are strongly implicated in the molecular mechanism of CHH. PMID:24009312

  18. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  19. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The degree of a torsionfree coherent analytic sheaf F on X is defined as degree(F ) = ∫. X ch. 1(det F) ∧ ωδ−1 .... [9] Kobayashi S, Differential geometry of complex vector bundles, Publications of the Math. Society of Japan 15 (1987) (Iwanami Shoten Publishers and Princeton University Press). [10] Lackenby M, Some ...

  20. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove that there are cocompact lattices Γ in S L ( 2 , C ) with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles L on S L ( 2 , C ) / Γ with c 1 ( L ) = 0 such that L does not admit any unitary flat connection. Author Affiliations. INDRANIL BISWAS1 GEORG SCHUMACHER2. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of ...

  1. Hoxc13 is a crucial regulator of murine hair cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Tang, Hui; Yan, Hongtao; Wen, Xuhong; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Ranjing; Wang, Duan; Wu, Jinjin

    2016-04-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclical growth and regression during postnatal life. Hair regression is an apoptosis-driven process strictly controlled by micro- and macro-environmental signals. However, how these signals are controlled remains largely unknown. Hoxc13, a member of the Hox gene family, is reported to play an important role in hair follicle differentiation. In the present study, we observed that Hoxc13 was highly expressed in the outer root sheath, matrix, medulla and inner root sheath of hair follicles in a hair cycle-dependent manner. We therefore investigated the role of Hoxc13 in hair follicle cycling. Injection of ShRNA (ShHoxc13) to suppress Hoxc13 in early anagen promoted premature catagen entry, shown by significantly decreased hair length and hair bulb size, increased percentage of catagen hair follicles, hair cycle score and TUNEL+ cells and inhibited proliferation. In contrast, local injection of recombinant Hoxc13 polypeptide (rhHoxc13) during the late anagen phase prolonged the anagen phase. Additionally, rhHoxc13 injections during the telogen phase significantly promoted hair growth and induced the anagen progression. At the molecular level, the expression of phosphorylated smad2 (p-smad2), a key factor of active TGF-β1 signaling, was up-regulated in the ShHoxc13-treated hair follicles and down-regulated in rhHoxc13-treated hair follicles, suggesting that Hoxc13 might block anagen-catagen transition by inhibiting the TGF-β1 signaling. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that Hoxc13 is a novel and crucial regulator of the hair cycle. This might also provide an understanding of the mechanism of the 'hair cycle clock' and the development of alopecia treatments.

  2. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  3. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  4. Strategic and welfare implications of bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rivals...

  5. Principal G-bundles on nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    If Y is reducible these notions depend on parameters a = (a1,...,aI ). The study of G-bundles on Y is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles [U1] to generalized parabolic principal G-bundles (called GPGs in short) on the curve C and using the correspondence between them and principal ...

  6. Premature hair graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-04-01

    Hair pigmentation and graying are important topics for the understanding of the physiology of aging; the differentiation of stem cells; and the mechanisms underlying disease processes such as progeroid syndromes, vitiligo, and hypothyroidism. Although hair graying, or canities, is a common process occurring in people as they age, an unknown percentage of individuals experience premature graying from familial inheritance or pathologic conditions. We review the physiology of hair pigmentation and the mechanism underlying physiologic graying, and we explore the etiology of pathologic causes of premature graying, pathologies associated with premature graying, and the limited available treatment options for hair graying.

  7. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  8. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  9. Higher order jet prolongations type gauge natural bundles over vector bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kurek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $rgeq 3$ and $mgeq 2$ be natural numbers and $E$ be a vector bundle with $m$-dimensional basis. We find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the $r$-jet prolongation bundle $J^rE$ of $E$. We also find all gauge natural bundles ``similar" to the vector $r$-tangent bundle $(J^r_{fl}(E,R_0^*$ of $E$.

  10. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Blotnick

    Full Text Available Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  11. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  12. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and the hair cycle - is it the agonists or the antagonists that cause hair growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensure, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    While the effects of PTHrP have been studied for almost 20 years, most of these studies have focused on effects on the termination of the anagen phase, giving an incomplete picture of the overall effect of PTHrP on the hair cycle. PTHrP was determined in several experimental models to promote transition of hair follicles from anagen to catagen phase, which by itself would suggest that PTHrP blockade might prolong the anagen phase and promote hair growth. However, clinical trials with topically applied PTHrP antagonists have been disappointing, leading to a reconsideration of this model. Additional studies performed in mouse models where hair follicles are damaged (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia) suggest that PTHrP has effects early in the hair cycle as well, promoting hair follicles' entry into anagen phase and initiates the hair cycle. While the mechanism of this has yet to be elucidated, it may involve activation of the Wnt pathway. Thus, the overall effect of PTHrP is to stimulate and accelerate the hair cycle, and in the more clinically relevant models of hair loss where hair follicles have been damaged or become quiescent, it is the agonists, not the antagonists, which would be expected to promote hair growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Healthy hair: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  14. Diffuse heterochromia of scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W S; Lee, I W; Ahn, S K

    1996-11-01

    Heterochromia of hair is the presence of more than one distinct color of hair in the same person. A color difference between scalp hair and a mustache or sideburns is not uncommon. Pubic and axillary hair and eyebrows and eyelashes are often darker than scalp hair in a fair-haired person. Rarely, a circumscribed patch of hair of different colors occurs. However, diffuse heterochromia of black and red scalp hair has not been previously reported. We describe a father and son with this condition.

  15. Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-07-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.

  16. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  17. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  18. Fluid structure interaction in tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, D.; Jedrzejewski, F.; Gibert, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A lot of industrial components contain tube bundles immersed in a fluid. The mechanical analysis of such systems requires the study of the fluid structure interaction in the tube bundle. Simplified methods, based on homogenization methods, have been developed to analyse such phenomenon and have been validated through experimental results. Generally, these methods consider only the fluid motion in a plan normal to the bundle axis. This paper will analyse, in a first part, the fluid structure interaction in a tube bundle through a 2D finite element model representing the bundle cross section. The influence of various parameters like the bundle size, and the bundle confinement will be studied. These results will be then compared with results from homogenization methods. Finally, the influence of the 3D fluid motion will be investigated, in using simplified methods. (authors). 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Hair protein removal by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia Comis Wagner, Rita; Joekes, Inés

    2005-03-10

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on protein loss was studied. Three kinds of human hair were tested by rubbing or immersion in water or immersion in SDS solution, at 25, 40 and 70 degrees C. Under friction, hair treated with SDS solution loses seven times more protein than in water, while by immersion, protein loss is roughly two times higher in SDS than in water. Protein loss increases at higher temperatures. Estimated activation energy values for protein loss by immersion are 69+/-22 kJ mol(-1) for blended brown hair; 40+/-12 kJ mol(-1) for blond hair (tip-end region) and 61+/-4 kJ mol(-1) for blond hair (root-end region) for samples treated in water, while 53+/-8, 7+/-5 and 32+/-8 kJ mol(-1) were the corresponding activation energy values for samples treated in 5% SDS solution. These values indicate that protein loss is mainly a diffusion-controlled process. The more damaged the hair, the lower the activation energy and the higher the protein loss. From these data, it can be estimated that daily care shampooing at room temperature will cause opacity and combing difficulties in 1 year and split ends after 3 years by removal of all cuticle layers.

  20. Hair and nail relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, R.; Dawber, R.P.; Haneke, E.

    2005-01-01

    Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases. Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich

  1. Three-dimensional architecture of hair-cell linkages as revealedby electron-microscopic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Manfred; Koster, Bram; Ziese, Ulrike; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Volkmann, Niels; Wang, Da Neng; Hudspeth, A. James

    2006-07-28

    The senses of hearing and balance rest upon mechanoelectrical transduction by the hair bundles of hair cells in the inner ear. Located at the apical cellular surface, each hair bundle comprises several tens of stereocilia and a single kinocilium that are interconnected by extracellular proteinaceous links. Using electron-microscopic tomography of bullfrog saccular sensory epithelia, we examined the three-dimensional structures of ankle or basal links, kinociliary links, and tip links. We observed clear differences in the dimensions and appearances of the three links. We found two distinct populations of tip links suggestive of the involvement of two proteins or splice variants. We noted auxiliary links connecting the upper portions of tip links to the taller stereocilia. Tip links and auxiliary links show a tendency to adopt a globular conformation when disconnected from the membrane surface.

  2. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  3. Different regions of latest electrical activation during left bundle-branch block and right ventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients determined by coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi Rad, Masih; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Current targeted left ventricular (LV) lead placement strategy is directed at the latest activated region during intrinsic activation. However, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is most commonly applied by simultaneous LV and right ventricular (RV) pacing without contribution from intrinsic conduction. Therefore, targeting the LV lead to the latest activated region during RV pacing might be more appropriate. We investigated the difference in LV electrical activation sequence between left bundle-branch block (LBBB) and RV apex (RVA) pacing using coronary venous electro-anatomic mapping (EAM). Twenty consecutive CRT candidates with LBBB underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM during intrinsic activation and RVA pacing using EnSite NavX. Left ventricular lead placement was aimed at the latest activated region during LBBB according to current recommendations. In all patients, LBBB was associated with a circumferential LV activation pattern, whereas RVA pacing resulted in activation from the apex of the heart to the base. In 10 of 20 patients, RVA pacing shifted the latest activated region relative to LBBB. In 18 of 20 patients, the LV lead was successfully positioned in the latest activated region during LBBB. For the whole study population, LV lead electrical delay, expressed as percentage of QRS duration, was significantly shorter during RVA pacing than during LBBB (72 ± 13 vs. 82 ± 5%, P = 0.035). Right ventricular apex pacing alters LV electrical activation pattern in CRT patients with LBBB, and shifts the latest activated region in a significant proportion of these patients. These findings warrant reconsideration of the current practice of LV lead targeting for CRT. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  4. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  5. The Competition between the Noise and Shear Motion Sensitivity of Cochlear Inner Hair Cell Stereocilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Aritra; Grosh, Karl

    2018-01-23

    Acoustical excitation of the organ of Corti induces radial fluid flow in the subtectorial space (STS) that excites the hair bundles (HBs) of the sensory inner hair cell of the mammalian cochlea. The inner hair cell HBs are bathed in endolymphatic fluid filling a thin gap in the STS between the tectorial membrane and the reticular lamina. According to the fluctuation dissipation theorem, the fluid viscosity gives rise to mechanical fluctuations that are transduced into current noise. Conversely, the stochastic fluctuations of the mechanically gated channels of the HBs also induce dissipation. We develop an analytic model of the STS complex in a cross section of the gerbil organ of Corti. We predict that the dominant noise at the apex is due to the channel stochasticity whereas viscous effects dominate at the base. The net root mean square fluctuation of the HB motion is estimated to be at least 1.18 nm at the base and 2.72 nm at the apex. By varying the HB height for a fixed STS gap, we find that taller HBs are better sensors with lower thresholds. An integrated active HB model is shown to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance through a cycle-by-cycle power addition through adaptation, reducing the thresholds of hearing, hinting at one potential role for HB activity in mammalian hearing. We determine that a Couette flow approximation in the STS underestimates the dissipation and that modeling the entire STS complex is necessary to correctly predict the low-frequency dissipation in the cochlea. Finally, the difference in the noise budget at the base and the apex of the cochlea indicate that a sensing modality other than the shear motion of the TM that may be used to achieve low-noise acoustic sensing at the apex. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of pollutants in human scalp hair in Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdulla, W.A.; Rashid, S.M.; Yousef, A.

    1985-01-01

    Scalp hair, urine and blood samples from volunteers selected from different areas surrounding Cairo were collected for study by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and conventional methods. The results for 14 elements in hair show some variation between the different regions. Qualitatively there is a slight difference of abundance of the investigated elements. Broadly speaking the presence of major elements is dominant. No relationship was observed between the elemental composition of hair and urine. (author)

  7. LSD1 is Required for Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Cai, Chengfu; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-05-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) plays an important role in complex cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. It has recently been demonstrated that during development, downregulation of LSD1 inhibits cell proliferation, modulates the expression of cell cycle regulators, and reduces hair cell formation in the zebrafish lateral line, which suggests that LSD1-mediated epigenetic regulation plays a key role in the development of hair cells. However, the role of LSD1 in hair cell regeneration after hair cell loss remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the effect of LSD1 on hair cell regeneration following neomycin-induced hair cell loss. We show that the LSD1 inhibitor trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) significantly decreases the regeneration of hair cells in zebrafish after neomycin damage. In addition, immunofluorescent staining demonstrates that 2-PCPA administration suppresses supporting cell proliferation and alters cell cycle progression. Finally, in situ hybridization shows that 2-PCPA significantly downregulates the expression of genes related to Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf activation. Altogether, our data suggest that downregulation of LSD1 significantly decreases hair cell regeneration after neomycin-induced hair cell loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus, LSD1 plays a critical role in hair cell regeneration and might represent a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of hearing loss.

  8. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The pattern of hair dyeing in koreans with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, Ohsang

    2013-11-01

    Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (phair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (pHair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

  10. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-24

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings.

  11. Topical Treatment of Hair Loss with Formononetin by Modulating Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyuseok; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Formononetin is one of the main components of red clover plants and its role on hair regrowth against hair loss has not been established yet. In the present study, we assessed the potential effects of formononetin on alopecia, along with impaired hair cycles by induction of apoptosis-regression.Depilated C57BL/6 mice were used for monitoring the hair cycles. Formononetin (1 and 100 µM) was topically treated to the dorsal skin for 14 days. Topical formononetin treatment induced miniaturized hair follicles to recover to normal sizes. Tapering hair shaft began to grow newly, emerging from the hair follicles by formononetin. In addition, formononetin inhibited the activation of caspase-8 and decreased the procaspase-9 expression. As a result of formononetin treatment, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was up-regulated, whereas pro-apoptotic Bax and p53 were down-regulated, resulting in a decrease of caspase-3 activation. Formononetin showed the obvious inhibition of apoptosis under terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining thereafter.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that formononetin exerted the hair regrowth effect on hair loss, in which the underlying mechanisms were associated with Fas/Fas L-induced caspase activation, thus inhibiting apoptosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  13. Lgr5 marks cycling, yet long-lived, hair follicle stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaks, V.; Barker, N.; Kasper, M.; van Es, J.H.; Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.; Toftgard, R.

    2008-01-01

    In mouse hair follicles, a group of quiescent cells in the bulge is believed to have stem cell activity. Lgr5, a marker of intestinal stem cells, is expressed in actively cycling cells in the bulge and secondary germ of telogen hair follicles and in the lower outer root sheath of anagen hair

  14. Computer-Generated Photorealistic Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Alice J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient method for generating and rendering photorealistic hair in two dimensional pictures. The method consists of three major steps. Simulating an artist drawing is used to design the rough hair shape. A convolution based filter is then used to generate photorealistic hair patches. A refine procedure is finally used to blend the boundaries of the patches with surrounding areas. This method can be used to create all types of photorealistic human hair (head hair, faci...

  15. Expansion and Polarity Sorting in Microtubule-Dynein Bundles(WHAT IS LIFE? THE NEXT 100 YEARS OF YUKAWA'S DREAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf, ZEMEL; Alex, MOGILNER; Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California; Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of multiple molecular motors with dynamic polymers, such as actin and microtubules, form the basis for many processes in the cell cytoskeleton. One example is the active 'sorting' of microtubule bundles by dynein molecular motors into aster-like arrays of microtubules; in these bundles dynein motors cross-link and slide neighboring microtubules apart. A number of models have been suggested to quantify the active dynamics of cross-linked bundles of polar filaments. In the case of ...

  16. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Jansen, Gustav R.; McElvain, Kenneth; Walker-Loud, André

    2018-03-01

    High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users' current workflows or executables.

  17. Bundling and mergers in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Laurent; Podesta, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Does bundling trigger mergers in energy industries? We observe mergers between firms belonging to various energy markets, for instance between gas and electricity providers. These mergers enable firms to bundle. We consider two horizontally differentiated markets. In this framework, we show that bundling strategies in energy markets create incentives to form multi-market firms in order to supply bi-energy packages. Moreover, we find that this type of merger is detrimental to social welfare. (author)

  18. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  19. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  20. The significance of dissociation of conduction in the canine His bundle. Electrophysiological studies in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlag, B J; El-Sherif, N; Hope, R R; Lazzara, R

    1978-10-01

    Fractionated His bundle potentials were induced by ischemia or trauma in 30 anesthetized dogs, in vivo. Functional dissociation, i.e., alteration of the activation sequence of portions of these His bundle potentials was demonstrated in vivo as well as in 10 in vitro preparations of the His-Purkinje system. In vivo, plunge wire and electrode catheters were utilized to record from portions of the His bundle. During vagal-induced slowing of the heart rate, atrial pacing or His bundle pacing, His-Purkinje conduction as measured by the H-V interval was constant over a wide range of heart rates, 50-300/min. One or two hours after anterior septal artery ligation, His bundle damage manifested as split His bundle potentials (H, H'). Atrial pacing or proximal His bundle pacing induced H-H' delays with concomitant right or left bundle branch block patterns in ECG leads. However, distal His bundle pacing at comparable or even higher rates produced normal QRS complexes. In other cases, during atrial pacing or with progressive ischemia at a constant rate, H' progressively delayed during the H-V interval or even disappeared into the QRS complex with a concomitant occurrence of right or left bundle branch block. In vitro, a dissected septal preparation was studied containing the His bundle, proximal and distal right bundle and left bundle branches. Normal conduction throughout the His-Purkinje system was observed at pacing rates of 30-220/min. Punctate lesions, anatomically placed above the branching His bundle caused tachycardia-dependent, complete bundle branch blocked with concurrent temporal reversal of proximal and distal His bundle action potentials. These data suggest that ischemic or traumatic lesions in the His bundle may manifest on the electrocardiogram as bundle branch block patterns. From a clinical point of view, a critical site of lesion would markedly increase the liability for A-V blocked although the electrocardiogram alone would not indicate the actual site of

  1. The effects of Tmc1 Beethoven mutation on mechanotransducer channel function in cochlear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurg, Maryline; Goldring, Adam C; Fettiplace, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Sound stimuli are converted into electrical signals via gating of mechano-electrical transducer (MT) channels in the hair cell stereociliary bundle. The molecular composition of the MT channel is still not fully established, although transmembrane channel-like protein isoform 1 (TMC1) may be one component. We found that in outer hair cells of Beethoven mice containing a M412K point mutation in TMC1, MT channels had a similar unitary conductance to that of wild-type channels but a reduced selectivity for Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-dependent adaptation that adjusts the operating range of the channel was also impaired in Beethoven mutants, with reduced shifts in the relationship between MT current and hair bundle displacement for adapting steps or after lowering extracellular Ca(2+); these effects may be attributed to the channel's reduced Ca(2+) permeability. Moreover, the density of stereociliary CaATPase pumps for Ca(2+) extrusion was decreased in the mutant. The results suggest that a major component of channel adaptation is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca(2+). Consistent with this idea, the adaptive shift in the current-displacement relationship when hair bundles were bathed in endolymph-like Ca(2+) saline was usually abolished by raising the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. © 2015 Beurg et al.

  2. Continuing Vocational Training for Teachers in Beauty and Hair Care : Teachers Act as Active Developers of their Work and Engage in Transferring Good Practices to their Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kurimo, Ritva; Laitinen, Jaana; Pesonen, Maria; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Poutanen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of students and organizers of the Hair and beauty care, the prevention of health hazards (HIKAT) project which offered nationwide continuing vocational training (CVT) for teachers in beauty and hair care to be further disseminated in vocational secondary education. The development of occupational skin diseases is one of the most important health risks related to the exposure to chemical and physical risks in hairdressing. The prevention of occupational...

  3. Neutron activation analysis of hair in relation to geographical location and extent of industrialization. Part of a coordinated programme on health-related environmental research using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.

    1981-06-01

    Analysis of scalp hair was used to determine population exposure to Cd, Hg and Pb. Hair was collected from a few rural and urban areas (including metropolitan Manila). Cd and Pb were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, and Hg by cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results for the 3 elements are comparable with those reported in the literature. These data also indicate that the contamination of the general population with the elements surveyed does not constitute a major concern at present

  4. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  5. Burst activity and ultrafast activation kinetics of CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels support presynaptic activity in adult gerbil hair cell ribbon synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2013-08-15

    Auditory information transfer to afferent neurons relies on precise triggering of neurotransmitter release at the inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses by Ca²⁺ entry through CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels. Despite the crucial role of CaV1.3 Ca²⁺ channels in governing synaptic vesicle fusion, their elementary properties in adult mammals remain unknown. Using near-physiological recording conditions we investigated Ca²⁺ channel activity in adult gerbil IHCs. We found that Ca²⁺ channels are partially active at the IHC resting membrane potential (-60 mV). At -20 mV, the large majority (>70%) of Ca²⁺ channel first openings occurred with an estimated delay of about 50 μs in physiological conditions, with a mean open time of 0.5 ms. Similar to other ribbon synapses, Ca²⁺ channels in IHCs showed a low mean open probability (0.21 at -20 mV), but this increased significantly (up to 0.91) when Ca²⁺ channel activity switched to a bursting modality. We propose that IHC Ca²⁺ channels are sufficiently rapid to transmit fast signals of sound onset and support phase-locking. Short-latency Ca²⁺ channel opening coupled to multivesicular release would ensure precise and reliable signal transmission at the IHC ribbon synapse.

  6. [Inhibition effect of 6-gingerol on hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Jiang, Jin-Dou; Li, Ze-Hua; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo. Firstly, Hair follicles were co-cultured with 3 different concentration of 6-gingerol for 5 days and hair elongation in three groups was measured. Secondly, The proliferative effect of 6-gingerol on DPCs was measured using MTT assay. Thirdly, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in DPCs were measured using Western blotting. In vivo study, the influence of 6-gingerol on hair growth in C57BL/6 rats was measured through topical application of 6-gingerol on the dorsal skin of each animal. The length of hair shaft in 20 microg/ml 6-Gingerol group (0.50 +/- 0.08 mm) is less than 0 microg/ml (0.66 +/- 0.19) mm and 10 microg/ml (0.64 +/- 0.03) mm 6-Gingerol group (P growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased obviously. In vivo study, the hair length and density decreased a lot after using 1 mg/ml 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol can suppress human hair shaft elongation because it has pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs via increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. It might inhibit hair growth by prolonging the telogen stage in vivo.

  7. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  8. Wall pressure fluctuations in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Microphones and hot wires were applied for the measurement of wall pressure fluctuations and velocity fluctuations in rod bundles with several aspect ratios. By means of auto and cross spectral density functions their interdependence was investigated. Results show that the pressure fluctuations in rod bundles are mainly associated with the phenomenon of quasi-periodic flow pulsations between subchannels. (author)

  9. Anatomic Double-bundle ACL Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, Verena M.; van Eck, Carola F.; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequent forms of knee trauma. The traditional surgical treatment for ACL rupture is single-bundle reconstruction. However, during the past few years there has been a shift in interest toward double-bundle reconstruction to closely

  10. Structural Analysis of Lexical Bundles in EFL English Majors’ Theses of an Ordinary Normal University in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang LOU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative analysis has been made of 330 Chinese EFL learners’ theses the distribution of the three- to eight-word lexical bundles in them and a comparison has been made of the percentages of the four-word lexical bundles of different structural categories in Chinese EFL learners’ theses and the native English speakers’ spoken or written academic language. It is found that the three-to eight-word lexical bundles in Chinese EFL learners’ theses are on the decrease with the increase of the number of their component words. Chinese students’ English language data share with native English speakers’ spoken academic language data the ‘personal pronoun + lexical verb phrase (+complement clause’ lexical bundles and the ‘(auxiliary + active verb (+’ bundles, and  also share with native English speakers’ academic spoken language data the ‘adverbial clause fragment’ bundles, the ‘noun phrase with other post-modifier fragment’ bundles, the ‘anticipatory it + VP/adjective P (+ complement clause’ bundles, the ‘passive verb + PP fragment’ bundles and the ‘copula be + NP/adjective P’ bundles. A further analysis shows that the EFL learners’ English language in their theses is of more characteristics of written language and fewer characteristics of spoken language.

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  12. Self-organization of myosin II in reconstituted actomyosin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Matthew R; McCall, Patrick M; Thoresen, Todd; Balcioglu, Hayri E; Kasiewicz, Lisa; Gardel, Margaret L; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2012-09-19

    Cells assemble a variety of bundled actomyosin structures in the cytoskeleton for activities such as cell-shape regulation, force production, and cytokinesis. Although these linear structures exhibit varied architecture, two common organizational themes are a punctate distribution of myosin II and distinct patterns of actin polarity. The mechanisms that cells use to assemble and maintain these organizational features are poorly understood. To study these, we reconstituted actomyosin bundles in vitro that contained only actin filaments and myosin II. Upon addition of ATP, the bundles contracted and the uniformly distributed myosin spontaneously reorganized into discrete clusters. We developed a mathematical model in which the motion of myosin II filaments is governed by the polarities of the actin filaments with which they interact. The model showed that the assembly of myosins into clusters is driven by their tendency to migrate to locations with zero net actin filament polarity. With no fitting parameters, the predicted distribution of myosin cluster separations was in close agreement with our experiments, including a -3/2 power law decay for intermediate length scales. Thus, without an organizing template or accessory proteins, a minimal bundle of actin and myosin has the inherent capacity to self-organize into a heterogeneous banded structure. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Noradrenergic lesion of the locus coeruleus increases the firing activity of the medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons and the role of alpha2-adrenoceptors in normal and medial forebrain bundle lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qiao Jun; Liu, Jian; Ali, Umar; Gui, Zhen Hua; Hui, Yan Ping; Wang, Tao; Chen, Li; Li, Qiang

    2010-04-09

    Degeneration of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex were regarded as playing a specific role in the occurrence of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The present study examined the spontaneous firing rate and firing pattern of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons, and effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK-14,304 and antagonist yohimbine on the neuronal activity in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the LC, medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and with combined MFB and LC lesions. The firing rate of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rats with lesions of the LC and with combine LC and MFB lesions is significantly higher than that of normal and MFB-lesioned rats and the firing pattern of these neurons in rats with lesions of the LC and with combine LC and MFB lesions also changed significantly towards more regular compared with normal and MFB-lesioned rats. The local administration of UK-14,304 in the mPFC inhibited the firing activity of the pyramidal neurons in normal rats and rats with lesions of the LC, MFB and with combined LC and MFB lesions, while yohimbine increased the firing activity of the pyramidal neurons. These results indicate that the lesions of the LC lead to hyperactivity of mPFC pyramidal neurons in normal and MFB-lesioned rats, and the postsynaptic alpha(2)-adrenoceptors may partially mediate the inhibitory effects of LC-noradrenergic system on the firing activity of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC, suggesting that LC-noradrenergic system plays an important role in the functional disorders of mPFC in Parkinson's disease. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Higgs bundles and four manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Suk.

    2002-01-01

    It is known that the Seiberg-Witten invariants, derived from supersymmetric Yang-Mill theories in four dimensions, do not distinguish smooth structure of certain non-simply-connected four manifolds. We propose generalizations of Donaldson-Witten and Vafa-Witten theories on a Kaehler manifold based on Higgs bundles. We showed, in particular, that the partition function of our generalized Vafa-Witten theory can be written as the sum of contributions our generalized Donaldson-Witten invariants and generalized Seiberg-Witten invariants. The resulting generalized Seiberg-Witten invariants might have, conjecturally, information on smooth structure beyond the original Seiberg-Witten invariants for non-simply-connected case

  15. Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J M; Decker, H; Hartmann, H; Chavan, B; Rokos, H; Spencer, J D; Hasse, S; Thornton, M J; Shalbaf, M; Paus, R; Schallreuter, K U

    2009-07-01

    Senile graying of human hair has been the subject of intense research since ancient times. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in hair follicle melanocyte apoptosis and DNA damage. Here we show for the first time by FT-Raman spectroscopy in vivo that human gray/white scalp hair shafts accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in millimolar concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate almost absent catalase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B protein expression via immunofluorescence and Western blot in association with a functional loss of methionine sulfoxide (Met-S=O) repair in the entire gray hair follicle. Accordingly, Met-S=O formation of Met residues, including Met 374 in the active site of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, limits enzyme functionality, as evidenced by FT-Raman spectroscopy, computer simulation, and enzyme kinetics, which leads to gradual loss of hair color. Notably, under in vitro conditions, Met oxidation can be prevented by L-methionine. In summary, our data feed the long-voiced, but insufficiently proven, concept of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in the entire human hair follicle, inclusive of the hair shaft, as a key element in senile hair graying, which does not exclusively affect follicle melanocytes. This new insight could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process.

  16. Regeneration of stereocilia of hair cells by forced Atoh1 expression in the adult mammalian cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Yang

    Full Text Available The hallmark of mechanosensory hair cells is the stereocilia, where mechanical stimuli are converted into electrical signals. These delicate stereocilia are susceptible to acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. While hair cells in lower vertebrates and the mammalian vestibular system can spontaneously regenerate lost stereocilia, mammalian cochlear hair cells no longer retain this capability. We explored the possibility of regenerating stereocilia in the noise-deafened guinea pig cochlea by cochlear inoculation of a viral vector carrying Atoh1, a gene critical for hair cell differentiation. Exposure to simulated gunfire resulted in a 60-70 dB hearing loss and extensive damage and loss of stereocilia bundles of both inner and outer hair cells along the entire cochlear length. However, most injured hair cells remained in the organ of Corti for up to 10 days after the trauma. A viral vector carrying an EGFP-labeled Atoh1 gene was inoculated into the cochlea through the round window on the seventh day after noise exposure. Auditory brainstem response measured one month after inoculation showed that hearing thresholds were substantially improved. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the damaged/lost stereocilia bundles were repaired or regenerated after Atoh1 treatment, suggesting that Atoh1 was able to induce repair/regeneration of the damaged or lost stereocilia. Therefore, our studies revealed a new role of Atoh1 as a gene critical for promoting repair/regeneration of stereocilia and maintaining injured hair cells in the adult mammal cochlea. Atoh1-based gene therapy, therefore, has the potential to treat noise-induced hearing loss if the treatment is carried out before hair cells die.

  17. Smokers? hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and meas...

  18. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness) is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category) wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and ...

  19. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  20. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  1. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hormonal changes in menopause: do they contribute to a 'midlife hair crisis' in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, P

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a common problem affecting a large number of women worldwide but beset by a paucity of research. The study of androgens has hitherto dominated the field of hair biology but there is increasing scientific and clinical data to suggest that nonandrogen signals can also affect the folliculosebaceous unit, especially in women. The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta has renewed and redefined prior concepts of oestrogen activity and signalling in hair biology. It is postulated that oestrogens modulate hair growth by their influence on a number of other hormones, growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines. The menopause is a period in which significant changes in oestrogen levels are recorded, and this review discusses studies that help to clarify the link between menopause and the perception of thinning hair. In a study of pre- and postmenopausal women without alopecia, menopausal status significantly influenced hair parameters, specifically hair growth rate, percentage anagen and hair diameter distributions, most notably in the frontal scalp. Hair density decreased with age, but was not correlated with menopausal status. Analyses of hair amount using a model of hair density and hair diameters suggest that the impact of changing hair parameters is most notable in the mid-forties for women. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Improving BWR fuel critical power without increasing bundle pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzner, B.; Shiraishi, L.M.; Danielson, D.W.; Congdon, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    It has been almost axiomatic that BWR fuel bundle critical power performance could not be improved without an accompanying increase in bundle pressure drop. It appeared that in order to increase the bundle dryout resistance it was necessary to perturb the bundle coolant flow paths in some fashion. This resulted in an unacceptable bundle pressure drop increase. However, by adding part length rods to decrease bundle pressure drop and by inserting an extra spacer with rearranged spacer pitch and flow trippers on the channel wall at the top of the bundle to increase critical power it was possible to achieve the goal of increased bundle critical power without pressure drop increase. (author)

  4. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  5. Accumulation of explosives in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Shinde, Kajal P; Marimganti, Suvarna

    2005-07-01

    The sorption of explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, EGDN) to hair during exposure to their vapors is examined. Three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Following exposure of hair, the sorbed explosive was removed by extraction with acetonitrile and quantified. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: EGDN > TATP >TNT > PETN > RDX. In some cases, the explosive-containing hair was subject to repeated washings with sodium dodecylsulfate or simply left out in an open area to determine the persistence of the explosive contamination. While explosive is removed from hair with time or washing, some persists. These results indicate that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling.

  6. Optimization of biomimetic hair sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    High density arrays of artificial hair sensors, biomimicking the extremely sensitive mechanoreceptive filiform hairs found on cerci of crickets have been fabricated. We assess the sensitivity of these artificial sensors and present a scheme for further optimization addressing the deteriorating

  7. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  8. Negative membrane capacitance of outer hair cells: electromechanical coupling near resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2017-09-21

    Outer hair cells in the cochlea have a unique motility in their cell body based on mechanoelectric coupling, with which voltage changes generated by stimuli at their hair bundles drive the cell body and, in turn, it has been assumed, amplifies the signal. In vitro experiments show that the movement of the charges of the motile element significantly increases the membrane capacitance, contributing to the attenuation of the driving voltage. That is indeed the case in the absence of mechanical load. Here it is predicted, however, that the movement of motile charges creates negative capacitance near the condition of mechanical resonance, such as those in the cochlea, enhancing energy output.

  9. Why (almost) all bundles are chiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Zachary V.; Blackwell, Robert A.; Glaser, Matthew A.

    2014-03-01

    We examine the self assembly of bundles of achiral hard rods with distributed, short-range attractive interactions. We show that in the majority of cases the equilibrium state of the bundle is chiral, with a double twist structure. We use biased Monte Carlo techniques and cell theory to compute the free energy as a function of an appropriately defined twist order parameter, and show that the formation of spontaneously chiral bundles is driven by maximization of orientational entropy. The finite curvature of the bundle boundary permits orientational escape, in which the circumferential angular range of motion of the rods is maximized for some finite average tilt. We map out the phase diagram of bundles in terms of the density, the ratio of rod length to bundle radius, L / R , and rod aspect ratio, L / D , and find transitions between untwisted, weakly twisted, and strongly twisted states. This work helps explain the common observation of twisted macroscopic bundles, and may provide insight into observations of twist in self-assembled membranes of colloidal rods.[2] This work funded by NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-0820579.

  10. Evaluation of endogenous contamination using hair as biomonitor by K{sub 0} parametric neutron activation analysis; Ativacao neutronica parametrica K{sub 0}: avaliacao de contaminacao endogena utilizando cabelo como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Neves, Otaviano F.; Batista, Jose R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: menezes@urano.cdtn.br; Maia, Elene Cristina P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2000-07-01

    The environment of the work is an important source of pollutant exposition to human beings. The main goal of this paper is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. The hair samples as biomonitors were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. The samples for a Comparative Group were collected from individuals not exposed to a specific environment. The k{sub 0}-neutron activation analysis was applied on the elemental determination. The Comparative Group presented no significant difference compared to literature. Therefore the very high values exhibited by the Workers' Group suggest endogenous contamination. The GBW09101 'Human Hair' Shangai Institute of Nuclear Research, China, Reference Material was also evaluated presenting good agreement to certified and information values. The elements Ag, Al, As Au, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V and Zn were determined. (author)

  11. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  12. Segmented heterochromia in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kim, Daehwan; Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Won Soo

    2003-12-01

    Segmented heterochromia of scalp hair is characterized by the irregularly alternating segmentation of hair into dark and light bands and is known to be associated with iron deficiency anemia. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old boy with segmented heterochromia associated with iron deficiency anemia. After 11 months of iron replacement, the boy's segmented heterochromic hair recovered completely.

  13. Fibre bundles. Monopoles and internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathy, P.A.; Rawnsley, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Asymptotic monopole configurations are described in fibre-bundle terms. Bundle reduction -the geometric procedure for spontaneous symmetry breaking- is studied in detail: the monopole-bundle is reducible to a given subgroup K of the gauge group if and only if the Higgs charge satisfies a suitable constraint. The Yang-Mills connection reduces if and only if the non-Abelian charge vector belongs to the Lie algebra of K. The problem of ''global color'' can also be formulated in these terms. Our theory allows us to determine which subgroups K are internal symmetries of a given field configuration

  14. On muon bundles from the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Rybczyński, M.; Włdarczyk, Z.; Wilk, G.

    2018-01-01

    Recently the CERN ALICE experiment, in its dedicated cosmic ray run, observed muon bundles of very high multiplicities, thereby confirming similar findings from the LEP era at CERN (in the CosmoLEP project). We found significant evidence for anisotropy of arrival directions of the observed high multiplicity muonic bundles. The distribution on celestial sphere and the estimated directionality suggests their possible extragalactic source. We argue that muonic bundles of highest multiplicity are produced by strangelets, hypothetical stable lumps of strange quark matter infiltrating our Universe.

  15. Geometry of Quantum Principal Bundles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdevic, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first Structure Equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented. (orig.)

  16. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  17. Distinct roles of Eps8 in the maturation of cochlear and vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Spaiardi, Paolo; Zampini, Valeria; Contini, Donatella; Manca, Marco; Russo, Giancarlo; Prigioni, Ivo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2016-07-22

    Several genetic mutations affecting the development and function of mammalian hair cells have been shown to cause deafness but not vestibular defects, most likely because vestibular deficits are sometimes centrally compensated. The study of hair cell physiology is thus a powerful direct approach to ascertain the functional status of the vestibular end organs. Deletion of Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), a gene involved in actin remodeling, has been shown to cause deafness in mice. While both inner and outer hair cells from Eps8 knockout (KO) mice showed abnormally short stereocilia, inner hair cells (IHCs) also failed to acquire mature-type ion channels. Despite the fact that Eps8 is also expressed in vestibular hair cells, Eps8 KO mice show no vestibular deficits. In the present study we have investigated the properties of vestibular Type I and Type II hair cells in Eps8-KO mice and compared them to those of cochlear IHCs. In the absence of Eps8, vestibular hair cells show normally long kinocilia, significantly shorter stereocilia and a normal pattern of basolateral voltage-dependent ion channels. We have also found that while vestibular hair cells from Eps8 KO mice show normal voltage responses to injected sinusoidal currents, which were used to mimic the mechanoelectrical transducer current, IHCs lose their ability to synchronize their responses to the stimulus. We conclude that the absence of Eps8 produces a weaker phenotype in vestibular hair cells compared to cochlear IHCs, since it affects the hair bundle morphology but not the basolateral membrane currents. This difference is likely to explain the absence of obvious vestibular dysfunction in Eps8 KO mice. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of mercury, arsenic and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples from the Wassa West District of Ghana, using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samlafu, V.B.

    2011-06-01

    This study examines Arsenic, mercury and selenium levels in human hair, nail and blood samples collected from Wassa West District, a mining impacted site in contrast with Akatsi and its environs, a non-mining impacted site using INAA facility at Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1), Kwabenya, Accra. Other elements determined alongside the elements of interest were Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cl, I, Br, Au, La, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ni and Ag. An alternative method was developed for the Preconcentration Neutron Activation Analysis using dithizone/CHCl 3 mixture as the chelating agent for very low levels of mercury and arsenic in human blood. Factors that affect dithizone complexation such as PH, and concentration were investigated. Selenium levels in all the matrices were determined by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (HGAAS) technique. Speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) was carried out on selected blood samples using HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 as digestion reagent. The precision of the analytical methods used were evaluated by Schewart control chart for internal quality assessment purposes. The results were within the acceptable limits of Xσ. Four certified reference materials namely GBW 09101, DOME-2, Lichen IAEA-336 and Peach leave SRM 1547 were also used to validate the analytical methods for external quality assessment. The results obtained in this work were in good agreement with the certified values. The levels of total mercury in hair ranged from 1.65 μg/g to 20.46 μg/g. Mercury in nail samples ranged from 0.97μg/g to 31.94 μg/g and blood samples ranged from 0.01μg/mL to 0.70 μg/mL in experimental subjects. Mercury levels in control subjects ranged from 0.24 μg/g to 7.15 μg/g in hair, 0.2 μg/g to 1.83 μg/g of mercury in nail and 0.01 μg/mL to 2.38 μg/mL of mercury in blood. Generally the decreasing order of accumulation of mercury in the three matrices in the experimental subjects were as follows nail > hair > blood, while the control subjects had the

  19. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  20. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  1. Broadcast scheduling with data bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfei; Pizzocaro, Diego; Johnson, Matthew P.; Bar-Noy, Amotz; Preece, Alun; La Porta, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Broadcast scheduling has been extensively studied in wireless environments, where a base station broadcasts data to multiple users. Due to the sole wireless channel's limited bandwidth, only a subset of the needs may be satisfiable, and so maximizing total (weighted) throughput is a popular objective. In many realistic applications, however, data are dependent or correlated in the sense that the joint utility of a set of items is not simply the sum of their individual utilities. On the one hand, substitute data may provide overlapping information, so one piece of data item may have lower value if a second data item has already been delivered; on the other hand, complementary data are more valuable than the sum of their parts, if, for example, one data item is only useful in the presence of a second data item. In this paper, we define a data bundle to be a set of data items with possibly nonadditive joint utility, and we study a resulting broadcast scheduling optimization problem whose objective is to maximize the utility provided by the data delivered.

  2. Guidelines for pubic hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmyo, Lia Mayumi; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2006-01-01

    Although the loss of pubic hair is a relatively frequent condition, there have been few reports about pubic hair restoration. This report aims to describe the demarcation and technical guidelines for pubic hair restoration using follicular micrografts. Demarcation is described and based on anatomic parameters such as the level of the greater trochanters and the labium majus. The angle of micrograft insertion and direction also are described. The use of micrografts for pubic hair restoration is a procedure that promotes very natural results. The described parameters of demarcation and technical details are important issues that should be considered to obtain a natural result in pubic hair restoration.

  3. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.

  4. Functional hair cell mechanotransducer channels are required for aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Alharazneh

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides (AG are commonly prescribed antibiotics with potent bactericidal activities. One main side effect is permanent sensorineural hearing loss, induced by selective inner ear sensory hair cell death. Much work has focused on AG's initiating cell death processes, however, fewer studies exist defining mechanisms of AG uptake by hair cells. The current study investigated two proposed mechanisms of AG transport in mammalian hair cells: mechanotransducer (MET channels and endocytosis. To study these two mechanisms, rat cochlear explants were cultured as whole organs in gentamicin-containing media. Two-photon imaging of Texas Red conjugated gentamicin (GTTR uptake into live hair cells was rapid and selective. Hypocalcemia, which increases the open probability of MET channels, increased AG entry into hair cells. Three blockers of MET channels (curare, quinine, and amiloride significantly reduced GTTR uptake, whereas the endocytosis inhibitor concanavalin A did not. Dynosore quenched the fluorescence of GTTR and could not be tested. Pharmacologic blockade of MET channels with curare or quinine, but not concanavalin A or dynosore, prevented hair cell loss when challenged with gentamicin for up to 96 hours. Taken together, data indicate that the patency of MET channels mediated AG entry into hair cells and its toxicity. Results suggest that limiting permeation of AGs through MET channel or preventing their entry into endolymph are potential therapeutic targets for preventing hair cell death and hearing loss.

  5. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  6. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Jiménez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  7. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in skin, people couldn't feel warmth, cold, or other sensations. For instance, goosebumps form when the erector pili muscles contract to make hairs on the skin stand up straight when someone is cold, excited, or frightened — the blood vessels keep the ...

  8. Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, J.; Long, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)

  9. MAVEN Insitu Key Parameters Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The insitu.calibrated level 2 science.data bundle contains selected fully calibrated (L2) data from the Particles and Fields package and NGIMS, together with...

  10. Einstein metrics on tangent bundles of spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, Andrew S [Jesus College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Strachan, Ian A B [Department of Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-21

    We give an elementary treatment of the existence of complete Kaehler-Einstein metrics with nonpositive Einstein constant and underlying manifold diffeomorphic to the tangent bundle of the (n+1)-sphere.

  11. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package, and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power/Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved. In spite of several emergent problems which a task of this nature presents, this small, close knit utility/vendor team completed the work on schedule and within the exposure and cost budgets

  12. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power / Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved

  13. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  14. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  15. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  16. Frobenius splitting of projective toric bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He Xin

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Firstly it is easy to see that the image of s under the restriction map (2.5) falls in the χ-isotypical component of (Uσ , E), i.e. for all t ∈ T .... σ falls in the χ-isotypical component of (E,Uσ ). D. As mentioned in Remark 2.3, for a vector v .... The determinant of a toric bundle. LetE be a toric bundle on a toric variety X ...

  17. Principal bundles on the projective line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    E-mail: vikram@math.tifr.res.in; subramnn@math.tifr.res.in. MS received 21 January 2002; revised 19 April 2002. Abstract. We classify principal G-bundles on the projective line over an arbitrary field k of characteristic = 2 or 3, where G is a reductive group. If such a bundle is trivial at a k-rational point, then the structure group ...

  18. Torsional Behavior of Axonal Microtubule Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Carole; Soheilypour, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Axonal microtubule (MT) bundles crosslinked by microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau are responsible for vital biological functions such as maintaining mechanical integrity and shape of the axon as well as facilitating axonal transport. Breaking and twisting of MTs have been previously observed in damaged undulated axons. Such breaking and twisting of MTs is suggested to cause axonal swellings that lead to axonal degeneration, which is known as “diffuse axonal injury”. In particular, overstretching and torsion of axons can potentially damage the axonal cytoskeleton. Following our previous studies on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension and compression, this work seeks to characterize the mechanical behavior of MT bundles under pure torsion as well as a combination of torsional and tensile loads using a coarse-grained computational model. In the case of pure torsion, a competition between MAP tau tensile and MT bending energies is observed. After three turns, a transition occurs in the mechanical behavior of the bundle that is characterized by its diameter shrinkage. Furthermore, crosslink spacing is shown to considerably influence the mechanical response, with larger MAP tau spacing resulting in a higher rate of turns. Therefore, MAP tau crosslinking of MT filaments protects the bundle from excessive deformation. Simultaneous application of torsion and tension on MT bundles is shown to accelerate bundle failure, compared to pure tension experiments. MAP tau proteins fail in clusters of 10–100 elements located at the discontinuities or the ends of MT filaments. This failure occurs in a stepwise fashion, implying gradual accumulation of elastic tensile energy in crosslinks followed by rupture. Failure of large groups of interconnecting MAP tau proteins leads to detachment of MT filaments from the bundle near discontinuities. This study highlights the importance of torsional loading in axonal damage after traumatic brain injury

  19. Frobenius splitting of projective toric bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    Similarly, for each integer m ≥ 1 and n ≤ r, where r is the rank of E, the symmetric product SmE and wedge product ∧nE are also toric bundles. The associated Klyachko data of these toric bundles are the families of filtrations on the vector spaces SmE and ∧nE described as follows. (SmE)α(i) = { ∏. 1≤j≤m ej | ej ∈ E, 1 ...

  20. A contribution to understanding the structure of amphivasal secondary bundles in monocotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary growth of monocotyledonous plants is connected with the activity of the monocot cambium that accumulates most of the derivatives inner to the cambial cylinder. These derivatives differentiate into (a secondary bundles with the amphivasal arrangement, i.e. xylem composed of tracheids surrounds the phloem cells and (b the parenchymatous secondary conjunctive tissue in which the bundles are embedded. The amphivasal secondary bundles differ in the arrangement of xylem cells as visible on single cross sections through the secondary body of the monocots. Apart from the bundles with typical ring of tracheids also the bundles where tracheids do not quite surround the phloem are present. We aimed to elucidate the cross sectional anatomy of the amphivasal secondary bundles with the use of the serial sectioning method which allowed us to follow very precisely the bundle structure along its length. The studies were carried out with the samples of secondary tissues collected from the stem of Dracaena draco L. growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Adam Mickiewicz University Botanical Garden. The material was fixed in a mixture of glycerol and ethanol (1:1; v/v, dehydrated stepwise with graded ethanol series and finally embedded in epon resin. Afterwards, the material was sectioned with microtome into continuous series of thin (3 μm sections, stained with PAS/toluidine blue and examined under the light microscope. The results, described in details in Jura‑Morawiec & Wiland-Szymańska (2014, revealed novel facts about tracheids arrangement. Each amphivasal bundle is composed of sectors where tracheids form a ring as well as of such where tracheids are separated by vascular parenchyma cells. We hypothesize that strands of vascular parenchyma cells locally separating the tracheids enable radial transport of assimilates from sieve elements of the bundle towards the sink tissues, e

  1. Graying: gerontobiology of the hair follicle pigmentary unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, D J; Paus, R

    2001-01-01

    dilution is due to a reduction in tyrosinase activity of hair bulbar melanocytes, sub-optimal melanocyte-cortical keratinocyte interactions, and defective migration of melanocytes from a reservoir in the upper outer root sheath to the pigment-permitting microenvironment close to the dermal papilla of the hair bulb. Animal models with mutations in apoptotic survival factors (e.g. bcl-2) and in melanogenic enzymes (TRP-1) are providing valuable insights into the aging hair pigmentary unit. It is from these and other advances, including our ability to grow hair follicle melanocytes in vitro, that the possibility of reversing canities has been raised. Indeed, it is not too uncommon to see spontaneous repigmentation along the same individual hair shaft in early canities. Moreover, melanocytes taken from gray and white hair follicles can be induced to pigment in vitro. One of the surprising results of pigment loss in canities is the alteration in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, providing the tantalizing suggestion that melanocytes in the hair follicle contribute far more that packages of melanin alone. Furthermore, there have been some unconfirmed reports in the literature suggesting that canities may link (although not causally) with more systemic alterations in homeostasis e.g. osteoporosis. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the development, regulation and control of the human hair follicle pigmentary unit during life.

  2. A function for Rac1 in the terminal differentiation and pigmentation of hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Kristina; Klatte, Jennifer; Pofahl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    in the regulation of terminal hair follicle differentiation. To address this, we have expressed a constitutively active mutant of Rac1, L61Rac1, only in the basal epidermal layer and outer root sheath of mice possessing an epidermis-specific deletion of endogenous Rac1, which experience severe hair loss......The small GTPase Rac1 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating and differentiating layers of the epidermis and hair follicles. Previously, Rac1 was shown to regulate stem cell behaviour in these compartments. We have asked whether Rac1 has, in addition, a specific, stem-cell-independent function....... The resulting 'rescue' mice exhibited a hair coat throughout their lives. Therefore, expression of Rac1 activity in the keratin-14-positive compartment of the skin is sufficient for the formation of hair follicles and hair in normal quantities. The quality of hair formed in rescue mice was, however, not normal...

  3. Medical catheters thermally manipulated by fiber optic bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastagner, P.

    1992-10-06

    A maneuverable medical catheter comprising a flexible tube having a functional tip is described. The catheter is connected to a control source. The functional tip of the catheter carries a plurality of temperature activated elements arranged in parallel and disposed about the functional tip and held in spaced relation at each end. These elements expand when they are heated. A plurality of fiber optic bundles, each bundle having a proximal end attached to the control source and a distal end attached to one of the elements carry light into the elements where the light is absorbed as heat. By varying the optic fiber that is carrying the light and the intensity of the light, the bending of the elements can be controlled and thus the catheter steered. In an alternate embodiment, the catheter carries a medical instrument for gathering a sample of tissue. The instrument may also be deployed and operated by thermal expansion and contraction of its moving parts. 10 figs.

  4. Partial tears of anterior cruciate ligament: Results of single bundle augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL are common and usually present with symptomatic instability. The remnant fibers are usually removed and a traditional ACL reconstruction is done. But with increased understanding of ACL double bundle anatomy, the remnant tissue preservation along with a single bundle augmentation of the torn bundle is also suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of selective anatomic augmentation of symptomatic partial ACL tears. Our hypothesis is that this selective augmentation of partial ACL tears could restore knee stability and function. Materials and Methods: Consecutive cases of 314 ACL reconstructions, 40 patients had intact ACL fibers in the location corresponding to the anteromedial (AM or posterolateral (PL bundle and were diagnosed as partial ACL tears perioperatively. All patients underwent selective augmentation of the torn bundle, while keeping the remaining fibers intact using autogenous hamstring graft. A total of 38 patients (28 males, 10 females were available with a minimum of 3 years followup. 26 cases had AM bundle tears and 12 cases had PL bundle tears respectively. Patients were assessed with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC 2000 Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm score; instrumented knee testing was performed with the arthrometer (KT 2000. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the preoperative and postoperative objective evaluation. Results: At 3 years followup, 31.6% patients were graded A, 65.8% were graded B and 2.6% was graded C at IKDC objective evaluation. Manual laxity tests, Lysholm′s score, mean side to side instrumental laxity and Tegner activity score improved significantly. 76% patients returned to preinjury level of sports activity after augmentation. Conclusion: The results of anatomic single bundle augmentation in partial ACL tears are encouraging with excellent improvement in functional scores, side to side

  5. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  6. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Wolf, Sabrina; Romano, Maria Teresa; Valentin, Frederic; Wiegmann, Henning; Huchenq, Anne; Kandil, Rima; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Kilic, Arzu; George, Susannah; Ralser, Damian J; Bergner, Stefan; Ferguson, David J P; Oprisoreanu, Ana-Maria; Wehner, Maria; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Swan, Daniel; Houniet, Darren; Büchner, Aline; Weibel, Lisa; Wagner, Nicola; Grimalt, Ramon; Bygum, Anette; Serre, Guy; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Sprecher, Eli; Schoch, Susanne; Oji, Vinzenz; Hamm, Henning; Farrant, Paul; Simon, Michel; Betz, Regina C

    2016-12-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant to being combed flat. Until now, both simplex and familial UHS-affected case subjects with autosomal-dominant as well as -recessive inheritance have been reported. However, none of these case subjects were linked to a molecular genetic cause. Here, we report the identification of UHS-causative mutations located in the three genes PADI3 (peptidylarginine deiminase 3), TGM3 (transglutaminase 3), and TCHH (trichohyalin) in a total of 11 children. All of these individuals carry homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in one of these three genes, indicating an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic causes of UHS and shed light on its pathophysiology and hair physiology in general. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  8. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR.

  9. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Nuan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug, Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug, and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR.

  10. Organic components in hair-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T

  11. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... with growth factors as well as fibronectin and interstitial collagens, and can associate in a transmembrane relationship with the cellular cytoskeleton. It is strongly expressed in mesenchymal cells coincident with stromal-epithelial interactions during tissue morphogenesis. Proteoglycans are present in all...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...

  12. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; tomas@math.tifr.res.in. MS received 14 September 2000. Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable. Keywords ...

  13. Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Stability of Picard bundle over moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two over a curve. INDRANIL BISWAS and TOM ´AS L G ´OMEZ. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road,. Mumbai 400 005, India. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; tomas@math.tifr.res.in. MS received 14 ...

  14. The changes in hair growth pattern after autologous hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Kim, D W; Jun, J B; Lee, S J; Kim, J C; Kim, N H

    1999-08-01

    Recently donor dominance has been emphasized in autologous hair transplantation while the influence of the recipient site has been considered negligible. In fact, there have been few studies that show this. This study was performed to examine the influence of the recipient site on transplanted hairs. A clinical study of 19 leprosy patients was performed. These patients had received single hair transplantation due to madarosis and were admitted to The Leprosy Mission, Jesus Hospital, Taegu, Korea, or had visited its outpatient clinic. In this study, the rate of growth, thickness of shaft, and graying rate between the transplanted eyebrow hair in the recipient site and scalp hair near the donor site were compared to observe the changes in the growth pattern of the hairs after transplantation. For most of the patients, the growth rate and graying rate of transplanted hairs were lower than those of hairs in the donor site. It seems that the recipient site may have an influence on the transplanted hairs. Further studies are needed, including clinical, histopathologic, and molecular biological methods.

  15. Quality evaluation of sperm from livebearing fishes: Standardized assessment of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata) from Xenotoca eiseni (Goodeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Torres, Leticia; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2018-02-01

    Standardized evaluation of sperm quality is essential for research, commercial-scale cryopreservation, and induced spawning. However, standardized methods for evaluation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata or spermatophores) have not been established. The purpose of the present study was to use Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model for freshwater livebearing fishes to establish initial standardized methods to collect sperm bundles, and quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate quality-related attributes. No sperm or sperm bundles were able to be collected by stripping. Testes were removed, rinsed, weighed, placed in 50 μL of buffer solution on a glass slide, and crushed gently 3-5 times with angled spade-tip forceps. Sperm bundles were released into the buffer solution and collected with a pipette into 1.5-mL centrifuge tubes. To quantify size and shape, images of bundles were captured with a CCD camera connected to a microscope, and measured with computer software. There was no significant correlation between body wet weight and major bundle axis length (P = 0.6759), minor axis length (P = 0.5658), average axis length (P = 0.5869), aspect ratio (P = 0.7839), and observed area (P = 0.5727). The concentrations of sperm bundles, estimated with the three methods (Makler ® counting chamber, a hemocytometer, and direct counting) were significantly different (P < 0.0001). Hemocytometers were suitable for estimation of bundles from X. eiseni. To evaluate activation of sperm, bundles were viewed with a microscope, and classified into one of five phases by evaluating morphology of the bundles and motion of sperm within the bundles as Phase 0 through Phase 4 that represented early through late activation stages. The frequencies and duration of each activation phase were used to evaluate dissociation of sperm bundles and motility capability of sperm within the bundles. Within 180 min of activation, all five phases were observed. Overall, this study for

  16. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Deformations of the generalised Picard bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, I.; Brambila-Paz, L.; Newstead, P.E.

    2004-08-01

    Let X be a nonsingular algebraic curve of genus g ≥ 3, and let Mξ denote the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank n ≥ 2 and degree d with fixed determinant ξ over X such that n and d are coprime. We assume that if g = 3 then n ≥ 4 and if g = 4 then n ≥ 3, and suppose further that n 0 , d 0 are integers such that n 0 ≥ 1 and nd 0 + n 0 d > nn 0 (2g - 2). Let E be a semistable vector bundle over X of rank n 0 and degree d 0 . The generalised Picard bundle W ξ (E) is by definition the vector bundle over M ξ defined by the direct image p M ξ *(U ξ x p X * E) where U ξ is a universal vector bundle over X x M ξ . We obtain an inversion formula allowing us to recover E from W ξ (E) and show that the space of infinitesimal deformations of W ξ (E) is isomorphic to H 1 (X, End(E)). This construction gives a locally complete family of vector bundles over M ξ parametrised by the moduli space M(n 0 ,d 0 ) of stable bundles of rank n 0 and degree d 0 over X. If (n 0 ,d 0 ) = 1 and W ξ (E) is stable for all E is an element of M(n 0 ,d 0 ), the construction determines an isomorphism from M(n 0 ,d 0 ) to a connected component M 0 of a moduli space of stable sheaves over M ξ . This applies in particular when n 0 = 1, in which case M 0 is isomorphic to the Jacobian J of X as a polarised variety. The paper as a whole is a generalisation of results of Kempf and Mukai on Picard bundles over J, and is also related to a paper of Tyurin on the geometry of moduli of vector bundles. (author)

  18. NIF laser bundle review. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Larson, D.W.; Erlandson, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    We performed additional bundle review effort subsequent to the completion of the preliminary report and are revising our original recommendations. We now recommend that the NIF baseline laser bundle size be changed to the 4x2 bundle configuration. There are several 4x2 bundle configurations that could be constructed at a cost similar to that of the baseline 4x12 (from $11M more to about $11M less than the baseline; unescalated, no contingency) and provide significant system improvements. We recommend that the building cost estimates (particularly for the in-line building options) be verified by an architect/engineer (A/E) firm knowledgeable about building design. If our cost estimates of the in-line building are accurate and therefore result in a change from the baseline U-shaped building layout, the acceptability of the in-line configuration must be reviewed from an operations viewpoint. We recommend that installation, operation, and maintenance of all laser components be reviewed to better determine the necessity of aisles, which add to the building cost significantly. The need for beam expansion must also be determined since it affects the type of bundle packing that can be used and increases the minimum laser bay width. The U-turn laser architecture (if proven viable) offers a reduction in building costs since this laser design is shorter than the baseline switched design and requires a shorter laser bay

  19. Auditory hair cell defects as potential cause for sensorineural deafness in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohi Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase (HMT that catalyses the addition of methyl groups to lysine 36 on histone 3. In humans, WHSC1 haploinsufficiency is associated with all known cases of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS. The cardinal feature of WHS is a craniofacial dysmorphism, which is accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss in 15% of individuals with WHS. Here, we show that WHSC1-deficient mice display craniofacial defects that overlap with WHS, including cochlea anomalies. Although auditory hair cells are specified normally, their stereocilia hair bundles required for sound perception fail to develop the appropriate morphology. Furthermore, the orientation and cellular organisation of cochlear hair cells and their innervation are defective. These findings identify, for the first time, the likely cause of sensorineural hearing loss in individuals with WHS.

  20. Auditory hair cell defects as potential cause for sensorineural deafness in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohi; Ura, Kiyoe; Streit, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase (HMT) that catalyses the addition of methyl groups to lysine 36 on histone 3. In humans, WHSC1 haploinsufficiency is associated with all known cases of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). The cardinal feature of WHS is a craniofacial dysmorphism, which is accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss in 15% of individuals with WHS. Here, we show that WHSC1-deficient mice display craniofacial defects that overlap with WHS, including cochlea anomalies. Although auditory hair cells are specified normally, their stereocilia hair bundles required for sound perception fail to develop the appropriate morphology. Furthermore, the orientation and cellular organisation of cochlear hair cells and their innervation are defective. These findings identify, for the first time, the likely cause of sensorineural hearing loss in individuals with WHS. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. [Scalp burns induced by hair bleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouschon, P; Bursztejn, A-C; Waton, J; Brault, F; Schmutz, J-L

    2018-03-14

    Hair bleaching is increasingly being carried out in hairdressing salons. The products used are a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and persulfates, both active chemical agents. Scalp burns secondary to hair bleaching are a traumatic adverse effect rarely discussed in publications that continue to be little known among healthcare professionals. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a plaque of scarring alopecia on the vertex. This lesion resulted from a deep burn following a hair-bleaching procedure. Healing took around 4 months, resulting in discomfort for our patient. This is a rare case of scarring alopecia following a basic chemical burn to the scalp. The oxidation reaction induced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and persulfates, prepared in a basic medium, causes bleaching of the melanin pigments in hair. The clinical presentation of a single, well limited, painful, oozing ulceration located at the vertex was similar to the other cases published in the literature. Although a chemical burning mechanism is most often incriminated, the procedure is always coupled with use of a heat source and associated thermal burn may occur. The delayed appearance of the lesion appears to be caused by the forming of surfactants by the hydrogen peroxide/persulfate mixture, resulting in slow dissolution of the oxidizing compounds within the stratum corneum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: keratoderma with woolly hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Keratoderma with woolly hair Keratoderma with woolly hair Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of related conditions that affect ...

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 5-short (FGF5s) inhibits the activity of FGF5 in primary and secondary hair follicle dermal papilla cells of cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolin; Chao, Yuan; Zhou, Guangxian; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-10

    To determine the relationship between fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) and FGF5-short (FGF5s) in dermal papilla cells of cashmere goat primary and secondary hair follicles. We isolated dermal papilla cells from primary hair follicle (PHF) and secondary hair follicle (SHF) of cashmere goat, and found that the FGF5 receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), was expressed in these two types of dermal papilla cells. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of FGF5 could upregulate the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), versican and noggin that were important for follicle growth maintenance, whereas downregulate the expression of anagen chalone bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in dermal papilla cells. However, these alterations were partly reversed by FGF5s overexpression. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that FGF5s acted as an inhibitor of FGF5 in the regulation of anagen-catagen transition of cashmere goat dermal papilla cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Desmoglein 4 is regulated by transcription factors implicated in hair shaft differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Hisham; Demehri, Shadmehr; Potter, Christopher S; Barber, Alison G; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Kopan, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2009-12-01

    The hair fiber is made of specialized keratinocytes, known as trichocytes, that primarily express hair keratins, which are cemented by a multitude of keratin-associated proteins (KAPs). The hair keratins form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of the trichocytes, which are linked to abundant cell-cell adhesion junctions, called desmosomes. Desmoglein 4 (DSG4) is the major desmosomal cadherin expressed in the hair shaft cortex where the hair keratins are highly expressed. In humans, mutations affecting either the hair keratins or DSG4 lead to beaded hair phenotypes with features of monilethrix. In this work, we postulated that the regulatory pathways governing the expression of hair shaft components, such as hair keratins and DSG4, are shared. Therefore, we studied the transcriptional regulation of DSG4 by transcription factors/pathways that are known regulators of hair keratin or KAP expression. We show that HOXC13, LEF1 and FOXN1 repress DSG4 transcription and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence correlating the Notch pathway with the activation and/or maintenance of DSG4 expression in the hair follicle.

  5. 7-Phloroeckol promotes hair growth on human follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Soon-Sun; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    7-Phloroeckol, phloroglucinol derivative isolated from marine brown algae, has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory responses and MMP inhibitory activities. In this study, we evaluated the hair growth-promoting effects of 7-phloroeckol in human hair follicles. To investigate cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells in the presence or absence of 7-phloroeckol treatment, MTT assay was employed. Moreover, gene expression and protein concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 7-Phloroeckol induced an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells. In addition, hair shaft growth was measured using the hair-follicle organ culture system. 7-Phloroeckol resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles. 7-Phloroeckol induced an IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein concentration in DPCs and conditioned media, respectively. These results suggest that 7-phloroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells.

  6. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (Phair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  7. Fibre bundle framework for quantum fault tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lucy Liuxuan; Gottesman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a differential geometric framework for describing families of quantum error-correcting codes and for understanding quantum fault tolerance. In particular, we use fibre bundles and a natural projectively flat connection thereon to study the transformation of codewords under unitary fault-tolerant evolutions. We'll explain how the fault-tolerant logical operations are given by the monodromy group for the bundles with projectively flat connection, which is always discrete. We will discuss the construction of the said bundles for two examples of fault-tolerant families of operations, the string operators in the toric code and the qudit transversal gates. This framework unifies topological fault tolerance and fault tolerance based on transversal gates, and is expected to apply for all unitary quantum fault-tolerant protocols.

  8. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung

    2000-11-01

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% {sup 235}U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% {sup 235}U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO{sub 2} powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report.

  9. studies on hair growth, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life on women with breast cancer under antineoplastic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of hair growth rates, hair density, hair diameter, hair shape, trichodynia and skin-specific quality of life under antineoplastic treatment. Participants in this prospective study were 34 women, suffering from breast cancer, receiving either chemotherapy (n = 17) or tamoxifen (n = 17). The following methods were used: TrichoScan for the evaluation of hair density, anagen and telogen hair rates, optical coherence tomography for the determina...

  10. Hair follicle stem cells and intrafollicular homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Alp Can

    2014-01-01

    A hair follicle is the primary unit that produces a single outgrowing visible hair shaft. All hair follicles have a regeneration cycle consisting growth, destruction and resting phase, all of which are controlled by several intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. All hair forming cell populations arise from hair follicle stem cells that are located in bulge and hair germ. Epithelial progenitors themselves surround a core cluster of mesenchymal cells, the dermal papilla, which is thought to provid...

  11. SCF/c-kit signaling is required for cyclic regeneration of the hair pigmentation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkareva, N V; Khlgatian, M; Longley, B J; Botchkarev, V A; Gilchrest, B A

    2001-03-01

    Hair graying, an age-associated process of unknown etiology, is characterized by a reduced number and activity of hair follicle (HF) melanocytes. Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor c-kit are important for melanocyte survival during development, and mutations in these genes result in unpigmented hairs. Here we show that during cyclic HF regeneration in C57BL/6 mice, proliferating, differentiating, and melanin-producing melanocytes express c-kit, whereas presumptive melanocyte precursors do not. SCF overexpression in HF epithelium significantly increases the number and proliferative activity of melanocytes. During the induced hair cycle in C57BL/6 mice, administration of anti-c-kit antibody dose-dependently decreases hair pigmentation and leads to partially depigmented (gray) or fully depigmented (white) hairs, associated with significant decreases in melanocyte proliferation and differentiation, as determined by immunostaining and confocal microscopy. However, in the next hair cycle, the previously treated animals grow fully pigmented hairs with the normal number and distribution of melanocytes. This suggests that melanocyte stem cells are not dependent on SCF/c-kit and when appropriately stimulated can generate melanogenically active melanocytes. Therefore, the blockade of c-kit signaling offers a fully reversible model for hair depigmentation, which might be used for the studies of hair pigmentation disorders.

  12. Smokers' hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Shahait, Awni D; Ayoub, Musa N; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-04-01

    To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  13. Smokers’ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the “PHG” group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking. PMID:23741662

  14. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  15. Correlation of cortisol in 1-cm hair segment with salivary cortisol in human: hair cortisol as an endogenous biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Li, Jifeng; Qiao, Ting; Jin, Jing; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-09-09

    Cortisol level in human hair would be an endogenous biomarker for the retrospective assessment of long-term central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. However, no direct evidence supports that blood-related diffusion is a biologically endogenous source of hair cortisol in humans. The present study aims to validate the direct correlation between cortisol in 1-cm hair segments and salivary cortisol in healthy humans. We collected three saliva samples from the same participant at Time 1, Time 2 (1 week later) and Time 3 (2 weeks later), and hair 4 weeks later. Cortisol levels in 1-cm hair segments and saliva were determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Salivary cortisol at Time 1 was significantly associated with that at Time 2 (r=0.514, p=0.003), but not with that at Time 3 (r=0.187, p=0.305); and the one at Time 2 was significantly associated with that at Time 3 (r=0.380, p=0.032). Hair cortisol was significantly correlated with salivary cortisol at Time 2 (r=0.389, pdiffusion mechanism is a biologically endogenous source of hair cortisol.

  16. Hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA concentrations in newborn dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bolis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last intrauterine fetal stage of development and the neonatal period the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA is a key system. Apart of cortisol, the adrenals produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, the major steroid produced by the fetus itself, so that it could be considered as a marker of offspring HPA activity. Non invasive, long time-frame retrospective hormonal levels analysis were performed in the hair of humans and animals, but not in newborn puppies, and DHEA never investigated in puppies. This study was aimed to assess DHEA concentrations in the hair of newborn puppies, and to evaluate the influence of newborn age, gender, and breed size on DHEA concentrations. The study enrolled 116 spontaneously dead puppies, grouped on the base of mother bodyweight to small or medium-large breeds, and on the base of age at death. Hair samples were collected by shaving, and stored at room temperature until RIA analysis. The overall hair DHEA concentrations were 46.8±14.8 pg/mg. DHEA levels were 48.6±15.66 pg/mg in females vs 45.1±13.73 pg/mg in males, without significant differences. DHEA levels were 45.5±13.61 pg/mg in small size puppies and 47.8±15.61 pg/mg in medium-large size puppies, with no significant differences. DHEA concentrations in premature puppies (52.5±15.12 pg/mg were significant higher (p<0.05 than in puppies dead between 1 and 30 days after birth (44.5±17.78 pg/mg, but similar to fresh term born-dead puppies (46.2±16.5 pg/mg.  This study demonstrated that DHEA is quantifiable in the hair of newborn dogs, and that DHEA levels are significantly influenced by the puppies age.

  17. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  18. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  20. A novel Atoh1 "self-terminating" mouse model reveals the necessity of proper Atoh1 level and duration for hair cell differentiation and viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    Full Text Available Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1 is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre, in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to "self-terminate" its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy.

  1. FUNCTION OF MALATDEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX OF MAIZE MESOPHYLL AND BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еprintsev А.Т.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-induced changes in malatdehydrogenase system activity make the essential contribution to cell adaptation to stress condition. The enzyme systems of C4-plants are most interesting due to their ability for adaptation to environment conditions. The role of separate components of malatdehydrogenase complex of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn in formation of adaptive reaction in stressful conditions is investigated in presented work.The activation of all enzymes of malatdehydrogenase system and the subsequent decrease in their activity was observed in mesophyll durring the first stage of adaptation to salt influence. In bundle sheath cells such parameters are differed from control less essentially. Fast accumulation of piruvate in cells and malate in both investigated tissues was induced. The further salinity led to falling of concentration this intermediate. The concentration of piruvate was below control level, and it was raised by the end of an exposition.The results show that sodium chloride causes induction of Krebs-cycle in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn and intensification of Hatch-Slack cycle. The described differences in function malatdehydrogenase systems of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of leaves of corn under salinity mainly consist of the activity of enzymes of a studied complex in bundle sheath cells is subject to the minimal changes in comparison with mesophyll. Role of this enzymesystem in mechanisms of adaptive reaction of various tissues of corn to salt stress is discussed.

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factors Stimulate Hair Growth through β-Catenin and Shh Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-hong; Xiang, Li-Jun; Shi, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Li-ping; Cai, Ping-tao; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Lin, Bei-Bei; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Guo, Ding-Jiong; Li, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors are involved in the regulation of hair morphogenesis and cycle hair growth. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth promoting activities of three approved growth factor drugs, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10), acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and the mechanism of action. We observed that FGFs promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of FGFs induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to the control group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of β-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles of the FGFs-treated group. These results suggest that FGFs promote hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:25685806

  3. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Miranda da Gama; André Rolim Baby; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

    2017-01-01

    Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can b...

  4. Professionalizing hair care in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the last two decades, Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga, witnessed an explosion of a particular kind of business, hair salons. For owners, workers, and customers alike, hair salons represent modernity and cosmopolitanism, and they thus attract a particular kind of clientele and

  5. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  6. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  7. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cabaña-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems.To determine whether heavy metals (in hair, antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings.55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years. Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27 with those with more than four (n = 15. As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  8. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  9. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  10. [Indications for micrograft hair transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanna, P

    2002-05-01

    Advances in treatment of androgenetic alopecia have led to the development of novel medical or surgical therapies adapted to the severity of hair loss and balding. Follicular units or tiny micro-graft hair transplants are a fundamental technical progress. This technique leads to the simple and painless permanent restoration of hair in male and female baldness. It provides the patient with a group of 1 to 3 hairs, emerging from a single orifice. The difference between androgenic receptors of occipital areas and those of other areas explains the permanent nature of the implanted hair growth. The degree of male or female androgenetic alopecia can be determined according to Hamilton's static classification or Ludwig's Classification, or it can be measured and monitored more accurately with Bouhanna's Dynamic Multifactorial Classification. The current indications for micro-graft transplantation are

  11. The evaluation of the implementation of the vascular preventative bundle and development of suggested interventions for improvement and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jennifer; Turner, Kathleen; Hudson, John S; Guest, Kimberly; Dillavou, Ellen D

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative infections can complicate patient care and increase health care costs. A vascular preventative bundle was implemented at a large teaching/research intensive hospital to decrease surgical site infections (SSIs) with vascular surgery patients. The aim of this study was to measure fidelity to the bundle and determine if implementation of the vascular SSI bundle reduced the rate of SSIs. Three periods of data were collected, and they are identified as preimplementation (period 1), early implementation (period 2), and postimplementation (period 3). There were 711 patients for all three periods, approximately equally distributed in the periods. The use of preoperative hair clippings, chlorhexidine (CHG) wipes, and appropriate antibiotics showed the greatest improvement from preimplementation to early implementation. All three measures showed significant improvements in fidelity. For appropriate antibiotics, the fidelity was the highest and showed the largest improvement compared to the other measures. The performance of clippings preoperatively and using CHG wipes improved significantly. Evidence-based interventions have been recommended to support the implementation and sustainability of the bundle. The infection rate between preop and postperiod was not statistically different. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A note on the tangent bundle of G/P

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 39–50. [3] Donaldson S K, Infinite determinants, stable bundles, and curvature, Duke Math. J. 54. (1987) 231–247. [4] Kobayashi S, Differential geometry of complex vector bundles (NJ: Princeton University. Press, Princeton; Tokyo: Iwanami ...

  13. Vibrations in bundles with cross flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Villard, B.; Sagner, V.

    1979-01-01

    The studies just presented provide much information on the aero and hydroelastic phenomena encountered in the bundles with cross flows, particularly on the lock-in phenomena and the aeroelastic instability for which a tabulation of the typical constant has been made [fr

  14. Meromorphic connections on vector bundles over curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Descartes,. 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France. *Correspond author. E-mail: indranil@math.tifr.res.in; heu@math.unistra.fr. MS received 17 July 2013; revised 20 October 2013. Abstract. We give a criterion for filtered vector bundles over curves to admit a ...

  15. Abelian conformal field theory and determinant bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, K.

    2007-01-01

    are up to a scale the same as the curvature of the connections constructed in [14, 16]. We study the sewing construction for nodal curves and its explicit relation to the constructed connections. Finally we construct preferred holomorphic sections of these line bundles and analyze their behaviour near...

  16. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  17. Jacobi bundles and the BFV-complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Tortorella, A. G.; Vitagliano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, November (2017), s. 347-377 ISSN 0393-0440 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Jacobi manifold * Jacobi bundle * coisotropic submanifolds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.819, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0393044017301948

  18. Irradiation behavior of Phenix fuel pin bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, G.; Millet, P.; Blanchard, P.; Huillery, R.

    1979-01-01

    A complete Phenix assembly was coated and cut into sections after irradiation. The examination of these sections reveals the effects of mechanical interaction in the bundle (ovalizing and inter-cladding contact). From the analysis of the sections through which the sodium passed, the irrigation of the fuel rods as a whole is homogeneous [fr

  19. Graph Bundling by Kernel Density Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

    We present a fast and simple method to compute bundled layouts of general graphs. For this, we first transform a given graph drawing into a density map using kernel density estimation. Next, we apply an image sharpening technique which progressively merges local height maxima by moving the convolved

  20. Analytical strategy for detecting doping agents in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, D; Grosse, J; Sachs, H; Mueller, R K

    2000-01-10

    Lists of banned classes of doping agents are released by the International Olympic Committee, adopted by other sports authorities and updated regularly, including the substance classes stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-blockers etc. There are different classes of restriction: anabolic and masking agents (anabolic steroids, diuretics etc.) are always banned for athletes regardless of their topical activity (training or competition) several substances are permitted with certain restrictions (caffeine below a cut-off value, or inhalation of some beta 2 agonists) beta-blockers are prohibited in competitions of certain sports disciplines the majority of the substances (stimulants, narcotics etc.) is prohibited during competitions, so that they do not have to be analysed in out-of-competition samples. A differentiation between training and competition period is impossible by means of hair analysis due to the uncertainty of (especially short-term) kinetic considerations related to hair growth. Therefore, the analytical identification of doping relevant substances in hair is not always a sufficient criterion for a doping offence and the identification of stimulants, beta-blockers etc. in hair would be entirely irrelevant. The most interesting target substances are certainly the anabolic agents, because their desired action (enhanced muscle strength) lasts longer than the excretion, leading to sophisticated procedures to circumvent positive analytical results in competition control. Besides the analysis of out-of-competition control samples, the long term detection of steroids in hair could provide complementary information. An analytical approach to the identification of exogenous steroids in hair requires consideration of the presence of many other steroids in the hair matrix interfering the analysis at trace levels, and of a limited chemical stability. The analysis of endogenous steroids in hair appears to be even more complicated

  1. Plant hair dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, R V; Haegi, L A

    1992-05-04

    To survey the ill effects of plant hairs on humans in Australia, incorporating new records. Retrospective analysis of new records, in some cases confirmed and supplemented by experimental skin contacts, along with a general survey of relevant literature. Reports of accidental injuries submitted to the authors, through either medical or other sources, and to the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium of South Australia, were studied and compared with existing literature; in some cases the effects were confirmed experimentally. A general survey of plant hair dermatitis in Australia is offered. Most species included have been referred to in the scattered earlier literature, but a few plants not previously recorded as irritating are included, notably Apalochlamys spectabilis, Wisteria sinensis and Grevillea species. Attention is also called to the penetrating and irritating pod spines of Brachychiton spp. (kurrajongs and relatives) and Lagunaria patersonii (Norfolk Island hibiscus or pyramid tree), which are often planted as ornamental street trees. Generally those most likely to receive these injuries are gardeners and children.

  2. Functional aspects of His bundle physiology and pathophysiology: Clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlag, Benjamin J; Lazzara, Ralph

    In this review we present evidence from many experimental studies which challenge the concept of predestination of His bundle fibers. Using both intra- and extracellular His bundle pacing in the context of atrio-ventricular block and the development of bundle branch blocks these experimental studies provide the underlying mechanisms for the recent clinical findings showing the benefits of permanent His bundle pacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fiber bundles in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, P.

    1979-11-01

    The problem of describing a quantum-mechanical system with symmetry by a fiber bundle is considered. The quantization of a fiber bundle is introduced. Fiber bundles for the Kepler problem and the rotator are constructed. The fiber bundle concept provides a new model for a physical system: it provides a model for an elementary particle with extension having integral values of spin. 5 figures

  4. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-12-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency.

  5. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  6. Determination of mercury in reference materials and head hair samples of human populations from Serra do Navio, Amapa State, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis method; Analise de mercurio em materiais de referencia e em amostras de cabelo de populacoes da regiao da Serra do Navio (Estado do Amapa) pelo metodo de analise por ativacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Paletti, Gerson; Saiki, Mitiko; Favaro, Debora I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1996-07-01

    Mercury analysis of human head hair has been of much concern in connection with mercury contamination deriving from gold exploration activities. Neutron activation analysis has been applied as a highly sensitive and accurate method. Total mercury is being determined in hair samples from populations from the regions of Serra do Navio, Tartarugalzinho and Vila Nova, in the Amapa State, Brazil. The reference materials IAEA - 085 and IAEA - 086 were also analysed. The range of total mercury analysis is o,21 - 18,84 ppm. These results show a possible contamination, comparing to a control group analysed. (author)

  7. THE PRESHAVING PROTOCOL IN BODY HAIR-TO-SCALP TRANSPLANT TO IDENTIFY HAIR IN ANAGEN PHASE

    OpenAIRE

    Poswal, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The use of body donor hair for transplanting to the bald scalp is termed body hair transplant. In recent times, robust body hair has been used as an adjunct to scalp donor hair to augment the donor hair supply. A large percentage of body hair are in telogen and, as single hair units. Aims: To devise a non invasive protocol to identify the body donor hair in anagen phase prior to extraction. Materials and Methods: Hairs are shaved flush with the skin, four days prior to ex...

  8. Turkish and Native English Academic Writers' Use of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2016-01-01

    Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…

  9. Compactifications of reductive groups as moduli stacks of bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    Let G be a reductive group. We introduce the moduli problem of "bundle chains" parametrizing framed principal G-bundles on chains of lines. Any fan supported in a Weyl chamber determines a stability condition on bundle chains. Its moduli stack provides an equivariant toroidal compactification of G...

  10. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum ..... The fiber over Ua/G is the equivalence class of this fiber. Like this we can define the line bundle on A/G. 3.2 Quillen metric. Using the Hermitian structure on E (the vector bundle on the Riemann surface ) and therefore the ...

  11. Quillen bundle and geometric prequantization of non-abelian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we prequantize the moduli space of non-abelian vortices. We explicitly calculate the symplectic form arising from 2 metric and we construct a prequantum line bundle whose curvature is proportional to this symplectic form. The prequantum line bundle turns out to be Quillen's determinant line bundle with a ...

  12. Radionuclides in human hair as indicators of exposure to uranium series radionuclides - Polonium-210 and lead-210 in human hair as indicators of exposure to uranium series radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M. [Laboratorio de Proteccao e Seguranca Radiologica/Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Polonium-210 and lead-210 were determined in samples of human hair from people living in several regions of Portugal with different radioactivity levels in soils and water. Activity concentration ratios of {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb in the hair were always higher than unity, suggesting that hair is an excretion route for these radionuclides from the human body, especially for {sup 210}Po. {sup 210}Po activity concentration in the hair increased with the age of people indicating that the source of {sup 210}Po body burden is {sup 226}Ra deposited in bone, and that this deposit increases with the age of individuals. Furthermore, {sup 210}Po activity concentration in the hair was significantly higher in uranium mine workers than in members of the public at large in granite regions, and these ones higher than in people living in low background sedimentary regions, indicating that {sup 210}Po concentration in the hair reflected radioactivity levels of the regional environment. {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations in the hair seemed more constant throughout life of humans, although reflecting also {sup 210}Pb levels in the environment. A relationship is established between {sup 210}Po concentration in the hair and {sup 210}Po total body burden. (authors)

  13. Body hair scores and total hair diameters in healthy women in the Kirikkale Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin

    2004-06-30

    It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.

  14. The ethnic differences of the damage of hair and integral hair lipid after ultra violet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai; Lee, Won-Soo

    2013-02-01

    Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

  15. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  16. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  17. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  18. Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10 had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2 had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development.

  19. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body. Hair pulling can be a way of dealing with ... possibly including severe stress. With alopecia areata, the body's immune system attacks the hair follicles — causing hair loss. Stress and hair loss ...

  20. Promotion of anagen, increased hair density and reduction of hair fall in a clinical setting following identification of FGF5-inhibiting compounds via a novel 2-stage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burg D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominic Burg,1 Masakuni Yamamoto,2 Masato Namekata,2 Joseph Haklani,1 Koichiro Koike,2 Maria Halasz1 1Cellmid Limited, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Hair Gene Research Laboratory, Advangen Inc. Kashiwanoha, Chiba-ken, Japan Background: There are very few effective, scientifically validated treatments with known mechanisms of action for treatment of hair loss in both men and women. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 is an important factor in the irreversible transition from anagen to catagen, and inhibition of FGF5 prolongs anagen phase and reduces hair loss. Objective: We aimed to screen botanically derived molecules for FGF5 inhibitory activity in vitro and assess efficacy in a clinical setting. Methods: We screened for FGF5 inhibitory efficacy via a novel 2-step in vitro pipeline consisting of an engineered FGF5 responsive cell line, followed by an activated dermal papillae (DP cell method. Efficacy in a clinical setting was assessed in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial against early- to mid-stage pattern hair loss in men and women. Results: We observed FGF5 inhibitory activity for a number of compounds from the monoterpenoid family, many showing greater inhibitory efficacy than our previously reported crude plant extracts. Evaluation of a lead candidate in a clinical study over 112 days showed a significant improvement in anagen:telogen (AT ratio (p = 0.002, reduced hair fall (p = 0.007 and improved visual grading (p = 0.004. Scientifically matched photography on a subgroup of randomly chosen participants highlighted significant improvement in hair density, with increases evident in all tested participants compared to baseline. Conclusion: Isolates from the monoterpenoid family displayed efficacy in FGF5 inhibition in vitro. A topical formulation containing a leading isolate significantly improved AT ratio, reduced hair fall and increased apparent hair density in the tested population of men and women. Keywords: hair growth, hair

  1. Localizations of γ-Actins in Skin, Hair, Vibrissa, Arrector Pili Muscle and Other Hair Appendages of Developing Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Kiyokazu; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Six isoforms of actins encoded by different genes have been identified in mammals including α-cardiac, α-skeletal, α-smooth muscle (α-SMA), β-cytoplasmic, γ-smooth muscle (γ-SMA), and γ-cytoplasmic actins (γ-CYA). In a previous study we showed the localization of α-SMA and other cytoskeletal proteins in the hairs and their appendages of developing rats (Morioka K., et al. (2011) Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 44, 141–153), and herein we determined the localization of γ type actins in the same tissues and organs by immunohistochemical staining. Our results indicate that the expression of γ-SMA and γ-CYA is suggested to be poor in actively proliferating tissues such as the basal layer of the epidermis and the hair matrix in the hair bulb, and as well as in highly keratinized tissues such as the hair cortex and hair cuticle. In contrast, the expression of γ-actins were high in the spinous layer, granular layer, hair shaft, and inner root sheath, during their active differentiations. In particular, the localization of γ-SMA was very similar to that of α-SMA. It was located not only in the arrector pili muscles and muscles in the dermis, but also in the dermal sheath and in a limited area of the outer root sheath in both the hair and vibrissal follicles. The γ-CYA was suggested to be co-localized with γ-SMA in the dermal sheath, outer root sheath, and arrector pili muscles. Sparsely distributed dermal cells expressed both types of γ-actin. The expression of γ-actins is suggested to undergo dynamic changes according to the proliferation and differentiation of the skin and hair-related cells

  2. Graying of the human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Imfeld, Dominik; Gräub, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life in our society depends crucially on healthy aging, a hallmark of which is the graying hair follicle. During anagen melanocyte precursors migrate to the hair bulb to form the pigmentary unit where they mature and synthesize melanin. Melanin is transferred to the hair shaft forming keratinocytes giving the hair its colour. Graying is the process in which distinct mechanisms lead to deterioration of the hair follicle melanocyte population. We briefly review the hair graying process and state that the aging hair follicle is a valid model for tissue specific aging and a promising target to test therapeutic intervention.

  3. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  4. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  5. [Hair micrograft technique for eyebrow reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudrap, E; Divaris, M; Bouhanna, P

    2010-06-01

    The eyebrow reconstruction should restore an eyebrow with a natural shape and with matching hair direction. We describe the micrograft hair technique for eyebrow reconstruction, using either hair from the opposite eyebrow or hair from the scalp. We illustrate our technique with three clinical cases: a traumatic eyebrow injury, a burn scar and a progressive hair loss. We insist on the advantages of this technique which is simple, "taylor-made" and which allows to choose the hair direction according to the eyebrow topography. The micrograft hair technique has many advantages in comparison with scalp strip grafting or hair-bearing island scalp flap techniques. The eyebrow reconstruction using micrograft hair technique is a simple effective technique offering a better cosmetic result than usual techniques by achieving a natural hair direction and density. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  7. The structure of people's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  8. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity.

  9. Pro-inflammatory cytokine cascade in human plucked hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Y F; Buan, B; Billoni, N; Loussouarn, G; Michelet, J F; Gautier, B; Bernard, B A

    1996-01-01

    Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction we showed that freshly plucked human anagen hair expressed both type 1 (80 kD) and type 2 (60 kD) interleukin (IL)-1 receptor mRNAs. The IL-1 receptor type 1 was functional since after in vitro stimulation of plucked hair with IL-1 alpha, we observed the induction of mRNA(s) for the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha and IL-6 as well as for the chemokines monocyte chemotactic and activating factor and IL-8. In addition, the growth of dissected human anagen hairs in culture in vitro was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by IL-1 alpha as a consequence of hair bulb degradation. These observations, together with those of other authors in IL-1 alpha transgenic mice evidence the inhibitory role of IL-1 on human hair growth. Therefore, in order to identify individuals with high inflammatory potential in their hair follicle environment, we designed a rapid and simple assay to detect variations in the level of IL-1 alpha production in the overnight supernatant of plucked hairs in culture. We observed that 32.7% of the specimens from the volunteers tested (n = 116) could be considered highly inflammatory in terms of IL-1 alpha production. Altogether, these results suggest that in alopecia androgenetica, hair growth might be negatively influenced by IL-1, directly produced by the outer root sheath keratinocytes. Consequently, identifying the "inflammatory alopecic individual' might be of clinical interest to discriminate among individuals for whom anti-IL-1 strategies might be of therapeutic relevance.

  10. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  11. Early psychosocial exposures, hair cortisol levels, and disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlén, Jerker; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Hedmark, Max; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Faresjö, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Early psychosocial exposures are increasingly recognized as being crucial to health throughout life. A possible mechanism could be physiologic dysregulation due to stress. Cortisol in hair is a new biomarker assessing long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. The objective was to investigate whether early-life adverse psychosocial circumstances influence infant cortisol levels in hair and health outcomes in children prospectively until age 10. A cohort study in the general community using a questionnaire covering 11 psychosocial items in the family during pregnancy and the cumulative incidence of diagnoses until age 10 years in 1876 children. Cortisol levels in hair were measured by using a radioimmunoassay in those with sufficient hair samples at age 1, yielding a subsample of n = 209. Children with added psychosocial exposures had higher infant cortisol levels in hair (B = 0.40, P psychosocial exposures determine health outcomes. The model indicates that the multiplicity of adversities should be targeted in future interventions and could help to identify children who are at high risk of poor health. Furthermore, given the prolonged nature of exposure to a stressful social environment, the novel biomarker of cortisol in hair could be of major importance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Promotion of hair growth by newly synthesized ceramide mimetic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bu-Mahn; Bak, Soon-Sun; Shin, Kyung-Oh; Kim, Minhee; Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Sekyoo; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2017-09-09

    Based on the crucial roles of ceramides in skin barrier function, use of ceramides or their structural mimetic compounds, pseudoceramides, as cosmetic ingredients are getting more popular. While currently used pseudoceramides are intended to substitute the structural roles of ceramides in stratum corneum, development of bioactive pseudoceramides has been repeatedly reported. In this study, based on the potential involvement of sphingolipids in hair cycle regulation, we investigated the effects of newly synthesized pseudoceramide, bis-oleamido isopropyl alcohol (BOI), on hair growth using cultured human hair follicles and animal models. BOI treatment promoted hair growth in cultured human hair follicles ex vivo and induced earlier conversion of telogen into anagen. Although we did not find a significant enhancement of growth factor expression and follicular cell proliferation, BOI treatment resulted in an increased sphinganine and sphingosine contents as well as increased ceramides contents in cultured dermal papilla (DP) cells. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that biologically active pseudoceramide promotes hair growth by stimulating do novo synthesis of sphingolipids in DP cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace element composition of hair in the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Cigna Rossi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The content of the trace elements Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn has been evaluated in hair samples collected from five different groups of subjects in Italy. All the measurements were performed by means of non-destructive neutron activation analysis of the hair samples that were carefully washed before analysis. In most of the samples the Cs, Rb and Sc content was below the detection limit of the analytical method. Each population group was formed of about five individuals of each sex, selected to be representative of the adult population living in a well-defined community. The five groups were chosen from distinct regions with different socio-economical living habits in order to detect the variability, if any, of the trace element burden among the Italian population. The trace element hair concentration of each subject was correlated with the trace element blood concentration and daily urinary excretion in order to differentiate the trace element content due to exogenous deposition on hair from that due to endogenous absorption routes. The results obtained show that the variability of the hair content among the various groups is strongly linked to local environmental factors. The histograms of the individual values of the hair concentration are given for all trace elements measured, together with a statistical analysis of all data. (author)

  14. Triviality and Split of Vector Bundles on Rationally Connected Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xuanyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give a simple proof of a triviality criterion due to I.Biswas and J.Pedro and P.Dos Santos. We also prove a vector bundle on a homogenous space is trivial if and only if the restrictions of the vector bundle to Schubert lines are trivial. Using this result and Chern classes of vector bundles, we give a general criterion of a uniform vector bundle on a homogenous space to be splitting. As an application, we prove a uniform vector bundle on classical Grassmannians and quadrics...

  15. [Hair roots induction and culture of Withania somnifera and its withanolide A synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Ying; Sun, Yi-Ming; Lv, Cui-Ping; Cheng, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Lai; Sun, Min

    2014-03-01

    Withanolide A is a biologically active secondary metabolite occuring in roots and leaves of Withania somnifera. In the present study, adventitious roots from leaf explants of W. somnifera were induced for the production of withanolide-A by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 to obtain hair roots. Hair roots induction rate reached 30%. The withanolide A was determined by HPLC in different hair roots lines and different parts of W. somnifera. The average content of withanolide A in all hair roots lines were 1.96 times as high as that in wild-plant, the concentration of withanolide A in hair roots (1.783 mg x g(-1) dry weight) were 1.51 times as high as the roots of wild W. somnifera (1.180 mg x g(-1) dry weight), respectively. It is possible to obtain withanolide A from hair roots culture of W. somnifera.

  16. Prostanoids and Hair Follicles: Implications for Therapy of Hair Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Gang Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2, are a family of lipid-derived autacoids that modulate many physiological systems and pathological contexts. Prostanoids are generated by sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid, catalysed by cyclo-oxygenase, to PGH2, which is then converted to PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 and TXA2, catalysed by their specific synthases. Recent evidence suggests that prostanoids play a role in regulating hair growth. The PGF2α analogue is Food and Drug Administration-approved in the US and routinely used to enhance the growth of human eyelashes. PGE2 is reported to protect from radiation-induced hair loss in mice. Conversely, PGD2 inhibits hair growth. This paper reviews the metabolism of prostanoids and the expression pattern of prostanoid receptors in hair follicles, focussing on their different and opposing effects on hair growth and the underlying mechanisms. This has potential clinical relevance in the treatment and prevention of hair disorders.

  17. Out of pile testing of the PHWR fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahender Dev; Raghunathan, S.; Agarwal, G.K.; Patel, R.J.; Agarwal, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    In PHWRs fuel bundle resides in the form of a string in the coolant channels. These fuel bundles are required to be replaced periodically with the help of fuelling machine and spent fuel is discharged to the spent-fuel bay through fuel transfer system. During complete refuelling operation, and during residence in channel fuel bundle experiences various kinds of loads like drag force, impact force, force applied by Fuelling Machine ram and force applied by various actuators in fuel transfer system. These fuel bundles are manufactured indigenously and require out of pile testing for qualification of design as well as manufacturing process. In 220 MWe PHWRs, 19-element split spacer fuel bundle is used whereas in 500 MWe PHWRs 37-element fuel bundle will be used. A comprehensive programme was conducted to generate, basic data like estimation of loads coming on fuel bundles, experimental data generation about friction factor and pressure drop and carrying out of pile testing of 19-element fuel bundles in Integral Thermal Facility at Hall-7. The 37-element fuel bundles were tested in fuel locator test facility at simulated reactor conditions for pressure drop test, endurance test and cross flow test. The 37-element bundles have also been tested for flow-induced vibration during residence in the reactor. The paper describes the experimental techniques and setups, for simulating the reactor condition and determining the effect of those conditions on the fuel bundles. (author)

  18. CUBu: Universal Real-Time Bundling for Large Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Matthew; Codreanu, Valeriu; Telea, Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    Visualizing very large graphs by edge bundling is a promising method, yet subject to several challenges: speed, clutter, level-of-detail, and parameter control. We present CUBu, a framework that addresses the above problems in an integrated way. Fully GPU-based, CUBu bundles graphs of up to a million edges at interactive framerates, being over 50 times faster than comparable state-of-the-art methods, and has a simple and intuitive control of bundling parameters. CUBu extends and unifies existing bundling techniques, offering ways to control bundle shapes, separate bundles by edge direction, and shade bundles to create a level-of-detail visualization that shows both the graph core structure and its details. We demonstrate CUBu on several large graphs extracted from real-life application domains.

  19. On stability of Kummer surfaces' tangent bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper we propose an explicit approximation of the Kaehler-Einstein-Calabi-Yau metric on the Kummer surfaces, which are manifolds of type K3. It is constructed by gluing 16 pieces of the Eguchi-Hanson metric and 16 pieces of the Euclidean metric. Two estimates on its curvature are proved. Then we prove an estimate on the first eigenvalue of a covariant differential operator of second order. This enables us to apply Taubes' iteration procedure to obtain that there exists an anti-self-dual connection on the considered Kummer surface. In fact, it is a Hermitian-Einstein connection from which we conclude that Kummer surfaces' co-tangent bundle is stable and therefore their tangent bundle is stable too. (author). 40 refs

  20. Reactor application of an improved bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Ruck, G.W.; Lee, A.Y.; Smeltzer, G.; Prevenslik, T.

    1978-11-01

    A Bundle Divertor was chosen as the impurity control and plasma exhaust system for the beam driven Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor - DTHR. In the context of a preconceptual design study of the reactor and associated facility a bundle divertor concept was developed and integrated into the reactor system. The overall system was found feasible and scalable for reactors with intermediate torodial field strengths on axis. The important design characteristics are: the overall average current density of the divertor coils is 0.73 kA for each tesla of toroidal field on axis; the divertor windings are made from super-conducting cables supported by steel structures and are designed to be maintainable; the particle collection assembly and auxiliary cryosorption vacuum pump are dual systems designed such that they can be reactivated alterntively to allow for continuous reactor operation; and the power requirement for energizing and operating the divertor is about 5 MW