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Sample records for active gpr17 splice

  1. FoxO1 target Gpr17 activates AgRP neurons to regulate food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongxia; Orozco, Ian J; Su, Ya; Suyama, Shigetomo; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Horvath, Tamas L; Wardlaw, Sharon L; Plum, Leona; Arancio, Ottavio; Accili, Domenico

    2012-06-08

    Hypothalamic neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) are critical for initiating food intake, but druggable biochemical pathways that control this response remain elusive. Thus, genetic ablation of insulin or leptin signaling in AgRP neurons is predicted to reduce satiety but fails to do so. FoxO1 is a shared mediator of both pathways, and its inhibition is required to induce satiety. Accordingly, FoxO1 ablation in AgRP neurons of mice results in reduced food intake, leanness, improved glucose homeostasis, and increased sensitivity to insulin and leptin. Expression profiling of flow-sorted FoxO1-deficient AgRP neurons identifies G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr17 as a FoxO1 target whose expression is regulated by nutritional status. Intracerebroventricular injection of Gpr17 agonists induces food intake, whereas Gpr17 antagonist cangrelor curtails it. These effects are absent in Agrp-Foxo1 knockouts, suggesting that pharmacological modulation of this pathway has therapeutic potential to treat obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry useful for characterization of new ligands for GPR17 receptor.

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    Calleri, Enrica; Ceruti, Stefania; Cristalli, Gloria; Martini, Claudia; Temporini, Caterina; Parravicini, Chiara; Volpini, Rosaria; Daniele, Simona; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Lecca, Davide; Lambertucci, Catia; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Marucci, Gabriella; Wainer, Irving W; Ranghino, Graziella; Fantucci, Piercarlo; Abbracchio, Maria P; Massolini, Gabriella

    2010-05-13

    The application of frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry (FAC-MS), along with molecular modeling studies, to the screening of potential drug candidates toward the recently deorphanized G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR17 is shown. GPR17 is dually activated by uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and is expressed in organs typically undergoing ischemic damage (i.e., brain, heart and kidney), thus representing a new pharmacological target for acute and chronic neurodegeneration. GPR17 was entrapped on an immobilized artificial membrane (IAM), and this stationary phase was used to screen a library of nucleotide derivatives by FAC-MS to select high affinity ligands. The chromatographic results have been validated with a reference functional assay ([(35)S]GTPgammaS binding assay). The receptor nucleotide-binding site was studied by setting up a column where a mutated GPR17 receptor (Arg255Ile) has been immobilized. The chromatographic behavior of the tested nucleotide derivatives together with in silico studies have been used to gain insights into the structure requirement of GPR17 ligands.

  3. In silico identification of new ligands for GPR17: a promising therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberini, Ivano; Daniele, Simona; Parravicini, Chiara; Sensi, Cristina; Trincavelli, Maria L.; Martini, Claudia; Abbracchio, Maria P.

    2011-08-01

    GPR17, a previously orphan receptor responding to both uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, has been proposed as a novel promising target for human neurodegenerative diseases. Here, in order to specifically identify novel potent ligands of GPR17, we first modeled in silico the receptor by using a multiple template approach, in which extracellular loops of the receptor, quite complex to treat, were modeled making reference to the most similar parts of all the class-A GPCRs crystallized so far. A high-throughput virtual screening exploration of GPR17 binding site with more than 130,000 lead-like compounds was then applied, followed by the wet functional and pharmacological validation of the top-scoring chemical structures. This approach revealed successful for the proposed aim, and allowed us to identify five agonists or partial agonists with very diverse chemical structure. None of these compounds could have been expected `a priori' to act on a GPCR, and all of them behaved as much more potent ligands than GPR17 endogenous activators.

  4. The recently identified P2Y-like receptor GPR17 is a sensor of brain damage and a new target for brain repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lecca

    promoted the expression of myelin basic protein, confirming progression toward mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, GPR17 may act as a "sensor" that is activated upon brain injury on several embryonically distinct cell types, and may play a key role in both inducing neuronal death inside the ischemic core and in orchestrating the local remodeling/repair response. Specifically, we suggest GPR17 as a novel target for therapeutic manipulation to foster repair of demyelinating wounds, the types of lesions that also occur in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  5. Development of an immobilized GPR17 receptor stationary phase for binding determination using frontal affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

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    Temporini, Caterina; Ceruti, Stefania; Calleri, Enrica; Ferrario, Silvia; Moaddel, Ruin; Abbracchio, Maria P; Massolini, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic stationary phase containing immobilized membranes from cells expressing the P2Y-like receptor GPR17 is described. Cellular membranes from 1321N1 cells transiently transfected with GPR17 vector [GPR17+] and from the same cell line transfected with the corresponding empty vector [GPR17(-)] were entrapped on immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) support and packed into 6.6-mm-i.d. glass columns to create GPR17(+)-IAM and GPR17(-)-IAM stationary phases. Frontal chromatography experiments on both GPR17(+)-IAM and GPR17(-)-IAM demonstrated the presence of a specific interaction with GPR17 only in the former that was maximized by increasing the membrane/IAM ratio. GPR17(+)-IAM was used in frontal affinity chromatography experiments to calculate the dissociation constants (K(d)) of three ligands-the antagonist cangrelor (formerly AR-C69931MX, a P2Y(12)/P2Y(13) antagonist), MRS2179 (a P2Y(1) receptor antagonist), and the agonist UDP-all of which have been reported to also interact with GPR17. Immobilized GPR17 retained its ability to specifically bind the three analytes, as demonstrated by the agreement of the calculated K(d) values with previously reported data. Preliminary ranking experiments suggest the application of GPR17(+)-IAM in ranking affinity studies for the selection of new potential candidates.

  6. Heat shock activates splicing at latent alternative 5' splice sites in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Yuval; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is essential for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes and is fundamental in development and cancer, and involves the selection of a consensus sequence that defines the 5' splice site (5'SS). Human introns harbor multiple sequences that conform to the 5'SS consensus, which are not used under normal growth conditions. Under heat shock conditions, splicing at such intronic latent 5'SSs occurred in thousands of human transcripts, resulting in pre-maturely terminated aberrant proteins. Here we performed a survey of the C. elegans genome, showing that worm's introns contain latent 5'SSs, whose use for splicing would have resulted in pre-maturely terminated mRNAs. Splicing at these latent 5'SSs could not be detected under normal growth conditions, while heat shock activated latent splicing in a number of tested C. elegans transcripts. Two scenarios could account for the lack of latent splicing under normal growth conditions (i) Splicing at latent 5'SSs do occur, but the nonsense mRNAs thus formed are rapidly and efficiently degraded (e.g. by NMD); and (ii) Splicing events at intronic latent 5'SSs are suppressed. Here we support the second scenario, because, nematode smg mutants that are devoid of NMD-essential factors, did not show latent splicing under normal growth conditions. Hence, these experiments together with our previous experiments in mammalian cells, indicate the existence of a nuclear quality control mechanism, termed Suppression Of Splicing (SOS), which discriminates between latent and authentic 5'SSs in an open reading frame dependent manner, and allows splicing only at the latter. Our results show that SOS is an evolutionary conserved mechanism, probably shared by most eukaryotes.

  7. EBI2, GPR18 and GPR17--three structurally related, but biologically distinct 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Kristine; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2011-01-01

    have been deorphanized, many remain orphan, and these orphan receptors constitute a large pool of potential drug targets. This review focuses on one of these orphan targets, the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced receptor 2, EBI2 (or GPR183), together with two structurally related receptors, GPR17 and GPR18...

  8. Cadmium restores in vitro splicing activity inhibited by zinc-depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeong Jin; Ayaki, Hitoshi; Kitamura, Keiko; Nishio, Hisahide [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Kobe (Japan); Goji, Junko [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Hyogo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Zinc (Zn)-depletion inhibits the second step of RNA splicing, namely exon-ligation. To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and other metal ions on RNA splicing inhibited by Zn-depletion, we measured in vitro splicing activities in the presence of these metals. Zn-depletion in the splicing reaction mixture was achieved by addition of a Zn-chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline. Cd(II) at 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M restored the splicing activity to 2, 24 and 72% of that in the control reaction mixture, while higher concentrations of Cd(II) decreased the splicing activity, and more than 50 {mu}M Cd(II) showed a complete absence of spliced products. Hg(II) also restored the splicing activity, albeit to a lesser extent, since 5 and 10 {mu}M Hg(II) restored the splicing activity to 3 and 4% of the control value. The other metal ions examined in this study, Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II) and Mn(II), did not show any restoration of the splicing activity. We concluded that Cd(II) could restore the in vitro splicing activity inhibited by Zn-depletion, although higher concentrations of Cd(II) prevented progress of the RNA splicing reaction. These results suggest that Cd(II) has a bifunctional property regarding RNA splicing, and is stimulatory at low concentrations and inhibitory at high concentrations. (orig.)

  9. Human splicing factor ASF/SF2 encodes for a repressor domain required for its inhibitory activity on pre-mRNA splicing.

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    Dauksaite, Vita; Akusjärvi, Göran

    2002-04-12

    The essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 activates or represses splicing depending on where on the pre-mRNA it binds. We have shown previously that ASF/SF2 inhibits adenovirus IIIa pre-mRNA splicing by binding to an intronic repressor element. Here we used MS2-ASF/SF2 fusion proteins to show that the second RNA binding domain (RBD2) is both necessary and sufficient for the splicing repressor function of ASF/SF2. Furthermore, we show that the completely conserved SWQDLKD motif in ASF/SF2-RBD2 is essential for splicing repression. Importantly, this heptapeptide motif is unlikely to be directly involved in RNA binding given its position within the predicted structure of RBD2. The activity of the ASF/SF2-RBD2 domain in splicing was position-dependent. Thus, tethering RBD2 to the IIIa intron resulted in splicing repression, whereas RBD2 binding at the second exon had no effect on IIIa splicing. The splicing repressor activity of RBD2 was not unique to the IIIa pre-mRNA, as binding of RBD2 at an intronic position in the rabbit beta-globin pre-mRNA also resulted in splicing inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that ASF/SF2 encode distinct domains responsible for its function as a splicing enhancer or splicing repressor protein.

  10. Exonic splicing enhancer-dependent selection of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 nucleotide 3225 3' splice site can be rescued in a cell lacking splicing factor ASF/SF2 through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Mayeda, Akila; Tao, Mingfang; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2003-02-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) late pre-mRNAs are spliced in keratinocytes in a differentiation-specific manner: the late leader 5' splice site alternatively splices to a proximal 3' splice site (at nucleotide 3225) to express L2 or to a distal 3' splice site (at nucleotide 3605) to express L1. Two exonic splicing enhancers, each containing two ASF/SF2 (alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2) binding sites, are located between the two 3' splice sites and have been identified as regulating alternative 3' splice site usage. The present report demonstrates for the first time that ASF/SF2 is required under physiological conditions for the expression of BPV-1 late RNAs and for selection of the proximal 3' splice site for BPV-1 RNA splicing in DT40-ASF cells, a genetically engineered chicken B-cell line that expresses only human ASF/SF2 controlled by a tetracycline-repressible promoter. Depletion of ASF/SF2 from the cells by tetracycline greatly decreased viral RNA expression and RNA splicing at the proximal 3' splice site while increasing use of the distal 3' splice site in the remaining viral RNAs. Activation of cells lacking ASF/SF2 through anti-immunoglobulin M-B-cell receptor cross-linking rescued viral RNA expression and splicing at the proximal 3' splice site and enhanced Akt phosphorylation and expression of the phosphorylated serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins SRp30s (especially SC35) and SRp40. Treatment with wortmannin, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt kinase inhibitor, completely blocked the activation-induced activities. ASF/SF2 thus plays an important role in viral RNA expression and splicing at the proximal 3' splice site, but activation-rescued viral RNA expression and splicing in ASF/SF2-depleted cells is mediated through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and is associated with the enhanced expression of other SR proteins.

  11. Genome-wide activation of latent donor splice sites in stress and disease.

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    Nevo, Yuval; Kamhi, Eyal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    Sequences that conform to the 5' splice site (5'SS) consensus are highly abundant in mammalian introns. Most of these sequences are preceded by at least one in-frame stop codon; thus, their use for splicing would result in pre-maturely terminated aberrant mRNAs. In normally grown cells, such intronic 5'SSs appear not to be selected for splicing. However, under heat shock conditions aberrant splicing involving such latent 5'SSs occurred in a number of specific gene transcripts. Using a splicing-sensitive microarray, we show here that stress-induced (e.g. heat shock) activation of latent splicing is widespread across the human transcriptome, thus highlighting the possibility that latent splicing may underlie certain diseases. Consistent with this notion, our analyses of data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) revealed widespread activation of latent splicing in cells grown under hypoxia and in certain cancers such as breast cancer and gliomas. These changes were found in thousands of transcripts representing a wide variety of functional groups; among them are genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. The GEO analysis also revealed a set of gene transcripts in oligodendroglioma, in which the level of activation of latent splicing increased with the severity of the disease.

  12. Neuronal fast activating and meningeal silent modulatory BK channel splice variants cloned from rat

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    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The big conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel (BK) is involved in regulating neuron and smooth muscle cell excitability. Functional diversity of BK is generated by alpha-subunit splice variation and co-expression with beta subunits. Here, we present six different splice combinations cloned f...

  13. Mechanisms of activation and repression by the alternative splicing factors RBFOX1/2.

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    Sun, Shuying; Zhang, Zuo; Fregoso, Oliver; Krainer, Adrian R

    2012-02-01

    RBFOX1 and RBFOX2 are alternative splicing factors that are predominantly expressed in the brain and skeletal muscle. They specifically bind the RNA element UGCAUG, and regulate alternative splicing positively or negatively in a position-dependent manner. The molecular basis for the position dependence of these and other splicing factors on alternative splicing of their targets is not known. We explored the mechanisms of RBFOX splicing activation and repression using an MS2-tethering assay. We found that the Ala/Tyr/Gly-rich C-terminal domain is sufficient for exon activation when tethered to the downstream intron, whereas both the C-terminal domain and the central RRM are required for exon repression when tethered to the upstream intron. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified hnRNP H1, RALY, and TFG as proteins that specifically interact with the C-terminal domain of RBFOX1 and RBFOX2. RNA interference experiments showed that hnRNP H1 and TFG modulate the splicing activity of RBFOX1/2, whereas RALY had no effect. However, TFG is localized in the cytoplasm, and likely modulates alternative splicing indirectly.

  14. Scaffold protein enigma homolog activates CREB whereas a short splice variant prevents CREB activation in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Jumpei; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Maturana, Andrés D

    2015-12-01

    Enigma Homolog (ENH1 or Pdlim5) is a scaffold protein composed of an N-terminal PDZ domain and three LIM domains at the C-terminal end. The enh gene encodes for several splice variants with opposing functions. ENH1 promotes cardiomyocytes hypertrophy whereas ENH splice variants lacking LIM domains prevent it. ENH1 interacts with various Protein Kinase C (PKC) isozymes and Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1). In addition, the binding of ENH1's LIM domains to PKC is sufficient to activate the kinase without stimulation. The downstream events of the ENH1-PKC/PKD1 complex remain unknown. PKC and PKD1 are known to phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). We tested whether ENH1 could play a role in the activation of CREB. We found that, in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, ENH1 interacts with CREB, is necessary for the phosphorylation of CREB at ser133, and the activation of CREB-dependent transcription. On the contrary, the overexpression of ENH3, a LIM-less splice variant, inhibited the phosphorylation of CREB. ENH3 overexpression or shRNA knockdown of ENH1 prevented the CREB-dependent transcription. Our results thus suggest that ENH1 plays an essential role in CREB's activation and dependent transcription in cardiomyocytes. At the opposite, ENH3 prevents the CREB transcriptional activity. In conclusion, these results provide a first molecular explanation to the opposing functions of ENH splice variants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Homeodomain protein otp and activity-dependent splicing modulate neuronal adaptation to stress.

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    Amir-Zilberstein, Liat; Blechman, Janna; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Norton, William H J; Reuveny, Adriana; Borodovsky, Nataliya; Tahor, Maayan; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Chen, Alon; Levkowitz, Gil

    2012-01-26

    Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) activity is critical for the animal's adaptation to stressful challenges, and its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders in humans. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional response to stress is not well understood. Using various stress paradigms in mouse and zebrafish, we show that the hypothalamic transcription factor Orthopedia modulates the expression of CRH as well as the splicing factor Ataxin 2-Binding Protein-1 (A2BP1/Rbfox-1). We further show that the G protein coupled receptor PAC1, which is a known A2BP1/Rbfox-1 splicing target and an important mediator of CRH activity, is alternatively spliced in response to a stressful challenge. The generation of PAC1-hop messenger RNA isoform by alternative splicing is required for termination of CRH transcription, normal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adaptive anxiety-like behavior. Our study identifies an evolutionarily conserved biochemical pathway that modulates the neuronal adaptation to stress through transcriptional activation and alternative splicing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Splicing Activation by Rbfox Requires Self-Aggregation through Its Tyrosine-Rich Domain.

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    Ying, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Vuong, Celine K; Lin, Chia-Ho; Damianov, Andrey; Black, Douglas L

    2017-07-13

    Proteins of the Rbfox family act with a complex of proteins called the Large Assembly of Splicing Regulators (LASR). We find that Rbfox interacts with LASR via its C-terminal domain (CTD), and this domain is essential for its splicing activity. In addition to LASR recruitment, a low-complexity (LC) sequence within the CTD contains repeated tyrosines that mediate higher-order assembly of Rbfox/LASR and are required for splicing activation by Rbfox. This sequence spontaneously aggregates in solution to form fibrous structures and hydrogels, suggesting an assembly similar to the insoluble cellular inclusions formed by FUS and other proteins in neurologic disease. Unlike the pathological aggregates, we find that assembly of the Rbfox CTD plays an essential role in its normal splicing function. Rather than simple recruitment of individual regulators to a target exon, alternative splicing choices also depend on the higher-order assembly of these regulators within the nucleus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservation of context-dependent splicing activity in distant Muscleblind homologs.

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    Oddo, Julia C; Saxena, Tanvi; McConnell, Ona L; Berglund, J Andrew; Wang, Eric T

    2016-09-30

    The Muscleblind (MBL) protein family is a deeply conserved family of RNA binding proteins that regulate alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, RNA stability and RNA localization. Their inactivation due to sequestration by expanded CUG repeats causes symptoms in the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy. MBL zinc fingers are the most highly conserved portion of these proteins, and directly interact with RNA. We identified putative MBL homologs in Ciona intestinalis and Trichoplax adhaerens, and investigated their ability, as well as that of MBL homologs from human/mouse, fly and worm, to regulate alternative splicing. We found that all homologs can regulate alternative splicing in mouse cells, with some regulating over 100 events. The cis-elements through which each homolog exerts its splicing activities are likely to be highly similar to mammalian Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs), as suggested by motif analyses and the ability of expanded CUG repeats to inactivate homolog-mediated splicing. While regulation of specific target exons by MBL/MBNL has not been broadly conserved across these species, genes enriched for MBL/MBNL binding sites in their introns may play roles in cell adhesion, ion transport and axon guidance, among other biological pathways, suggesting a specific, conserved role for these proteins across a broad range of metazoan species. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. CDKL5 influences RNA splicing activity by its association to the nuclear speckle molecular machinery.

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    Ricciardi, Sara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jacquette, Aurélia; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Broccoli, Vania

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders including infantile spasms, encephalopathy, West-syndrome and an early-onset variant of Rett syndrome. CDKL5 is a serine/threonine kinase whose involvement in Rett syndrome can be inferred by its ability to directly bind and mediate phosphorylation of MeCP2. However, it remains to be elucidated how CDKL5 exerts its function. Here, we report that CDKL5 localizes to specific nuclear foci referred to as nuclear speckles in both cell lines and tissues. These sub-nuclear structures are traditionally considered as storage/modification sites of pre-mRNA splicing factors. Interestingly, we provide evidence that CDKL5 regulates the dynamic behaviour of nuclear speckles. Indeed, CDKL5 overexpression leads to nuclear speckle disassembly, and this event is strictly dependent on its kinase activity. Conversely, its down-regulation affects nuclear speckle morphology leading to abnormally large and uneven speckles. Similar results were obtained for primary adult fibroblasts isolated from CDKL5-mutated patients. Altogether, these findings indicate that CDKL5 controls nuclear speckle morphology probably by regulating the phosphorylation state of splicing regulatory proteins. Nuclear speckles are dynamic sites that can continuously supply splicing factors to active transcription sites, where splicing occurs. Notably, we proved that CDKL5 influences alternative splicing, at least as proved in heterologous minigene assays. In conclusion, we provide evidence that CDKL5 is involved indirectly in pre-mRNA processing, by controlling splicing factor dynamics. These findings identify a biological process whose disregulation might affect neuronal maturation and activity in CDKL5-related disorders.

  19. Transcriptional activity of human brain estrogen receptor-α splice variants: evidence for cell type-specific regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, T. A.; Sluiter, A. A.; Swaab, D. F.; Verwer, R. W. H.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoforms with complex types of alternative splicing are naturally present in the human brain and may affect canonical receptor signaling. In the present study we investigated transcriptional activity of common ERα splice variants from this group with different molecular

  20. An Alternate Splicing Variant of the Human Telomerase Catalytic Subunit Inhibits Telomerase Activity

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    Xiaoming Yi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase, adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends. In normal human somatic cells, telomerase is repressed and telomeres progressively shorten, leading to proliferative senescence. Introduction of the telomerase (hTERT cDNA is sufficient to produce telomerase activity and immortalize normal human cells, suggesting that the repression of telomerase activity is transcriptional. The telomerase transcript has been shown to have at least six alternate splicing sites (four insertion sites and two deletion sites, and variants containing both or either of the deletion sites are present during development and in a panel of cancer cell lines we surveyed. One deletion (β site and all four insertions cause premature translation terminations, whereas the other deletion (α site is 36 by and lies within reverse transcriptase (RT motif A, suggesting that this deletion variant may be a candidate as a dominant-negative inhibitor of telomerase. We have cloned three alternately spliced hTERT variants that contain the α,β or both α and,β deletion sites. These alternate splicing variants along with empty vector and wild-type hTERT were introduced into normal human fibroblasts and several telomerase-positive immortal and tumor cell lines. Expression of the α site deletion variant (hTERT α− construct was confirmed by Western blotting. We found that none of the three alternate splicing variants reconstitutes telomerase activity in fibroblasts. However, hTERT α− inhibits telomerase activities in telomerase-positive cells, causes telomere shortening and eventually cell death. This alternately spliced dominant-negative variant may be important in understanding telomerase regulation during development, differentiation and in cancer progression.

  1. High resolution analysis of the human transcriptome: detection of extensive alternative splicing independent of transcriptional activity

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    Rouet Fabien

    2009-10-01

    transcriptional activity, indicating that the controls for transcript generation and transcription are distinct, and require novel tools in order to detect changes in specific transcript quantity. Our results demonstrate that the SpliceArray™ design will provide researchers with a robust platform to detect and quantify specific changes not only in overall gene expression, but also at the individual transcript level.

  2. The splicing-factor oncoprotein SF2/ASF activates mTORC1.

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    Karni, Rotem; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Lowe, Scott W; Krainer, Adrian R

    2008-10-07

    The splicing factor SF2/ASF is an oncoprotein that is up-regulated in many cancers and can transform immortal rodent fibroblasts when slightly overexpressed. The mTOR signaling pathway is activated in many cancers, and pharmacological blockers of this pathway are in clinical trials as anticancer drugs. We examined the activity of the mTOR pathway in cells transformed by SF2/ASF and found that this splicing factor activates the mTORC1 branch of the pathway, as measured by S6K and eIF4EBP1 phosphorylation. This activation is specific to mTORC1 because no activation of Akt, an mTORC2 substrate, was detected. mTORC1 activation by SF2/ASF bypasses upstream PI3K/Akt signaling and is essential for SF2/ASF-mediated transformation, as inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin blocked transformation by SF2/ASF in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of mTOR, or of the specific mTORC1 and mTORC2 components Raptor and Rictor, abolished the tumorigenic potential of cells overexpressing SF2/ASF. These results suggest that clinical tumors with SF2/ASF up-regulation could be especially sensitive to mTOR inhibitors.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of immune activation in human T and B cells reveals distinct classes of alternatively spliced genes.

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    Yevgeniy A Grigoryev

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a mechanism that increases the protein diversity of a single gene by differential exon inclusion/exclusion during post-transcriptional processing. While alternative splicing is established to occur during lymphocyte activation, little is known about the role it plays during the immune response. Our study is among the first reports of a systematic genome-wide analysis of activated human T and B lymphocytes using whole exon DNA microarrays integrating alternative splicing and differential gene expression. Purified human CD2(+ T or CD19(+ B cells were activated using protocols to model the early events in post-transplant allograft immunity and sampled as a function of time during the process of immune activation. Here we show that 3 distinct classes of alternatively spliced and/or differentially expressed genes change in an ordered manner as a function of immune activation. We mapped our results to function-based canonical pathways and demonstrated that some are populated by only one class of genes, like integrin signaling, while other pathways, such as purine metabolism and T cell receptor signaling, are populated by all three classes of genes. Our studies augment the current view of T and B cell activation in immunity that has been based exclusively upon differential gene expression by providing evidence for a large number of molecular networks populated as a function of time and activation by alternatively spliced genes, many of which are constitutively expressed.

  4. The hTERTα Splice Variant is a Dominant Negative Inhibitor of Telomerase Activity

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    Lorel M. Colgin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT is an essential component of the holoenzyme complex that adds telomeric repeats to the ends of human chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres by telomerase or another mechanism is required for cell immortalization, and loss of telomeric DNA has been proposed as a trigger for cellular senescence. Available evidence suggests that regulation of telomerase activity primarily depends on transcriptional control of hTERT. However, several human tissues as well as some normal cell strains have been shown to express low levels of hTERT mRNA even though they lack telomerase activity. We have previously identified six splice variants of hTERT, including a “deletion” variant (hTERTα that is missing conserved residues from the catalytic core of the protein. Several of the deletion variants have been detected in normal and developing human tissues. We now show that hTERTα inhibits endogenous telomerase activity, which results in telomere shortening and chromosome end-to-end fusions. Telomerase inhibition induced a senescence-like state in HT1080 cells and apoptosis in a jejunal fibroblast cell line. These results suggest a possible role for hTERT splice variants in the regulation of telomerase activity.

  5. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

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    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  6. Defective splicing of the background K+ channel K2P5.1 by the pre-mRNA splicing inhibitor, pladienolide B in lectin-activated mouse splenic CD4+ T cells

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    Kazutaka Tagishi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The two-pore domain K+ channel K2P5.1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We investigated the changes in K2P5.1 activity caused by a defect in normal pre-mRNA splicing in concanavalin A-activated mouse splenic CD4+ T cells. The pre-mRNA splicing inhibitor, pladienolide B (1 μM markedly decreased full-length K2P5.1 transcription in activated CD4+ T cells, resulting in the disappearance of K2P5.1 activity and an imbalance in Th17 and Treg cytokines. These results suggest that the defect in K2P5.1 splicing by the pre-mRNA splicing inhibitor regulates pro- and/or anti-inflammatory cytokine production in K2P5.1-associated autoimmune diseases.

  7. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Anne-Mette; Swensen, Jeff; Uriz, Inaki E

    2016-01-01

    the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE) and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS). We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3' splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE....... Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also...

  8. Human type II pneumocyte chemotactic responses to CXCR3 activation are mediated by splice variant A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rong; Lee, Clement M; Gonzales, Linda W; Yang, Yi; Aksoy, Mark O; Wang, Ping; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae; Hurford, Matthew T; Kelsen, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    Chemokine receptors control several fundamental cellular processes in both hematopoietic and structural cells, including directed cell movement, i.e., chemotaxis, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that CXCR3, the chemokine receptor expressed by Th1/Tc1 inflammatory cells present in the lung, is also expressed by human airway epithelial cells. In airway epithelial cells, activation of CXCR3 induces airway epithelial cell movement and proliferation, processes that underlie lung repair. The present study examined the expression and function of CXCR3 in human alveolar type II pneumocytes, whose destruction causes emphysema. CXCR3 was present in human fetal and adult type II pneumocytes as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. CXCR3-A and -B splice variant mRNA was present constitutively in cultured type II cells, but levels of CXCR3-B greatly exceeded CXCR3-A mRNA. In cultured type II cells, I-TAC, IP-10, and Mig induced chemotaxis. Overexpression of CXCR3-A in the A549 pneumocyte cell line produced robust chemotactic responses to I-TAC and IP-10. In contrast, I-TAC did not induce chemotactic responses in CXCR3-B and mock-transfected cells. Finally, I-TAC increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B kinases only in CXCR3-A-transfected cells. These data indicate that the CXCR3 receptor is expressed by human type II pneumocytes, and the CXCR3-A splice variant mediates chemotactic responses possibly through Ca(2+) activation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways. Expression of CXCR3 in alveolar epithelial cells may be important in pneumocyte repair from injury.

  9. Cell type-restricted activity of hnRNPM promotes breast cancer metastasis via regulating alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yilin; Gao, Xin D; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Huang, Huilin; Tan, Haiyan; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Reinke, Lauren M; Peter, Marcus E; Feng, Yue; Gius, David; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Peng, Junmin; Xiao, Xinshu; Cheng, Chonghui

    2014-06-01

    Tumor metastasis remains the major cause of cancer-related death, but its molecular basis is still not well understood. Here we uncovered a splicing-mediated pathway that is essential for breast cancer metastasis. We show that the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNPM) promotes breast cancer metastasis by activating the switch of alternative splicing that occurs during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Genome-wide deep sequencing analysis suggests that hnRNPM potentiates TGFβ signaling and identifies CD44 as a key downstream target of hnRNPM. hnRNPM ablation prevents TGFβ-induced EMT and inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice, whereas enforced expression of the specific CD44 standard (CD44s) splice isoform overrides the loss of hnRNPM and permits EMT and metastasis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed hnRNPM acts in a mesenchymal-specific manner to precisely control CD44 splice isoform switching during EMT. This restricted cell-type activity of hnRNPM is achieved by competition with ESRP1, an epithelial splicing regulator that binds to the same cis-regulatory RNA elements as hnRNPM and is repressed during EMT. Importantly, hnRNPM is associated with aggressive breast cancer and correlates with increased CD44s in patient specimens. These findings demonstrate a novel molecular mechanism through which tumor metastasis is endowed by the hnRNPM-mediated splicing program. © 2014 Xu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma caused by activation of a cryptic splice site in KRT9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Telem, D; Padalon-Brauch, G; Sarig, O; Sprecher, E

    2013-03-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is caused by mutations in KRT9 and less often, KRT1. All known mutations in KRT9 have been found in regions of the gene encoding the conserved central α-helix rod domain. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis of EPPK in a patient of Ashkenazi Jewish origin. The patient was found to carry a novel missense mutation in KRT9, resulting in the substitution of a poorly conserved leucine for valine at position 11 of the amino acid sequence. Despite its unusual location, the mutation was shown to be pathogenic through activation of a cryptic donor splice site, resulting in the deletion of 162 amino acids. The present data indicate the need to screen keratin genes in their entirety, as mutations altering domains of lesser functional importance may exert their deleterious effect at the transcriptional level. © The Author(s) CED © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Identification of evolutionarily conserved exons as regulated targets for the splicing activator tra2β in development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Grellscheid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing amplifies the information content of the genome, creating multiple mRNA isoforms from single genes. The evolutionarily conserved splicing activator Tra2β (Sfrs10 is essential for mouse embryogenesis and implicated in spermatogenesis. Here we find that Tra2β is up-regulated as the mitotic stem cell containing population of male germ cells differentiate into meiotic and post-meiotic cells. Using CLIP coupled to deep sequencing, we found that Tra2β binds a high frequency of exons and identified specific G/A rich motifs as frequent targets. Significantly, for the first time we have analysed the splicing effect of Sfrs10 depletion in vivo by generating a conditional neuronal-specific Sfrs10 knock-out mouse (Sfrs10(fl/fl; Nestin-Cre(tg/+. This mouse has defects in brain development and allowed correlation of genuine physiologically Tra2β regulated exons. These belonged to a novel class which were longer than average size and importantly needed multiple cooperative Tra2β binding sites for efficient splicing activation, thus explaining the observed splicing defects in the knockout mice. Regulated exons included a cassette exon which produces a meiotic isoform of the Nasp histone chaperone that helps monitor DNA double-strand breaks. We also found a previously uncharacterised poison exon identifying a new pathway of feedback control between vertebrate Tra2 proteins. Both Nasp-T and the Tra2a poison exon are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting they might control fundamental developmental processes. Tra2β protein isoforms lacking the RRM were able to activate specific target exons indicating an additional functional role as a splicing co-activator. Significantly the N-terminal RS1 domain conserved between flies and humans was essential for the splicing activator function of Tra2β. Versions of Tra2β lacking this N-terminal RS1 domain potently repressed the same target exons activated by full-length Tra2β protein.

  12. Design of RNA-Binding Proteins: Manipulate Alternative Splicing in Human Cells with Artificial Splicing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    The majority of human genes undergo alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms with distinct functions. The dysregulations of alternative splicing have been found to be closely associated with various human diseases; thus new approaches to modulate disease-associated splicing events will provide great therapeutic potentials. Here we report protocols for constructing novel artificial splicing factors that can be designed to specifically modulate alternative splicing of target genes. By following the method outlined in this protocol, it is possible to design and generate artificial splicing factors with diverse activities in regulating different types of alternative splicing. The artificial splicing factors can be used to change splicing of either minigenes or endogenous genes in cultured human cells, providing a new strategy to study the regulation of alternative splicing and function of alternatively spliced products.

  13. Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Akihiro, E-mail: a-wada@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Wong, Pooi-Fong [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hojo, Hironobu [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Institute of Glycoscience, Tokai University, Kanagawa 2591292 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Shiga 5260829 (Japan); Ichinose, Akitoyo [Electron Microscopy Shop Central Laboratory, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Llanes, Rafael [Institute Pedro Kouri, Havana (Cuba); Kubo, Yoshinao [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Senba, Masachika [Department of Pathology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan); Ichinose, Yoshio [Kenya Research Station, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528523 (Japan)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: • Alarin inhibits the growth of E. coli but not S. aureus. • Alarin’s potency is comparable to LL-37 in inhibiting the growth of E. coli. • Alarin can cause bacterial membrane blebbing. • Alalin does not induce hemolysis on erythrocytes. -- Abstract: Alarin is an alternative-splicing form of GALP (galanin-like peptide). It shares only 5 conserved amino acids at the N-terminal region with GALP which is involved in a diverse range of normal brain functions. This study seeks to investigate whether alarin has additional functions due to its differences from GALP. Here, we have shown using a radial diffusion assay that alarin but not GALP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli (strain ML-35). The conserved N-terminal region, however, remained essential for the antimicrobial activity of alarin as truncated peptides showed reduced killing effect. Moreover, alarin inhibited the growth of E. coli in a similar potency as human cathelicidin LL-37, a well-studied antimicrobial peptide. Electron microscopy further showed that alarin induced bacterial membrane blebbing but unlike LL-37, it did not cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. In addition, alarin is only active against the gram-negative bacteria, E. coli but not the gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, these data suggest that alarin has potentials as an antimicrobial and should be considered for the development in human therapeutics.

  14. Arabidopsis IRE1 catalyses unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor

    KAUST Repository

    Nagashima, Yukihiro

    2011-07-01

    IRE1 plays an essential role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in yeast and mammals. We found that a double mutant of Arabidopsis IRE1A and IRE1B (ire1a/ire1b) is more sensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin than the wild-type. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes whose induction was reduced in ire1a/ire1b largely overlapped those in the bzip60 mutant. We observed that the active form of bZIP60 protein detected in the wild-type was missing in ire1a/ire1b. We further demonstrated that bZIP60 mRNA is spliced by ER stress, removing 23 ribonucleotides and therefore causing a frameshift that replaces the C-terminal region of bZIP60 including the transmembrane domain (TMD) with a shorter region without a TMD. This splicing was detected in ire1a and ire1b single mutants, but not in the ire1a/ire1b double mutant. We conclude that IRE1A and IRE1B catalyse unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor.

  15. Sam68 regulates EMT through alternative splicing-activated nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the SF2/ASF proto-oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valacca, Cristina; Bonomi, Serena; Buratti, Emanuele; Pedrotti, Simona; Baralle, Francisco Ernesto; Sette, Claudio; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2010-10-04

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reversal (MET) are crucial cell plasticity programs that act during development and tumor metastasis. We have previously shown that the splicing factor and proto-oncogene SF2/ASF impacts EMT/MET through production of a constitutively active splice variant of the Ron proto-oncogene. Using an in vitro model, we now show that SF2/ASF is also regulated during EMT/MET by alternative splicing associated with the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway (AS-NMD). Overexpression and small interfering RNA experiments implicate the splicing regulator Sam68 in AS-NMD of SF2/ASF transcripts and in the choice between EMT/MET programs. Moreover, Sam68 modulation of SF2/ASF splicing appears to be controlled by epithelial cell-derived soluble factors that act through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to regulate Sam68 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results reveal a hierarchy of splicing factors that integrate splicing decisions into EMT/MET programs in response to extracellular stimuli.

  16. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase splicing variants in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoon, Hee-Kyung; Song, Seung Taek; Park, Seok-Rae; Shim, Seung-Cheol

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the expression patterns of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) variants in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and examine their clinical implications, we isolated PBMCs from healthy controls (HC, n = 33) and patients with AS (n = 62), and measured mRNA expression of AID variants and translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The proportion of patients with AS in whom AID splicing variant (sv) 2 was expressed was significantly higher than that of HC (p = .031). 80.7% of AS patients were treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). Significantly higher proportion of the TNFi-treated group expressed sv2 compared to the TNF-naïve group (p = .037). And we compared the level of AID variants expression between the TNFi-treated group and the TNF-naïve group. The expression levels of AID full-length (FL) and sv1 were significantly lower in the TNFi-treated group than the TNF-naïve group (FL: p = .002, sv1: p = .045). In addition, we investigated mRNA expression levels of translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases in PBMCs from patients with AS and HC. The expression level of TLS pol ι was significantly lower in patients with AS than in HC (p = .007). In conclusion, AS patients expressed significantly higher levels of sv2 than HC. TNFi treatment restored the gene expression of the AID variants (FL, sv1, and sv2) in patients with AS. A clear understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms will help to identify the pathogenesis of AS better and to develop novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Disruption of agonist and ligand activity in an AMPA glutamate receptor splice-variable domain deletion mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne D; Parandaman, Vijaya; Onaivi, Emmanuel S; Taylor, Robert E; Akinshola, B Emmanuel

    2008-07-30

    The mechanisms by which agonists and other ligands bind ligand-gated ion channels are important determinants of function in neurotransmitter receptors. The partial agonist, kainic acid (KA) activates a less desensitized, and more robust AMPA receptor (AMPAR) current than full agonists, glutamate or AMPA. Cyclothiazide (CTZ), the allosteric modulator of AMPARs, potentiates receptor currents by inhibiting receptor desensitization resulting from agonist activation. We have constructed an AMPAR GluR1 subunit deletion mutant GluR1L3T(Delta739-784) by deleting the splice-variable "flip/flop" region of the L3 domain in the wild-type receptor and compared its function to that of the wild-type GluR1 receptor and an AMPAR substitution mutant GluR1A782N. When compared to GluR1, the potency of glutamate activation of GluR1L3T was increased, in contrast to a decrease in potency of activation and reduced sensitivity to optimal concentrations of KA. Furthermore, GluR1L3T was totally insensitive to CTZ potentiation of KA and glutamate-activated currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The potency of glutamate and KA activation of GluR1A782N was not significantly different from that of the wild-type GluR1 receptor although the mutant receptor currents were more sensitive to CTZ potentiation than the wild-type receptor current. This result is an indication that glutamate and KA binding to the agonist (S1/S2) domain on AMPAR can be modulated by an expendable splice-variable region of the receptor. Moreover, the effect of the allosteric modulator, CTZ on agonist activation of AMPAR can also be modified by a non-conserved amino acid residue substitution within the splice-variable "flip/flop" region.

  18. Alternative Splicing at C Terminus of CaV1.4 Calcium Channel Modulates Calcium-dependent Inactivation, Activation Potential, and Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gregory Ming Yeong; Yu, Dejie; Wang, Juejin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The CaV1.4 voltage-gated calcium channel is predominantly expressed in the retina, and mutations to this channel have been associated with human congenital stationary night blindness type-2. The L-type CaV1.4 channel displays distinct properties such as absence of calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and slow voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) due to the presence of an autoinhibitory domain (inhibitor of CDI) in the distal C terminus. We hypothesized that native CaV1.4 is subjected to extensive alternative splicing, much like the other voltage-gated calcium channels, and employed the transcript scanning method to identify alternatively spliced exons within the CaV1.4 transcripts isolated from the human retina. In total, we identified 19 alternative splice variations, of which 16 variations have not been previously reported. Characterization of the C terminus alternatively spliced exons using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology revealed a splice variant that exhibits robust CDI. This splice variant arose from the splicing of a novel alternate exon (43*) that can be found in 13.6% of the full-length transcripts screened. Inclusion of exon 43* inserts a stop codon that truncates half the C terminus. The CaV1.4 43* channel exhibited robust CDI, a larger current density, a hyperpolarized shift in activation potential by ∼10 mV, and a slower VDI. Through deletional experiments, we showed that the inhibitor of CDI was responsible for modulating channel activation and VDI, in addition to CDI. Calcium currents in the photoreceptors were observed to exhibit CDI and are more negatively activated as compared with currents elicited from heterologously expressed full-length CaV1.4. Naturally occurring alternative splice variants may in part contribute to the properties of the native CaV1.4 channels. PMID:22069316

  19. Alternative splice isoforms of small conductance calcium-activated SK2 channels differ in molecular interactions and surface levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Elizabeth Storer; Pirone, Antonella; Cox, Daniel H; Duncan, R Keith; Jacob, Michele H

    2014-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (SK2) channels are voltage-independent, Ca2+-activated ion channels that conduct potassium cations and thereby modulate the intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission of neurons and sensory hair cells. In the cochlea, SK2 channels are functionally coupled to the highly Ca2+ permeant α9/10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at olivocochlear postsynaptic sites. SK2 activation leads to outer hair cell hyperpolarization and frequency-selective suppression of afferent sound transmission. These inhibitory responses are essential for normal regulation of sound sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and suppression of background noise. However, little is known about the molecular interactions of these key functional channels. Here we show that SK2 channels co-precipitate with α9/10-nAChRs and with the actin-binding protein α-actinin-1. SK2 alternative splicing, resulting in a 3 amino acid insertion in the intracellular 3′ terminus, modulates these interactions. Further, relative abundance of the SK2 splice variants changes during developmental stages of synapse maturation in both the avian cochlea and the mammalian forebrain. Using heterologous cell expression to separately study the 2 distinct isoforms, we show that the variants differ in protein interactions and surface expression levels, and that Ca2+ and Ca2+-bound calmodulin differentially regulate their protein interactions. Our findings suggest that the SK2 isoforms may be distinctly modulated by activity-induced Ca2+ influx. Alternative splicing of SK2 may serve as a novel mechanism to differentially regulate the maturation and function of olivocochlear and neuronal synapses. PMID:24394769

  20. Specific inhibition of transcriptional activity of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) by the splicing factor SF3a3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye Jin; Kwon, Jungsun; Seol, Wongi

    2008-10-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays an important role in the degradation of xenobiotics in the liver. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified SF3a3, a 60-kDa subunit of the splicing factor 3a complex, as a specific CAR-interacting protein. We further confirmed their interaction by both co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. Functional studies showed that overexpression of SF3a3 inhibited the reporter activity driven by a promoter containing CAR binding sequences by up to 50%, whereas reduced expression of SF3a3 activated the same reporter activity by approximately three-fold. The inhibitory function of SF3a3 is independent of the presence of TCPOBOP, a CAR ligand. These data suggest that SF3a3 functions as a co-repressor of CAR transcriptional activity, in addition to its canonical function.

  1. Correlating In Vitro Splice Switching Activity With Systemic In Vivo Delivery Using Novel ZEN-modified Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Hammond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Splice switching oligonucleotides (SSOs induce alternative splicing of pre-mRNA and typically employ chemical modifications to increase nuclease resistance and binding affinity to target pre-mRNA. Here we describe a new SSO non-base modifier (a naphthyl-azo group, “ZEN™” to direct exon exclusion in mutant dystrophin pre-mRNA to generate functional dystrophin protein. The ZEN modifier is placed near the ends of a 2′-O-methyl (2′OMe oligonucleotide, increasing melting temperature and potency over unmodified 2′OMe oligonucleotides. In cultured H2K cells, a ZEN-modified 2′OMe phosphorothioate (PS oligonucleotide delivered by lipid transfection greatly enhanced dystrophin exon skipping over the same 2′OMePS SSO lacking ZEN. However, when tested using free gymnotic uptake in vitro and following systemic delivery in vivo in dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the same ZEN-modified SSO failed to enhance potency. Importantly, we show for the first time that in vivo activity of anionic SSOs is modelled in vitro only when using gymnotic delivery. ZEN is thus a novel modifier that enhances activity of SSOs in vitro but will require improved delivery methods before its in vivo clinical potential can be realized.

  2. A horizontally acquired group II intron in the chloroplast psbA gene of a psychrophilic Chlamydomonas: in vitro self-splicing and genetic evidence for maturase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Obed W; Shenkenberg, David L; Garcia, Joshua A; Herrin, David L

    2004-07-01

    The majority of known group II introns are from chloroplast genomes, yet the first self-splicing group II intron from a chloroplast gene was reported only recently, from the psbA gene of the euglenoid, Euglena myxocylindracea. Herein, we describe a large (2.6-kb) group II intron from the psbA gene (psbA1) of a psychrophilic Chlamydomonas sp. from Antarctica that self-splices accurately in vitro. Remarkably, this intron, which also encodes an ORF with putative reverse transcriptase, maturase, and endonuclease domains, is in the same location, and is related to the E. myxocylindracea intron, as well as to group IIB2 introns from cyanobacteria. In vitro self-splicing of Chs.psbA1 occurred via a lariat, and required Mg(2+) (>12 mM) and NH(4)(+). Self-splicing was improved by deleting most of the ORF and by using pre-RNAs directly from transcription reactions, suggestive of a role for folding during transcription. Self-splicing of Chs.psbA1 pre-RNAs showed temperature optima of ~44 degrees C, but with a broad shoulder on the low side of the peak; splicing was nearly absent at 50 degrees C, indicative of thermolability. Splicing of wild-type Chs.psbA1 also occurred in Escherichia coli, but not when the ORF was disrupted by mutations, providing genetic evidence that it has maturase activity. This work provides the first description of a ribozyme from a psychrophilic organism. It also appears to provide a second instance of interkingdom horizontal transfer of this group IIB2 intron (or a close relative) from cyanobacteria to chloroplasts.

  3. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2 protein transcriptionally activates the promoter of a key cellular splicing factor, SF2/ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Sarah; Milligan, Steven G; Graham, Sheila V

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression is regulated in concert with the epithelial differentiation program. In particular, expression of the virus capsid proteins L1 and L2 is tightly restricted to differentiated epithelial cells. For HPV16, the capsid proteins are encoded by 13 structurally different mRNAs that are produced by extensive alternative splicing. Previously, we demonstrated that upon epithelial differentiation, HPV16 infection upregulates hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF, both key factors in alternative splicing regulation. Here we cloned a 1-kb region upstream of and including the transcriptional start site of the SF2ASF gene and used it in in vivo transcription assays to demonstrate that the HPV16 E2 transcription factor transactivates the SF2/ASF promoter. The transactivation domain but not the DNA binding domain of the protein is necessary for this. Active E2 association with the promoter was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that E2 interacted with a region 482 to 684 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site in vitro. This is the first time that HPV16 E2 has been shown to regulate cellular gene expression and the first report of viral regulation of expression of an RNA processing factor. Such E2-mediated control during differentiation of infected epithelial cells may facilitate late capsid protein expression and completion of the virus life cycle.

  4. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Lindblad, Maiken Marie; Jakobsen, Jannik E.

    2015-01-01

    analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw). We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs......) isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs) from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased...... expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early...

  5. Why eukaryotic cells use introns to enhance gene expression: Splicing reduces transcription-associated mutagenesis by inhibiting topoisomerase I cutting activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu-Fei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The costs and benefits of spliceosomal introns in eukaryotes have not been established. One recognized effect of intron splicing is its known enhancement of gene expression. However, the mechanism regulating such splicing-mediated expression enhancement has not been defined. Previous studies have shown that intron splicing is a time-consuming process, indicating that splicing may not reduce the time required for transcription and processing of spliced pre-mRNA molecules; rather, it might facilitate the later rounds of transcription. Because the densities of active RNA polymerase II on most genes are less than one molecule per gene, direct interactions between the splicing apparatus and transcriptional complexes (from the later rounds of transcription are infrequent, and thus unlikely to account for splicing-mediated gene expression enhancement. Presentation of the hypothesis The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF can inhibit the DNA topoisomerase I activity that removes negative supercoiling of DNA generated by transcription. Consequently, splicing could make genes more receptive to RNA polymerase II during the later rounds of transcription, and thus affect the frequency of gene transcription. Compared with the transcriptional enhancement mediated by strong promoters, intron-containing genes experience a lower frequency of cut-and-paste processes. The cleavage and religation activity of DNA strands by DNA topoisomerase I was recently shown to account for transcription-associated mutagenesis. Therefore, intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression could reduce transcription-associated genome instability. Testing the hypothesis Experimentally test whether transcription-associated mutagenesis is lower in intron-containing genes than in intronless genes. Use bioinformatic analysis to check whether exons flanking lost introns have higher frequencies of short deletions. Implications of the hypothesis The mechanism of intron

  6. Expression of a splice variant of the platelet-activating factor receptor transcript 2 in various human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Youlyouz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R transcripts were analysed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in five human cancer cell lines derived from the breast (BT20, SKBR3 and T47D cells, the pancreas (Miapaca cells and the bladder (5637 cells in order to confirm the existence of a splice variant of the PAF-R transcript 2. After cloning and sequencing, we confirmed its existence in all cell lines. It consisted of the PAF-R transcript 2 lengthening with 82 nucleotides from the 3' end of exon 1 of the PAF-R gene. The role of this elongated form of the tissue-type PAF-R transcript in cell physiology remains to be elucidated.

  7. Traceless splicing enabled by substrate-induced activation of the Nostoc punctiforme Npu DnaE intein after mutation of a catalytic cysteine to serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Manoj; Chan, Siu-Hong; Perler, Francine

    2014-12-12

    Inteins self-catalytically cleave out of precursor proteins while ligating the surrounding extein fragments with a native peptide bond. Much attention has been lavished on these molecular marvels with the hope of understanding and harnessing their chemistry for novel biochemical transformations including coupling peptides from synthetic or biological origins and controlling protein function. Despite an abundance of powerful applications, the use of inteins is still hampered by limitations in our understanding of their specificity (defined as flanking sequences that permit splicing) and the challenge of inserting inteins into target proteins. We examined the frequently used Nostoc punctiforme Npu DnaE intein after the C-extein cysteine nucleophile (Cys+1) was mutated to serine or threonine. Previous studies demonstrated reduced rates and/or splicing yields with the Npu DnaE intein after mutation of Cys+1 to Ser+1. In this study, genetic selection identified extein sequences with Ser+1 that enabled the Npu DnaE intein to splice with only a 5-fold reduction in rate compared to the wild-type Cys+1 intein and without mutation of the intein itself to activate Ser+1 as a nucleophile. Three different proteins spliced efficiently after insertion of the intein flanked by the selected sequences. We then used this selected specificity to achieve traceless splicing in a targeted enzyme at a location predicted by primary sequence similarity to only the selected C-extein sequence. This study highlights the latent catalytic potential of the Npu DnaE intein to splice with an alternative nucleophile and enables broader intein utility by increasing insertion site choices. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Calcium Activated K+ Channels in The Electroreceptor of the Skate Confirmed by Cloning. Details of Subunits and Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin L.; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K+ channels, first described in l974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intracellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted˜ in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. PMID:26687710

  9. Calcium activated K⁺ channels in the electroreceptor of the skate confirmed by cloning. Details of subunits and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin L; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T

    2016-03-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intra-cellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification of RNA-Protein Splicing Complexes Using a Tagged Protein from In Vitro Splicing Reaction Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, pre-mRNA splicing is an essential step for gene expression. Splicing reactions have been well investigated by using in vitro splicing reactions with extracts prepared from cultured cells. Here, we describe protocols for the preparation of splicing-competent extracts from cells expressing a tagged spliceosomal protein. The whole-cell extracts are able to splice exogenously added pre-mRNA and the RNA-protein complex formed in the in vitro splicing reaction can be purified by immunoprecipitation using antibodies against the peptide tag on the splicing protein. The method described here to prepare splicing-active extracts from whole cells is particularly useful when studying pre-mRNA splicing in various cell types, and the expression of a tagged spliceosomal protein allows one to purify and analyze the RNA-protein complexes by simple immunoprecipitation.

  11. Alternative Splicing in CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Megan; Oltean, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged in the postgenomic era as one of the main drivers of proteome diversity, with ���94% of multiexon genes alternatively spliced in humans. AS is therefore one of the main control mechanisms for cell phenotype, and is a process deregulated in disease. Numerous reports describe pathogenic mutations in splice factors, splice sites, or regulatory sequences. Additionally, compared with the physiologic state, disease often associates with an abnormal proportion o...

  12. The genetic basis for individual differences in mRNA splicing and APOBEC1 editing activity in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Musa A; Butty, Vincent; Jensen, Kirk D C; Saeij, Jeroen P J

    2014-03-01

    Alternative splicing and mRNA editing are known to contribute to transcriptome diversity. Although alternative splicing is pervasive and contributes to a variety of pathologies, including cancer, the genetic context for individual differences in isoform usage is still evolving. Similarly, although mRNA editing is ubiquitous and associated with important biological processes such as intracellular viral replication and cancer development, individual variations in mRNA editing and the genetic transmissibility of mRNA editing are equivocal. Here, we have used linkage analysis to show that both mRNA editing and alternative splicing are regulated by the macrophage genetic background and environmental cues. We show that distinct loci, potentially harboring variable splice factors, regulate the splicing of multiple transcripts. Additionally, we show that individual genetic variability at the Apobec1 locus results in differential rates of C-to-U(T) editing in murine macrophages; with mouse strains expressing mostly a truncated alternative transcript isoform of Apobec1 exhibiting lower rates of editing. As a proof of concept, we have used linkage analysis to identify 36 high-confidence novel edited sites. These results provide a novel and complementary method that can be used to identify C-to-U editing sites in individuals segregating at specific loci and show that, beyond DNA sequence and structural changes, differential isoform usage and mRNA editing can contribute to intra-species genomic and phenotypic diversity.

  13. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Anne-Mette; Swensen, Jeff; Uriz, Inaki E

    2016-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We ident...

  14. Splicing factor SF2/ASF rescues IL-2 production in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients by activating IL-2 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Vaishali R; Grammatikos, Alexandros P; Fitzgerald, Lisa M; Tsokos, George C

    2013-01-29

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) produce insufficient amounts of the vital cytokine IL-2. We previously showed that SLE T cells express decreased levels of the T-cell receptor-CD3ζ chain and forced expression of CD3ζ into SLE T cells restores IL-2 production. We recently showed that the serine arginine protein splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) enhances the expression of CD3ζ chain by limiting the production of an unstable splice variant. Here we demonstrate that SF2/ASF levels are decreased in patients with SLE and more so in those with active disease. More importantly, we reveal a function of SF2/ASF, independent of T-cell receptor/CD3 signaling, whereby it is recruited to the IL-2 promoter, increases transcriptional activity, and enhances IL-2 production in SLE T cells. Our results demonstrate that SF2/ASF regulates IL-2 production and that decreased SF2/ASF expression in SLE T cells contributes to deficient IL-2 production.

  15. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw. We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early onset mechanisms related to cell renewal and function in familial AD astrocytes. These outcomes also highlight that radial glia could be a potentially useful population of cells for drug discovery, and that altered APP expression and altered tau phosphorylation can be detected in an in vitro model of the disease. Finally, it might be possible to use large mammal models to model familial AD by insertion of only a single mutation.

  16. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Lei [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Yan-Dong [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Biotechnology Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjw@hvri.ac.cn [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhua_uc@126.com [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Biovaccine Company, Harbin 150069 (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  17. Neuron-specific splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Nor Hakimah Ab; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2017-03-22

    During pre-mRNA splicing events, introns are removed from the pre-mRNA, and the remaining exons are connected together to form a single continuous molecule. Alternative splicing is a common mechanism for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. More than 90% of human genes are known to undergo alternative splicing. The most common type of alternative splicing is exon skipping, which is also known as cassette exon. Other known alternative splicing events include alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, intron retention, and mutually exclusive exons. Alternative splicing events are controlled by regulatory proteins responsible for both positive and negative regulation. In this review, we focus on neuronal splicing regulators and discuss several notable regulators in depth. In addition, we have also included an example of splicing regulation mediated by the RBFox protein family. Lastly, as previous studies have shown that a number of splicing factors are associated with neuronal diseases such as Alzheime's disease (AD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), here we consider their importance in neuronal diseases wherein the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated.

  18. Alternative splicing in ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempken, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Alternative splicing is a complex and regulated process, which results in mRNA with different coding capacities from a single gene. Extend and types of alternative splicing vary greatly among eukaryotes. In this review, I focus on alternative splicing in ascomycetes, which in general have significant lower extend of alternative splicing than mammals. Yeast-like species have low numbers of introns and consequently alternative splicing is lower compared to filamentous fungi. Several examples from single studies as well as from genomic scale analysis are presented, including a survey of alternative splicing in Neurospora crassa. Another focus is regulation by riboswitch RNA and alternative splicing in a heterologous system, along with putative protein factors involved in regulation.

  19. Coiled-coil interactions modulate multimerization, mitochondrial binding and kinase activity of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase splice isoforms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, R.E.M.A. van; Tjeertes, J.V.; Mulders, S.A.M.; Oude Ophuis, R.J.A.; Wieringa, B.; Wansink, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    The myotonic dystrophy protein kinase polypeptide repertoire in mice and humans consists of six different splice isoforms that vary in the nature of their C-terminal tails and in the presence or absence of an internal Val-Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly motif. Here, we demonstrate that myotonic dystrophy protein

  20. Splice mutations preserve myophosphorylase activity that ameliorates the phenotype in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Duno, Morten; Schwartz, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Over 100 mutations in the myophosphorylase gene, which cause McArdle disease, are known. All these mutations have resulted in a complete block of muscle glycogenolysis, and accordingly, no genotype-phenotype correlation has been identified in this condition. We evaluated physiologic and genetic...... with atypical McArdle disease compared to typical McArdle patients. Oxygen uptake, relative to cardiac output, was severely impaired in the 47 patients with typical McArdle disease, and partially normalized in the milder affected McArdle patients. These findings identify the first distinct genotype-phenotype...... relationship in McArdle disease, and indicate that minimal myophosphorylase activity ameliorates the typical McArdle disease phenotype by augmenting muscle oxidative capacity. The milder form of McArdle disease provides important clues to the level of functional myophosphorylase needed to support muscle...

  1. Identification of the functional activity of the [A-4] amelogenin gene splice product in newborn mouse ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Stanca; Veis, Arthur

    2008-06-01

    In the mouse tooth organ, shortly after birth, ameloblasts acquire their secretory phenotype, which is characterized by the prominent expression and subsequent secretion of two isoforms of amelogenin, M180 and M59 (LRAP, [A-4]). Amelogenin deposition into the ameloblast extracellular matrix promotes enamel biomineralization. A complex set of intercellular signaling events, reciprocal communications between the developing oral epithelium and its underlying dental mesenchyme, guide the expression of amelogenin mRNA, and limit it to a defined period of tooth development. In tooth germ organ culture, addition of the [A-4] isoform, lacking amelogenin exon 4 and exon 6 segments a, b, c, was shown to affect ameloblast development. To understand the basis for this regulatory activity, we have studied the effects of r[A-4] on ameloblast-like LS8 cells, and the role of the putative [A-4] cell surface receptor, LAMP1, as well as the related receptor LAMP3. In the LS8 cells, the expression of the spliced isoforms of amelogenin, LAMP1, and LAMP3 were identified by RT-PCR, and real-time PCR semi-quantitative analysis assessed the modulation of M180 message. M180 mRNA was up-regulated by exogenous [A-4], and this was further increased by blockade of LAMP1, suggesting additive effects between the intracellular signaling pathways activated by the discrete agonists. Immunofluorescence staining identified the patterns of [A-4] and LAMP1 localization in LS8 cells. Internalized r[A-4] was co-localized with LAMP1 in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Thus, the LAMP1 and [A-4] intracellular sorting pathways are interrelated. The nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway was activated by exogenous [A-4]. [A-4] modulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, NOS2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) expression, albeit, to different extents. NOS2 was significantly up-regulated after 4 h, while NOS3 increased slightly after 24 h. Co-treatment of LS8 cells with r[A-4] and anti

  2. The deep intronic c.903+469T>C mutation in the MTRR gene creates an SF2/ASF binding exonic splicing enhancer, which leads to pseudoexon activation and causes the cblE type of homocystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolova, Katerina; Zavadakova, Petra; Doktor, Thomas Koed; Schroeder, Lisbeth Dahl; Kozich, Viktor; Andresen, Brage S

    2010-04-01

    Deep intronic mutations are often ignored as possible causes of human diseases. A deep intronic mutation in the MTRR gene, c.903+469T>C, is the most frequent mutation causing the cblE type of homocystinuria. It is well known to be associated with pre-mRNA mis-splicing, resulting in pseudoexon inclusion; however, the pathological mechanism remains unknown. We used minigenes to demonstrate that this mutation is the direct cause of MTRR pseudoexon inclusion, and that the pseudoexon is normally not recognized due to a suboptimal 5' splice site. Within the pseudoexon we identified an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), which is activated by the mutation. Cotransfection and siRNA experiments showed that pseudoexon inclusion depends on the cellular amounts of SF2/ASF and in vitro RNA-binding assays showed dramatically increased SF2/ASF binding to the mutant MTRR ESE. The mutant MTRR ESE sequence is identical to an ESE of the alternatively spliced MST1R proto-oncogene, which suggests that this ESE could be frequently involved in splicing regulation. Our study conclusively demonstrates that an intronic single nucleotide change is sufficient to cause pseudoexon activation via creation of a functional ESE, which binds a specific splicing factor. We suggest that this mechanism may cause genetic disease much more frequently than previously reported. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Alternative Splicing in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Megan; Oltean, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) has emerged in the postgenomic era as one of the main drivers of proteome diversity, with ≥94% of multiexon genes alternatively spliced in humans. AS is therefore one of the main control mechanisms for cell phenotype, and is a process deregulated in disease. Numerous reports describe pathogenic mutations in splice factors, splice sites, or regulatory sequences. Additionally, compared with the physiologic state, disease often associates with an abnormal proportion of splice isoforms (or novel isoforms), without an apparent driver mutation. It is therefore essential to study how AS is regulated in physiology, how it contributes to pathogenesis, and whether we can manipulate faulty splicing for therapeutic advantage. Although the disease most commonly linked to deregulation of AS in several genes is cancer, many reports detail pathogenic splice variants in diseases ranging from neuromuscular disorders to diabetes or cardiomyopathies. A plethora of splice variants have been implicated in CKDs as well. In this review, we describe examples of these CKD-associated splice variants and ideas on how to manipulate them for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Splice donor site mutation in the lysosomal neuraminidase gene causing exon skipping and complete loss of enzyme activity in a sialidosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, R; Uhl, J; Kopitz, J; Beck, M; Otto, H F; Cantz, M

    2001-07-20

    Sialidosis is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficiency of alpha-N-acetylneuraminidase (NEU1; sialidase), the key enzyme for the intralysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates. We have identified a homozygous transversion in the last intron (IVSE +1 G>C) in neu1 of a sialidosis patient. Sequencing of the truncated cDNA revealed an alternatively spliced neu1 transcript which lacks the complete sequence of exon 5. Skipping of exon 5 leads to a frameshift and results in a premature termination codon. This is the first description of an intronic point mutation causing a complete deficiency of the lysosomal neuraminidase activity.

  5. An acute myeloid leukemia gene, AML1, regulates hemopoietic myeloid cell differentiation and transcriptional activation antagonistically by two alternative spliced forms.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Tanaka; Tanaka, K; Ogawa, S; Kurokawa, M.; Mitani, K; J. Nishida; Shibata, Y.; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H.

    1995-01-01

    The AML1 gene on chromosome 21 is disrupted in the (8;21)(q22;q22) and (3;21)(q26;q22) translocations associated with myelogenous leukemias and encodes a DNA binding protein. From the AML1 gene, two representative forms of proteins, AML1a and AML1b, are produced by alternative splicing. Both forms have a DNA binding domain but, unlike AML1b, AML1a lacks a putative transcriptional activation domain. Here we demonstrate that overexpressed AML1a totally suppresses granulocytic differentiation an...

  6. Splicing Regulation in Neurologic Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Licatalosi, Donny D; Darnell, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... It is becoming evident that alternative splicing plays a particularly important role in neurologic disease, which is perhaps not surprising given the important role splicing plays in generating...

  7. spliceR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer; Porse, Bo Torben; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq data is currently underutilized, in part because it is difficult to predict the functional impact of alternate transcription events. Recent software improvements in full-length transcript deconvolution prompted us to develop spliceR, an R package for classification of alternative splicing...

  8. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The prevalent deep intronic c. 639+919 G>A GLA mutation causes pseudoexon activation and Fabry disease by abolishing the binding of hnRNPA1 and hnRNP A2/B1 to a splicing silencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palhais, Bruno; Dembic, Maja; Sabaratnam, Rugivan

    2016-01-01

    with the ESS is also able to inhibit inclusion of an unrelated pseudoexon in the FGB gene, and that also in the FGB context inactivation of the ESS by the c.639+919 G>A mutation causes pseudoexon activation, underscoring the universal nature of the ESS. Finally, we demonstrate that splice switching......Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive inborn disorder of the glycosphingolipid metabolism, caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal α-galactosidase A enzyme due to mutations in the GLA gene. The prevalent c.639+919 G>A mutation in GLA leads to pathogenic insertion of a 57bp...... pseudoexon sequence from intron 4, which is responsible for the cardiac variant phenotype. In this study we investigate the splicing regulatory mechanism leading to GLA pseudoexon activation. Splicing analysis of GLA minigenes revealed that pseudoexon activation is influenced by cell-type. We demonstrate...

  10. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  11. Cauliflower mosaic virus Transcriptome Reveals a Complex Alternative Splicing Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Bouton

    Full Text Available The plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV uses alternative splicing to generate several isoforms from its polycistronic pregenomic 35S RNA. This pro-cess has been shown to be essential for infectivity. Previous works have identified four splice donor sites and a single splice acceptor site in the 35S RNA 5' region and suggested that the main role of CaMV splicing is to downregulate expression of open reading frames (ORFs I and II. In this study, we show that alternative splicing is a conserved process among CaMV isolates. In Cabb B-JI and Cabb-S isolates, splicing frequently leads to different fusion between ORFs, particularly between ORF I and II. The corresponding P1P2 fusion proteins expressed in E. coli interact with viral proteins P2 and P3 in vitro. However, they are detected neither during infection nor upon transient expression in planta, which suggests rapid degradation after synthesis and no important biological role in the CaMV infectious cycle. To gain a better understanding of the functional relevance of 35S RNA alternative splicing in CaMV infectivity, we inactivated the previously described splice sites. All the splicing mutants were as pathogenic as the corresponding wild-type isolate. Through RT-PCR-based analysis we demonstrate that CaMV 35S RNA exhibits a complex splicing pattern, as we identify new splice donor and acceptor sites whose selection leads to more than thirteen 35S RNA isoforms in infected turnip plants. Inactivating splice donor or acceptor sites is not lethal for the virus, since disrupted sites are systematically rescued by the activation of cryptic and/or seldom used splice sites. Taken together, our data depict a conserved, complex and flexible process, involving multiple sites, that ensures splicing of 35S RNA.

  12. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  13. Genomic HEXploring allows landscaping of novel potential splicing regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelenz, Steffen; Theiss, Stephan; Otte, Marianne; Widera, Marek; Peter, Jan Otto; Schaal, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Effective splice site selection is critically controlled by flanking splicing regulatory elements (SREs) that can enhance or repress splice site use. Although several computational algorithms currently identify a multitude of potential SRE motifs, their predictive power with respect to mutation effects is limited. Following a RESCUE-type approach, we defined a hexamer-based 'HEXplorer score' as average Z-score of all six hexamers overlapping with a given nucleotide in an arbitrary genomic sequence. Plotted along genomic regions, HEXplorer score profiles varied slowly in the vicinity of splice sites. They reflected the respective splice enhancing and silencing properties of splice site neighborhoods beyond the identification of single dedicated SRE motifs. In particular, HEXplorer score differences between mutant and reference sequences faithfully represented exonic mutation effects on splice site usage. Using the HIV-1 pre-mRNA as a model system highly dependent on SREs, we found an excellent correlation in 29 mutations between splicing activity and HEXplorer score. We successfully predicted and confirmed five novel SREs and optimized mutations inactivating a known silencer. The HEXplorer score allowed landscaping of splicing regulatory regions, provided a quantitative measure of mutation effects on splice enhancing and silencing properties and permitted calculation of the mutationally most effective nucleotide. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Chromatin and alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alló, M; Schor, I E; Muñoz, M J; de la Mata, M; Agirre, E; Valcárcel, J; Eyras, E; Kornblihtt, A R

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing affects more than 90% of human genes. Coupling between transcription and splicing has become crucial in the complex network underlying alternative splicing regulation. Because chromatin is the real template for nuclear transcription, changes in its structure, but also in the "reading" and "writing" of the histone code, could modulate splicing choices. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting these ideas, from the first proposal of chromatin affecting alternative splicing, performed 20 years ago, to the latest findings including genome-wide evidence that nucleosomes are preferentially positioned in exons. We focus on two recent reports from our laboratories that add new evidence to this field. The first report shows that a physiological stimulus such as neuron depolarization promotes intragenic histone acetylation (H3K9ac) and chromatin relaxation, causing the skipping of exon 18 of the neural cell adhesion molecule gene. In the second report, we show how specific histone modifications can be created at targeted gene regions as a way to affect alternative splicing: Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we increased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 in the proximity of alternative exon 33 of the human fibronectin gene, favoring its inclusion into mature messenger RNA (mRNA) through a mechanism that recalls RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing.

  15. The emerging role of alternative splicing in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Mathieu; Chabot, Benoit

    2017-10-01

    Deregulation of precursor mRNA splicing is associated with many illnesses and has been linked to age-related chronic diseases. Here we review recent progress documenting how defects in the machinery that performs intron removal and controls splice site selection contribute to cellular senescence and organismal aging. We discuss the functional association linking p53, IGF-1, SIRT1, and ING-1 splice variants with senescence and aging, and review a selection of splicing defects occurring in accelerated aging (progeria), vascular aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that changes in the activity of splicing factors and in the production of key splice variants can impact cellular senescence and the aging phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. From Cryptic Toward Canonical Pre-mRNA Splicing in Pompe Disease: a Pipeline for the Development of Antisense Oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atze J Bergsma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While 9% of human pathogenic variants have an established effect on pre-mRNA splicing, it is suspected that an additional 20% of otherwise classified variants also affect splicing. Aberrant splicing includes disruption of splice sites or regulatory elements, or creation or strengthening of cryptic splice sites. For the majority of variants, it is poorly understood to what extent and how these may affect splicing. We have identified cryptic splicing in an unbiased manner. Three types of cryptic splicing were analyzed in the context of pathogenic variants in the acid α-glucosidase gene causing Pompe disease. These involved newly formed deep intronic or exonic cryptic splice sites, and a natural cryptic splice that was utilized due to weakening of a canonical splice site. Antisense oligonucleotides that targeted the identified cryptic splice sites repressed cryptic splicing at the expense of canonical splicing in all three cases, as shown by reverse-transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and by enhancement of acid α-glucosidase enzymatic activity. This argues for a competition model for available splice sites, including intact or weakened canonical sites and natural or newly formed cryptic sites. The pipeline described here can detect cryptic splicing and correct canonical splicing using antisense oligonucleotides to restore the gene defect.

  17. Conditional control of alternative splicing through light-triggered splice-switching oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, James; Liu, Qingyang; Uprety, Rajendra; Samanta, Subhas; Tsang, Michael; Juliano, Rudolph L; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-03-18

    The spliceosome machinery is composed of several proteins and multiple small RNA molecules that are involved in gene regulation through the removal of introns from pre-mRNAs in order to assemble exon-based mRNA containing protein-coding sequences. Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) are genetic control elements that can be used to specifically control the expression of genes through correction of aberrant splicing pathways. A current limitation with SSO methodologies is the inability to achieve conditional control of their function paired with high spatial and temporal resolution. We addressed this limitation through site-specific installation of light-removable nucleobase-caging groups as well as photocleavable backbone linkers into synthetic SSOs. This enables optochemical OFF → ON and ON → OFF switching of their activity and thus precise control of alternative splicing. The use of light as a regulatory element allows for tight spatial and temporal control of splice switching in mammalian cells and animals.

  18. Characterizing HIV-1 Splicing by Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Ann; Zhou, Shuntai; Pollom, Elizabeth; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2017-03-15

    Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA serves as the genome or as an mRNA, or this RNA undergoes splicing using four donors and 10 acceptors to create over 50 physiologically relevant transcripts in two size classes (1.8 kb and 4 kb). We developed an assay using Primer ID-tagged deep sequencing to quantify HIV-1 splicing. Using the lab strain NL4-3, we found that A5 (env/nef) is the most commonly used acceptor (about 50%) and A3 (tat) the least used (about 3%). Two small exons are made when a splice to acceptor A1 or A2 is followed by activation of donor D2 or D3, and the high-level use of D2 and D3 dramatically reduces the amount of vif and vpr transcripts. We observed distinct patterns of temperature sensitivity of splicing to acceptors A1 and A2. In addition, disruption of a conserved structure proximal to A1 caused a 10-fold reduction in all transcripts that utilized A1. Analysis of a panel of subtype B transmitted/founder viruses showed that splicing patterns are conserved, but with surprising variability of usage. A subtype C isolate was similar, while a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate showed significant differences. We also observed transsplicing from a downstream donor on one transcript to an upstream acceptor on a different transcript, which we detected in 0.3% of 1.8-kb RNA reads. There were several examples of splicing suppression when the env intron was retained in the 4-kb size class. These results demonstrate the utility of this assay and identify new examples of HIV-1 splicing regulation. IMPORTANCE During HIV-1 replication, over 50 conserved spliced RNA variants are generated. The splicing assay described here uses new developments in deep-sequencing technology combined with Primer ID-tagged cDNA primers to efficiently quantify HIV-1 splicing at a depth that allows even low-frequency splice variants to be monitored. We have used this assay to examine several features of HIV-1 splicing and to identify new examples of

  19. Galactosemia caused by a point mutation that activates cryptic donor splice site in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadelius, C.; Lagerkvist, A. (Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Molin, A.K.; Larsson, A. (Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Von Doebeln, U. (Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-08-01

    Galactosemia affects 1/84,000 in Sweden and is manifested in infancy when the child is exposed to galactose in the diet. If untreated there is a risk of severe early symptoms and, even with a lactose-free diet, late symptoms such as mental retardation and ovarial dysfunction may develop. In classical galactosemia, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) (EC 2.7.7.12) is defective and the normal cDNA sequence of this enzyme has been characterized. Recently eight mutations leading to galactosemia were published. Heparinized venous blood was drawn from a patient with classical galactosemia. In the cDNA from the patient examined, an insertion of 54 bp was found at position 1087. Amplification of the relevant genomic region of the patient's DNA was performed. Exon-intron boundaries and intronic sequences thus determined revealed that the 54-bp insertion was located immediately downstream of exon 10. It was further found that the patient was heterozygous for a point mutation, changing a C to a T (in 5 of 9 clones) at the second base in the intron downstream of the insertion. This alteration creates a sequence which, as well as the ordinary splice site, differs in only two positions from the consensus sequence. It was found that the mutation occurred in only one of the 20 alleles from galactosemic patients and in none of the 200 alleles from normal controls. The mutation is inherited from the mother, who also was found to express the 54-bp-long insertion at the mRNA level. Sequences from the 5[prime] end of the coding region were determined after genomic amplification, revealing a sequence identical to that reported. The mutation on the paternal allele has not been identified. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Expressiveness of basic Splice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe study a simple software architecture, in which application processes are coordinated by writing into and reading from a global set. This architecture underlies Splice, which is developed and used at the company Hollandse Signaalapparaten. Our approach is distinguished by viewing the

  1. Differential regulation of metabolic pathways by androgen receptor (AR) and its constitutively active splice variant, AR-V7, in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Ayesha A; Putluri, Vasanta; Arnold, James M; Tsouko, Efrosini; Maity, Suman; Roberts, Justin M; Coarfa, Cristian; Frigo, Daniel E; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Weigel, Nancy L

    2015-10-13

    Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is primarily an androgen-dependent disease, which is treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Tumors usually develop resistance (castration-resistant PCa [CRPC]), but remain androgen receptor (AR) dependent. Numerous mechanisms for AR-dependent resistance have been identified including expression of constitutively active AR splice variants lacking the hormone-binding domain. Recent clinical studies show that expression of the best-characterized AR variant, AR-V7, correlates with resistance to ADT and poor outcome. Whether AR-V7 is simply a constitutively active substitute for AR or has novel gene targets that cause unique downstream changes is unresolved. Several studies have shown that AR activation alters cell metabolism. Using LNCaP cells with inducible expression of AR-V7 as a model system, we found that AR-V7 stimulated growth, migration, and glycolysis measured by ECAR (extracellular acidification rate) similar to AR. However, further analyses using metabolomics and metabolic flux assays revealed several differences. Whereas AR increased citrate levels, AR-V7 reduced citrate mirroring metabolic shifts observed in CRPC patients. Flux analyses indicate that the low citrate is a result of enhanced utilization rather than a failure to synthesize citrate. Moreover, flux assays suggested that compared to AR, AR-V7 exhibits increased dependence on glutaminolysis and reductive carboxylation to produce some of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) metabolites. These findings suggest that these unique actions represent potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Alternative Splicing of STAT3 Is Affected by RNA Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Abutbul-Amitai, Mor; Paret, Gideon; Nevo-Caspi, Yael

    2017-05-01

    A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated. STAT3 undergoes A-to-I RNA editing in an intron residing in proximity to the alternatively spliced exon. We hypothesized that RNA editing plays a role in regulating alternative splicing toward STAT3β. In this study we extend our observation connecting RNA editing to the preferential induction of STAT3β expression. We study the involvement of ADAR1 in STAT3 editing and reveal the connection between editing and alternative splicing of STAT3. Deferoaxamine treatment caused the induction in STAT3 RNA editing and STAT3β expression. Silencing ADAR1 caused a decrease in STAT3 editing and expression with a preferential decrease in STAT3β. Cells transfected with a mutated minigene showed preferential splicing toward the STAT3β transcript. Editing in the STAT3 intron is performed by ADAR1 and affects STAT3 alternative splicing. These results suggest that RNA editing is one of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of STAT3β.

  3. An Exon-Specific U1snRNA Induces a Robust Factor IX Activity in Mice Expressing Multiple Human FIX Splicing Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Balestra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In cellular models we have demonstrated that a unique U1snRNA targeting an intronic region downstream of a defective exon (Exon-specific U1snRNA, ExSpeU1 can rescue multiple exon-skipping mutations, a relevant cause of genetic disease. Here, we explored in mice the ExSpeU1 U1fix9 toward two model Hemophilia B-causing mutations at the 5′ (c.519A > G or 3′ (c.392-8T > G splice sites of F9 exon 5. Hydrodynamic injection of wt-BALB/C mice with plasmids expressing the wt and mutant (hFIX-2G5′ss and hFIX-8G3′ss splicing-competent human factor IX (hFIX cassettes resulted in the expression of hFIX transcripts lacking exon 5 in liver, and in low plasma levels of inactive hFIX. Coinjection of U1fix9, but not of U1wt, restored exon inclusion of variants and in the intrinsically weak FIXwt context. This resulted in appreciable circulating hFIX levels (mean ± SD; hFIX-2G5′ss, 1.0 ± 0.5 µg/ml; hFIX-8G3′ss, 1.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml; and hFIXwt, 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/ml, leading to a striking shortening (from ≃100 seconds of untreated mice to ≃80 seconds of FIX-dependent coagulation times, indicating a hFIX with normal specific activity. This is the first proof-of-concept in vivo that a unique ExSpeU1 can efficiently rescue gene expression impaired by distinct exon-skipping variants, which extends the applicability of ExSpeU1s to panels of mutations and thus cohort of patients.

  4. The truncated splice variant of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα-tr, autonomously regulates proliferative and pro-inflammatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Maria; Bayha, Christine; Klein, Kathrin; Müller, Simon; Weiss, Thomas S; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2015-06-30

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) controls lipid/energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. The truncated splice variant PPARα-tr was suggested to exert a dominant negative function despite being unable to bind consensus PPARα DNA response elements. The distribution and variability factor of each PPARα variant were assessed in the well-characterized cohort of human liver samples (N = 150) on the mRNA and protein levels. Specific siRNA-mediated downregulation of each transcript as well as specific overexpression with subsequent qRT-PCR analysis of downstream genes was used for investigation of specific functional roles of PPARα-wt and PPARα-tr forms in primary human hepatocytes. Bioinformatic analyses of genome-wide liver expression profiling data suggested a possible role of PPARα-tr in downregulating proliferative and pro-inflammatory genes. Specific gene silencing of both forms in primary human hepatocytes showed that induction of metabolic PPARα-target genes by agonist WY14,643 was prevented by PPARα-wt knock-down but neither prevented nor augmented by PPARα-tr knock-down. WY14,643 treatment did not induce proliferative genes including MYC, CDK1, and PCNA, and knock-down of PPARα-wt had no effect, while PPARα-tr knock-down caused up to 3-fold induction of these genes. Similarly, induction of pro-inflammatory genes IL1B, PTGS2, and CCL2 by IL-6 was augmented by knock-down of PPARα-tr but not of PPARα-wt. In contrast to human proliferative genes, orthologous mouse genes were readily inducible by WY14,643 in PPARα-tr non-expressing AML12 mouse hepatocytes. Induction was augmented by overexpression of PPARα-wt and attenuated by overexpression of PPARα-tr. Pro-inflammatory genes including IL-1β, CCL2 and TNFα were induced by WY14,643 in mouse and human cells and both PPARα forms attenuated induction. As potential mechanism of PPARα-tr inhibitory action we suggest crosstalk with WNT/β-catenin pathway. Finally

  5. Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of KV10.1 Potassium Channels Modulate Channel Properties and Can Activate Cyclin-dependent Kinase in Xenopus Oocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Gomes, Fernanda; Romaniello, Vincenzo; Sánchez, Araceli; Weber, Claudia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Psol, Maryna; Pardo, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    KV10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed selectively in the mammalian brain but also aberrantly in cancer cells. In this study we identified short splice variants of KV10.1 resulting from exon-skipping events (E65 and E70) in human brain and cancer cell lines. The presence of the variants was confirmed by Northern blot and RNase protection assays. Both variants completely lacked the transmembrane domains of the channel and produced cytoplasmic proteins without channel function. In a reconstituted system, both variants co-precipitated with the full-length channel and induced a robust down-regulation of KV10.1 current when co-expressed with the full-length form, but their effect was mechanistically different. E65 required a tetramerization domain and induced a reduction in the overall expression of full-length KV10.1, whereas E70 mainly affected its glycosylation pattern. E65 triggered the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases in Xenopus laevis oocytes, suggesting a role in cell cycle control. Our observations highlight the relevance of noncanonical functions for the oncogenicity of KV10.1, which need to be considered when ion channels are targeted for cancer therapy. PMID:26518875

  6. Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of KV10.1 Potassium Channels Modulate Channel Properties and Can Activate Cyclin-dependent Kinase in Xenopus Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Gomes, Fernanda; Romaniello, Vincenzo; Sánchez, Araceli; Weber, Claudia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Psol, Maryna; Pardo, Luis A

    2015-12-18

    KV10.1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed selectively in the mammalian brain but also aberrantly in cancer cells. In this study we identified short splice variants of KV10.1 resulting from exon-skipping events (E65 and E70) in human brain and cancer cell lines. The presence of the variants was confirmed by Northern blot and RNase protection assays. Both variants completely lacked the transmembrane domains of the channel and produced cytoplasmic proteins without channel function. In a reconstituted system, both variants co-precipitated with the full-length channel and induced a robust down-regulation of KV10.1 current when co-expressed with the full-length form, but their effect was mechanistically different. E65 required a tetramerization domain and induced a reduction in the overall expression of full-length KV10.1, whereas E70 mainly affected its glycosylation pattern. E65 triggered the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases in Xenopus laevis oocytes, suggesting a role in cell cycle control. Our observations highlight the relevance of noncanonical functions for the oncogenicity of KV10.1, which need to be considered when ion channels are targeted for cancer therapy. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Interplay between DMD Point Mutations and Splicing Signals in Dystrophinopathy Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Mateu, Jonàs; González-Quereda, Lidia; Rodríguez, Maria José; Verdura, Edgard; Lázaro, Kira; Jou, Cristina; Nascimento, Andrés; Jiménez-Mallebrera, Cecilia; Colomer, Jaume; Monges, Soledad; Lubieniecki, Fabiana; Foncuberta, Maria Eugenia; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel Ignacio; Molano, Jesús; Baiget, Montserrat; Gallano, Pia

    2013-01-01

    DMD nonsense and frameshift mutations lead to severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy while in-frame mutations lead to milder Becker muscular dystrophy. Exceptions are found in 10% of cases and the production of alternatively spliced transcripts is considered a key modifier of disease severity. Several exonic mutations have been shown to induce exon-skipping, while splice site mutations result in exon-skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites. However, factors determining the splicing pathway are still unclear. Point mutations provide valuable information regarding the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and elements defining exon identity in the DMD gene. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of 98 point mutations related to clinical phenotype and their effect on muscle mRNA and dystrophin expression. Aberrant splicing was found in 27 mutations due to alteration of splice sites or splicing regulatory elements. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to test the ability of the available algorithms to predict consequences on mRNA and to investigate the major factors that determine the splicing pathway in mutations affecting splicing signals. Our findings suggest that the splicing pathway is highly dependent on the interplay between splice site strength and density of regulatory elements. PMID:23536893

  8. Interplay between DMD point mutations and splicing signals in Dystrophinopathy phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonàs Juan-Mateu

    Full Text Available DMD nonsense and frameshift mutations lead to severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy while in-frame mutations lead to milder Becker muscular dystrophy. Exceptions are found in 10% of cases and the production of alternatively spliced transcripts is considered a key modifier of disease severity. Several exonic mutations have been shown to induce exon-skipping, while splice site mutations result in exon-skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites. However, factors determining the splicing pathway are still unclear. Point mutations provide valuable information regarding the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and elements defining exon identity in the DMD gene. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of 98 point mutations related to clinical phenotype and their effect on muscle mRNA and dystrophin expression. Aberrant splicing was found in 27 mutations due to alteration of splice sites or splicing regulatory elements. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to test the ability of the available algorithms to predict consequences on mRNA and to investigate the major factors that determine the splicing pathway in mutations affecting splicing signals. Our findings suggest that the splicing pathway is highly dependent on the interplay between splice site strength and density of regulatory elements.

  9. Herboxidiene triggers splicing repression and abiotic stress responses in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar

    2017-03-27

    Background Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Results Here, we show that herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing. Moreover, GEX1A activates genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. GEX1A treatment -activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, GEX1A and pladienolide B (PB) elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. Conclusions Our study establishes GEX1A as a potent splicing inhibitor in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  10. Alternative splicing regulation of APP exon 7 by RBFox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shafiul; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    RBFox proteins are well-known alternative splicing regulators. We have shown previously that during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid and cell aggregation, RBFox1 shows markedly increased temporal expression. To find its key splicing regulation, we examined the effect of RBFox1 on 33 previously reported and validated neuronal splicing events of P19 cells. We observed that alternative splicing of three genes, specifically, amyloid precursor protein (APP), disks large homolog 3 (DLG3), and G protein, alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1), was altered by transient RBFox1 expression in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, an RBFox1 mutant (RBFox1FA) that was unable to bind the target RNA sequence ((U)GCAUG) did not induce these splicing events. APP generates amyloid beta peptides that are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and therefore we examined APP alternative splicing regulation by RBFox1 and other splicing regulators. Our results indicated that RBFox proteins promote the skipping of APP exon 7, but not the inclusion of exon 8. We made APP6789 minigenes and observed that two (U)GCAUG sequences, located upstream of exon 7 and in exon 7, functioned to induce skipping of exon 7 by RBFox proteins. Overall, RBFox proteins may shift APP from exon 7 containing isoforms, APP770 and APP751, toward the exon 7 lacking isoform, APP695, which is predominant in neural tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles of alternative splicing in modulating transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Wang, Yang; Rao, Xi; Wang, Yue; Feng, Weixing; Liang, Hong; Liu, Yunlong

    2017-10-03

    The ability of a transcription factor to regulate its targets is modulated by a variety of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Alternative splicing can modulate gene function by adding or removing certain protein domains, and therefore affect the activity of protein. Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks using gene expression profiles has proven valuable in dissecting the logical relationships among multiple proteins during the transcriptional regulation. However, it is unclear whether alternative splicing of certain proteins affects the activity of other transcription factors. In order to investigate the roles of alternative splicing during transcriptional regulation, we constructed a statistical model to infer whether the alternative splicing events of modulator proteins can affect the ability of key transcription factors in regulating the expression levels of their transcriptional targets. We tested our strategy in KIRC (Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma) using the RNA-seq data downloaded from TCGA (the Cancer Genomic Atlas). We identified 828of modulation relationships between the splicing levels of modulator proteins and activity levels of transcription factors. For instance, we found that the activity levels of GR (glucocorticoid receptor) protein, a key transcription factor in kidney, can be influenced by the splicing status of multiple proteins, including TP53, MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog), RBM14 (RNA-binding protein 14) and SLK (STE20 like kinase). The influenced GR-targets are enriched by key cancer-related pathways, including p53 signaling pathway, TR/RXR activation, CAR/RXR activation, G1/S checkpoint regulation pathway, and G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation pathway. Our analysis suggests, for the first time, that exon inclusion levels of certain regulatory proteins can affect the activities of many transcription factors. Such analysis can potentially unravel a novel mechanism of how splicing variation influences the cellular

  12. Splicing of the rSlo Gene Affects the Molecular Composition and Drug Response of Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Antonietta; Latorre, Ramon; Conte Camerino, Diana; Tricarico, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    The molecular composition and drug responses of calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels of skeletal muscle are unknown. Patch-clamp experiments combined with transcript scanning of the Kcnma1 gene encoding the alpha subunit of the BK channel were performed in rat slow-twitch soleus (Sol) and fast-twitch flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) skeletal muscles. Five splicing products of the Kcnma1 gene were isolated from Sol and FDB: the e17, e22, +29 aa, Slo27 and Slo0 variants. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of e22 and Slo0 were 80–90% higher in FDB than Sol, whereas the expression of Slo27 was 60% higher in Sol than FDB, and the +29 aa variant was equally expressed in both muscle types. No beta 1-4 subunits were detected. In Sol, a large BK current with low Ca2+ sensitivity was recorded. The BK channel of Sol also showed a reduced response to BK channel openers, such as NS1619, acetazolamide and related drugs. In FDB, a reduced BK current with high Ca2+ sensitivity and an enhanced drug response was recorded. The total BK RNA content, which was 200% higher in Sol than in FDB, correlated with the BK currents in both muscles. Drug responses primarily correlated with e22 and Slo0 expression levels in FDB and to Slo27 expression in Sol muscle. In conclusion, phenotype-dependent BK channel biophysical and pharmacological properties correlated with the expression levels of the variants in muscles. These findings may be relevant to conditions affecting postural muscles, such as prolonged bed-rest, and to diseases affecting fast-twitch muscles, such as periodic paralysis. Down-regulation or up-regulation of the variants associated with pathological conditions may affect channel composition and drug responses. PMID:22808126

  13. Calcium Activated K+ Channels in The Electroreceptor of the Skate Confirmed by Cloning. Details of Subunits and Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    King, Benjamin L.; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K+ channels, first described in l974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel ? isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest di...

  14. Daily activity of the housefly, Musca domestica, is influenced by temperature independent of 3’UTR period gene splicing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazalová, Olga; Doležel, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2017), s. 2637-2649 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01003S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : temperature compensation of circadian rhythms * locomotor activity * transcription Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016 http://www.g3journal.org/content/early/2017/06/15/g3.117.042374

  15. Cotranscriptional recruitment of yeast TRAMP complex to intronic sequences promotes optimal pre-mRNA splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ka-Yiu Edwin; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Pan, Kewu; Huang, Zhe; Lee, Tsz-Hang Jimmy; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Most unwanted RNA transcripts in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, such as splicing-defective pre-mRNAs and spliced-out introns, are rapidly degraded by the nuclear exosome. In budding yeast, a number of these unwanted RNA transcripts, including spliced-out introns, are first recognized by the nuclear exosome cofactor Trf4/5p-Air1/2p-Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex before subsequent nuclear-exosome-mediated degradation. However, it remains unclear when spliced-out introns are recognized by TRAMP, and whether TRAMP may have any potential roles in pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we demonstrated that TRAMP is cotranscriptionally recruited to nascent RNA transcripts, with particular enrichment at intronic sequences. Deletion of TRAMP components led to further accumulation of unspliced pre-mRNAs even in a yeast strain defective in nuclear exosome activity, suggesting a novel stimulatory role of TRAMP in splicing. We also uncovered new genetic and physical interactions between TRAMP and several splicing factors, and further showed that TRAMP is required for optimal recruitment of the splicing factor Msl5p. Our study provided the first evidence that TRAMP facilitates pre-mRNA splicing, and we interpreted this as a fail-safe mechanism to ensure the cotranscriptional recruitment of TRAMP before or during splicing to prepare for the subsequent targeting of spliced-out introns to rapid degradation by the nuclear exosome. PMID:24097436

  16. A 5' splice site enhances the recruitment of basal transcription initiation factors in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Kahns, Søren; Lykke-Andersen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are interdependent events. Although mechanisms governing the effects of transcription on splicing are becoming increasingly clear, the means by which splicing affects transcription remain elusive. Using cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 or β-globin mRNAs, harb...... a promoter-proximal 5′ splice site via its U1 snRNA interaction can feed back to stimulate transcription initiation by enhancing preinitiation complex assembly.......Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are interdependent events. Although mechanisms governing the effects of transcription on splicing are becoming increasingly clear, the means by which splicing affects transcription remain elusive. Using cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 or β-globin mRNAs......, harboring wild-type or various 5′ splice site mutations, we demonstrate a strong positive correlation between splicing efficiency and transcription activity. Interestingly, a 5′ splice site can stimulate transcription even in the absence of splicing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show enhanced...

  17. A small molecule drug promoting miRNA processing induces alternative splicing of MdmX transcript and rescues p53 activity in human cancer cells overexpressing MdmX protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Valianatos

    Full Text Available MdmX overexpression contributes to the development of cancer by inhibiting tumor suppressor p53. A switch in the alternative splicing of MdmX transcript, leading to the inclusion of exon 6, has been identified as the primary mechanism responsible for increased MdmX protein levels in human cancers, including melanoma. However, there are no approved drugs, which could translate these new findings into clinical applications. We analyzed the anti-melanoma activity of enoxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic inhibiting the growth of some human cancers in vitro and in vivo by promoting miRNA maturation. We found that enoxacin inhibited the growth and viability of human melanoma cell lines much stronger than a structurally related fluoroquinolone ofloxacin, which only weakly modulates miRNA processing. A microarray analysis identified a set of miRNAs significantly dysregulated in enoxacin-treated A375 melanoma cells. They had the potential to target multiple signaling pathways required for cancer cell growth, among them the RNA splicing. Recent studies showed that interfering with cellular splicing machinery can result in MdmX downregulation in cancer cells. We, therefore, hypothesized that enoxacin could, by modulating miRNAs targeting splicing machinery, activate p53 in melanoma cells overexpressing MdmX. We found that enoxacin and ciprofloxacin, a related fluoroquinolone capable of promoting microRNA processing, but not ofloxacin, strongly activated wild type p53-dependent transcription in A375 melanoma without causing significant DNA damage. On the molecular level, the drugs promoted MdmX exon 6 skipping, leading to a dose-dependent downregulation of MdmX. Not only in melanoma, but also in MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells overexpressing MdmX. Together, our results suggest that some clinically approved fluoroquinolones could potentially be repurposed as activators of p53 tumor suppressor in cancers overexpressing Mdm

  18. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

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    Galit Lev-Maor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  19. A Dual Reporter Splicing Assay Using HaloTag-containing Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Koichi; Nagase, Takahiro; Imai, Kohsuke; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Obara, Megumi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Amemiya, Shin; Ohara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of genetic variations on mRNA splicing, we developed a minigene-based splicing assay using reporter genes encoding luciferase and the multifunctional HaloTag protein. In addition to conventional RT-PCR analysis, splicing events can be monitored in this system using two parameters: luciferase activity and signals derived from HaloTag-containing proteins bound to a fluorescent ligand following SDS-PAGE. The luciferase activity reflects the accumulated amounts of successfully spliced HaloTag-luciferase fusion products, whereas the amounts and sizes of HaloTag-containing proteins provide quantitative insights into precursor, correctly spliced, and aberrantly spliced mRNA species. Preliminary experiments confirmed that the dual reporter minigene assay can provide estimates of overall splicing efficiency based on the levels of protein products. We then used the minigene assay to analyze a case of chronic granulomatous disease that was caused by a G>C mutation at position +5 in the 5'-splice donor site of intron 5 of the CYBB gene. We found that the G>C mutation affected CYBB mRNA splicing by changing a delicate balance of splicing efficiencies of introns 4, 5, and 6.

  20. Splicing variants of ADAR2 and ADAR2-mediated RNA editing in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Zhaohui; Wei, Jun; Tian, Yu

    2016-08-01

    The roles of alternative splicing and RNA editing in gene regulation and transcriptome diversity are well documented. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are responsible for adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing and exemplify the complex association between RNA editing and alternative splicing. The self-editing activity of ADAR2, which acts on its own pre-mRNA, leads to its alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs independently at nine splicing sites on ADAR2 pre-mRNA, generating numerous alternative splicing variants with various catalytic activities. A-to-I RNA editing is important in a range of physiological processes in humans and is associated with several diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mood disorders, epilepsy and glioma. Reduced editing at the glutamine/arginine site of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 in glioma, without any alteration in ADAR2 expression, is a notable phenomenon. Several studies have tried to explain this alteration in the catalytic activity of ADAR2; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present review summarizes the relevant literature and shares experimental results concerning ADAR2 alternative splicing. In particular, the present review demonstrates that shifts in the relative abundance of the active and inactive splicing variants of ADAR2 may reduce the ADAR2 editing activity in glioma. Dominant expression of ADAR2 splicing variant with low enzyme activity causes reduced RNA editing of GluA2 subunit at the glutamine/arginine site in glioma.

  1. The second RNA-binding domain of the human splicing factor ASF/SF2 is the critical domain controlling adenovirus E1A alternative 5'-splice site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauksaite, Vita; Akusjärvi, Göran

    2004-07-15

    The human splicing factor ASF/SF2 (alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2) is modular in structure with two RNA-binding domains (RBD1 and RBD2) and a C-terminal domain rich in arginine-serine dipeptide repeats. ASF/SF2 is an essential splicing factor that also functions as an important regulator of alternative splicing. In adenovirus E1A (early region 1A) alternative pre-mRNA splicing, ASF/SF2 functions as a strong inducer of proximal 5'-splice-site selection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we tested the functional role of individual domains of ASF/SF2 in alternative splicing in vitro. We show that ASF/SF2-RBD2 is the critical domain controlling E1A alternative splicing. In fact, RBD2 alone is sufficient to mimic the activity of the full-length ASF/SF2 protein as an inducer of proximal 5'-splice-site selection in vitro. The RBD2 domain induces a switch to E1A-proximal 5'-splice-site usage by repressing distal 12 S splicing and simultaneously stimulates proximal 13 S splicing. In contrast, the ASF/SF2-RBD1 domain has a more general splicing enhancer phenotype and appears to stimulate preferentially cap-proximal 5'-splice-site selection. Furthermore, the SWQDLKD motif, which is conserved in all SR proteins (serine/arginine-rich proteins) containing two RBDs, and the ribonucleoprotein-1-type RNA recognition motif were both found to be necessary for the alternative splice-site-switching activity of ASF/SF2. The RNP-1 motif was necessary for efficient RNA binding, whereas the SWQDLKD motif most probably contributes by functioning as a surface-mediating critical protein-protein contact during spliceosome assembly.

  2. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schneider

    Full Text Available Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.

  3. Handbook of knotting and splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Hasluck, Paul N

    2005-01-01

    Clearly written and amply illustrated with 208 figures, this classic guide ranges from simple and useful knots to complex varieties. Additional topics include rope splicing, working cordage, hammock making, more.

  4. The Role of Canonical and Noncanonical Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plant Stress Responses

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    A. S. Dubrovina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms capable of adapting to various environmental constraints, such as high or low temperatures, drought, soil salinity, or pathogen attack. To survive the unfavorable conditions, plants actively employ pre-mRNA splicing as a mechanism to regulate expression of stress-responsive genes and reprogram intracellular regulatory networks. There is a growing evidence that various stresses strongly affect the frequency and diversity of alternative splicing events in the stress-responsive genes and lead to an increased accumulation of mRNAs containing premature stop codons, which in turn have an impact on plant stress response. A number of studies revealed that some mRNAs involved in plant stress response are spliced counter to the traditional conception of alternative splicing. Such noncanonical mRNA splicing events include trans-splicing, intraexonic deletions, or variations affecting multiple exons and often require short direct repeats to occur. The noncanonical alternative splicing, along with common splicing events, targets the spliced transcripts to degradation through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay or leads to translation of truncated proteins. Investigation of the diversity, biological consequences, and mechanisms of the canonical and noncanonical alternative splicing events will help one to identify those transcripts which are promising for using in genetic engineering and selection of stress-tolerant plants.

  5. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  6. Characterization of sequences and mechanisms through which ISE/ISS-3 regulates FGFR2 splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Ruben H; Warzecha, Claude C; Carstens, Russ P

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) mutually exclusive exons IIIb and IIIc results in highly cell-type-specific expression of functionally distinct receptors, FGFR2-IIIb and FGFR2-IIIc. We previously identified an RNA cis-element, ISE/ISS-3, that enhanced exon IIIb splicing and silenced exon IIIc splicing. Here, we have performed comprehensive mutational analysis to define critical sequence motifs within this element that independently either enhance splicing of upstream exons or repress splicing of downstream exons. Such analysis included use of a novel fluorescence-based splicing reporter assay that allowed quantitative determination of relative functional activity of ISE/ISS-3 mutants using flow cytometric analysis of live cells. We determined that specific sequences within this element that mediate splicing enhancement also mediate splicing repression, depending on their position relative to a regulated exon. Thus, factors that bind the element are likely to be coordinately involved in mediating both aspects of splicing regulation. Exon IIIc silencing is dependent upon a suboptimal branchpoint sequence containing a guanine branchpoint nucleotide. Previous studies of exon IIIc splicing in HeLa nuclear extracts demonstrated that this guanine branchsite primarily impaired the second step of splicing suggesting that ISE/ISS-3 may block exon IIIc inclusion at this step. However, results presented here that include use of newly developed in vitro splicing assays of FGFR2 using extracts from a cell line expressing FGFR2-IIIb strongly suggest that cell-type-specific silencing of exon IIIc occurs at or prior to the first step of splicing.

  7. Deletion of the N-terminus of SF2/ASF permits RS-domain-independent pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie D; Chakrabarti, Sutapa; Ghosh, Gourisankar; Krainer, Adrian R

    2007-09-05

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are essential splicing factors with one or two RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal arginine- and serine-rich (RS) domain. SR proteins bind to exonic splicing enhancers via their RRM(s), and from this position are thought to promote splicing by antagonizing splicing silencers, recruiting other components of the splicing machinery through RS-RS domain interactions, and/or promoting RNA base-pairing through their RS domains. An RS domain tethered at an exonic splicing enhancer can function as a splicing activator, and RS domains play prominent roles in current models of SR protein functions. However, we previously reported that the RS domain of the SR protein SF2/ASF is dispensable for in vitro splicing of some pre-mRNAs. We have now extended these findings via the identification of a short inhibitory domain at the SF2/ASF N-terminus; deletion of this segment permits splicing in the absence of this SR protein's RS domain of an IgM pre-mRNA substrate previously classified as RS-domain-dependent. Deletion of the N-terminal inhibitory domain increases the splicing activity of SF2/ASF lacking its RS domain, and enhances its ability to bind pre-mRNA. Splicing of the IgM pre-mRNA in S100 complementation with SF2/ASF lacking its RS domain still requires an exonic splicing enhancer, suggesting that an SR protein RS domain is not always required for ESE-dependent splicing activation. Our data provide additional evidence that the SF2/ASF RS domain is not strictly required for constitutive splicing in vitro, contrary to prevailing models for how the domains of SR proteins function to promote splicing.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing by deep sequencing of chicken transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator that is capable of regulating alternative splicing both in vitro and in vivo. We recently used an RNA-seq approach coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Functionally, many of the SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of response to external stimulus. Here we describe in detail the experimental design, bioinformatics analysis and GO/pathway enrichment analysis of SRSF10-regulated genes to correspond with our data in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE53354. Our data thus provide a resource for studying regulation of alternative splicing in vivo that underlines biological functions of splicing regulatory proteins in cells.

  9. Activation-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (Traf3) alternative splicing controls the noncanonical nuclear factor κB pathway and chemokine expression in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Monika; Wilhelmi, Ilka; Schultz, Astrid-Solveig; Preussner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2014-05-09

    The noncanonical nuclear factor κB (ncNFκB) pathway regulates the expression of chemokines required for secondary lymphoid organ formation and thus plays a pivotal role in adaptive immunity. Whereas ncNFκB signaling has been well described in stromal cells and B cells, its role and regulation in T cells remain largely unexplored. ncNFκB activity critically depends on the upstream NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). NIK expression is negatively regulated by the full-length isoform of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (Traf3) as formation of a NIK-Traf3-Traf2 complex targets NIK for degradation. Here we show that T cell-specific and activation-dependent alternative splicing generates a Traf3 isoform lacking exon 8 (Traf3DE8) that, in contrast to the full-length protein, activates ncNFκB signaling. Traf3DE8 disrupts the NIK-Traf3-Traf2 complex and allows accumulation of NIK to initiate ncNFκB signaling in activated T cells. ncNFκB activity results in expression of several chemokines, among them B cell chemoattractant (CxCL13), both in a model T cell line and in primary human CD4(+) T cells. Because CxCL13 plays an important role in B cell migration and activation, our data suggest an involvement and provide a mechanistic basis for Traf3 alternative splicing and ncNFκB activation in contributing to T cell-dependent adaptive immunity.

  10. Differential recruitment of nuclear receptor coactivators may determine alternative RNA splice site choice in target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auboeuf, Didier; Dowhan, Dennis H.; Kang, Yun Kyoung; Larkin, Kimberly; Lee, Jae Woon; Berget, Susan M.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2004-01-01

    The biological consequences of steroid hormone-mediated transcriptional activation of target genes might be difficult to predict because alternative splicing of a single neosynthesized precursor RNA can result in production of different protein isoforms with opposite biological activities. Therefore, an important question to address is the manner in which steroid hormones affect the splicing of their target gene transcripts. In this report, we demonstrate that individual steroid hormones had different and opposite effects on alternative splicing decisions, stimulating the production of different spliced variants produced from genes driven by steroid hormone-dependent promoters. Steroid hormone transcriptional effects are mediated by steroid hormone receptor coregulators that also modify alternative splicing decisions. Our data suggest that activated steroid hormone receptors recruit coregulators to the target promoter that participate in both the production and the splicing of the target gene transcripts. Because different coregulators activating transcription can have opposite effects on alternative splicing decisions, we conclude that the precise nature of the transcriptional coregulators recruited by activated steroid receptors, depending on the promoter and cellular contexts, may play a major role in regulating the nature of the spliced variants produced from certain target genes in response to steroid hormones. PMID:14982999

  11. Development of a single vector system that enhances trans-splicing of SMN2 transcripts.

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    Tristan H Coady

    Full Text Available RNA modalities are developing as a powerful means to re-direct pathogenic pre-mRNA splicing events. Improving the efficiency of these molecules in vivo is critical as they move towards clinical applications. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is caused by loss of SMN1. A nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 produces low levels of functional protein due to alternative splicing. We previously reported a trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA that re-directed SMN2 splicing. Now we show that reducing the competition between endogenous splices sites enhanced the efficiency of trans-splicing. A single vector system was developed that expressed the SMN tsRNA and a splice-site blocking antisense (ASO-tsRNA. The ASO-tsRNA vector significantly elevated SMN levels in primary SMA patient fibroblasts, within the central nervous system of SMA mice and increased SMN-dependent in vitro snRNP assembly. These results demonstrate that the ASO-tsRNA strategy provides insight into the trans-splicing mechanism and a means of significantly enhancing trans-splicing activity in vivo.

  12. Splice testing for LHC quadrupole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Fehér, S; Kashikhin, V V; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Orris, D; Ray, G; Tartaglia, M; Zlobin, A V

    2003-01-01

    Electrical splices between NbTi Rutherford type cables need to be made for the LHC IR inner triplet quadrupoles. Splices between magnets as well as internal to the magnets are necessary. Various splice configurations, solders, and fluxes have been considered. Testing of these splices at cryogenic temperatures and at various currents has been completed. The results were satisfactory; Fermilab is capable of making excellent low resistance (<1n Omega ) solder joints for the LHC project. (4 refs).

  13. Stabilized cyclopropane analogs of the splicing inhibitor FD-895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Reymundo; Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Deepak; Kipps, Thomas J; Castro, Januario E; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-09-12

    Targeting the spliceosome with small molecule inhibitors provides a new avenue to target cancer by intercepting alternate splicing pathways. Although our understanding of alternate mRNA splicing remains poorly understood, it provides an escape pathway for many cancers resistant to current therapeutics. These findings have encouraged recent academic and industrial efforts to develop natural product spliceosome inhibitors, including FD-895 (1a), pladienolide B (1b), and pladienolide D (1c), into next-generation anticancer drugs. The present study describes the application of semisynthesis and total synthesis to reveal key structure-activity relationships for the spliceosome inhibition by 1a. This information is applied to deliver new analogs with improved stability and potent activity at inhibiting splicing in patient derived cell lines.

  14. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  15. Two new splice variants in porcine PPARGC1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peelman Luc J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A is a coactivator with a vital and central role in fat and energy metabolism. It is considered to be a candidate gene for meat quality in pigs and is involved in the development of obesity and diabetes in humans. How its many functions are regulated, is however still largely unclear. Therefore a transcription profile of PPARGC1A in 32 tissues and 4 embryonic developmental stages in the pig was constructed by screening its cDNA for possible splice variants with exon-spanning primers. Findings This led to the discovery of 2 new splice variants in the pig, which were subsequently also detected in human tissues. In these variants, exon 8 was either completely or partly (the last 66 bp were conserved spliced out, potentially coding for a much shorter protein of respectively 337 and 359 amino acids (aa, of which the first 291 aa would be the same compared to the complete protein (796 aa. Conclusion Considering the functional domains of the PPARGC1A protein, it is very likely these splice variants considerably affect the function of the protein and alternative splicing could be one of the mechanisms by which the diverse functions of PPARGC1A are regulated.

  16. Control of human papillomavirus gene expression by alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sheila V; Faizo, Arwa Ali A

    2017-03-02

    Human papillomaviruses possess circular double stranded DNA genomes of around 8kb in size from which multiple mRNAs are synthesized during an infectious life cycle. Although at least three viral promoters are used to initiate transcription, viral mRNAs are largely the product of processing of pre-mRNAs by alternative splicing and polyadenylation. The HPV life cycle and viral gene expression are tightly linked to differentiation of the epithelium the virus infects: there is an orchestrated production of viral mRNAs and proteins. In this review we describe viral mRNA expression and the roles of the SR and hnRNP proteins that respectively positively and negatively regulate splicing. We discuss HPV regulation of splicing factors and detail the evidence that the papillomavirus E2 protein has splicing-related activities. We highlight the possibility that HPV-mediated control of splicing in differentiating epithelial cells may be necessary to accomplish the viral replication cycle. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells.

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    Thomas C Whisenant

    Full Text Available Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as "central" interactome members (CIMs. Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, "peripheral" interactome members (PIMs, that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation

  18. A structured RNA in hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element represses alternative splicing in a sequence-independent and position-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Xie, Mao-Hua; Liu, Wei; Yang, Bo; Yang, Fan; Huang, Jingang; Huang, Jie; Wu, Qijia; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts are subjected to multiple splicing decisions, but the mechanism of splicing regulation remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-investigated alternative splicing reporter to dissect splicing regulatory elements residing in the post-transcriptional regulatory element (PRE) of HBV. A strong intronic splicing silencer (ISS) with a minimal functional element of 105 nucleotides (referred to as PRE-ISS) was identified and, interestingly, both the sense and antisense strands of the element were found to strongly suppress alternative splicing in multiple human cell lines. PRE-ISS folds into a double-hairpin structure, in which substitution mutations disrupting the double-hairpin structure abolish the splicing silencer activity. Although it harbors two previously identified binding sites for polypyrimidine tract binding protein, PRE-ISS represses splicing independent of this protein. The silencing function of PRE-ISS exhibited a strong position dependence, decreasing with the distance from affected splice sites. PRE-ISS does not belong to the intronic region of any HBV splicing variants identified thus far, preventing the testing of this intronic silencer function in the regulation of HBV splicing. These findings, together with the identification of multiple sense-antisense ISSs in the HBV genome, support the hypothesis that a sequence-independent and structure-dependent regulatory mechanism may have evolved to repress cryptic splice sites in HBV transcripts, thereby preventing their aberrant splicing during viral replication in the host. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  19. GC content around splice sites affects splicing through pre-mRNA secondary structures

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    Chen Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing increases protein diversity by generating multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene through different combinations of exons or through different selections of splice sites. It has been reported that RNA secondary structures are involved in alternative splicing. Here we perform a genomic study of RNA secondary structures around splice sites in humans (Homo sapiens, mice (Mus musculus, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster, and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans to further investigate this phenomenon. Results We observe that GC content around splice sites is closely associated with the splice site usage in multiple species. RNA secondary structure is the possible explanation, because the structural stability difference among alternative splice sites, constitutive splice sites, and skipped splice sites can be explained by the GC content difference. Alternative splice sites tend to be GC-enriched and exhibit more stable RNA secondary structures in all of the considered species. In humans and mice, splice sites of first exons and long exons tend to be GC-enriched and hence form more stable structures, indicating the special role of RNA secondary structures in promoter proximal splicing events and the splicing of long exons. In addition, GC-enriched exon-intron junctions tend to be overrepresented in tissue-specific alternative splice sites, indicating the functional consequence of the GC effect. Compared with regions far from splice sites and decoy splice sites, real splice sites are GC-enriched. We also found that the GC-content effect is much stronger than the nucleotide-order effect to form stable secondary structures. Conclusion All of these results indicate that GC content is related to splice site usage and it may mediate the splicing process through RNA secondary structures.

  20. Alternative splice variants of the human PD-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Barington, Torben

    2005-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and monocytes. We describe four alternatively spliced PD-1 mRNA transcripts (PD-1Deltaex2, PD-1Deltaex3, PD-1Deltaex2,3, and PD-1Deltaex2,3,4) in addition to the full length isoform. PD-1Deltaex2 and PD-1......Deltaex3 are generated by alternative splicing where exon 2 (extracellular IgV-like domain) and exon 3 (transmembrane domain) respectively are spliced out. PD-1Deltaex3 is therefore likely to encode a soluble form of PD-1. PD-1Deltaex2,3 lacks exon 2 and 3. These three variants have unaffected open...

  1. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of Tak1 is conserved in deuterostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Julian P; Vignal, Emmanuel; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Fort, Philippe; Tazi, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing allows organisms to rapidly modulate protein functions to physiological changes and therefore represents a highly versatile adaptive process. We investigated the conservation of the evolutionary history of the "Fox" family of RNA-binding splicing factors (RBFOX) as well as the conservation of regulated alternative splicing of the genes they control. We found that the RBFOX proteins are conserved in all metazoans examined. In humans, Fox proteins control muscle-specific alternative splicing of many genes but despite the conservation of splicing factors, conservation of regulation of alternative splicing has never been demonstrated between man and nonvertebrate species. Therefore, we studied 40 known Fox-regulated human exons and found that 22 had a tissue-specific splicing pattern in muscle and heart. Of these, 11 were spliced in the same tissue-specific manner in mouse tissues and 4 were tissue-specifically spliced in muscle and heart of the frog Xenopus laevis. The inclusion of two of these alternative exons was also downregulated during tadpole development. Of the 40 in the starting set, the most conserved alternative splicing event was in the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-activated kinase Tak1 (MAP3K7) as this was also muscle specific in urochordates and in Ambulacraria, the most ancient deuterostome clade. We found exclusion of the muscle-specific exon of Tak1 was itself under control of TGF beta in cell culture and consistently that TGF beta caused an upregulation of Fox2 (RBFOX2) expression. The alternative exon, which codes for an in-frame 27 amino acids between the kinase and known regulatory domain of TAK1, contains conserved features in all organisms including potential phosphorylation sites and likely has an important conserved function in TGF beta signaling and development. This study establishes that deuterostomes share a remarkable conserved physiological process that involves a splicing factor and expression of tissue

  2. Titin Diversity—Alternative Splicing Gone Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin is an extremely large protein found in highest concentrations in heart and skeletal muscle. The single mammalian gene is expressed in multiple isoforms as a result of alternative splicing. Although titin isoform expression is controlled developmentally and in a tissue specific manner, the vast number of potential splicing pathways far exceeds those described in any other alternatively spliced gene. Over 1 million human splice pathways for a single individual can be potentially derived from the PEVK region alone. A new splicing pattern for the human cardiac N2BA isoform type has been found in which the PEVK region includes only the N2B type exons. The alterations in splicing and titin isoform expression in human heart disease provide impetus for future detailed study of the splicing mechanisms for this giant protein.

  3. Alternative splicing variations in mouse CAPS2: differential expression and functional properties of splicing variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuichi Teiichi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ca2+-dependent activator protein 2 (CAPS2/CADPS2 is a secretory vesicle-associated protein involved in the release of neurotrophin. We recently reported that an aberrant, alternatively spliced CAPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 (CAPS2Δexon3 is detected in some patients with autism. Splicing variations in mouse CAPS2 and their expression and functions remain unclear. Results In this study, we defined 31 exons in the mouse CAPS2 gene and identified six alternative splicing variants, CAPS2a-f. CAPS2a is an isoform lacking exons 22 and 25, which encode part of the Munc13-1-homologous domain (MHD. CAPS2b lacks exon 25. CAPS2c lacks exons 11 and 22. CAPS2d, 2e, and 2f have C-terminal deletions from exon 14, exon 12, and exon 5, respectively. On the other hand, a mouse counterpart of CAPS2Δexon3 was not detected in the mouse tissues tested. CAPS2b was expressed exclusively in the brain, and the other isoforms were highly expressed in the brain, but also in some non-neural tissues. In the brain, all isoforms showed predominant expression patterns in the cerebellum. In the developing cerebellum, CAPS2b showed an up-regulated expression pattern, whereas the other isoforms exhibited transiently peaked expression patterns. CAPS2 proteins were mostly recovered in soluble fractions, but some were present in membrane fractions, except for CAPS2c and 2f, both of which lack the PH domain, suggesting that the PH domain is important for membrane association. In contrast to CAPS2a and 2b, CAPS2c showed slightly decreased BDNF-releasing activity, which is likely due to the C-terminal truncation of the PH domain in CAPS2c. Conclusion This study indicates that, in mouse, there are six splicing variants of CAPS2 (CAPS2a-f, and that these are subdivided into two groups: a long form containing the C-terminal MHD and a short form lacking the C-terminal MHD. These results demonstrate that the splicing variations correlate with their expression patterns and

  4. Proteomic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica in vivo assembled pre-mRNA splicing complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Jesús; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Sato, Emi; Chiba, Yoko; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Winkler, Robert; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Mendoza-Figueroa, María Saraí; Watanabe, Natsuki; Santos, Herbert J; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Galindo-Rosales, José Manuel

    2014-12-05

    The genome of the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica contains nearly 3000 introns and bioinformatic predictions indicate that major and minor spliceosomes occur in Entamoeba. However, except for the U2-, U4-, U5- and U6 snRNAs, no other splicing factor has been cloned and characterized. Here, we HA-tagged cloned the snRNP component U1A and assessed its expression and nuclear localization. Because the snRNP-free U1A form interacts with polyadenylate-binding protein, HA-U1A immunoprecipitates could identify early and late splicing complexes. Avoiding Entamoeba's endonucleases and ensuring the precipitation of RNA-binding proteins, parasite cultures were UV cross-linked prior to nuclear fraction immunoprecipitations with HA antibodies, and precipitates were subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. To discriminate their nuclear roles (chromatin-, co-transcriptional-, splicing-related), MS/MS analyses were carried out with proteins eluted with MS2-GST-sepharose from nuclear extracts of an MS2 aptamer-tagged Rabx13 intron amoeba transformant. Thus, we probed thirty-six Entamoeba proteins corresponding to 32 cognate splicing-specific factors, including 13 DExH/D helicases required for all stages of splicing, and 12 different splicing-related helicases were identified also. Furthermore 50 additional proteins, possibly involved in co-transcriptional processes were identified, revealing the complexity of co-transcriptional splicing in Entamoeba. Some of these later factors were not previously found in splicing complex analyses. Numerous facts about the splicing of the nearly 3000 introns of the Entamoeba genome have not been unraveled, particularly the splicing factors and their activities. Considering that many of such introns are located in metabolic genes, the knowledge of the splicing cues has the potential to be used to attack or control the parasite. We have found numerous new splicing-related factors which could have therapeutic benefit. We

  5. A nonsense mutation in mouse Tardbp affects TDP43 alternative splicing activity and causes limb-clasping and body tone defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ricketts

    Full Text Available Mutations in TARDBP, encoding Tar DNA binding protein-43 (TDP43, cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Attempts to model TDP43 dysfunction in mice have used knockouts or transgenic overexpressors, which have revealed the difficulties of manipulating TDP43, whose level is tightly controlled by auto-regulation. In a complementary approach, to create useful mouse models for the dissection of TDP43 function and pathology, we have identified a nonsense mutation in the endogenous mouse Tardbp gene through screening an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutant mouse archive. The mutation is predicted to cause a Q101X truncation in TDP43. We have characterised Tardbp(Q101X mice to investigate this mutation in perturbing TDP43 biology at endogenous expression levels. We found the Tardbp(Q101X mutation is homozygous embryonic lethal, highlighting the importance of TDP43 in early development. Heterozygotes (Tardbp(+/Q101X have abnormal levels of mutant transcript, but we find no evidence of the truncated protein and mice have similar full-length TDP43 protein levels as wildtype littermates. Nevertheless, Tardbp(+/Q101X mice have abnormal alternative splicing of downstream gene targets, and limb-clasp and body tone phenotypes. Thus the nonsense mutation in Tardbp causes a mild loss-of-function phenotype and behavioural assessment suggests underlying neurological abnormalities. Due to the role of TDP43 in ALS, we investigated potential interactions with another known causative gene, mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1. Tardbp(+/Q101X mice were crossed with the SOD1(G93Adl transgenic mouse model of ALS. Behavioural and physiological assessment did not reveal modifying effects on the progression of ALS-like symptoms in the double mutant progeny from this cross. In summary, the Tardbp(Q101X mutant mice are a useful tool for the dissection of TDP43 protein regulation, effects on splicing, embryonic development and neuromuscular

  6. Assembly of pre-mRNA splicing complex is cap dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, E; Thalmann, E; Hartmuth, K; Blaas, D; Kuechler, E

    1987-01-01

    To study the influence of the ubiquitous cap structure of nuclear pre-mRNAs on the assembly of a functional splicing complex, the in vitro splicing of a truncated human metallothionein pre-mRNA was examined in the presence of the cap analogue m7GTP. Significant inhibition of splicing was observed at a concentration as low as 5 microM m7GTP. Analysis of the splicing reaction on glycerol density gradients showed two complexes sedimenting at 45S and 22S. When the reaction was carried out in presence of m7GTP a marked decrease of the material sedimenting at 45S, representing the active splicing complex, was observed. When capped pre-mRNA was replaced by uncapped pre-mRNA, complex formation was significantly reduced. These data indicate that the cap structure plays an important yet unknown role in the assembly of spliceosomes. Images PMID:3644239

  7. Splicing and alternative splicing in rice and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a monocot gramineous crop, and one of the mostimportant staple foods. Rice is considered a model species formost gramineous crops. Extensive research on rice hasprovided critical guidance for other crops, such as maize andwheat. In recent years, climate change and exacerbated soildegradation have resulted in a variety of abiotic stresses, suchas greenhouse effects, lower temperatures, drought, floods,soil salinization and heavy metal pollution. As such, there isan extremely high demand for additional research, in order toaddress these negative factors. Studies have shown that thealternative splicing of many genes in rice is affected by stressconditions, suggesting that manipulation of the alternativesplicing of specific genes may be an effective approach for riceto adapt to abiotic stress. With the advancement ofmicroarrays, and more recently, next generation sequencingtechnology, several studies have shown that more than half ofthe genes in the rice genome undergo alternative splicing. Thismini-review summarizes the latest progress in the research ofsplicing and alternative splicing in rice, compared to splicingin humans. Furthermore, we discuss how additional studiesmay change the landscape of investigation of rice functionalgenomics and genetically improved rice. [BMB Reports 2013;46(9: 439-447

  8. Identification of a novel function of CX-4945 as a splicing regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongki Kim

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a nearly ubiquitous versatile process that controls gene expression and creates numerous protein isoforms with different functions from a single gene. The significance of alternative splicing has been confirmed by the increasing number of human diseases that are caused by misregulation of splicing events. Very few compounds, however, have been reported to act as inhibitors of alternative splicing, and their potential clinical use needs to be evaluated. Here, we report that CX-4945, a previously well-characterized inhibitor of casein kinase 2 (CK2 and a molecule currently in clinical trials (Phase II for cancer treatment, regulates splicing in mammalian cells in a CK2-independent manner. Transcriptome-wide analysis using exon array also showed a widespread alteration in alternative splicing of numerous genes. We found that CX-4945 potently inhibits the Cdc2-like kinases (Clks in vitro and in turn, leads to suppression of the phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich (SR proteins in mammalian cells. Surprisingly, the overall efficacy of CX-4945 on Clks (IC50 = 3-90 nM was stronger than that of TG-003, the strongest inhibitor reported to date. Of the Clks, Clk2 was most strongly inhibited by CX-4945 in an ATP-competitive manner. Our research revealed an unexpected activity of the drug candidate CX-4945 as a potent splicing modulator and also suggested a potential application for therapy of diseases caused by abnormal splicing.

  9. The chromatin remodeling complex Swi/Snf regulates splicing of meiotic transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Srivats; Douglass, Stephen; Galivanche, Anoop R; Johnson, Tracy L

    2017-07-27

    Despite its relatively streamlined genome, there are important examples of regulated RNA splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as splicing of meiotic transcripts. Like other eukaryotes, S. cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic reprogramming of gene expression during meiosis, including regulated splicing of a number of crucial meiosis-specific RNAs. Splicing of a subset of these is dependent upon the splicing activator Mer1. Here we show a crucial role for the chromatin remodeler Swi/Snf in regulation of splicing of meiotic genes and find that the complex affects meiotic splicing in two ways. First, we show that Swi/Snf regulates nutrient-dependent downregulation of ribosomal protein encoding RNAs, leading to the redistribution of spliceosomes from this abundant class of intron-containing RNAs (the ribosomal protein genes) to Mer1-regulated transcripts. We also demonstrate that Mer1 expression is dependent on Snf2, its acetylation state and histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation at the MER1 locus. Hence, Snf2 exerts systems level control of meiotic gene expression through two temporally distinct mechanisms, demonstrating that it is a key regulator of meiotic splicing in S. cerevisiae. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby the cell redirects its energy from maintaining its translational capacity to the process of meiosis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Safely splicing glass optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelak, K.

    1980-01-01

    Field-repair technique fuses glass fibers in flammable environment. Apparatus consists of v-groove vacuum chucks on manipulators, high-voltage dc power supply and tungsten electrodes, microscope to observe joint alignment and fusion, means of test transmission through joint. Apparatus is enclosed in gas tight bos filled with inert gas during fusion. About 2 feet of fiber end are necessary for splicing.

  11. Restoration of correct splicing in IVSI-110 mutation of β-globin gene with antisense oligonucleotides: implications and applications in functional assay development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mansoori Derakhshan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The use of antisense oligonucleotides (AOs to restore normal splicing by blocking the recognition of aberrant splice sites by the spliceosome represents an innovative means of potentially controlling certain inherited disorders affected by aberrant splicing. Selection of the appropriate target site is essential in the success of an AO therapy. In this study, in search for a splice model system to facilitate the evaluation of AOs to redirect defective splicing of IVSI-110 β-globin intron, an EGFP-based IVSI-110 specific cellular reporter assay system has been developed and a number of AOs were tested in this cellular splicing assay. Materials and Methods: A recombinant plasmid (pEGFP/I-110 carrying the EGFP gene interrupted by a mutated human β-globin intron 1 (IVSI-110 was developed and transfected into K562 cells. A number of AOs with a 2’-O-methyl oligoribonucleotide (2’-O-Me backbone system were systematically tested in this cellular splicing assay. Results: The mutation in the intron causes aberrant splicing of EGFP pre-mRNA, preventing translation of EGFP; however, treatment of the cells with specific concentration of a sequence specific 2’-O-Me AO targeted to the aberrant splice site induced correct splicing and resulted in restoring of EGFP activity. Conclusion: This cellular splicing assay provides a novel functional assay system in assessing the cellular delivery efficiency of AOs and therapeutic effect of AOs in restoration of aberrant splicing.

  12. SplicePlot: a utility for visualizing splicing quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric; Nance, Tracy; Montgomery, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    RNA sequencing has provided unprecedented resolution of alternative splicing and splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL). However, there are few tools available for visualizing the genotype-dependent effects of splicing at a population level. SplicePlot is a simple command line utility that produces intuitive visualization of sQTLs and their effects. SplicePlot takes mapped RNA sequencing reads in BAM format and genotype data in VCF format as input and outputs publication-quality Sashimi plots, hive plots and structure plots, enabling better investigation and understanding of the role of genetics on alternative splicing and transcript structure. Source code and detailed documentation are available at http://montgomerylab.stanford.edu/spliceplot/index.html under Resources and at Github. SplicePlot is implemented in Python and is supported on Linux and Mac OS. A VirtualBox virtual machine running Ubuntu with SplicePlot already installed is also available.

  13. Shaping the Arabidopsis Transcriptome through Alternative Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Staiger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a molecular tool of the cell to generate more than one messenger RNA from the same gene. Through variable combinations of exons blueprints for different proteins are assembled from one and the same pre-messenger RNA, thus increasing the complexity of the proteome. Moreover, through alternative splicing different transcript variants with different stabilities and different regulatory motifs can be generated, leading to variation in the transcriptome. The importance of alternative splicing in plants has been increasingly recognized in the last decade. Alternative splicing has been found during abiotic and biotic stress and during development. Here, recent advancements in the understanding of alternative splicing in higher plants are presented. Mechanistic details and functional consequences of alternative splicing are discussed with a focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) exon 11 is vulnerable - Molecular pathology of mutations in PAH exon 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    distributed throughout the exon. Finally, we identified a pseudoexon in intron 11, which would have pathogenic consequences if activated by mutations or improved splicing conditions. Exonic mutations that disrupt splicing are unlikely to facilitate response to BH(4) and may lead to inconsistent genotype......In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation...... molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified PAH exon 11...

  15. BAP1 missense mutation c.2054 A>T (p.E685V completely disrupts normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site in a human mesothelioma cell line.

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    Arianne Morrison

    Full Text Available BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is lost or deleted in diverse cancers, including uveal mela¬noma, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, clear cell renal carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, BAP1 germline mutations have been reported in families with combinations of these same cancers. A particular challenge for mutation screening is the classification of non-truncating BAP1 sequence variants because it is not known whether these subtle changes can affect the protein function sufficiently to predispose to cancer development. Here we report mRNA splicing analysis on a homozygous substitution mutation, BAP1 c. 2054 A&T (p.Glu685Val, identified in an MPM cell line derived from a mesothelioma patient. The mutation occurred at the 3rd nucleotide from the 3' end of exon 16. RT-PCR, cloning and subsequent sequencing revealed several aberrant splicing products not observed in the controls: 1 a 4 bp deletion at the end of exon 16 in all clones derived from the major splicing product. The BAP1 c. 2054 A&T mutation introduced a new 5' splice site (GU, which resulted in the deletion of 4 base pairs and presumably protein truncation; 2 a variety of alternative splicing products that led to retention of different introns: introns 14-16; introns 15-16; intron 14 and intron 16; 3 partial intron 14 and 15 retentions caused by activation of alternative 3' splice acceptor sites (AG in the introns. Taken together, we were unable to detect any correctly spliced mRNA transcripts in this cell line. These results suggest that aberrant splicing caused by this mutation is quite efficient as it completely abolishes normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site and activation of cryptic splice sites. These data support the conclusion that BAP1 c.2054 A&T (p.E685V variant is a pathogenic mutation and contributes to MPM through disruption of normal splicing.

  16. Alternatively spliced Spalax heparanase inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, tumor growth, and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Nicola J.; Avivi, Aaron; Shafat, Itay; Edovitsky, Evgeny; Zcharia, Eyal; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate (HS) at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Heparanase is expressed mainly by cancer cells, and its expression is correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here, we report the cloning of a unique splice variant (splice 36) of heparanase from the subterranean blind mole rat (Spalax). This splice variant results from skipping part of exon 3, exons 4 and 5, and part of exon 6 and functions as a dominant negative to the wild-type enzyme. It inhibits HS degradation, suppresses glioma tumor growth, and decreases experimental B16–BL6 lung colonization in a mouse model. Intriguingly, Spalax splice variant 7 of heparanase (which results from skipping of exon 7) is devoid of enzymatic activity, but unlike splice 36 it enhances tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that alternative splicing of heparanase regulates its enzymatic activity and might adapt the heparanase function to the fluctuating normoxic–hypoxic subterranean environment that Spalax experiences. Development of anticancer drugs designed to suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis is a major challenge, of which heparanase inhibition is a promising approach. We anticipate that the heparanase splicing model, evolved during 40 million years of Spalacid adaptation to underground life, would pave the way for the development of heparanase-based therapeutic modalities directed against angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. PMID:19164514

  17. Supplementary Material for: Herboxidiene triggers splicing repression and abiotic stress responses in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Results Here, we show that herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing. Moreover, GEX1A activates genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. GEX1A treatment -activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, GEX1A and pladienolide B (PB) elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. Conclusions Our study establishes GEX1A as a potent splicing inhibitor in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  18. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Churbanov, Alexander; Vo?echovsk?, Igor; Hicks, Chindo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from t...

  19. The RNA splicing factor ASF/SF2 inhibits human topoisomerase I mediated DNA relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Félicie Faucon; Tange, Thomas Ø.; Sinnathamby, Thayaline

    2002-01-01

    Human topoisomerase I interacts with and phosphorylates the SR-family of RNA splicing factors, including ASF/SF2, and has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of RNA splicing. Here we present evidence to support the theory that the regulation can go the other way around...... with the SR-proteins controlling topoisomerase I DNA activity. We demonstrate that the splicing factor ASF/SF2 inhibits relaxation by interfering with the DNA cleavage and/or DNA binding steps of human topoisomerase I catalysis. The inhibition of relaxation correlated with the ability of various deletion...

  20. Aberrant RNA splicing in cancer; expression changes and driver mutations of splicing factor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, A; Kilpinen, S; Ruusulehto, A; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2016-05-12

    Alternative splicing is a widespread process contributing to structural transcript variation and proteome diversity. In cancer, the splicing process is commonly disrupted, resulting in both functional and non-functional end-products. Cancer-specific splicing events are known to contribute to disease progression; however, the dysregulated splicing patterns found on a genome-wide scale have until recently been less well-studied. In this review, we provide an overview of aberrant RNA splicing and its regulation in cancer. We then focus on the executors of the splicing process. Based on a comprehensive catalog of splicing factor encoding genes and analyses of available gene expression and somatic mutation data, we identify cancer-associated patterns of dysregulation. Splicing factor genes are shown to be significantly differentially expressed between cancer and corresponding normal samples, and to have reduced inter-individual expression variation in cancer. Furthermore, we identify enrichment of predicted cancer-critical genes among the splicing factors. In addition to previously described oncogenic splicing factor genes, we propose 24 novel cancer-critical splicing factors predicted from somatic mutations.

  1. The RNA-binding protein QKI suppresses cancer-associated aberrant splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yang Zong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Aberrant splicing has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functional links between splicing regulation and lung cancer are not well understood. Here we identify the RNA-binding protein QKI as a key regulator of alternative splicing in lung cancer. We show that QKI is frequently down-regulated in lung cancer, and its down-regulation is significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. QKI-5 inhibits the proliferation and transformation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that QKI-5 regulates the alternative splicing of NUMB via binding to two RNA elements in its pre-mRNA, which in turn suppresses cell proliferation and prevents the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. We further show that QKI-5 inhibits splicing by selectively competing with a core splicing factor SF1 for binding to the branchpoint sequence. Taken together, our data reveal QKI as a critical regulator of splicing in lung cancer and suggest a novel tumor suppression mechanism involving QKI-mediated regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  2. Preparation of Splicing Competent Nuclear Extract from Mammalian Cells and In Vitro Pre-mRNA Splicing Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassat, Maliheh; Shenasa, Hossein; Hertel, Klemens J

    2017-01-01

    The ability to perform in vitro splicing assays has paved the way for in-depth studies of the mechanisms and machinery involved in the process of splicing. The in vitro splicing assay is a valuable experimental approach that combines the complexity of the spliceosome and regulatory systems with the flexibility of performing endless splicing and alternative splicing reactions. Through the use of crude nuclear extract and radiolabeled pre-mRNA, spliced mRNAs can be visualized using autoradiography for downstream analysis. This chapter describes the necessary steps to perform an in vitro splicing reaction, including the generation of the key components necessary for the splicing reaction; nuclear extract.

  3. Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

  4. Spliced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney Page

    2017-01-01

    been initiated. In this article I present a brief history of HGT, showing how the ethical and practical viability of the field was achieved by key scientific and regulatory actors. These parties carefully articulated gene therapy’s scope, limiting it to therapeutic interventions on somatic cells......, and cultivated alliances and divisions that bolstered the field’s legitimacy. At times these measures faltered, and then practitioners and sometimes patients would invoke an ethical imperative, posing gene therapy as the best solution to life and death problems. I suggest that we consider how boundary...

  5. An Engineered Split Intein for Photoactivated Protein Trans-Splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Wong

    Full Text Available Protein splicing is mediated by inteins that auto-catalytically join two separated protein fragments with a peptide bond. Here we engineered a genetically encoded synthetic photoactivatable intein (named LOVInC, by using the light-sensitive LOV2 domain from Avena sativa as a switch to modulate the splicing activity of the split DnaE intein from Nostoc punctiforme. Periodic blue light illumination of LOVInC induced protein splicing activity in mammalian cells. To demonstrate the broad applicability of LOVInC, synthetic protein systems were engineered for the light-induced reassembly of several target proteins such as fluorescent protein markers, a dominant positive mutant of RhoA, caspase-7, and the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator GCaMP2. Spatial precision of LOVInC was demonstrated by targeting activity to specific mammalian cells. Thus, LOVInC can serve as a general platform for engineering light-based control for modulating the activity of many different proteins.

  6. An Interspecific Plant Hybrid Shows Novel Changes in Parental Splice Forms of Genes for Splicing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scascitelli, Moira; Cognet, Marie; Adams, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization plays an important role in plant adaptive evolution and speciation, and the process often results in phenotypic novelty. Hybrids can show changes in genome structure and gene expression compared with their parents including chromosomal rearrangments, changes in cytosine methylation, up- and downregulation of gene expression, and gene silencing. Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental aspect of the expression of many genes. However alternative splicing patterns have not been examined in multiple genes in an interspecific plant hybrid compared with its parents. Here we studied alternative splicing patterns in an interspecific Populus hybrid and its parents by assaying 40 genes using reverse transcription PCR. Most of the genes showed identical alternative splicing patterns between the parents and the hybrid. We found new alternative splicing variants present in the hybrid in two SR genes involved in the regulation of splicing and alternative splicing. The novel alternative splicing patterns included changes in donor and acceptor sites to create a new exon in one allele of PtRSZ22 in the hybrid and retention of an intron in both alleles of PtSR34a.1 in the hybrid, with effects on the function of the corresponding truncated proteins, if present. Our results suggest that novel alternative splicing patterns are present in a small percentage of genes in hybrids, but they could make a considerable impact on the expression of some genes. Changes in alternative splicing are likely to be an important component of the genetic changes that occur upon interspecific hybridization. PMID:20100939

  7. Aberrant Splicing in Cancer: Mediators of Malignant Progression through an Imperfect Splice Program Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; Brígido, Paula Cristina; Moraes, Alberto Silva; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Although the efforts to understand the genetic basis of cancer allowed advances in diagnosis and therapy, little is known about other molecular bases. Splicing is a key event in gene expression, controlling the excision of introns decoded inside genes and being responsible for 80% of the proteome amplification through events of alternative splicing. Growing data from the last decade point to deregulation of splicing events as crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Several alterations in splicing events were observed in cancer, caused by either missexpression of or detrimental mutations in some splicing factors, and appear to be critical in carcinogenesis and key events during tumor progression. Notwithstanding, it is difficult to determine whether it is a cause or consequence of cancer and/or tumorigenesis. Most reviews focus on the generated isoforms of deregulated splicing pattern, while others mainly summarize deregulated splicing factors observed in cancer. In this review, events associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression mainly, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which is also implicated in alternative splicing regulation, will be progressively discussed in the light of a new perspective, suggesting that splicing deregulation mediates cell reprogramming in tumor progression by an imperfect shift of the splice program. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulation by DNA methylation, transcription factor binding and alternative splicing (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Brittany A; Umbricht, Christopher B; Zeiger, Martha A

    2016-12-01

    The catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), plays an essential role in telomere maintenance to oppose cellular senescence and, is highly regulated in normal and cancerous cells. Regulation of hTERT occurs through multiple avenues, including a unique pattern of CpG promoter methylation and alternative splicing. Promoter methylation affects the binding of transcription factors, resulting in changes in expression of the gene. In addition to expression level changes, changes in promoter binding can affect alternative splicing in a cotranscriptional manner. The alternative splicing of hTERT results in either the full length transcript which can form the active telomerase complex with hTR, or numerous inactive isoforms. Both regulation strategies are exploited in cancer to activate telomerase, however, the exact mechanism is unknown. Therefore, unraveling the link between promoter methylation status and alternative splicing for hTERT could expose yet another level of hTERT regulation. In an attempt to provide insight into the cellular control of active telomerase in cancer, this review will discuss our current perspective on CpG methylation of the hTERT promoter region, summarize the different forms of alternatively spliced variants, and examine examples of transcription factor binding that affects splicing.

  9. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing switches modulate gene expression in late erythropoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Miki L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Wickrema, Amittha; Conboy, John G.

    2009-02-03

    Differentiating erythroid cells execute a unique gene expression program that insures synthesis of the appropriate proteome at each stage of maturation. Standard expression microarrays provide important insight into erythroid gene expression but cannot detect qualitative changes in transcript structure, mediated by RNA processing, that alter structure and function of encoded proteins. We analyzed stage-specific changes in the late erythroid transcriptome via use of high-resolution microarrays that detect altered expression of individual exons. Ten differentiation-associated changes in erythroblast splicing patterns were identified, including the previously known activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 splicing. Six new alternative splicing switches involving enhanced inclusion of internal cassette exons were discovered, as well as 3 changes in use of alternative first exons. All of these erythroid stage-specific splicing events represent activated inclusion of authentic annotated exons, suggesting they represent an active regulatory process rather than a general loss of splicing fidelity. The observation that 3 of the regulated transcripts encode RNA binding proteins (SNRP70, HNRPLL, MBNL2) may indicate significant changes in the RNA processing machinery of late erythroblasts. Together, these results support the existence of a regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing program that is critical for late erythroid differentiation.

  10. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  11. Rbfox proteins regulate tissue-specific alternative splicing of Mef2D required for muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Valeria; Sebastian, Soji; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Gabellini, Davide

    2015-02-15

    Among the Mef2 family of transcription factors, Mef2D is unique in that it undergoes tissue-specific splicing to generate an isoform that is essential for muscle differentiation. However, the mechanisms mediating this muscle-specific processing of Mef2D remain unknown. Using bioinformatics, we identified Rbfox proteins as putative modulators of Mef2D muscle-specific splicing. Accordingly, we found direct and specific Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 binding to Mef2D pre-mRNA in vivo. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 cooperate in promoting Mef2D splicing and subsequent myogenesis. Thus, our findings reveal a new role for Rbfox proteins in regulating myogenesis through activation of essential muscle-specific splicing events. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Splicing pattern - ASTRA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us ASTRA Splicing pattern Data detail Data name Splicing pattern DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00371-0...04 Description of data contents The patterns of alternative splicing/transcriptional initiation Data file Fi...le name: astra_splicing_pattern.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/astra/LATEST/astra_splicing_pattern...ogodb/view/astra_splicing_pattern#en Data acquisition method For the five organisms (H. sapiens, M. musculus...apping data into bit arrays, detection of splicing patterns and distribution to t

  13. FUBP1: a new protagonist in splicing regulation of the DMD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Julie; Laaref, Abdelhamid Mahdi; Rofidal, Valérie; Lagrafeuille, Rosyne; Hem, Sonia; Thorel, Delphine; Méchin, Déborah; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Mouly, Vincent; Claustres, Mireille; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2015-02-27

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms for in-frame skipping of DMD exon 39 caused by the nonsense c.5480T>A mutation in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. RNase-assisted pull down assay coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that the mutant RNA probe specifically recruits hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2/B1 and DAZAP1. Functional studies in a human myoblast cell line transfected with DMD minigenes confirmed the splicing inhibitory activity of hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1, and showed that DAZAP1, also known to activate splicing, acts negatively in the context of the mutated exon 39. Furthermore, we uncovered that recognition of endogenous DMD exon 39 in muscle cells is promoted by FUSE binding protein 1 (FUBP1), a multifunctional DNA- and RNA-binding protein whose role in splicing is largely unknown. By serial deletion and mutagenesis studies in minigenes, we delineated a functional intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) in intron 38. FUBP1 recruitment to the RNA sequence containing the ISE was established by RNA pull down and RNA EMSA, and further confirmed by RNA-ChIP on endogenous DMD pre-mRNA. This study provides new insights about the splicing regulation of DMD exon 39, highlighting the emerging role of FUBP1 in splicing and describing the first ISE for constitutive exon inclusion in the mature DMD transcript. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

  15. RNA-Binding Proteins: Splicing Factors and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alger M. Fredericks

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-mRNA splicing is mediated by interactions of the Core Spliceosome and an array of accessory RNA binding proteins with cis-sequence elements. Splicing is a major regulatory component in higher eukaryotes. Disruptions in splicing are a major contributor to human disease. One in three hereditary disease alleles are believed to cause aberrant splicing. Hereditary disease alleles can alter splicing by disrupting a splicing element, creating a toxic RNA, or affecting splicing factors. One of the challenges of medical genetics is identifying causal variants from the thousands of possibilities discovered in a clinical sequencing experiment. Here we review the basic biochemistry of splicing, the mechanisms of splicing mutations, the methods for identifying splicing mutants, and the potential of therapeutic interventions.

  16. An alternatively spliced mRNA from the AP-2 gene encodes a negative regulator of transcriptional activation by AP-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, R; Kannan, P.; Imhof, A.; Bauer, R.; Yim, S O; Glockshuber, R; Van Dyke, M W; Tainsky, M A

    1993-01-01

    AP-2 is a retinoic acid-inducible and developmentally regulated activator of transcription. We have cloned an alternative AP-2 transcript (AP-2B) from the human teratocarcinoma cell line PA-1, which encodes a protein differing in the C terminus from the previously isolated AP-2 protein (AP-2A). This protein contains the activation domain of AP-2 and part of the DNA binding domain but lacks the dimerization domain which is necessary for DNA binding. Analysis of overlapping genomic clones spann...

  17. Splice variants of androgen receptor and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Caffo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years, two new-generation hormonal drugs and two chemotherapeutic agents have been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Unfortunately, some patients have primary resistance to them and the others eventually develop secondary resistance. It has recently been suggested that the presence of androgen receptor splice variants plays a leading role in the primary and secondary resistance to the new hormonal drugs, whereas their presence seem to have only a partial effect on the activity of the chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this paper is to review the published data concerning the role of androgen receptor splice variants in prostate cancer biology, and their potential use as biomarkers when making therapeutic decisions.

  18. SpliceAid-F: a database of human splicing factors and their RNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulietti, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; D'Antonio, Mattia; D'Onorio De Meo, Paolo; Paoletti, Daniele; Castrignanò, Tiziana; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Picardi, Ernesto; Zambelli, Federico; Principato, Giovanni; Pavesi, Giulio; Pesole, Graziano

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of all the factors involved in splicing, both proteins and RNAs, and of their interaction network is crucial for reaching a better understanding of this process and its functions. A large part of relevant information is buried in the literature or collected in various different databases. By hand-curated screenings of literature and databases, we retrieved experimentally validated data on 71 human RNA-binding splicing regulatory proteins and organized them into a database called 'SpliceAid-F' (http://www.caspur.it/SpliceAidF/). For each splicing factor (SF), the database reports its functional domains, its protein and chemical interactors and its expression data. Furthermore, we collected experimentally validated RNA-SF interactions, including relevant information on the RNA-binding sites, such as the genes where these sites lie, their genomic coordinates, the splicing effects, the experimental procedures used, as well as the corresponding bibliographic references. We also collected information from experiments showing no RNA-SF binding, at least in the assayed conditions. In total, SpliceAid-F contains 4227 interactions, 2590 RNA-binding sites and 1141 'no-binding' sites, including information on cellular contexts and conditions where binding was tested. The data collected in SpliceAid-F can provide significant information to explain an observed splicing pattern as well as the effect of mutations in functional regulatory elements.

  19. Rbfox2-coordinated alternative splicing of Mef2d and Rock2 controls myoblast fusion during myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Christopher S.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Scavuzzo, Marissa A.; Curk, Tomaz; Ule, Jernej; Li, Wei; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Alternative splicing plays important regulatory roles during periods of physiological change. During development a large number of genes coordinately express protein isoform transitions regulated by alternative splicing, however, the mechanisms that coordinate splicing and the functional integration of the resultant tissue-specific protein isoforms are typically unknown. Here we show that the conserved Rbfox2 RNA binding protein regulates 30% of the splicing transitions observed during myogenesis and is required for the specific step of myoblast fusion. Integration of Rbfox2-dependent splicing outcomes from RNA-seq with Rbfox2 iCLIP data identified Mef2d and Rock2 as Rbfox2 splicing targets. Restored activities of Mef2d and Rock2 rescued myoblast fusion in Rbfox2 depleted cultures demonstrating functional cooperation of protein isoforms generated by coordinated alterative splicing. The results demonstrate that coordinated alternative splicing by a single RNA binding protein modulates transcription (Mef2d) and cell signaling (Rock2) programs to drive tissue-specific functions (cell fusion) to promote a developmental transition. PMID:25087874

  20. Protein splicing and its evolution in eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starokadomskyy P. L.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inteins, or protein introns, are parts of protein sequences that are post-translationally excised, their flanking regions (exteins being spliced together. This process was called protein splicing. Originally inteins were found in prokaryotic or unicellular eukaryotic organisms. But the general principles of post-translation protein rearrangement are evolving yielding different post-translation modification of proteins in multicellular organisms. For clarity, these non-intein mediated events call either protein rearrangements or protein editing. The most intriguing example of protein editing is proteasome-mediated splicing of antigens in vertebrates that may play important role in antigen presentation. Other examples of protein rearrangements are maturation of Hg-proteins (critical receptors in embryogenesis as well as maturation of several metabolic enzymes. Despite a lack of experimental data we try to analyze some intriguing examples of protein splicing evolution.

  1. Severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity due to novel and rare DPYD missense mutations, deletion and genomic amplification affecting DPD activity and mRNA splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuilenburg, André B P; Meijer, Judith; Maurer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    in 9 cancer patients presenting with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. All patients possessed a strongly reduced DPD activity, ranging from 9 to 53% of controls. Analysis of the DPD gene (DPYD) showed the presence of 21 variable sites including 4 novel and 4 very rare aberrations: 3 missense.......G284V mutation showed residual DPD activities of 30% and 0.5%, respectively. Analysis of a DPD homology model indicated that the p.I948T and p.G284V mutations may affect electron transfer and the binding of FAD, respectively. cDNA analysis showed that the c.321+1G>A mutation in DPYD leads to skipping...

  2. The In Vivo Kinetics of RNA Polymerase II Elongation during Co-Transcriptional Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Yehuda; Neufeld, Noa; Bieberstein, Nicole; Causse, Sebastien Z.; Böhnlein, Eva-Maria; Neugebauer, Karla M.; Darzacq, Xavier; Shav-Tal, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    RNA processing events that take place on the transcribed pre-mRNA include capping, splicing, editing, 3′ processing, and polyadenylation. Most of these processes occur co-transcriptionally while the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) enzyme is engaged in transcriptional elongation. How Pol II elongation rates are influenced by splicing is not well understood. We generated a family of inducible gene constructs containing increasing numbers of introns and exons, which were stably integrated in human cells to serve as actively transcribing gene loci. By monitoring the association of the transcription and splicing machineries on these genes in vivo, we showed that only U1 snRNP localized to the intronless gene, consistent with a splicing-independent role for U1 snRNP in transcription. In contrast, all snRNPs accumulated on intron-containing genes, and increasing the number of introns increased the amount of spliceosome components recruited. This indicates that nascent RNA can assemble multiple spliceosomes simultaneously. Kinetic measurements of Pol II elongation in vivo, Pol II ChIP, as well as use of Spliceostatin and Meayamycin splicing inhibitors showed that polymerase elongation rates were uncoupled from ongoing splicing. This study shows that transcription elongation kinetics proceed independently of splicing at the model genes studied here. Surprisingly, retention of polyadenylated mRNA was detected at the transcription site after transcription termination. This suggests that the polymerase is released from chromatin prior to the completion of splicing, and the pre-mRNA is post-transcriptionally processed while still tethered to chromatin near the gene end. PMID:21264352

  3. Thermopriming Triggers Splicing Memory in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2018-02-20

    Abiotic and biotic stresses limit crop productivity. Exposure to a non-lethal stress, referred to as priming, can allow plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal conditions; the priming effect persists even after a prolonged stress-free period. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying priming are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of heat shock memory and the role of priming in Arabidopsisthaliana. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression and alternative splicing in primed and non-primed plants revealed that alternative splicing functions as a novel component of heat shock memory. We show that priming of plants with a non-lethal heat stress results in de-repression of splicing after a second exposure to heat stress. By contrast, non-primed plants showed significant repression of splicing. These observations link ‘splicing memory’ to the ability of plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal heat stress. This newly discovered priming-induced splicing memory may represent a general feature of heat stress responses in plants and other organisms as many of the key components of heat shock responses are conserved among eukaryotes. Furthermore, this finding could facilitate the development of novel approaches to improve plant survival under extreme heat stress.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Modulation of Alternative Splicing by the Biguanide Metformin

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    Delphine Laustriat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Major physiological changes are governed by alternative splicing of RNA, and its misregulation may lead to specific diseases. With the use of a genome-wide approach, we show here that this splicing step can be modified by medication and demonstrate the effects of the biguanide metformin, on alternative splicing. The mechanism of action involves AMPK activation and downregulation of the RBM3 RNA-binding protein. The effects of metformin treatment were tested on myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1, a multisystemic disease considered to be a spliceopathy. We show that this drug promotes a corrective effect on several splicing defects associated with DM1 in derivatives of human embryonic stem cells carrying the causal mutation of DM1 as well as in primary myoblasts derived from patients. The biological effects of metformin were shown to be compatible with typical therapeutic dosages in a clinical investigation involving diabetic patients. The drug appears to act as a modifier of alternative splicing of a subset of genes and may therefore have novel therapeutic potential for many more diseases besides those directly linked to defective alternative splicing.

  5. CUG-BP1 regulates RyR1 ASI alternative splicing in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yinglong; Wang, Huiwen; Wei, Bin; Guo, Yuting; Gu, Lei; Yang, Zhiguang; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yanyun; Yuan, Qi; Zhao, Gang; Ji, Guangju

    2015-11-04

    RNA binding protein is identified as an important mediator of aberrant alternative splicing in muscle atrophy. The altered splicing of calcium channels, such as ryanodine receptors (RyRs), plays an important role in impaired excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in muscle atrophy; however, the regulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) alternative splicing leading to skeletal muscle atrophy remains to be investigated. In this study we demonstrated that CUG binding protein 1 (CUG-BP1) was up-regulated and the alternative splicing of RyR1 ASI (exon70) was aberrant during the process of neurogenic muscle atrophy both in human patients and mouse models. The gain and loss of function experiments in vivo demonstrated that altered splicing pattern of RyR1 ASI was directly mediated by an up-regulated CUG-BP1 function. Furthermore, we found that CUG-BP1 affected the calcium release activity in single myofibers and the extent of atrophy was significantly reduced upon gene silencing of CUG-BP1 in atrophic muscle. These findings improve our understanding of calcium signaling related biological function of CUG-BP1 in muscle atrophy. Thus, we provide an intriguing perspective of involvement of mis-regulated RyR1 splicing in muscular disease.

  6. Estrogen receptor beta impacts hormone-induced alternative mRNA splicing in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dago, Dougba Noel; Scafoglio, Claudio; Rinaldi, Antonio; Memoli, Domenico; Giurato, Giorgio; Nassa, Giovanni; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Tarallo, Roberta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2015-05-09

    Estrogens play an important role in breast cancer (BC) development and progression; when the two isoforms of the estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) are co-expressed each of them mediate specific effects of these hormones in BC cells. ERβ has been suggested to exert an antagonist role toward the oncogenic activities of ERα, and for this reason it is considered an oncosuppressor. As clinical evidence regarding a prognostic role for this receptor subtype in hormone-responsive BC is still limited and conflicting, more knowledge is required on the biological functions of ERβ in cancer cells. We have previously described the ERβ and ERα interactomes from BC cells, identifying specific and distinct patterns of protein interactions for the two receptors. In particular, we identified factors involved in mRNA splicing and maturation as important components of both ERα and ERβ pathways. Guided by these findings, here we performed RNA sequencing to investigate in depth the differences in the early transcriptional events and RNA splicing patterns induced by estradiol in cells expressing ERα alone or ERα and ERβ. Exon skipping was the most abundant splicing event in the post-transcriptional regulation by estradiol. We identified several splicing events induced by ERα alone and by ERα+ERβ, demonstrating for the first time that ERβ significantly affects estrogen-induced splicing in BC cells, as revealed by modification of a subset of ERα-dependent splicing by ERβ, as well as by the presence of splicing isoforms only in ERβ+cells. In particular, we observed that ERβ+BC cell lines exhibited around 2-fold more splicing events than the ERβ- cells. Interestingly, we identified putative direct targets of ERβ-mediated alternative splicing by correlating the genomic locations of ERβ and ERα binding sites with estradiol-induced differential splicing in the corresponding genes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ERβ significantly affects estrogen

  7. Signal-dependent splicing of tissue factor pre-mRNA modulates the thrombogenecity of human platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertz, Hansjörg; Tolley, Neal D.; Foulks, Jason M.; Denis, Melvin M.; Risenmay, Ben W.; Buerke, Michael; Tilley, Rachel E.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Harris, Estelle M.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Mackman, Nigel; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is an essential cofactor for the activation of blood coagulation in vivo. We now report that quiescent human platelets express TF pre-mRNA and, in response to activation, splice this intronic-rich message into mature mRNA. Splicing of TF pre-mRNA is associated with increased TF protein expression, procoagulant activity, and accelerated formation of clots. Pre-mRNA splicing is controlled by Cdc2-like kinase (Clk)1, and interruption of Clk1 signaling prevents TF from accumulating in activated platelets. Elevated intravascular TF has been reported in a variety of prothrombotic diseases, but there is debate as to whether anucleate platelets—the key cellular effector of thrombosis—express TF. Our studies demonstrate that human platelets use Clk1-dependent splicing pathways to generate TF protein in response to cellular activation. We propose that platelet-derived TF contributes to the propagation and stabilization of a thrombus. PMID:17060476

  8. Conserved and species-specific alternative splicing in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorov Alexander V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been shown to be one of the major evolutionary mechanisms for protein diversification and proteome expansion, since a considerable fraction of alternative splicing events appears to be species- or lineage-specific. However, most studies were restricted to the analysis of cassette exons in pairs of genomes and did not analyze functionality of the alternative variants. Results We analyzed conservation of human alternative splice sites and cassette exons in the mouse and dog genomes. Alternative exons, especially minor-isofom ones, were shown to be less conserved than constitutive exons. Frame-shifting alternatives in the protein-coding regions are less conserved than frame-preserving ones. Similarly, the conservation of alternative sites is highest for evenly used alternatives, and higher when the distance between the sites is divisible by three. The rate of alternative-exon and site loss in mouse is slightly higher than in dog, consistent with faster evolution of the former. The evolutionary dynamics of alternative sites was shown to be consistent with the model of random activation of cryptic sites. Conclusion Consistent with other studies, our results show that minor cassette exons are less conserved than major-alternative and constitutive exons. However, our study provides evidence that this is caused not only by exon birth, but also lineage-specific loss of alternative exons and sites, and it depends on exon functionality.

  9. Diverse splicing patterns of exonized Alu elements in human tissues.

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    Lan Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Exonization of Alu elements is a major mechanism for birth of new exons in primate genomes. Prior analyses of expressed sequence tags show that almost all Alu-derived exons are alternatively spliced, and the vast majority of these exons have low transcript inclusion levels. In this work, we provide genomic and experimental evidence for diverse splicing patterns of exonized Alu elements in human tissues. Using Exon array data of 330 Alu-derived exons in 11 human tissues and detailed RT-PCR analyses of 38 exons, we show that some Alu-derived exons are constitutively spliced in a broad range of human tissues, and some display strong tissue-specific switch in their transcript inclusion levels. Most of such exons are derived from ancient Alu elements in the genome. In SEPN1, mutations of which are linked to a form of congenital muscular dystrophy, the muscle-specific inclusion of an Alu-derived exon may be important for regulating SEPN1 activity in muscle. Realtime qPCR analysis of this SEPN1 exon in macaque and chimpanzee tissues indicates human-specific increase in its transcript inclusion level and muscle specificity after the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. Our results imply that some Alu exonization events may have acquired adaptive benefits during the evolution of primate transcriptomes.

  10. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

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    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  11. Alternative Splicing of G9a Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

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    Ana Fiszbein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications are critical for the establishment and maintenance of differentiation programs. G9a, the enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in mammalian euchromatin, exists as two isoforms with differential inclusion of exon 10 (E10 through alternative splicing. We find that the G9a methyltransferase is required for differentiation of the mouse neuronal cell line N2a and that E10 inclusion increases during neuronal differentiation of cultured cells, as well as in the developing mouse brain. Although E10 inclusion greatly stimulates overall H3K9me2 levels, it does not affect G9a catalytic activity. Instead, E10 increases G9a nuclear localization. We show that the G9a E10+ isoform is necessary for neuron differentiation and regulates the alternative splicing pattern of its own pre-mRNA, enhancing E10 inclusion. Overall, our findings indicate that by regulating its own alternative splicing, G9a promotes neuron differentiation and creates a positive feedback loop that reinforces cellular commitment to differentiation.

  12. Spliced leader trapping reveals widespread alternative splicing patterns in the highly dynamic transcriptome of Trypanosoma brucei.

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    Daniel Nilsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Trans-splicing of leader sequences onto the 5'ends of mRNAs is a widespread phenomenon in protozoa, nematodes and some chordates. Using parallel sequencing we have developed a method to simultaneously map 5'splice sites and analyze the corresponding gene expression profile, that we term spliced leader trapping (SLT. The method can be applied to any organism with a sequenced genome and trans-splicing of a conserved leader sequence. We analyzed the expression profiles and splicing patterns of bloodstream and insect forms of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. We detected the 5' splice sites of 85% of the annotated protein-coding genes and, contrary to previous reports, found up to 40% of transcripts to be differentially expressed. Furthermore, we discovered more than 2500 alternative splicing events, many of which appear to be stage-regulated. Based on our findings we hypothesize that alternatively spliced transcripts present a new means of regulating gene expression and could potentially contribute to protein diversity in the parasite. The entire dataset can be accessed online at TriTrypDB or through: http://splicer.unibe.ch/.

  13. Differential splicing using whole-transcript microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latest generation of Affymetrix microarrays are designed to interrogate expression over the entire length of every locus, thus giving the opportunity to study alternative splicing genome-wide. The Exon 1.0 ST (sense target platform, with versions for Human, Mouse and Rat, is designed primarily to probe every known or predicted exon. The smaller Gene 1.0 ST array is designed as an expression microarray but still interrogates expression with probes along the full length of each well-characterized transcript. We explore the possibility of using the Gene 1.0 ST platform to identify differential splicing events. Results We propose a strategy to score differential splicing by using the auxiliary information from fitting the statistical model, RMA (robust multichip analysis. RMA partitions the probe-level data into probe effects and expression levels, operating robustly so that if a small number of probes behave differently than the rest, they are downweighted in the fitting step. We argue that adjacent poorly fitting probes for a given sample can be evidence of differential splicing and have designed a statistic to search for this behaviour. Using a public tissue panel dataset, we show many examples of tissue-specific alternative splicing. Furthermore, we show that evidence for putative alternative splicing has a strong correspondence between the Gene 1.0 ST and Exon 1.0 ST platforms. Conclusion We propose a new approach, FIRMAGene, to search for differentially spliced genes using the Gene 1.0 ST platform. Such an analysis complements the search for differential expression. We validate the method by illustrating several known examples and we note some of the challenges in interpreting the probe-level data. Software implementing our methods is freely available as an R package.

  14. Decrease in hnRNP A/B expression during erythropoiesis mediates a pre-mRNA splicing switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Victor C.; Lersch, Robert; Gee, Sherry L.; Ponthier, Julie L.; Lo, Annie J.; Wu, Michael; Turck, Chris W.; Koury, Mark; Krainer, Adrian R.; Mayeda, Akila; Conboy, John G.

    2002-10-17

    A physiologically important alternative pre-mRNA splicing switch, involving activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) splicing, is required for establishing proper mechanical integrity of the erythrocyte membrane during erythropoiesis. Here we identify a conserved exonic splicing silencer element (CE16) in E16 that interacts with hnRNP A/B proteins and plays a role in repression of E16 splicing during early erythropoiesis. Experiments with model pre-mRNAs showed that CE16 can repress splicing of upstream introns, and that mutagenesis or replacement of CE16 can relieve this inhibition. An affinity selection assay with biotinylated CE16 RNA demonstrated specific binding of hnRNP A/B proteins. Depletion of hnRNP A/B proteins from nuclear extract significantly increased E16 inclusion, while repletion with recombinant hnRNP A/B restored E16 silencing. Most importantly, differentiating mouse erythroblasts exhibited a stage-specific activation of the E16 splicing switch in concert with a drama tic and specific down-regulation of hnRNP A/B protein expression. These findings demonstrate that natural developmental changes in hnRNP A/B proteins can effect physiologically important switches in pre-mRNA splicing.

  15. Discoveries, target identifications, and biological applications of natural products that inhibit splicing factor 3B subunit 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Dianne; Koide, Kazunori

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 1992 to 2015The natural products FR901464, pladienolide, and herboxidiene were discovered as activators of reporter gene systems. Unexpectedly, these compounds target neither transcription nor translation; rather, they target splicing factor 3B subunit 1 of the spliceosome, causing changes in splicing patterns. All of them showed anticancer activity in a low nanomolar range. Since their discovery, these molecules have been used in a variety of biological applications.

  16. Depolarization and CaM kinase IV modulate NMDA receptor splicing through two essential RNA elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ann Lee

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing controls the activity of many proteins important for neuronal excitation, but the signal-transduction pathways that affect spliced isoform expression are not well understood. One particularly interesting system of alternative splicing is exon 21 (E21 of the NMDA receptor 1 (NMDAR1 E21, which controls the trafficking of NMDA receptors to the plasma membrane and is repressed by Ca(++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK IV signaling. Here, we characterize the splicing of NMDAR1 E21. We find that E21 splicing is reversibly repressed by neuronal depolarization, and we identify two RNA elements within the exon that function together to mediate the inducible repression. One of these exonic elements is similar to an intronic CaMK IV-responsive RNA element (CaRRE originally identified in the 3' splice site of the BK channel STREX exon, but not previously observed within an exon. The other element is a new RNA motif. Introduction of either of these two motifs, called CaRRE type 1 and CaRRE type 2, into a heterologous constitutive exon can confer CaMK IV-dependent repression on the new exon. Thus, either exonic CaRRE can be sufficient for CaMK IV-induced repression. Single nucleotide scanning mutagenesis defined consensus sequences for these two CaRRE motifs. A genome-wide motif search and subsequent RT-PCR validation identified a group of depolarization-regulated alternative exons carrying CaRRE consensus sequences. Many of these exons are likely to alter neuronal function. Thus, these two RNA elements define a group of co-regulated splicing events that respond to a common stimulus in neurons to alter their activity.

  17. Depolarization and CaM Kinase IV Modulate NMDA Receptor Splicing through Two Essential RNA Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Ann; Xing, Yi; Nguyen, David; Xie, Jiuyong; Lee, Christopher J; Black, Douglas L

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing controls the activity of many proteins important for neuronal excitation, but the signal-transduction pathways that affect spliced isoform expression are not well understood. One particularly interesting system of alternative splicing is exon 21 (E21) of the NMDA receptor 1 (NMDAR1 E21), which controls the trafficking of NMDA receptors to the plasma membrane and is repressed by Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) IV signaling. Here, we characterize the splicing of NMDAR1 E21. We find that E21 splicing is reversibly repressed by neuronal depolarization, and we identify two RNA elements within the exon that function together to mediate the inducible repression. One of these exonic elements is similar to an intronic CaMK IV–responsive RNA element (CaRRE) originally identified in the 3′ splice site of the BK channel STREX exon, but not previously observed within an exon. The other element is a new RNA motif. Introduction of either of these two motifs, called CaRRE type 1 and CaRRE type 2, into a heterologous constitutive exon can confer CaMK IV–dependent repression on the new exon. Thus, either exonic CaRRE can be sufficient for CaMK IV–induced repression. Single nucleotide scanning mutagenesis defined consensus sequences for these two CaRRE motifs. A genome-wide motif search and subsequent RT-PCR validation identified a group of depolarization-regulated alternative exons carrying CaRRE consensus sequences. Many of these exons are likely to alter neuronal function. Thus, these two RNA elements define a group of co-regulated splicing events that respond to a common stimulus in neurons to alter their activity. PMID:17298178

  18. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative mRNA splicing through evolutionarily conserved RNA bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovci, Michael T; Ghanem, Dana; Marr, Henry; Arnold, Justin; Gee, Sherry; Parra, Marilyn; Liang, Tiffany Y; Stark, Thomas J; Gehman, Lauren T; Hoon, Shawn; Massirer, Katlin B; Pratt, Gabriel A; Black, Douglas L; Gray, Joe W; Conboy, John G; Yeo, Gene W

    2013-12-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables programmed diversity of gene expression across tissues and development. We show here that binding in distal intronic regions (>500 nucleotides (nt) from any exon) by Rbfox splicing factors important in development is extensive and is an active mode of splicing regulation. Similarly to exon-proximal sites, distal sites contain evolutionarily conserved GCATG sequences and are associated with AS activation and repression upon modulation of Rbfox abundance in human and mouse experimental systems. As a proof of principle, we validated the activity of two specific Rbfox enhancers in KIF21A and ENAH distal introns and showed that a conserved long-range RNA-RNA base-pairing interaction (an RNA bridge) is necessary for Rbfox-mediated exon inclusion in the ENAH gene. Thus we demonstrate a previously unknown RNA-mediated mechanism for AS control by distally bound RNA-binding proteins.

  19. Expanded alternative splice isoform profiling of the mouse Cav3.1/α1G T-type calcium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Wayne L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels contributes to the molecular and functional diversity mediating complex network oscillations in the normal brain. Transcript scanning of the human CACNA1G gene has revealed the presence of 11 regions within the coding sequence subjected to alternative splicing, some of which enhance T-type current. In mouse models of absence epilepsy, elevated T-type calcium currents without clear increases in channel expression are found in thalamic neurons that promote abnormal neuronal synchronization. To test whether enhanced T-type currents in these models reflect pathogenic alterations in channel splice isoforms, we determined the extent of alternative splicing of mouse Cacna1g transcripts and whether evidence of altered transcript splicing could be detected in mouse absence epilepsy models. Results Transcript scanning of the murine Cacna1g gene detected 12 regions encoding alternative splice isoforms of Cav3.1/α1G T-type calcium channels. Of the 12 splice sites, six displayed homology to the human CACNA1G splice sites, while six novel mouse-specific splicing events were identified, including one intron retention, three alternative acceptor sites, one alternative donor site, and one exon exclusion. In addition, two brain region-specific alternative splice patterns were observed in the cerebellum. Comparative analyses of brain regions from four monogenic absence epilepsy mouse models with altered thalamic T-type currents and wildtype controls failed to reveal differences in Cacna1g splicing patterns. Conclusion The determination of six novel alternative splice sites within the coding region of the mouse Cacna1g gene greatly expands the potential biophysical diversity of voltage-gated T-type channels in the mouse central nervous system. Although alternative splicing of Cav3.1/α1G channels does not explain the enhancement of T-type current identified in four mouse

  20. Alternative splicing of CD200 is regulated by an exonic splicing enhancer and SF2/ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqi; Ma, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Jim; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2010-10-01

    CD200, a type I membrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in prevention of inflammatory disorders, graft rejection, autoimmune diseases and spontaneous fetal loss. It also regulates tumor immunity. A truncated CD200 (CD200(tr)) resulting from alternative splicing has been identified and characterized as a functional antagonist to full-length CD200. Thus, it is important to explore the mechanism(s) controlling alternative splicing of CD200. In this study, we identified an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) located in exon 2, which is a putative binding site for a splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Deletion or mutation of the ESE site decreased expression of the full-length CD200. Direct binding of SF2/ASF to the ESE site was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Knockdown of expression of SF2/ASF resulted in the same splicing pattern as seen after deletion or mutation of the ESE, whereas overexpression of SF2/ASF increased expression of the full-length CD200. In vivo studies showed that viral infection reversed the alternative splicing pattern of CD200 with increased expression of SF2/ASF and the full-length CD200. Taken together, our data suggest for the first time that SF2/ASF regulates the function of CD200 by controlling CD200 alternative splicing, through direct binding to an ESE located in exon 2 of CD200.

  1. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  2. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    Rare sequence variants in "high-risk" disease genes, often referred as unclassified variants (UVs), pose a serious challenge to genetic testing. However, UVs resulting in splicing alterations can be readily assessed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, analytical and clinical interpretation...... of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...... International Agency for Research on Cancer guidelines), we performed qPCR and/or minigene assays. The latter were performed with a new splicing vector (pSAD) developed by authors of the present manuscript (patent #P201231427 CSIC). We have identified three clinically relevant Class-5 variants (c.682-2A>G, c...

  3. Genomics of alternative splicing: evolution, development and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazon, Eric R; Stranger, Barbara E

    2014-06-01

    Alternative splicing is a major cellular mechanism in metazoans for generating proteomic diversity. A large proportion of protein-coding genes in multicellular organisms undergo alternative splicing, and in humans, it has been estimated that nearly 90 % of protein-coding genes-much larger than expected-are subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analyses of alternative splicing have illuminated its universal role in shaping the evolution of genomes, in the control of developmental processes, and in the dynamic regulation of the transcriptome to influence phenotype. Disruption of the splicing machinery has been found to drive pathophysiology, and indeed reprogramming of aberrant splicing can provide novel approaches to the development of molecular therapy. This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of alternative splicing brought about by the unprecedented explosive growth of genomic data and highlights the relevance of human splicing variation on disease and therapy.

  4. Tissue-specific splicing factor gene expression signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Grosso; A.Q. Gomes (Anita); N.L. Barbosa-Morais (Nuno); S. Caldeira (Sandra); N.P. Thorne (Natalie); G. Grech (Godfrey); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); M. Carmo-Fonseca (Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe alternative splicing code that controls and coordinates the transcriptome in complex multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. It has long been argued that regulation of alternative splicing relies on combinatorial interactions between multiple proteins, and that

  5. Tissue-specific splicing factor gene expression signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosso, Ana Rita; Gomes, Anita Q.; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Thorne, Natalie P.; Grech, Godfrey; von Lindern, Marieke; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The alternative splicing code that controls and coordinates the transcriptome in complex multicellular organisms remains poorly understood. It has long been argued that regulation of alternative splicing relies on combinatorial interactions between multiple proteins, and that tissue-specific

  6. Comparison of splice sites in mammals and chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Ferrando, Josep Francesc; Castelo Valdueza, Robert; Guigó Serra, Roderic

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out an initial analysis of the dynamics of the recent evolution of the splice-sites sequences on a large collection of human, rodent (mouse and rat), and chicken introns. Our results indicate that the sequences of splice sites are largely homogeneous within tetrapoda. We have also found that orthologous splice signals between human and rodents and within rodents are more conserved than unrelated splice sites, but the additional conservation can be explained mostly by backgroun...

  7. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    , and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional...... classes, cellular locations, intron/exon structures and evolutionary origins. RESULTS: For each species, we find that genes from most functional categories are alternatively spliced. Ancient genes (shared between animals, fungi and plants) show high levels of alternative splicing. Genes with products...... expressed in the nucleus or plasma membrane are generally more alternatively spliced while those expressed in extracellular location show less alternative splicing. We find a clear correspondence between incidence of alternative splicing and intron number per gene both within and between genomes. In general...

  8. 30 CFR 77.504 - Electrical connections or splices; suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.504 Electrical connections or splices; suitability. Electrical connections or splices in electric conductors shall be mechanically and electrically efficient... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical connections or splices; suitability...

  9. The implications of alternative splicing in the ENCODE protein complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tress, Michael L.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Frankish, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Alternative premessenger RNA splicing enables genes to generate more than one gene product. Splicing events that occur within protein coding regions have the potential to alter the biological function of the expressed protein and even to create new protein functions. Alternative splicing has been...

  10. An in vivo genetic screen for genes involved in spliced leader trans-splicing indicates a crucial role for continuous de novo spliced leader RNP assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Lucas; Pandarakalam, George C; Fasimoye, Rotimi; Harrison, Neale; Connolly, Bernadette; Pettitt, Jonathan; Müller, Berndt

    2017-08-21

    Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a critical element of gene expression in a number of eukaryotic groups. This process is arguably best understood in nematodes, where biochemical and molecular studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum have identified key steps and factors involved. Despite this, the precise details of SL trans-splicing have yet to be elucidated. In part, this is because the systematic identification of the molecules involved has not previously been possible due to the lack of a specific phenotype associated with defects in this process. We present here a novel GFP-based reporter assay that can monitor SL1 trans-splicing in living C. elegans. Using this assay, we have identified mutants in sna-1 that are defective in SL trans-splicing, and demonstrate that reducing function of SNA-1, SNA-2 and SUT-1, proteins that associate with SL1 RNA and related SmY RNAs, impairs SL trans-splicing. We further demonstrate that the Sm proteins and pICln, SMN and Gemin5, which are involved in small nuclear ribonucleoprotein assembly, have an important role in SL trans-splicing. Taken together these results provide the first in vivo evidence for proteins involved in SL trans-splicing, and indicate that continuous replacement of SL ribonucleoproteins consumed during trans-splicing reactions is essential for effective trans-splicing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Martínez-Montiel, Mónica; Gaspariano-Cholula, Mayra Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics. PMID:27610372

  12. Single Molecule Cluster Analysis Identifies Signature Dynamic Conformations along the Splicing Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mario R.; Martin, Joshua S.; Kahlscheuer, Matthew L.; Krishnan, Ramya; Abelson, John; Laederach, Alain; Walter, Nils G.

    2016-01-01

    The spliceosome is the dynamic RNA-protein machine responsible for faithfully splicing introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). Many of the dynamic processes required for the proper assembly, catalytic activation, and disassembly of the spliceosome as it acts on its pre-mRNA substrate remain poorly understood, a challenge that persists for many biomolecular machines. Here, we developed a fluorescence-based Single Molecule Cluster Analysis (SiMCAn) tool to dissect the manifold conformational dynamics of a pre-mRNA through the splicing cycle. By clustering common dynamic behaviors derived from selectively blocked splicing reactions, SiMCAn was able to identify signature conformations and dynamic behaviors of multiple ATP-dependent intermediates. In addition, it identified a conformation adopted late in splicing by a 3′ splice site mutant, invoking a mechanism for substrate proofreading. SiMCAn presents a novel framework for interpreting complex single molecule behaviors that should prove widely useful for the comprehensive analysis of a plethora of dynamic cellular machines. PMID:26414013

  13. Microbial and Natural Metabolites That Inhibit Splicing: A Powerful Alternative for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Martínez-Montiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, genes are frequently interrupted with noncoding sequences named introns. Alternative splicing is a nuclear mechanism by which these introns are removed and flanking coding regions named exons are joined together to generate a message that will be translated in the cytoplasm. This mechanism is catalyzed by a complex machinery known as the spliceosome, which is conformed by more than 300 proteins and ribonucleoproteins that activate and regulate the precision of gene expression when assembled. It has been proposed that several genetic diseases are related to defects in the splicing process, including cancer. For this reason, natural products that show the ability to regulate splicing have attracted enormous attention due to its potential use for cancer treatment. Some microbial metabolites have shown the ability to inhibit gene splicing and the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition is being studied for future applications. Here, we summarize the main types of natural products that have been characterized as splicing inhibitors, the recent advances regarding molecular and cellular effects related to these molecules, and the applications reported so far in cancer therapeutics.

  14. Auxiliary splice factor U2AF26 and transcription factor Gfi1 cooperate directly in regulating CD45 alternative splicing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyd, F.; Dam, G.B. ten; Moroy, T.

    2006-01-01

    By alternative splicing, different isoforms of the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase CD45 are generated that either enhance or limit T cell receptor signaling. We report here that CD45 alternative splicing is regulated by cooperative action of the splice factor U2AF26 and the transcription factor

  15. Alternatively spliced tissue factor is not sufficient for embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna H M Sluka

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF triggers blood coagulation and is translated from two mRNA splice isoforms, encoding membrane-anchored full-length TF (flTF and soluble alternatively-spliced TF (asTF. The complete knockout of TF in mice causes embryonic lethality associated with failure of the yolk sac vasculature. Although asTF plays roles in postnatal angiogenesis, it is unknown whether it activates coagulation sufficiently or makes previously unrecognized contributions to sustaining integrity of embryonic yolk sac vessels. Using gene knock-in into the mouse TF locus, homozygous asTF knock-in (asTFKI mice, which express murine asTF in the absence of flTF, exhibited embryonic lethality between day 9.5 and 10.5. Day 9.5 homozygous asTFKI embryos expressed asTF protein, but no procoagulant activity was detectable in a plasma clotting assay. Although the α-smooth-muscle-actin positive mesodermal layer as well as blood islands developed similarly in day 8.5 wild-type or homozygous asTFKI embryos, erythrocytes were progressively lost from disintegrating yolk sac vessels of asTFKI embryos by day 10.5. These data show that in the absence of flTF, asTF expressed during embryonic development has no measurable procoagulant activity, does not support embryonic vessel stability by non-coagulant mechanisms, and fails to maintain a functional vasculature and embryonic survival.

  16. On the Possibility of an Early Evolutionary Origin for the Spliced Leader Trans-Splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krchňáková, Zuzana; Krajčovič, Juraj; Vesteg, Matej

    2017-08-01

    Trans-splicing is a process by which 5'- and 3'-ends of two pre-RNA molecules transcribed from different sites of the genome can be joined together to form a single RNA molecule. The spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is mediated by the spliceosome and it allows the replacement of 5'-end of pre-mRNA by 5'(SL)-end of SL-RNA. This form of splicing has been observed in many phylogenetically unrelated eukaryotes. Either the SL trans-splicing (SLTS) originated in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) (or even earlier) and it was lost in most eukaryotic lineages, or this mechanism of RNA processing evolved several times independently in various unrelated eukaryotic taxa. The bioinformatic comparisons of SL-RNAs from various eukaryotic taxonomic groups have revealed the similarities of secondary structures of most SL-RNAs and a relative conservation of their splice sites (SSs) and Sm-binding sites (SmBSs). We propose that such structural and functional similarities of SL-RNAs are unlikely to have evolved repeatedly many times. Hence, we favor the scenario of an early evolutionary origin for the SLTS and multiple losses of SL-RNAs in various eukaryotic lineages.

  17. Survey of gene splicing algorithms based on reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiuhua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ruo; Ma, Jiquan

    2017-09-05

    Gene splicing is the process of assembling a large number of unordered short sequence fragments to the original genome sequence as accurately as possible. Several popular splicing algorithms based on reads are reviewed in this article, including reference genome algorithms and de novo splicing algorithms (Greedy-extension, Overlap-Layout-Consensus graph, De Bruijn graph). We also discuss a new splicing method based on the MapReduce strategy and Hadoop. By comparing these algorithms, some conclusions are drawn and some suggestions on gene splicing research are made.

  18. PP1γ functionally augments the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ through interaction with ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Cao, Wenwen; Liao, Rujia; Wang, Jia; Wang, Yuzhe; Tong, Lijuan; Chen, Xiangfan; Zhu, Weizhong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-15

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase δ (CaMKIIδ) are upregulated in heart disorders. Alternative splicing factor (ASF), a major splice factor for CaMKIIδ splicing, can be regulated by both protein kinase and phosphatase. Here we determine the role of PP1 isoforms in ASF-mediated splicing of CaMKIIδ in cells. We found that 1) PP1γ, but not α or β isoform, enhanced the splicing of CaMKIIδ in HEK293T cells; 2) PP1γ promoted the function of ASF, evidenced by the existence of ASF-PP1γ association as well as the PP1γ overexpression- or silencing-mediated change in CaMKIIδ splicing in ASF-transfected HEK293T cells; 3) CaMKIIδ splicing was promoted by overexpression of PP1γ and impaired by application of PP1 inhibitor 1 (I1PP1) or pharmacological inhibitor tautomycetin in primary cardiomyocytes; 4) CaMKIIδ splicing and enhancement of ASF-PP1γ association induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R) were potentiated by overexpression of PP1γ and suppressed by inhibition of PP1γ with I1PP1 or tautomycetin in primary cardiomyocytes; 5) functionally, overexpression and inhibition of PP1γ, respectively, potentiated or suppressed the apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which were associated with the enhanced activity of CaMKII in OGD/R-stimulated cardiomyocytes; and 6) CaMKII was required for the OGD/R induced- and PP1γ exacerbated-apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, evidenced by a specific inhibitor of CaMKII KN93, but not its structural analog KN92, attenuating the apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in OGD/R and PP1γ-treated cells. In conclusion, our results show that PP1γ promotes the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ through its interacting with ASF, exacerbating OGD/R-triggered apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes.

  19. Protein trans-splicing and cyclization by a naturally split intein from the dnaE gene of Synechocystis species PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T C; Martin, D; Kolly, R; Panne, D; Sun, L; Ghosh, I; Chen, L; Benner, J; Liu, X Q; Xu, M Q

    2000-03-31

    A naturally occurring split intein from the dnaE gene of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Ssp DnaE intein) has been shown to mediate efficient in vivo and in vitro trans-splicing in a foreign protein context. A cis-splicing Ssp DnaE intein construct displayed splicing activity similar to the trans-splicing form, which suggests that the N- and C-terminal intein fragments have a high affinity interaction. An in vitro trans-splicing system was developed that used a bacterially expressed N-terminal fragment of the Ssp DnaE intein and either a bacterially expressed or chemically synthesized intein C-terminal fragment. Unlike artificially split inteins, the Ssp DnaE intein fragments could be reconstituted in vitro under native conditions to mediate splicing as well as peptide bond cleavage. This property allowed the development of an on-column trans-splicing system that permitted the facile separation of reactants and products. Furthermore, the trans-splicing activity of the Ssp DnaE intein was successfully applied to the cyclization of proteins in vivo. Also, the isolation of the unspliced precursor on chitin resin allowed the cyclization reaction to proceed in vitro. The Ssp DnaE intein thus represents a potentially important protein for in vivo and in vitro protein manipulation.

  20. Pre-mRNA splicing repression triggers abiotic stress signaling in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2016-09-24

    Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs enhances transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity in response to diverse growth and stress cues. Recent work has shown that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various inhibitors of AS. Here, we show that the macrolide pladienolide B (PB) inhibits constitutive splicing and AS in plants. Also, our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that PB mimics abiotic stress signals including salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). PB activates the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive reporters RD29A

  1. The Cancer Exome Generated by Alternative mRNA Splicing Dilutes Predicted HLA Class I Epitope Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranzl, Thomas; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    is frequently observed in various types of cancer. Down-regulation of genes related to HLA class I antigen processing has been observed in several cancer types, leading to fewer HLA class I antigens on the cell surface. Here, we use a peptidome wide analysis of predicted alternative splice forms, based......Several studies have shown that cancers actively regulate alternative splicing. Altered splicing mechanisms in cancer lead to cancer-specific transcripts different from the pool of transcripts occurring only in healthy tissue. At the same time, altered presentation of HLA class I epitopes...... on a publicly available database, to show that peptides over-represented in cancer splice variants comprise significantly fewer predicted HLA class I epitopes compared to peptides from normal transcripts. Peptides over-represented in cancer transcripts are in the case of the three most common HLA class I...

  2. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shihua; Sprenger, Cynthia C.T.; Vessella, Robert L.; Haugk, Kathleen; Soriano, Kathryn; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Page, Stephanie T.; Coleman, Ilsa M.; Nguyen, Holly M.; Sun, Huiying; Nelson, Peter S.; Plymate, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade. Recent studies suggest that these activities are due to the generation of constitutively active AR splice variants, but the mechanisms by which these splice variants could mediate such effects are not fully understood. Here we have identified what we believe to be a novel human AR splice variant in which exons 5, 6, and 7 are deleted (ARv567es) and demonstrated that this variant can contribute to cancer progression in human prostate cancer xenograft models in mice following castration. We determined that, in human prostate cancer cell lines, ARv567es functioned as a constitutively active receptor, increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl), and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. In human xenografts, human prostate cancer cells transfected with ARv567es cDNA formed tumors that were resistant to castration. Furthermore, the ratio of ARv567es to ARfl expression within the xenografts positively correlated with resistance to castration. Importantly, we also detected ARv567es frequently in human prostate cancer metastases. In summary, these data indicate that constitutively active AR splice variants can contribute to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancers and may serve as biomarkers for patients who are likely to suffer from early recurrence and are candidates for therapies directly targeting the AR rather than ligand. PMID:20644256

  3. Alternative splicing of CNOT7 diversifies CCR4-NOT functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapat, Clément; Chettab, Kamel; Simonet, Pierre; Wang, Peng; De La Grange, Pierre; Le Romancer, Muriel; Corbo, Laura

    2017-08-21

    The CCR4-associated factor CAF1, also called CNOT7, is a catalytic subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, which has been implicated in all aspects of the mRNA life cycle, from mRNA synthesis in the nucleus to degradation in the cytoplasm. In human cells, alternative splicing of the CNOT7 gene yields a second CNOT7 transcript leading to the formation of a shorter protein, CNOT7 variant 2 (CNOT7v2). Biochemical characterization indicates that CNOT7v2 interacts with CCR4-NOT subunits, although it does not bind to BTG proteins. We report that CNOT7v2 displays a distinct expression profile in human tissues, as well as a nuclear sub-cellular localization compared to CNOT7v1. Despite a conserved DEDD nuclease domain, CNOT7v2 is unable to degrade a poly(A) tail in vitro and preferentially associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 to regulate its activity. Using both in vitro and in cellulo systems, we have also demonstrated that CNOT7v2 regulates the inclusion of CD44 variable exons. Altogether, our findings suggest a preferential involvement of CNOT7v2 in nuclear processes, such as arginine methylation and alternative splicing, rather than mRNA turnover. These observations illustrate how the integration of a splicing variant inside CCR4-NOT can diversify its cell- and tissue-specific functions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churbanov, Alexander; Vořechovský, Igor; Hicks, Chindo

    2009-01-01

    Background Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from the University of California Santa Cruz multiple genome alignments of human and 22 Tetrapoda organisms to predict candidate enhancers and silencers that have reproducible and statistically significant bias towards annotated exonic boundaries. Results A total of 2,546 Tetrapoda enhancers and silencers were clustered into 15 putative core motifs based on their Markov properties. Most of these elements have been identified previously, but 118 putative silencers and 260 enhancers (~15%) were novel. Examination of previously published experimental data for the presence of predicted elements showed that their mutations in 21/23 (91.3%) cases altered the splicing pattern as expected. Predicted intronic motifs flanking 3' and 5' splice sites had higher evolutionary conservation than other sequences within intronic flanks and the intronic enhancers were markedly differed between 3' and 5' intronic flanks. Conclusion Difference in intronic enhancers supporting 5' and 3' splice sites suggests an independent splicing commitment for neighboring exons. Increased evolutionary conservation for ISEs/ISSs within intronic flanks and effect of modulation of predicted elements on splicing suggest functional significance of found elements in splicing regulation. Most of the elements identified were shown to have direct implications in human splicing and therefore could be useful for building computational splicing models in biomedical research. PMID:19889216

  5. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Chindo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from the University of California Santa Cruz multiple genome alignments of human and 22 Tetrapoda organisms to predict candidate enhancers and silencers that have reproducible and statistically significant bias towards annotated exonic boundaries. Results A total of 2,546 Tetrapoda enhancers and silencers were clustered into 15 putative core motifs based on their Markov properties. Most of these elements have been identified previously, but 118 putative silencers and 260 enhancers (~15% were novel. Examination of previously published experimental data for the presence of predicted elements showed that their mutations in 21/23 (91.3% cases altered the splicing pattern as expected. Predicted intronic motifs flanking 3' and 5' splice sites had higher evolutionary conservation than other sequences within intronic flanks and the intronic enhancers were markedly differed between 3' and 5' intronic flanks. Conclusion Difference in intronic enhancers supporting 5' and 3' splice sites suggests an independent splicing commitment for neighboring exons. Increased evolutionary conservation for ISEs/ISSs within intronic flanks and effect of modulation of predicted elements on splicing suggest functional significance of found elements in splicing regulation. Most of the elements identified were shown to have direct implications in human splicing and therefore could be useful for building computational splicing models in biomedical research.

  6. Computational prediction of splicing regulatory elements shared by Tetrapoda organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churbanov, Alexander; Vorechovský, Igor; Hicks, Chindo

    2009-11-04

    Auxiliary splicing sequences play an important role in ensuring accurate and efficient splicing by promoting or repressing recognition of authentic splice sites. These cis-acting motifs have been termed splicing enhancers and silencers and are located both in introns and exons. They co-evolved into an intricate splicing code together with additional functional constraints, such as tissue-specific and alternative splicing patterns. We used orthologous exons extracted from the University of California Santa Cruz multiple genome alignments of human and 22 Tetrapoda organisms to predict candidate enhancers and silencers that have reproducible and statistically significant bias towards annotated exonic boundaries. A total of 2,546 Tetrapoda enhancers and silencers were clustered into 15 putative core motifs based on their Markov properties. Most of these elements have been identified previously, but 118 putative silencers and 260 enhancers (~15%) were novel. Examination of previously published experimental data for the presence of predicted elements showed that their mutations in 21/23 (91.3%) cases altered the splicing pattern as expected. Predicted intronic motifs flanking 3' and 5' splice sites had higher evolutionary conservation than other sequences within intronic flanks and the intronic enhancers were markedly differed between 3' and 5' intronic flanks. Difference in intronic enhancers supporting 5' and 3' splice sites suggests an independent splicing commitment for neighboring exons. Increased evolutionary conservation for ISEs/ISSs within intronic flanks and effect of modulation of predicted elements on splicing suggest functional significance of found elements in splicing regulation. Most of the elements identified were shown to have direct implications in human splicing and therefore could be useful for building computational splicing models in biomedical research.

  7. A CaMK IV responsive RNA element mediates depolarization-induced alternative splicing of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Black, D L

    2001-04-19

    Calcium regulation of gene expression is critical for the long-lasting activity-dependent changes in cellular electrical properties that underlie important physiological functions such as learning and memory. Cellular electrical properties are diversified through the extensive alternative splicing of ion channel pre-messenger RNAs; however, the regulation of splicing by cell signalling pathways has not been well explored. Here we show that depolarization of GH3 pituitary cells represses splicing of the STREX exon in BK potassium channel transcripts through the action of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs). Overexpressing constitutively active CaMK IV, but not CaMK I or II, specifically decreases STREX inclusion in the mRNA. This decrease is prevented by mutations in particular RNA repressor sequences. Transferring 54 nucleotides from the 3' splice site upstream of STREX to a heterologous gene is sufficient to confer CaMK IV repression on an otherwise constitutive exon. These experiments define a CaMK IV-responsive RNA element (CaRRE), which mediates the alternative splicing of ion channel pre-mRNAs. The CaRRE presents a unique molecular target for inducing long-term adaptive changes in cellular electrical properties. It also provides a model system for dissecting the effect of signal transduction pathways on alternative splicing.

  8. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido

    2011-01-20

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  9. Development of a novel splice array platform and its application in the identification of alternative splice variants in lung cancer

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    Gomez-Roman Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays strategies, which allow for the characterization of thousands of alternative splice forms in a single test, can be applied to identify differential alternative splicing events. In this study, a novel splice array approach was developed, including the design of a high-density oligonucleotide array, a labeling procedure, and an algorithm to identify splice events. Results The array consisted of exon probes and thermodynamically balanced junction probes. Suboptimal probes were tagged and considered in the final analysis. An unbiased labeling protocol was developed using random primers. The algorithm used to distinguish changes in expression from changes in splicing was calibrated using internal non-spliced control sequences. The performance of this splice array was validated with artificial constructs for CDC6, VEGF, and PCBP4 isoforms. The platform was then applied to the analysis of differential splice forms in lung cancer samples compared to matched normal lung tissue. Overexpression of splice isoforms was identified for genes encoding CEACAM1, FHL-1, MLPH, and SUSD2. None of these splicing isoforms had been previously associated with lung cancer. Conclusions This methodology enables the detection of alternative splicing events in complex biological samples, providing a powerful tool to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer and other pathologies.

  10. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization1

    OpenAIRE

    Cowles, Chad L.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D.; Lee, Michael T; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (

  11. Global genome splicing analysis reveals an increased number of alternatively spliced genes with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sofía A; Grochová, Diana; McKenna, Tomás; Borate, Bhavesh; Trivedi, Niraj S; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism for the development of different tissues; however, not much is known about changes to alternative splicing during aging. Splicing events may become more frequent and widespread genome-wide as tissues age and the splicing machinery stringency decreases. Using skin, skeletal muscle, bone, thymus, and white adipose tissue from wild-type C57BL6/J male mice (4 and 18 months old), we examined the effect of age on splicing by AS analysis of the differential exon usage of the genome. The results identified a considerable number of AS genes in skeletal muscle, thymus, bone, and white adipose tissue between the different age groups (ranging from 27 to 246 AS genes corresponding to 0.3-3.2% of the total number of genes analyzed). For skin, skeletal muscle, and bone, we included a later age group (28 months old) that showed that the number of alternatively spliced genes increased with age in all three tissues (P aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome was performed. The results show that expression of the mutant protein, progerin, is associated with an impaired developmental splicing. As progerin accumulates, the number of genes with AS increases compared to in wild-type skin. Our results indicate the existence of a mechanism for increased AS during aging in several tissues, emphasizing that AS has a more important role in the aging process than previously known. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Use of a Fluorescent Aptamer RNA as an Exonic Sequence to Analyze Self-Splicing Ability of a Group I Intron from Structured RNAs

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    Airi Furukawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Group I self-splicing intron constitutes an important class of functional RNA molecules that can promote chemical transformation. Although the fundamental mechanism of the auto-excision from its precursor RNA has been established, convenient assay systems for its splicing activity are still useful for a further understanding of its detailed mechanism and of its application. Because some host RNA sequences, to which group I introns inserted form stable three-dimensional (3D structures, the effects of the 3D structures of exonic elements on the splicing efficiency of group I introns are important but not a fully investigated issue. We developed an assay system for group I intron self-splicing by employing a fluorescent aptamer RNA (spinach RNA as a model exonic sequence inserted by the Tetrahymena group I intron. We investigated self-splicing of the intron from spinach RNA, serving as a model exonic sequence with a 3D structure.

  13. Deciphering the plant splicing code: Experimental and computational approaches for predicting alternative splicing and splicing regulatory elements

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    Anireddy S.N. Reddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive alternative splicing (AS of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs in multicellular eukaryotes increases the protein-coding capacity of a genome and allows novel ways to regulate gene expression. In fowering plants, up to 48% of intron-containing genes exhibit AS. However, the full extent of AS in plants is not yet known, as only a few high throughput RNA-Seq studies have been performed. As the cost of obtaining RNA-Seq reads continues to fall, it is anticipated that huge amounts of plant sequence data will accumulate and help in obtaining a more complete picture of AS in plants. Although it is not an onerous task to obtain hundreds of millions of reads using high throughput sequencing technologies, computational tools to accurately predict and visualize AS are still being developed and refined. This review will discuss the tools to predict and visualize transcriptome-wide AS in plants using short reads and highlight their limitations. Comparative studies of AS events between plants and animals have revealed that there are major differences in the most prevalent types of AS events, suggesting that plants and animals differ in the way they recognize exons and introns. Extensive studies have been performed in animals to identify cis-elements involved in regulating AS, especially in exon skipping. However, such studies are in their infancy in plants. Here, we review the current state of research on splicing regulatory elements (SREs and briefly discuss emerging experimental and computational tools to identify cis-elements involved in regulation of AS in plants. The availability of curated alternative splice forms in plants makes it possible to use computational tools to predict SREs involved in AS regulation, which can then be verified experimentally. Such studies will permit identification of plant-specific features involved in AS regulation and contribute to deciphering the splicing code in plants.

  14. Analysis of Subcellular RNA Fractions Revealed a Transcription-Independent Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Splicing, Mediated by Spt5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Gil; Eisenbaum, Tal; Leshkowitz, Dena; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-05-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) modulates the expression of many genes, primarily through activation of NF-κB. Here, we examined the global effects of the elongation factor Spt5 on nascent and mature mRNAs of TNF-α-induced cells using chromatin and cytosolic subcellular fractions. We identified several classes of TNF-α-induced genes controlled at the level of transcription, splicing, and chromatin retention. Spt5 was found to facilitate splicing and chromatin release in genes displaying high induction rates. Further analysis revealed striking effects of TNF-α on the splicing of 25% of expressed genes; the vast majority were not transcriptionally induced. Splicing enhancement of noninduced genes by TNF-α was transient and independent of NF-κB. Investigating the underlying basis, we found that Spt5 is required for the splicing facilitation of the noninduced genes. In line with this, Spt5 interacts with Sm core protein splicing factors. Furthermore, following TNF-α treatment, levels of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) but not Spt5 are reduced from the splicing-induced genes, suggesting that these genes become enriched with a Pol II-Spt5 form. Our findings revealed the Pol II-Spt5 complex as a highly competent coordinator of cotranscriptional splicing. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Analysis of Maxi-K alpha subunit splice variants in human myometrium

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    Morrison John J

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K channels are implicated in the modulation of human uterine contractions and myometrial Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s governing the expression of Maxi-K channels with decreased calcium sensitivity at parturition are unclear. The objectives of this study were to investigate mRNA expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, in human non-pregnant and pregnant myometrium, prior to and after labour onset, to determine whether altered expression of these splice variants is associated with decreased calcium sensitivity observed at labour onset. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained at hysterectomy (non-pregnant, NP, and at Caesarean section, at elective (pregnant not-in-labour, PNL and intrapartum (pregnant in-labour, PL procedures. RNA was extracted from all biopsies and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate for possible differential expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, between these functionally-distinct myometrial tissue sets. Results RT-PCR analysis identified the presence of a 132 bp and an 87 bp spliced exon of the Maxi-K alpha subunit in all three myometrial tissue sets. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a decrease in the expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit with labour onset. While there was no change in the proportion of Maxi-K alpha subunits expressing the 87 bp spliced exon, the proportion of alpha subunits expressing the 132 bp spliced exon was significantly increased with labour onset, compared to both non-pregnant and pregnant not-in-labour tissues. An increased proportion of 132 bp exon-containing alpha subunit variants with labour onset is of interest, as channels expressing this spliced exon have decreased calcium and voltage sensitivities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that decreased Maxi-K alpha subunit mRNA expression in human myometrium at

  16. Alternative Splicing and Subfunctionalization Generates Functional Diversity in Fungal Proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, Claudia; Lorenz, Michael C.; van Hoof, Ambro

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing is commonly used by the Metazoa to generate more than one protein from a gene. However, such diversification of the proteome by alternative splicing is much rarer in fungi. We describe here an ancient fungal alternative splicing event in which these two proteins are generated from a single alternatively spliced ancestral SKI7/HBS1 gene retained in many species in both the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. While the ability to express two proteins from a single SKI7/HBS1 gene is conserved in many fungi, the exact mechanism by which they achieve this varies. The alternative splicing was lost in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following the whole-genome duplication event as these two genes subfunctionalized into the present functionally distinct HBS1 and SKI7 genes. When expressed in yeast, the single gene from Lachancea kluyveri generates two functionally distinct proteins. Expression of one of these proteins complements hbs1, but not ski7 mutations, while the other protein complements ski7, but not hbs1. This is the first known case of subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in yeast. By coincidence, the ancestral alternatively spliced gene was also duplicated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe with subsequent subfunctionalization and loss of splicing. Similar subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in fungi also explains the presence of two PTC7 genes in the budding yeast Tetrapisispora blattae, suggesting that this is a common mechanism to preserve duplicate alternatively spliced genes. PMID:23516382

  17. LRRTM3 Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development through Alternative Splicing and Neurexin Binding

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    Ji Won Um

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The four members of the LRRTM family (LRRTM1-4 are postsynaptic adhesion molecules essential for excitatory synapse development. They have also been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we focus on LRRTM3, showing that two distinct LRRTM3 variants generated by alternative splicing regulate LRRTM3 interaction with PSD-95, but not its excitatory synapse-promoting activity. Overexpression of either LRRTM3 variant increased excitatory synapse density in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons, whereas LRRTM3 knockdown decreased it. LRRTM3 also controlled activity-regulated AMPA receptor surface expression in an alternative splicing-dependent manner. Furthermore, Lrrtm3-knockout mice displayed specific alterations in excitatory synapse density, excitatory synaptic transmission and excitability in DG granule neurons but not in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lastly, LRRTM3 required only specific splice variants of presynaptic neurexins for their synaptogenic activity. Collectively, our data highlight alternative splicing and differential presynaptic ligand utilization in the regulation of LRRTMs, revealing key regulatory mechanisms for excitatory synapse development.

  18. Spliced leader RNA-mediated trans-splicing in phylum Rotifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natalia N; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2005-06-01

    In kinetoplastids, Euglena, and four metazoan phyla, trans-splicing has been described as a mechanism for the generation of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs): 5'-ends of precursor mRNAs are replaced by a short spliced leader (SL) exon from a small SL RNA. Although the full phylogenetic range is unknown, trans-splicing has not been found in vertebrates, insects, plants, or yeast. In animal groups where it does occur, i.e., nematodes, cnidarians, platyhelminths, and primitive chordates, SL RNAs do not show sequence relatedness across phyla. The apparently sporadic phylogenetic distribution and the lack of SL RNA homology have led to opposing hypotheses on its evolution, involving either an ancient origin followed by loss in multiple lineages or independent acquisition in several taxa. Here we present evidence for the occurrence of trans-splicing in bdelloid rotifers (Bdelloidea, Rotifera). A common 23-nt sequence, representing the SL exon-diagnostic of SL RNA-mediated trans-splicing-was found at the 5'-end of at least 50%-65% of mRNAs from Adineta ricciae and Philodina sp. The trans-splicing pattern in bdelloid rotifers can be unusually complex, as observed in transcripts from a heat shock protein gene, hsp82-1, where the SL exon was spliced to three alternative positions. Bdelloid rotifer SL RNAs were found to be 105 or 106 nt long and comprised the SL sequence, a conserved splice donor site and an intron containing a putative spliceosome-binding motif. Intriguingly, some similarity of rotifer SL RNA sequence and predicted secondary structure was seen to that of the predominant SL1 RNA of nematodes, although it is unlikely that this demonstrates homology. In addition, sequence corresponding to the rotifer SL exon was found at the 5'-end of a number of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones in a rice (Oryza sativa) database. None of these cDNAs gave a close match with homologous plant genes, suggesting that a small but significant portion of the rice expressed

  19. Analysis of multiply spliced transcripts in lymphoid tissue reservoirs of rhesus macaques infected with RT-SHIV during HAART.

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    Jesse D Deere

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4⁺ T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA, leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load.

  20. DNA splicing by directed ligation (SDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Y A

    1999-01-01

    Splicing by directed ligation (SDL) is a method of in-phase joining of PCR-generated DNA fragments that is based on a pre-designed combination of class IIS restriction endonuclease recognition and cleavage sites. Since these enzymes cleave outside of their recognition sites, the resulting sticky end can have any desired sequence, and the site itself can be removed and does not appear in the final spliced DNA product. SDL is based on the addition of class IIS recognition sites onto primers used to amplify DNA sequences. Cleavage of the PCR products results in elimination of the recognition site-containing flanking sequences and leaves the DNA fragments crowned with protruding ends. With careful design of the sticky ends, several segments can be ligated together in a predetermined order in a single reaction. SDL requires fewer rounds of amplification than overlap extension methods, and is particularly useful for creating a series of recombinants that differ in one segment.

  1. Intravitreal Injection of Splice-switching Oligonucleotides to Manipulate Splicing in Retinal Cells

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    Xavier Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for neonatal blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (c.2991+1655A>G; 10–15% creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. Recently, we reported that splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO allow skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients, supporting the feasibility of a SSO-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing. Here, we present data in the wild-type mouse, which demonstrate that intravitreal administration of 2’-OMePS-SSO allows selective alteration of Cep290 splicing in retinal cells, including photoreceptors as shown by successful alteration of Abca4 splicing using the same approach. We show that both SSOs and Cep290 skipped mRNA were detectable for at least 1 month and that intravitreal administration of oligonucleotides did not provoke any serious adverse event. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of SSO should be considered to bypass protein truncation resulting from the c.2991+1655A>G mutation as well as other truncating mutations in genes which like CEP290 or ABCA4 have a mRNA size that exceed cargo capacities of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved adeno-associated virus (AAV-vectors, thus hampering gene augmentation therapy.

  2. A novel splicing silencer generated by DMD exon 45 deletion junction could explain upstream exon 44 skipping that modifies dystrophinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwianingsih, Ery Kus; Malueka, Rusdy Ghazali; Nishida, Atsushi; Itoh, Kyoko; Lee, Tomoko; Yagi, Mariko; Iijima, Kazumoto; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2014-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive muscle-wasting disease, is mostly caused by exon deletion mutations in the DMD gene. The reading frame rule explains that out-of-frame deletions lead to muscle dystrophin deficiency in DMD. In outliers to this rule, deletion junction sequences have never previously been explored as splicing modulators. In a Japanese case, we identified a single exon 45 deletion in the patient's DMD gene, indicating out-of-frame mutation. However, immunohistochemical examination disclosed weak dystrophin signals in his muscle. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of DMD exons 42 to 47 revealed a major normally spliced product with exon 45 deletion and an additional in-frame product with deletion of both exons 44 and 45, indicating upstream exon 44 skipping. We considered the latter to underlie the observed dystrophin expression. Remarkably, the junction sequence cloned by PCR walking abolished the splicing enhancer activity of the upstream intron in a chimeric doublesex gene pre-mRNA in vitro splicing. Furthermore, antisense oligonucleotides directed against the junction site counteracted this effect. These indicated that the junction sequence was a splicing silencer that induced upstream exon 44 skipping. It was strongly suggested that creation of splicing regulator is a modifier of dystrophinopathy.

  3. Elevated Oestrogen Receptor Splice Variant ERαΔ5 Expression in Tumour-adjacent Hormone-responsive Tissue

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    Pierre L. Martin-Hirsch

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to prostate or endometrial cancer is linked with obesity, a state of oestrogen excess. Oestrogen receptor (ER splice variants may be responsible for the tissue-level of ER activity. Such micro-environmental regulation may modulate cancer initiation and/or progression mechanisms. Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to quantitatively assess the levels of four ER splice variants (ERαΔ3, ERαΔ5, ERβ2 and ERβ5, plus the full-length parent isoforms ERα and ERβ1, in high-risk [tumour-adjacent prostate (n = 10 or endometrial cancer (n = 9] vs. low-risk [benign prostate (n = 12 or endometrium (n = 9], as well as a comparison of UK (n = 12 vs. Indian (n = 15 benign prostate. All three tissue groups expressed the ER splice variants at similar levels, apart from ERαΔ5. This splice variant was markedly raised in all of the tumour-adjacent prostate samples compared to benign tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis for ERβ2 in prostate tissue demonstrated that such splice variants are present in comparable, if not greater, amounts as the parent full-length isoform. This small pilot study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of ER splice variants in these tissue sites and suggests that ERαΔ5 may be involved in progression of prostate adenocarcinoma.

  4. Alternatively spliced neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates penile erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, K. Joseph; Sezen, Sena F.; Champion, Hunter C.; Crone, Julie K.; Palese, Michael A.; Huang, Paul L.; Sawa, Akira; Luo, Xiaojiang; Musicki, Biljana; Snyder, Solomon H.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2006-01-01

    A key role for nitric oxide (NO) in penile erection is well established, but the relative roles of the neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) versus endothelial forms of NOS are not clear. nNOS- and endothelial NOS-deficient mice maintain erectile function and reproductive capacity, questioning the importance of NO. Alternatively, residual NO produced by shorter transcripts in the nNOS−/− animals might suffice for normal physiologic function. We show that the β splice variant of nNOS elicits normal erection despite a decrease in stimulus-response characteristics and a 5-fold increased sensitivity to the NOS inhibitor, l-NAME. Residual nNOSβ generates only 10% of the normal NO level in vitro but produces citrulline and diaphorase staining reflecting in vivo NOS activity in pelvic ganglion nerves that is comparable to WT animals. Thus, alternatively spliced forms of nNOS are major mediators of penile erection and so may be targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:16488973

  5. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  6. Stochastic principles governing alternative splicing of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfei Hu; Eli Boritz; William Wylie; Douek, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    Author summary Alternative RNA splicing within eukaryotic cells enables each gene to generate multiple different mature transcripts which further encode proteins with distinct or even opposing functions. The relative frequencies of the transcript isoforms generated by a particular gene are essential to the maintenance of normal cellular physiology; however, the underlying mechanisms and principles that govern these frequencies are unknown. We analyzed the frequency distribution of all transcr...

  7. ASF/SF2-like maize pre-mRNA splicing factors affect splice site utilization and their transcripts are alternatively spliced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huirong; Gordon-Kamm, William J; Lyznik, L Alexander

    2004-09-15

    Three ASF/SF2-like alternative splicing genes from maize were identified, cloned, and analyzed. Each of these genes (zmSRp30, zmSRp31, and zmSRp32) contains two RNA binding domains, a signature sequence SWQDLKD, and a characteristic serine/ariginine-rich domain. There is a strong structural similarity to the human ASF/SF2 splicing factor and to the Arabidopsis atSRp34/p30 proteins. Similar to ASF/SF2-like genes in other organisms, the maize pre-mRNA messages are alternatively spliced. They are differentially expressed in maize tissues with relatively uniform levels of zmSRp30 and zmSRp31 messages being observed throughout the plant, while zmSRp32 messages preferentially accumulated in the meristematic regions. Overexpression of zmSRp32 in maize cells leads to the enhanced selection of weak 5' intron splice sites during the processing of pre-mRNA molecules. Overexpression of the zmSRp31 or zmSRp32 gene affects regulation of wheat dwarf virus rep gene pre-mRNA splicing, presumably by interacting with the weak 5' splice site, CCGU. Our results suggest that the described genes are functional homologues of the human ASF/SF2 alternative splicing factor and they indicate a diversity of the ASF/SF2-like alternative splicing factors in monocot plant cells.

  8. Molecular dissection of step 2 catalysis of yeast pre-mRNA splicing investigated in a purified system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Thomas; Odenwälder, Peter; Dannenberg, Julia; Prior, Mira; Warkocki, Zbigniew; Schmitzová, Jana; Karaduman, Ramazan; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Fabrizio, Patrizia; Lührmann, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Step 2 catalysis of pre-mRNA splicing entails the excision of the intron and ligation of the 5' and 3' exons. The tasks of the splicing factors Prp16, Slu7, Prp18, and Prp22 in the formation of the step 2 active site of the spliceosome and in exon ligation, and the timing of their recruitment, remain poorly understood. Using a purified yeast in vitro splicing system, we show that only the DEAH-box ATPase Prp16 is required for formation of a functional step 2 active site and for exon ligation. Efficient docking of the 3' splice site (3'SS) to the active site requires only Slu7/Prp18 but not Prp22. Spliceosome remodeling by Prp16 appears to be subtle as only the step 1 factor Cwc25 is dissociated prior to step 2 catalysis, with its release dependent on docking of the 3'SS to the active site and Prp16 action. We show by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy that Slu7/Prp18 and Prp16 bind early to distinct, low-affinity binding sites on the step-1-activated B* spliceosome, which are subsequently converted into high-affinity sites. Our results shed new light on the factor requirements for step 2 catalysis and the dynamics of step 1 and 2 factors during the catalytic steps of splicing.

  9. Evolution of alternative splicing regulation: changes in predicted exonic splicing regulators are not associated with changes in alternative splicing levels in primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Roy, Scott William

    2009-01-01

    of interspecific differences in these elements on the evolution of alternative splicing levels has not yet been investigated at genomic level. Here we study the effect of interspecific differences in predicted exonic splicing regulators (ESRs) on exon inclusion levels in human and chimpanzee. For this purpose, we...... compiled and studied comprehensive datasets of predicted ESRs, identified by several computational and experimental approaches, as well as microarray data for changes in alternative splicing levels between human and chimpanzee. Surprisingly, we found no association between changes in predicted ESRs...... and changes in alternative splicing levels. This observation holds across different ESR exon positions, exon lengths, and 5' splice site strengths. We suggest that this lack of association is mainly due to the great importance of context for ESR functionality: many ESR-like motifs in primates may have little...

  10. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  11. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  12. Splicing modulation therapy in the treatment of genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arechavala-Gomeza V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Arechavala-Gomeza,1 Bernard Khoo,2 Annemieke Aartsma-Rus3 1Neuromuscular Disorders Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain; 2Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: Antisense-mediated splicing modulation is a tool that can be exploited in several ways to provide a potential therapy for rare genetic diseases. This approach is currently being tested in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. The present review outlines the versatility of the approach to correct cryptic splicing, modulate alternative splicing, restore the open reading frame, and induce protein knockdown, providing examples of each. Finally, we outline a possible path forward toward the clinical application of this approach for a wide variety of inherited rare diseases. Keywords: splicing, therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, cryptic splicing, alternative splicing

  13. The gene encoding the splicing factor SF2/ASF is a proto-oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Rotem; de Stanchina, Elisa; Lowe, Scott W; Sinha, Rahul; Mu, David; Krainer, Adrian R

    2007-03-01

    Alternative splicing modulates the expression of many oncogene and tumor-suppressor isoforms. We have tested whether some alternative splicing factors are involved in cancer. We found that the splicing factor SF2/ASF is upregulated in various human tumors, in part due to amplification of its gene, SFRS1. Moreover, slight overexpression of SF2/ASF is sufficient to transform immortal rodent fibroblasts, which form sarcomas in nude mice. We further show that SF2/ASF controls alternative splicing of the tumor suppressor BIN1 and the kinases MNK2 and S6K1. The resulting BIN1 isoforms lack tumor-suppressor activity; an isoform of MNK2 promotes MAP kinase-independent eIF4E phosphorylation; and an unusual oncogenic isoform of S6K1 recapitulates the transforming activity of SF2/ASF. Knockdown of either SF2/ASF or isoform-2 of S6K1 is sufficient to reverse transformation caused by the overexpression of SF2/ASF in vitro and in vivo. Thus, SF2/ASF can act as an oncoprotein and is a potential target for cancer therapy.

  14. Splicing Express: a software suite for alternative splicing analysis using next-generation sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Kroll

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Alternative splicing events (ASEs are prevalent in the transcriptome of eukaryotic species and are known to influence many biological phenomena. The identification and quantification of these events are crucial for a better understanding of biological processes. Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed deep characterization of transcriptomes and made it possible to address these issues. ASEs analysis, however, represents a challenging task especially when many different samples need to be compared. Some popular tools for the analysis of ASEs are known to report thousands of events without annotations and/or graphical representations. A new tool for the identification and visualization of ASEs is here described, which can be used by biologists without a solid bioinformatics background.Results. A software suite named Splicing Express was created to perform ASEs analysis from transcriptome sequencing data derived from next-generation DNA sequencing platforms. Its major goal is to serve the needs of biomedical researchers who do not have bioinformatics skills. Splicing Express performs automatic annotation of transcriptome data (GTF files using gene coordinates available from the UCSC genome browser and allows the analysis of data from all available species. The identification of ASEs is done by a known algorithm previously implemented in another tool named Splooce. As a final result, Splicing Express creates a set of HTML files composed of graphics and tables designed to describe the expression profile of ASEs among all analyzed samples. By using RNA-Seq data from the Illumina Human Body Map and the Rat Body Map, we show that Splicing Express is able to perform all tasks in a straightforward way, identifying well-known specific events.Availability and Implementation.Splicing Express is written in Perl and is suitable to run only in UNIX-like systems. More details can be found at: http://www.bioinformatics-brazil.org/splicingexpress.

  15. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  16. Identification of common genetic variation that modulates alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Hull

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein function. Several disease states have been associated with rare genetic variants that affect splicing patterns. Conversely, splicing efficiency of some genes is known to vary between individuals without apparent ill effects. What is not clear is whether commonly observed phenotypic variation in splicing patterns, and hence potential variation in protein function, is to a significant extent determined by naturally occurring DNA sequence variation and in particular by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In this study, we surveyed the splicing patterns of 250 exons in 22 individuals who had been previously genotyped by the International HapMap Project. We identified 70 simple cassette exon alternative splicing events in our experimental system; for six of these, we detected consistent differences in splicing pattern between individuals, with a highly significant association between splice phenotype and neighbouring SNPs. Remarkably, for five out of six of these events, the strongest correlation was found with the SNP closest to the intron-exon boundary, although the distance between these SNPs and the intron-exon boundary ranged from 2 bp to greater than 1,000 bp. Two of these SNPs were further investigated using a minigene splicing system, and in each case the SNPs were found to exert cis-acting effects on exon splicing efficiency in vitro. The functional consequences of these SNPs could not be predicted using bioinformatic algorithms. Our findings suggest that phenotypic variation in splicing patterns is determined by the presence of SNPs within flanking introns or exons. Effects on splicing may represent an important mechanism by which SNPs influence gene function.

  17. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Spliced Leader Trans-Splicing in Cryptomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Scott William

    2017-01-01

    Spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS) is a poorly understood mechanism that is found in a diversity of eukaryotic lineages. In SLTS, a short RNA sequence is added near the 5′ ends of the transcripts of protein-coding genes by a modified spliceosomal reaction. Available data suggest that SLTS has evolved many times, and might be more likely to evolve in animals. That SLTS might be more likely to evolve in the context of the generally complex transcriptomes characteristic of animals suggests the...

  18. A global analysis of C. elegans trans-splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mary Ann; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Waterston, Robert H.; Blumenthal, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Trans-splicing of one of two short leader RNAs, SL1 or SL2, occurs at the 5′ ends of pre-mRNAs of many C. elegans genes. We have exploited RNA-sequencing data from the modENCODE project to analyze the transcriptome of C. elegans for patterns of trans-splicing. Transcripts of ∼70% of genes are trans-spliced, similar to earlier estimates based on analysis of far fewer genes. The mRNAs of most trans-spliced genes are spliced to either SL1 or SL2, but most genes are not trans-spliced to both, indicating that SL1 and SL2 trans-splicing use different underlying mechanisms. SL2 trans-splicing occurs in order to separate the products of genes in operons genome wide. Shorter intercistronic distance is associated with greater use of SL2. Finally, increased use of SL1 trans-splicing to downstream operon genes can indicate the presence of an extra promoter in the intercistronic region, creating what has been termed a “hybrid” operon. Within hybrid operons the presence of the two promoters results in the use of the two SL classes: Transcription that originates at the promoter upstream of another gene creates a polycistronic pre-mRNA that receives SL2, whereas transcription that originates at the internal promoter creates transcripts that receive SL1. Overall, our data demonstrate that >17% of all C. elegans genes are in operons. PMID:21177958

  19. Regulation of alternative splicing in human obesity loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Dorota; Käkelä, Pirjo; Nikkola, Elina; Venesmaa, Sari; Ilves, Imre; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Karhunen, Leila; Kuusisto, Johanna; Gylling, Helena; Pajukanta, Päivi; Laakso, Markku; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Multiple obesity susceptibility loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies, yet the mechanisms by which these loci influence obesity remain unclear. Alternative splicing could contribute to obesity by regulating the transcriptomic and proteomic diversity of genes in these loci. Based on a database search, 72 of the 136 genes at the 13 obesity loci encoded multiple protein isoforms. Thus, alternative splicing of these genes in adipose tissue samples was analyzed from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men population-based study and from two weight loss intervention studies (surgical and very low calorie diet). Alternative splicing was confirmed in 11 genes with PCR capillary electrophoresis in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, differential splicing of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 was observed between lean individuals with normoglycemia and overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Of these genes, we detected fat depot-dependent splicing of TRA2B and BAG6 and weight loss-induced regulation of MSH5 splicing in the intervention studies. Finally, body mass index was a major determinant of TRA2B, BAG6, and MSH5 splicing in the combined data. This study provides evidence for alternative splicing in obesity loci, suggesting that alternative splicing at least in part mediates the obesity-associated risk in these loci. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Julie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide computational analysis of alternative splicing (AS in several flowering plants has revealed that pre-mRNAs from about 30% of genes undergo AS. Chlamydomonas, a simple unicellular green alga, is part of the lineage that includes land plants. However, it diverged from land plants about one billion years ago. Hence, it serves as a good model system to study alternative splicing in early photosynthetic eukaryotes, to obtain insights into the evolution of this process in plants, and to compare splicing in simple unicellular photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes. We performed a global analysis of alternative splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using its recently completed genome sequence and all available ESTs and cDNAs. Results Our analysis of AS using BLAT and a modified version of the Sircah tool revealed AS of 498 transcriptional units with 611 events, representing about 3% of the total number of genes. As in land plants, intron retention is the most prevalent form of AS. Retained introns and skipped exons tend to be shorter than their counterparts in constitutively spliced genes. The splice site signals in all types of AS events are weaker than those in constitutively spliced genes. Furthermore, in alternatively spliced genes, the prevalent splice form has a stronger splice site signal than the non-prevalent form. Analysis of constitutively spliced introns revealed an over-abundance of motifs with simple repetitive elements in comparison to introns involved in intron retention. In almost all cases, AS results in a truncated ORF, leading to a coding sequence that is around 50% shorter than the prevalent splice form. Using RT-PCR we verified AS of two genes and show that they produce more isoforms than indicated by EST data. All cDNA/EST alignments and splice graphs are provided in a website at http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/chlamy. Conclusions The extent of AS in Chlamydomonas that we observed is much

  1. Splice Site Mutations in the ATP7A Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2011-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. We describe 33 novel splice site mutations detected in patients with MD or the milder phenotypic form, Occipital Horn Syndrome. We review these 33 mutations together with 28 previously published splice site mutations. We investigate 12...... mutations for their effect on the mRNA transcript in vivo. Transcriptional data from another 16 mutations were collected from the literature. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutations, predicted with the bioinformatics tool Human Splice Finder, were investigated and evaluated in relation...

  2. Adenosine to Inosine editing frequency controlled by splicing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Konstantin; Kapoor, Utkarsh; Mayrhofer, Elisa; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-07-27

    Alternative splicing and adenosine to inosine (A to I) RNA-editing are major factors leading to co- and post-transcriptional modification of genetic information. Both, A to I editing and splicing occur in the nucleus. As editing sites are frequently defined by exon-intron basepairing, mRNA splicing efficiency should affect editing levels. Moreover, splicing rates affect nuclear retention and will therefore also influence the exposure of pre-mRNAs to the editing-competent nuclear environment. Here, we systematically test the influence of splice rates on RNA-editing using reporter genes but also endogenous substrates. We demonstrate for the first time that the extent of editing is controlled by splicing kinetics when editing is guided by intronic elements. In contrast, editing sites that are exclusively defined by exonic structures are almost unaffected by the splicing efficiency of nearby introns. In addition, we show that editing levels in pre- and mature mRNAs do not match. This phenomenon can in part be explained by the editing state of an RNA influencing its splicing rate but also by the binding of the editing enzyme ADAR that interferes with splicing. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Antisense Oligonucleotides Promote Exon Inclusion and Correct the Common c.-32-13T>G GAA Splicing Variant in Pompe Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van der Wal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common variant causing Pompe disease is c.-32-13T>G (IVS1 in the acid α-glucosidase (GAA gene, which weakens the splice acceptor of GAA exon 2 and induces partial and complete exon 2 skipping. It also allows a low level of leaky wild-type splicing, leading to a childhood/adult phenotype. We hypothesized that cis-acting splicing motifs may exist that could be blocked using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs to promote exon inclusion. To test this, a screen was performed in patient-derived primary fibroblasts using a tiling array of U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA-based AONs. This resulted in the identification of a splicing regulatory element in GAA intron 1. We designed phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based AONs to this element, and these promoted exon 2 inclusion and enhanced GAA enzyme activity to levels above the disease threshold. These results indicate that the common IVS1 GAA splicing variant in Pompe disease is subject to negative regulation, and inhibition of a splicing regulatory element using AONs is able to restore canonical GAA splicing and endogenous GAA enzyme activity.

  4. Antisense Oligonucleotides Promote Exon Inclusion and Correct the Common c.-32-13T>G GAA Splicing Variant in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Erik; Bergsma, Atze J; Pijnenburg, Joon M; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2017-06-16

    The most common variant causing Pompe disease is c.-32-13T>G (IVS1) in the acid α-glucosidase (GAA) gene, which weakens the splice acceptor of GAA exon 2 and induces partial and complete exon 2 skipping. It also allows a low level of leaky wild-type splicing, leading to a childhood/adult phenotype. We hypothesized that cis-acting splicing motifs may exist that could be blocked using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to promote exon inclusion. To test this, a screen was performed in patient-derived primary fibroblasts using a tiling array of U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-based AONs. This resulted in the identification of a splicing regulatory element in GAA intron 1. We designed phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based AONs to this element, and these promoted exon 2 inclusion and enhanced GAA enzyme activity to levels above the disease threshold. These results indicate that the common IVS1 GAA splicing variant in Pompe disease is subject to negative regulation, and inhibition of a splicing regulatory element using AONs is able to restore canonical GAA splicing and endogenous GAA enzyme activity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance.

  6. Splice Resistance Measurements in the LHC Main Superconducting Magnet Circuits by the New Quench Protection System

    CERN Document Server

    Charifoulline, Z; Denz, R; Siemko, A; Steckert, J

    2012-01-01

    The interconnections between the LHC main magnets are made of soldered joints (splices) of two superconducting cables stabilized by a copper bus-bar. After the 2008 LHC incident, caused by a defective interconnection, a new layer of high resolution magnet circuit quench protection (nQPS) has been developed and integrated with the existing systems. It allowed mapping of the resistances of all superconducting splices during the 2009 commissioning campaign. Since April 2010, when the LHC was successfully restarted at 3.5 TeV, every bus bar interconnection is constantly monitored by the nQPS electronics. The acquired data are saved to the LHC Logging Database. The paper will briefly describe the data analysis method and will present the results from the two years of resistance measurements. Although no splice was found with resistance higher than 3.3 n and no significant degradation in time was observed so far, the monitoring of splices will stay active till the end of LHC 4 TeV run. The detected outliers wil...

  7. Malignant Tregs express low molecular splice forms of FOXP3 in Sézary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Gjerdrum, L M; Ralfkiaer, E

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. During disease progression, immunodeficiency develops; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we study the regulatory T cell (Treg) function and the expression of FOXP3 i...... different from wt FOXP3 and not involved in the execution of the suppressive function. Thus, this is the first description of FOXP3 splice forms in human disease.Leukemia advance online publication, 4 September 2008; doi:10.1038/leu.2008.224....... in SS. We demonstrate that malignant T cells in 8 of 15 patients stain positive with an anti-FOXP3 antibody. Western blotting analysis shows expression of two low molecular splice forms of FOXP3, but not of wild-type (wt) FOXP3. The malignant T cells produce interleukin-10 and TGF-beta and suppress...... the growth of non-malignant T cells. The Treg phenotype and the production of suppressive cytokines are driven by aberrant activation of Jak3 independent of the FOXP3 splice forms. In contrast to wt FOXP3, the low molecular splice forms of FOXP3 have no inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF...

  8. CYP17A1 intron mutation causing cryptic splicing in 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw-Yang Hwang

    Full Text Available 17α-Hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency (17OHD is an autosomal recessive disease causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia and a rare cause of hypertension with hypokalemia. The CYP17A1 gene mutation leads to 17OHD and its clinical features. We described an 18 y/o female with clinical features of 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency and characterized the functional consequences of an intronic CYP17A1 mutation. The coding regions and flanking intronic bases of the CYP17A1 gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The patient is a compound heterozygote for the previously described p.R358X and IVS1 +2T>C mutations. A first intron splice donor site mutation was re-created in minigene and full-length expression vectors. Pre-mRNA splicing of the variant CYP17A1 intron was studied in transfected cells and in a transformed lymphoblastoid cell line. When the full-length CYP17A1 gene and minigene containing the intronic mutation was expressed in transfected cells, the majority (>90% of mRNA transcripts were incorrectly spliced. Only the p.R358X transcript was detected in the EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line. The IVS1 +2T>C mutation abolished most 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase enzyme activity by aberrant mRNA splicing to an intronic pseudo-exon, causing a frame shift and early termination.

  9. Single-molecule RNA observation in vivo reveals dynamics of co-transcriptional splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. L.; Coulon, A.; de Turris, V.; Palangat, M.; Chow, C. C.; Singer, R. H.; Larson, D. R.

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of pre-mRNA and the splicing of that pre-mRNA to form completed transcripts requires coordination between two large multi-subunit complexes (the transcription elongation complex and the spliceosome). How this coordination occurs in vivo is unknown. Here we report the first experimental observation of transcription and splicing occurring at the same gene in living cells. By utilizing the PP7/MS2 fluorescent RNA reporter system, we can directly observe two distinct regions of the nascent RNA, allowing us to measure the rise and fall time of the intron and exon of a reporter gene stably integrated into a human cell line. The reporter gene consists of a beta globin gene where we have inserted a 24 RNA hairpin cassette into the intron/exon. Upon synthesis, the RNA hairpins are tightly bound by fluorescently-labeled PP7/MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins. After gene induction, a single locus of active transcription in the nucleus shows fluorescence intensity changes characteristic of the synthesis and excision of the intron/exon. Using fluctuation analysis, we determine the elongation rate to be 1.5 kb/min. From the temporal cross correlation function, we determine that splicing of this gene must be co-transcriptional with a splicing time of ~100 seconds before termination and a ~200 second pause at termination. We propose that dual-color RNA imaging may be extended to investigate other mechanisms of transcription, gene regulation, and RNA processing.

  10. Quantitation of normal CFTR mRNA in CF patients with splice-site mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Olsen, J.C.; Silverman, L.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Previously we identified two mutations in introns of the CFTR gene associated with partially active splice sites and unusual clinical phenotypes. One mutation in intron 19 (3849+10 kb C to T) is common in CF patients with normal sweat chloride values; an 84 bp sequence from intron 19, which contains a stop codon, is inserted between exon 19 and exon 20 in most nasal CFTR transcripts. The other mutation in intron 14B (2789+5 G to A) is associated with elevated sweat chloride levels, but mild pulmonary disease; exon 14B (38 bp) is spliced out of most nasal CFTR transcipts. The remaining CFTR cDNA sequences, other than the 84 bp insertion of exon 14B deletion, are identical to the published sequence. To correlate genotype and phenotype, we used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the levels of normally-spliced CFTR mRNA in nasal epithelia from these patients. CFTR cDNA was amplified (25 cycles) by using primers specific for normally-spliced species, {gamma}-actin cDNA was amplified as a standard.

  11. Alternative Splicing of P/Q-Type Ca2+ Channels Shapes Presynaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Thalhammer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is prominent in the mammalian brain, where it is thought to expand proteome diversity. For example, alternative splicing of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC α1 subunits can generate thousands of isoforms with differential properties and expression patterns. However, the impact of this molecular diversity on brain function, particularly on synaptic transmission, which crucially depends on VGCCs, is unclear. Here, we investigate how two major splice isoforms of P/Q-type VGCCs (Cav2.1[EFa/b] regulate presynaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. We find that the efficacy of P/Q-type VGCC isoforms in supporting synaptic transmission is markedly different, with Cav2.1[EFa] promoting synaptic depression and Cav2.1[EFb] synaptic facilitation. Following a reduction in network activity, hippocampal neurons upregulate selectively Cav2.1[EFa], the isoform exhibiting the higher synaptic efficacy, thus effectively supporting presynaptic homeostatic plasticity. Therefore, the balance between VGCC splice variants at the synapse is a key factor in controlling neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity.

  12. The splicing regulator Rbfox2 is required for both cerebellar development and mature motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehman, Lauren T; Meera, Pratap; Stoilov, Peter; Shiue, Lily; O'Brien, Janelle E; Meisler, Miriam H; Ares, Manuel; Otis, Thomas S; Black, Douglas L

    2012-03-01

    The Rbfox proteins (Rbfox1, Rbfox2, and Rbfox3) regulate the alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts and have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. However, their roles in brain development and function are not well understood, in part due to redundancy in their activities. Here we show that, unlike Rbfox1 deletion, the CNS-specific deletion of Rbfox2 disrupts cerebellar development. Genome-wide analysis of Rbfox2(-/-) brain RNA identifies numerous splicing changes altering proteins important both for brain development and mature neuronal function. To separate developmental defects from alterations in the physiology of mature cells, Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 were deleted from mature Purkinje cells, resulting in highly irregular firing. Notably, the Scn8a mRNA encoding the Na(v)1.6 sodium channel, a key mediator of Purkinje cell pacemaking, is improperly spliced in RbFox2 and Rbfox1 mutant brains, leading to highly reduced protein expression. Thus, Rbfox2 protein controls a post-transcriptional program required for proper brain development. Rbfox2 is subsequently required with Rbfox1 to maintain mature neuronal physiology, specifically Purkinje cell pacemaking, through their shared control of sodium channel transcript splicing.

  13. Ecotype dependent expression and alternative splicing of epithiospecifier protein (ESP) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissen, R; Hyldbakk, E; Wang, C-W V; Sørmo, C G; Rossiter, J T; Bones, A M

    2012-03-01

    Epithiospecifier protein (ESP) is responsible for diverting glucosinolate hydrolysis from the generation of isothiocyanates to that of epithionitriles or nitriles, and thereby negatively affects the ability of the plant to defend itself against certain insects. Despite this important role of ESP, little is known about its expression in plant tissues and the regulation thereof. We therefore investigated ESP expression by qPCR and Western blot in different organs during the growth cycle of the two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Mt-0. Besides the fact that ESP transcript and protein levels were revealed to be much higher in Mt-0 than in Col-0 in all cases, our qPCR results also indicated that ESP expression is regulated differently in the two A. thaliana ecotypes. No ESP protein was detected by Western blot in any organ or developmental stage for Col-0. During the assays an alternative splice variant of ESP was identified in Col-0, but not Mt-0, leading to a mis-spliced transcript which could explain the low expression levels of ESP in the former ecotype. Analysis of genomic sequences containing the ESP splice sites, of ESP protein level and ESP activity from seven A. thaliana ecotypes showed a positive correlation between the presence of a non-canonical 5' splice site for ESP and the absence of detectable ESP protein levels and ESP activity. When analysing the expression of both transcript variants in Col-0 after treatment with methyl jasmonate, a condition known to "induce ESP", it was indeed the alternative splice variant that was preferentially induced.

  14. Alternative splicing and extensive RNA editing of human TPH2 transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Grohmann

    Full Text Available Brain serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission plays a key role in the regulation of mood and has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Recently, we discovered a second TPH isoform (TPH2 in vertebrates, including man, which is predominantly expressed in brain, while the previously known TPH isoform (TPH1 is primarly a non-neuronal enzyme. Overwhelming evidence now points to TPH2 as a candidate gene for 5-HT-related psychiatric disorders. To assess the role of TPH2 gene variability in the etiology of psychiatric diseases we performed cDNA sequence analysis of TPH2 transcripts from human post mortem amygdala samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric disorders (drug abuse, schizophrenia, suicide and controls. Here we show that TPH2 exists in two alternatively spliced variants in the coding region, denoted TPH2a and TPH2b. Moreover, we found evidence that the pre-mRNAs of both splice variants are dynamically RNA-edited in a mutually exclusive manner. Kinetic studies with cell lines expressing recombinant TPH2 variants revealed a higher activity of the novel TPH2B protein compared with the previously known TPH2A, whereas RNA editing was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of both TPH2 splice variants. Therefore, our results strongly suggest a complex fine-tuning of central nervous system 5-HT biosynthesis by TPH2 alternative splicing and RNA editing. Finally, we present molecular and large-scale linkage data evidencing that deregulated alternative splicing and RNA editing is involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases, such as suicidal behaviour.

  15. Alternate trans splicing in Trypanosoma equiperdum: implications for splice site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, R E; Eisen, H

    1988-03-01

    We examined the structures of the 5' ends of mRNAs encoding variant surface glycoprotein 78 (VSG-78) and VSG-1(78) in Trypanosoma equiperdum. Several mRNA species were found for each gene, and all contained the 35-base miniexon (or spliced leader) sequence attached at different positions on their 5' ends. Thus, the generation of multiple messages for each VSG occurred by attachment of the miniexon at one of several 3' splice acceptor sites. The frequency with which individual splice sites were used varied from less than 1 to 95% of the RNA produced from a particular gene. We propose that the miniexon RNA and RNA from the VSG genes may interact via base pairing and that this in part specifies the use of particular acceptor sites. Sequences complementary to the miniexon primary transcript, termed the "med-comp site," were found in both genes and in several published sequences. Splice sites were most often used if they were the first site 3' of the med-comp site and contained a high pyrimidine content in the bases preceding the AG acceptor signal.

  16. Trans-splicing and operons in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Thomas

    2012-11-20

    About 70% of C. elegans mRNAs are trans-spliced to one of two 22 nucleotide spliced leaders. SL1 is used to trim off the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs and replace them with the SL1 sequence. This processing event is very closely related to cis-splicing, or intron removal. The SL1 sequence is donated by a 100 nt small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP), the SL1 snRNP. This snRNP is structurally and functionally similar to the U snRNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) that play key roles in intron removal and trans-splicing, except that the SL1 snRNP is consumed in the process. More than half of C. elegans pre-mRNAs are subject to SL1 trans-splicing, whereas ~30% are not trans-spliced. The remaining genes are trans-spliced by SL2, which is donated by a similar snRNP, the SL2 snRNP. SL2 recipients are all downstream genes in closely spaced gene clusters similar to bacterial operons. They are transcribed from a promoter at the 5' end of the cluster of between 2 and 8 genes. This transcription makes a polycistronic pre-mRNA that is co-transcriptionally processed by cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3' end of each gene, and this event is closely coupled to the SL2 trans-splicing event that occurs only ~100 nt further downstream. SL2 trans-splicing requires a sequence between the genes, the Ur element, that likely base pairs with the 5' splice site on the SL2 snRNP, in a manner analogous to the interaction between the 5' splice site in cis-splicing with the U1 snRNP. The key difference is that in trans-splicing, the snRNP contains the 5' splice site, whereas in cis-splicing the pre-mRNA does. Some operons, termed "hybrid operons", contain an additional promoter between two genes that can express the downstream gene or genes with a developmental profile that is different from that of the entire operon. The operons contain primarily genes required for rapid growth, including genes whose products are needed for mitochondrial function and the basic machinery of gene expression

  17. Intronic binding sites for hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins stimulate pre-mRNA splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Martinez-Contreras

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available hnRNP A/B proteins modulate the alternative splicing of several mammalian and viral pre-mRNAs, and are typically viewed as proteins that enforce the activity of splicing silencers. Here we show that intronic hnRNP A/B-binding sites (ABS can stimulate the in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs containing artificially enlarged introns. Stimulation of in vitro splicing could also be obtained by providing intronic ABS in trans through the use of antisense oligonucleotides containing a non-hybridizing ABS-carrying tail. ABS-tailed oligonucleotides also improved the in vivo inclusion of an alternative exon flanked by an enlarged intron. Notably, binding sites for hnRNP F/H proteins (FBS replicate the activity of ABS by improving the splicing of an enlarged intron and by modulating 5' splice-site selection. One hypothesis formulated to explain these effects is that bound hnRNP proteins self-interact to bring in closer proximity the external pair of splice sites. Consistent with this model, positioning FBS or ABS at both ends of an intron was required to stimulate splicing of some pre-mRNAs. In addition, a computational analysis of the configuration of putative FBS and ABS located at the ends of introns supports the view that these motifs have evolved to support cooperative interactions. Our results document a positive role for the hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins in generic splicing, and suggest that these proteins may modulate the conformation of mammalian pre-mRNAs.

  18. Intronic Binding Sites for hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H Proteins Stimulate Pre-mRNA Splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available hnRNP A/B proteins modulate the alternative splicing of several mammalian and viral pre-mRNAs, and are typically viewed as proteins that enforce the activity of splicing silencers. Here we show that intronic hnRNP A/B-binding sites (ABS can stimulate the in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs containing artificially enlarged introns. Stimulation of in vitro splicing could also be obtained by providing intronic ABS in trans through the use of antisense oligonucleotides containing a non-hybridizing ABS-carrying tail. ABS-tailed oligonucleotides also improved the in vivo inclusion of an alternative exon flanked by an enlarged intron. Notably, binding sites for hnRNP F/H proteins (FBS replicate the activity of ABS by improving the splicing of an enlarged intron and by modulating 5' splice-site selection. One hypothesis formulated to explain these effects is that bound hnRNP proteins self-interact to bring in closer proximity the external pair of splice sites. Consistent with this model, positioning FBS or ABS at both ends of an intron was required to stimulate splicing of some pre-mRNAs. In addition, a computational analysis of the configuration of putative FBS and ABS located at the ends of introns supports the view that these motifs have evolved to support cooperative interactions. Our results document a positive role for the hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins in generic splicing, and suggest that these proteins may modulate the conformation of mammalian pre-mRNAs.

  19. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  20. Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Mammals and Teleost Fish: A Effective Strategy for the Regulation of Immune Responses Against Pathogen Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming Xian; Zhang, Jie

    2017-07-15

    Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function. As lower vertebrates, teleost fish mainly rely on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various invading pathogens. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of alternative splicing of piscine PRRs including peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and their downstream signaling molecules, compared to splicing in mammals. We also discuss what is known and unknown about the function of splicing isoforms in the innate immune responses against pathogens infection in mammals and teleost fish. Finally, we highlight the consequences of alternative splicing in the innate immune system and give our view of important directions for future studies.

  1. Functional characterization of two novel splicing mutations in the OCA2 gene associated with oculocutaneous albinism type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Valeria; Straniero, Letizia; Asselta, Rosanna; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Soldà, Giulia; Primignani, Paola

    2014-03-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type II (OCA2) is one of the four commonly-recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the OCA2 gene. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis of OCA2 in two siblings and one unrelated patient. The mutational screening of the OCA2 gene identified two hitherto-unknown putative splicing mutations. The first one (c.1503+5G>A), identified in an Italian proband and her affected sibling, lies in the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of OCA2 intron 14 (IVS14+5G>A), in compound heterozygosity with a frameshift mutation, c.1450_1451insCTGCCCTGACA, which is predicted to determine the premature termination of the polypeptide chain (p.I484Tfs*19). In-silico prediction of the effect of the IVS14+5G>A mutation on splicing showed a score reduction for the mutant splice site and indicated the possible activation of a newly-created deep-intronic acceptor splice site. The second mutation is a synonymous transition (c.2139G>A, p.K713K) involving the last nucleotide of exon 20. This mutation was found in a young African albino patient in compound heterozygosity with a previously-reported OCA2 missense mutation (p.T404M). In-silico analysis predicted that the mutant c.2139G>A allele would result in the abolition of the splice donor site. The effects on splicing of these two novel mutations were investigated using an in-vitro hybrid-minigene approach that led to the demonstration of the causal role of the two mutations and to the identification of aberrant transcript variants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Approaches to link RNA secondary structures with splicing regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plass, Mireya; Eyras, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, alternative splicing is usually regulated by protein factors, which bind to the pre-mRNA and affect the recognition of splicing signals. There is recent evidence that the secondary structure of the pre-mRNA may also play an important role in this process, either by facilitat...

  3. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  4. 30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held and...

  5. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A regulates the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Gu

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK IIδ is predominantly expressed in the heart. There are three isoforms of CaMKIIδ resulting from the alternative splicing of exons 14, 15, and 16 of its pre-mRNA, which is regulated by the splicing factor SF2/ASF. Inclusion of exons 15 and 16 or of exon 14 generates δA or δB isoform. The exclusion of all three exons gives rise to δC isoform, which is selectively increased in pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy. Overexpression of either δB or δC induces hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting their specific role in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy and heart failure. It is well known that the β-adrenergic-cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA pathway is implicated in heart failure. To determine the role of PKA in the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ, we constructed mini-CaMKIIδ genes and used these genes to investigate the regulation of the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ by PKA in cultured cells. We found that PKA promoted the exclusion of exons 14, 15, and 16 of CaMKIIδ, resulting in an increase in δC isoform. PKA interacted with and phosphorylated SF2/ASF, and enhanced SF2/ASF's activity to promote the exclusion of exons 14, 15, and 16 of CaMKIIδ, leading to a further increase in the expression of δC isoform. These findings suggest that abnormality in β-adrenergic-PKA signaling may contribute to cardiomyopathy and heart failure through dysregulation in the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ exons 14, 15, and 16 and up-regulation of CaMKIIδC.

  6. Some relations between two stages DNA splicing languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani; Mohamad, Mohd Sham

    2014-06-01

    A new symbolization of Yusof-Goode (Y-G) rule, which is associated with Y-G splicing system, was introduced by Yusof in 2012 under the framework of formal language theory. The purpose of this investigation is to present the biological process of DNA splicing in a translucent way. In this study, two stages splicing languages are introduced based on Y-G approach and some relations between stage one and stage two splicing languages are presented, given as theorems. Additionally, the existing relations between two stages splicing languages based on crossings and contexts of restriction enzymes factors with respect to two initial strings (having two cutting sites) and two rules are presented as subset.

  7. The Electrical Resistance of Rutherford-Type Superconducting Cable Splices

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, C; Fleiter, J; Bottura, L

    2015-01-01

    The electrical resistance of Large Hadron Collider main busbar cable lap splices produced by soft soldering has been measured with two independent methods as a function of intercable contact area and for splices made of cables with various defects. For defect-free lap splices, the resistance increases from 0.3 to 10 nΩ (at 4.3 K in self-field) when reducing the cable overlap length from 120 to 3 mm, as expected assuming that the resistance is inversely proportional to the intercable contact area. The resistance of bridge splices that connect side-by-side cables can be predicted from the lap splice resistances and the overlap areas involved.

  8. LHC DIPOLE MAGNET SPLICE RESISTANCE FROM SM18 DATA MINING

    CERN Document Server

    Reymond, H; Charrondiere, C; Lehmann Miotto, G; Rijllart, A; Scannicchio, D A

    2011-01-01

    The splice incident which happened during commissioning of the LHC on the 19th of September 2008 caused damage to several magnets and adjacent equipment. This raised not only the question of how it happened, but also about the state of all other splices. The inter magnet splices were immediately studied and new measurements recorded, but the internal magnet splices were still a concern. At the Chamonix meeting in January 2009, the CERN management decided to create a working group to analyse quench data of the magnet acceptance tests in an attempt to find indications for bad splices in the main dipoles. This resulted in a data-mining project that took about one year to complete. This presentation describes how the data was stored, extracted and analysed reusing existing LabVIEW™ based tools. We also present the encountered difficulties and the importance of combining measured data with operator notes in the logbook.

  9. Detecting Image Splicing Using Merged Features in Chroma Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image splicing is an image editing method to copy a part of an image and paste it onto another image, and it is commonly followed by postprocessing such as local/global blurring, compression, and resizing. To detect this kind of forgery, the image rich models, a feature set successfully used in the steganalysis is evaluated on the splicing image dataset at first, and the dominant submodel is selected as the first kind of feature. The selected feature and the DCT Markov features are used together to detect splicing forgery in the chroma channel, which is convinced effective in splicing detection. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can detect splicing forgeries with lower error rate compared to the previous literature.

  10. RNA splicing factors as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinge, Heidi; Kim, Eunhee; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Bradley, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Preface The recent genomic characterization of cancers has revealed recurrent somatic point mutations and copy number changes affecting genes encoding RNA splicing factors. Initial studies of these ‘spliceosomal mutations’ suggest that the proteins bearing these mutations exhibit altered splice site and/or exon recognition preferences relative to their wild-type counterparts, resulting in cancer-specific mis-splicing. Such changes in the splicing machinery may create novel vulnerabilities in cancer cells that can be therapeutically exploited using compounds that can influence the splicing process. Further studies to dissect the biochemical, genomic, and biological effects of spliceosomal mutations are critical for the development of cancer therapies targeted to these mutations. PMID:27282250

  11. A TIMP-1 splice variant transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Nina Friesgård; Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin

    2008-01-01

    A splice variant of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA lacking exon 2 (TIMP-1-v2) has been identified in human cancer cells and in colorectal and breast cancer tumors. The purpose of this study was (1) to study the level of full length TIMP-1 and TIMP-1-v2 transcripts in color...... of TIMP-1 pre-mRNA to TIMP-1-v2 mRNA might be involved in regulating TIMP-1 expression.......A splice variant of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA lacking exon 2 (TIMP-1-v2) has been identified in human cancer cells and in colorectal and breast cancer tumors. The purpose of this study was (1) to study the level of full length TIMP-1 and TIMP-1-v2 transcripts...... in colorectal tumors; (2) to investigate if TIMP-1-v2 is translated to protein. Full length TIMP-1 and TIMP-1-v2 mRNA levels were compared between colorectal tumors and normal mucosa by Q-PCR. Both full length TIMP-1 and TIMP-1-v2 transcripts were upregulated in tumor tissue. However, the level of TIMP-1-v2...

  12. The Exon Junction Complex and Srp54 Contribute to Hedgehog Signaling via ci RNA Splicing in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Elisa; Little, Jamie C; Kalderon, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) regulates the Cubitus interruptus (Ci) transcription factor in Drosophila melanogaster by activating full-length Ci-155 and blocking processing to the Ci-75 repressor. However, the interplay between the regulation of Ci-155 levels and activity, as well as processing-independent mechanisms that affect Ci-155 levels, have not been explored extensively. Here, we identified Mago Nashi (Mago) and Y14 core Exon Junction Complex (EJC) proteins, as well as the Srp54 splicing factor, as modifiers of Hh pathway activity under sensitized conditions. Mago inhibition reduced Hh pathway activity by altering the splicing pattern of ci to reduce Ci-155 levels. Srp54 inhibition also affected pathway activity by reducing ci RNA levels but additionally altered Ci-155 levels and activity independently of ci splicing. Further tests using ci transgenes and ci mutations confirmed evidence from studying the effects of Mago and Srp54 that relatively small changes in the level of Ci-155 primary translation product alter Hh pathway activity under a variety of sensitized conditions. We additionally used ci transgenes lacking intron sequences or the presumed translation initiation codon for an alternatively spliced ci RNA to provide further evidence that Mago acts principally by modulating the levels of the major ci RNA encoding Ci-155, and to show that ci introns are necessary to support the production of sufficient Ci-155 for robust Hh signaling and may also be important mediators of regulatory inputs. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.

    2013-02-01

    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  14. Analysis of 30 putative BRCA1 splicing mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families identifies exonic splice site mutations that escape in silico prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wappenschmidt

    Full Text Available Screening for pathogenic mutations in breast and ovarian cancer genes such as BRCA1/2, CHEK2 and RAD51C is common practice for individuals from high-risk families. However, test results may be ambiguous due to the presence of unclassified variants (UCV in the concurrent absence of clearly cancer-predisposing mutations. Especially the presence of intronic or exonic variants within these genes that possibly affect proper pre-mRNA processing poses a challenge as their functional implications are not immediately apparent. Therefore, it appears necessary to characterize potential splicing UCV and to develop appropriate classification tools. We investigated 30 distinct BRCA1 variants, both intronic and exonic, regarding their spliceogenic potential by commonly used in silico prediction algorithms (HSF, MaxEntScan along with in vitro transcript analyses. A total of 25 variants were identified spliceogenic, either causing/enhancing exon skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites, or both. Except from a single intronic variant causing minor effects on BRCA1 pre-mRNA processing in our analyses, 23 out of 24 intronic variants were correctly predicted by MaxEntScan, while HSF was less accurate in this cohort. Among the 6 exonic variants analyzed, 4 severely impair correct pre-mRNA processing, while the remaining two have partial effects. In contrast to the intronic alterations investigated, only half of the spliceogenic exonic variants were correctly predicted by HSF and/or MaxEntScan. These data support the idea that exonic splicing mutations are commonly disease-causing and concurrently prone to escape in silico prediction, hence necessitating experimental in vitro splicing analysis.

  15. The anti-inflammatory activity of the polyphenol resveratrol may be partially related to inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Varela, Monica; Piazzon, M Carla; Arranz, Juan A; Noya, Manuel; Lamas, Jesus

    2010-02-01

    The present study shows for the first time that the polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) blocks processing of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) pre-mRNA in mature mRNA. This study was carried out in turbot (Psetta maxima (L.)), a fish species that we are using to evaluate the effects of RESV on the inflammatory response in vertebrates. Treatment of turbot head kidney leucocytes with polysaccharides from the seaweed Ulva rigida (ulvan) resulted in an increase in TNF-alpha expression. RESV did not inhibit transcription but almost completely inhibited the production of mRNA in ulvan-induced cells and caused a notable increase in the level of unspliced TNF-alpha pre-mRNA. RESV also induced accumulation of IL-1beta pre-mRNA at the expense of mature mRNA, although the effects on IL-1beta were less evident than those on TNF-alpha. However, the housekeeping gene was not affected by RESV. We also evaluated the effects of RESV in vivo under an inflammatory stimulus and found an inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta pre-mRNA splicing in turbot head kidney at 24 and 48h post-injection. In addition, RESV also reduced migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity under the same inflammatory stimulus. The results show that this fish species may be a useful model for analysing the effects of RESV on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression, and suggest that RESV could be used to decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo and to reduce inflammatory reactions in certain inflammatory diseases. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A G-rich element forms a G-quadruplex and regulates BACE1 mRNA alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Jean-François; Montagna, Daniel R; Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita; Wolfe, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the transmembrane aspartyl protease that catalyzes the first cleavage step in the proteolysis of the APP to the amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a process involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. BACE1 pre-mRNA undergoes complex alternative splicing, the regulation of which is not well understood. We identified a G-rich sequence within exon 3 of BACE1 involved in controlling splice site selection. Mutation of the G-rich sequence decreased use of the normal 5' splice site of exon 3, which leads to full-length and proteolytically active BACE1, and increased use of an alternative splice site, which leads to a shorter, essentially inactive isoform. Nuclease protection assays, nuclear magnetic resonance, and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that this sequence folds into a G-quadruplex structure. Several proteins were identified as capable of binding to the G-rich sequence, and one of these, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H, was found to regulate BACE1 exon 3 alternative splicing and in a manner dependent on the G-rich sequence. Knockdown of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H led to a decrease in the full-length BACE1 mRNA isoform as well as a decrease in Aβ production from APP, suggesting new possibilities for therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer's disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Human peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase transcripts derived by alternative mRNA splicing of an unreported exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, M D; Jones, J E; Treston, A M

    1995-10-03

    We are characterizing the alternatively spliced human peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (hPAM)-encoding mRNA transcripts expressed by human cells. Reverse transcription coupled to the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to identify four alternatively spliced variants that differ in the region joining the two catalytic domains. Two of the transcripts represent previously reported splice variants differentiated by the presence (hPAM-A) or absence (hPAM-B) of a 321-nucleotide (nt) linker (optional exon A) which in the rat produce functionally distinct enzymes. Different mRNAs represent two splice variants, hPAM-C and hPAM-D, that show the presence of an exon unreported for PAM in any other species. This new exon, designated exon C, is 54 nt in length, encodes an 18-amino-acid (aa) peptide containing a conserved dibasic aa endoproteolytic processing motif, and is located 3' of exon A in human genomic DNA. We propose that cell-specific regulation of mRNA splicing would provide a mechanism for control of prohormone activation by these variants of the PAM enzyme.

  18. Eight Nucleotide Substitutions Inhibit Splicing to HPV-16 3′-Splice Site SA3358 and Reduce the Efficiency by which HPV-16 Increases the Life Span of Primary Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Cardoso Palacios, Carlos; Mossberg, Anki; Dhanjal, Soniya; Bergvall, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used 3′-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16. PMID:24039800

  19. Eight nucleotide substitutions inhibit splicing to HPV-16 3'-splice site SA3358 and reduce the efficiency by which HPV-16 increases the life span of primary human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoze Li

    Full Text Available The most commonly used 3'-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16.

  20. Regulatory mechanisms for 3'-end alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP, transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2007-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, forms the intermediate cytoskeleton in cells of the glial lineage. Besides the common GFAP alpha transcript, the GFAP epsilon and GFAP kappa transcripts are generated by alternative mRNA 3'-end processing. Here we use a GFAP minigene to characterize...... molecular mechanisms participating in alternative GFAP expression. Usage of a polyadenylation signal within the alternatively spliced exon 7a is essential to generate the GFAP kappa and GFAP kappa transcripts. The GFAP kappa mRNA is distinct from GFAP epsilon mRNA given that it also includes intron 7a...... (PTB) protein enhanced both exon 7a polyadenylation and exon 7a splicing. Finally, increasing transcription by the VP16 trans-activator did not affect the frequency of use of the exon 7a polyadenylation signal whereas the exon 7a splicing frequency was decreased. Our data suggest a model...

  1. Regulation of plant developmental processes by a novel splicing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gul Shad; Palusa, Saiprasad G; Golovkin, Maxim; Prasad, Jayendra; Manley, James L; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2007-05-30

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins play important roles in constitutive and alternative splicing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism. We have previously isolated a unique plant SR protein (SR45) with atypical domain organization. However, the biological and molecular functions of this novel SR protein are not known. Here, we report biological and molecular functions of this protein. Using an in vitro splicing complementation assay, we showed that SR45 functions as an essential splicing factor. Furthermore, the alternative splicing pattern of transcripts of several other SR genes was altered in a mutant, sr45-1, suggesting that the observed phenotypic abnormalities in sr45-1 are likely due to altered levels of SR protein isoforms, which in turn modulate splicing of other pre-mRNAs. sr45-1 exhibited developmental abnormalities, including delayed flowering, narrow leaves and altered number of petals and stamens. The late flowering phenotype was observed under both long days and short days and was rescued by vernalization. FLC, a key flowering repressor, is up-regulated in sr45-1 demonstrating that SR45 influences the autonomous flowering pathway. Changes in the alternative splicing of SR genes and the phenotypic defects in the mutant were rescued by SR45 cDNA, further confirming that the observed defects in the mutant are due to the lack of SR45. These results indicate that SR45 is a novel plant-specific splicing factor that plays a crucial role in regulating developmental processes.

  2. Low resistance splices for HTS devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the preparation methodology and performance evaluation of low resistance splices made of the second generation (2G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS). These splices are required in a broad spectrum of HTS devices including a large aperture, high-field solenoid built in the laboratory to demonstrate a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. Several pancake coils are assembled in the form of a nested solenoid, and each coil requires a hundred meters or more of 2G (RE)BCO tape. However, commercial availability of this superconductor with a very uniform physical properties is currently limited to shorter piece lengths. This necessitates us having splices to inter-connect the tape pieces within a pancake coil, between adjacent pancake coils, and to attach HTS current leads to the magnet assembly. As a part of the optimization and qualification of splicing process, a systematic study was undertaken to analyze the electrical performance of splices in two different configurations suitable for this magnet assembly: lap joint and spiral joint. The electrical performance is quantified in terms of the resistance of splices estimated from the current-voltage characteristics. It has been demonstrated that a careful application of this splicing technique can generate lap joints with resistance less than 1 nΩ at 77 K.

  3. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell motility is controlled by SF2/ASF through alternative splicing of the Ron protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigna, Claudia; Giordano, Silvia; Shen, Haihong; Benvenuto, Federica; Castiglioni, Fabio; Comoglio, Paolo Maria; Green, Michael R; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2005-12-22

    Ron, the tyrosine kinase receptor for the Macrophage-stimulating protein, is involved in cell dissociation, motility, and matrix invasion. DeltaRon, a constitutively active isoform that confers increased motility to expressing cells, is generated through the skipping of exon 11. We show that abnormal accumulation of DeltaRon mRNA occurs in breast and colon tumors. Skipping of exon 11 is controlled by a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in the constitutive exon 12. The strength of the enhancer parallels the relative abundance of DeltaRon mRNA and depends on a sequence directly bound by splicing factor SF2/ASF. Overexpression and RNAi experiments demonstrate that SF2/ASF, by controlling the production of DeltaRon, activates epithelial to mesenchymal transition leading to cell locomotion. The effect of SF2/ASF overexpression is reverted by specific knockdown of DeltaRon mRNA. This demonstrates a direct link between SF2/ASF-regulated splicing and cell motility, an activity important for embryogenesis, tissue formation, and tumor metastasis.

  5. Oriented scanning is the leading mechanism underlying 5' splice site selection in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Sobrier, Marie-Laure; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Amselem, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Splice site selection is a key element of pre-mRNA splicing. Although it is known to involve specific recognition of short consensus sequences by the splicing machinery, the mechanisms by which 5' splice sites are accurately identified remain controversial and incompletely resolved. The human F7

  6. Splicing landscape of the eight collaborative cross founder strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Christina L; Wilmot, Beth; Walter, Nicole Ar; Oberbeck, Denesa; Kawane, Sunita; Searles, Robert P; McWeeney, Shannon K; Hitzemann, Robert

    2015-02-05

    The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a large panel of genetically diverse recombinant inbred mouse strains specifically designed to provide a systems genetics resource for the study of complex traits. In part, the utility of the CC stems from the extensive genome-wide annotations of founder strain sequence and structural variation. Still missing, however, are transcriptome-specific annotations of the CC founder strains that could further enhance the utility of this resource. We provide a comprehensive survey of the splicing landscape of the 8 CC founder strains by leveraging the high level of alternative splicing within the brain. Using deep transcriptome sequencing, we found that a majority of the splicing landscape is conserved among the 8 strains, with ~65% of junctions being shared by at least 2 strains. We, however, found a large number of potential strain-specific splicing events as well, with an average of ~3000 and ~500 with ≥3 and ≥10 sequence read coverage, respectively, within each strain. To better understand strain-specific splicing within the CC founder strains, we defined criteria for and identified high-confidence strain-specific splicing events. These splicing events were defined as exon-exon junctions 1) found within only one strain, 2) with a read coverage ≥10, and 3) defined by a canonical splice site. With these criteria, a total of 1509 high-confidence strain-specific splicing events were identified, with the majority found within two of the wild-derived strains, CAST and PWK. Strikingly, the overwhelming majority, 94%, of these strain-specific splicing events are not yet annotated. Strain-specific splicing was also located within genomic regions recently reported to be over- and under-represented within CC populations. Phenotypic characterization of CC populations is increasing; thus these results will not only aid in further elucidating the transcriptomic architecture of the individual CC founder strains, but they will also help in guiding

  7. AR-A 014418 Used against GSK3beta Downregulates Expression of hnRNPA1 and SF2/ASF Splicing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajay K; Vashishta, Vidhi; Joshi, Nidhi; Taneja, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive forms of primary brain tumors of glial cells, including aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3 β ) and splicing factors deregulation. Here, we investigate the role of small molecule AR-A014418 and Manzamine A against GSK3 kinase with factual control on splicing regulators. AR-A 014418, 48 hrs posttreatment, caused dose (25-100  μ M) dependent inhibition in U373 and U87 cell viability with also inhibition in activating tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK3alpha (Tyr 279) and beta (Tyr 216). Furthermore, inhibition of GSK3 kinase resulted in significant downregulation of splicing factors (SRSF1, SRSF5, PTPB1, and hnRNP) in U87 cells with downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as BCL2, BCL-xL, Survivin, MCL1, and BMI1. Similarly, downregulation of splicing factors was also observed in U373 glioma cell after using SiRNA against AKT and GSK3beta kinase. In addition, potential roles of AR-A014418 in downregulation of splicing factors were reflected with decrease in Anxa7 (VA) variant and increase in Anxa7 WT tumor suppressor transcript and protein. The above results suggest that inhibition of GSK3beta kinase activation could be the beneficial strategy to inhibit the occurrence of alternative cancer escape pathway via downregulating the expression of splicing regulators as well as apoptosis.

  8. Catalysis of splicing-related reactions between dinucleotides by a ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P S; Inoue, T

    Certain intervening sequence (IVS) RNAs catalyse their own excision from a primary transcript to yield mature RNA in a reaction termed self-splicing. These Group I IVS RNAs contain several conserved sequences and possess a common secondary structure. The Tetrahymena precursor ribosomal RNA possesses an IVS of this group that is known to self-splice in vitro. The nature of this IVS is of great interest to both biology and chemistry, because understanding its catalytic activity should shed new light on the function of RNA in biological systems and the evolution of RNA which might be relevant to the early stages of life on Earth. We have analysed the minimum requirement for this reaction as one approach to understanding the mechanism of this RNA catalysis. We now show that a fragment of the IVS RNA of Tetrahymena can mediate a simple transesterification reaction between the substrate GpN (where N is A, C, G or U) and the nucleophile CpU. This newly discovered reaction and its reverse reaction represent the fundamental catalytic activity of the self-splicing Group I IVSs.

  9. Cryptic splice site usage in exon 7 of the human fibrinogen Bbeta-chain gene is regulated by a naturally silent SF2/ASF binding site within this exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Silvia; Tenchini, Maria Luisa; Buratti, Emanuele

    2006-06-01

    In this work we report the identification of a strong SF2/ASF binding site within exon 7 of the human fibrinogen Bbeta-chain gene (FGB). Its disruption in the wild-type context has no effect on exon recognition. However, when the mutation IVS7 + 1G>T--initially described in a patient suffering from congenital afibrinogenemia--is present, this SF2/ASF binding site is critical for cryptic 5'ss (splice site) definition. These findings, besides confirming and extending previous results regarding the effect of SF2/ASF on cryptic splice site activation, identify for the first time an enhancer sequence in the FGB gene specific for cryptic splice site usage. Taken together, they suggest the existence of a splicing-regulatory network that is normally silent in the FGB natural splicing environment but which can nonetheless influence splicing decisions when local contexts allow. On a more general note, our conclusions have implications for the evolution of alternative splicing processes and for the development of methods to control aberrant splicing in the context of disease-causing mutations.

  10. Cotranscription and intergenic splicing of the PPARG and TSEN2 genes in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarger Valérie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intergenic splicing resulting in the combination of mRNAs sequences from distinct genes is a newly identified mechanism likely to contribute to protein diversity. Few cases have been described, most of them involving neighboring genes and thus suggesting a cotranscription event presumably due to transcriptional termination bypass. Results We identified bovine chimeric transcripts resulting from cotranscription and intergenic splicing of two neighboring genes, PPARG and TSEN2. These two genes encode the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors γ1 and γ2 and the tRNA Splicing Endonuclease 2 homolog and are situated in the same orientation about 50 kb apart on bovine chromosome 22q24. Their relative position is conserved in human and mouse. We identified two types of chimeric transcripts containing all but the last exon of the PPARG gene followed by all but the first exon of the TSEN2 gene. The two chimers differ by the presence/absence of an intermediate exon resulting from transcription of a LINE L2 sequence situated between the two genes. Both transcripts use canonical splice sites for all exons coming from both genes, as well as for the LINE L2 sequence. One of these transcripts harbors a premature STOP codon and the other encodes a putative chimeric protein combining most of the PPARγ protein and the entire TSEN2 protein, but we could not establish the existence of this protein. Conclusion By showing that both individual and chimeric transcripts are transcribed from PPARG and TSEN2, we demonstrated regulation of transcription termination. Further, the existence and functionality of a chimeric protein harboring active motifs that are a priori unrelated is hypothesized.

  11. ABERRANT SPLICING OF A BRAIN-ENRICHED ALTERNATIVE EXON ELIMINATES TUMOR SUPPRESSOR FUNCTION AND PROMOTES ONCOGENE FUNCTION DURING BRAIN TUMORIGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredel, Markus; Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Elverfeldt, Dominik v.; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific alternative splicing is known to be critical to emergence of tissue identity during development, yet its role in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionary-conserved, alternative exons, which represent only a minority of total alternative exons. Many, however, have functional features that influence activity in signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Given that tissue-specific splicing has a determinative role in brain development and the enrichment of genes containing tissue-specific exons for proteins with roles in signaling and development, it is thus plausible that changes in such exons could rewire normal neurogenesis towards malignant transformation. METHODS: We used integrated molecular genetic and cell biology analyses, computational biology, animal modeling, and clinical patient profiles to characterize the effect of aberrant splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on oncogene regulation and brain tumorigenesis. RESULTS: We show that aberrant splicing of a tissue-specific cassette exon in ANXA7 diminishes endosomal targeting and consequent termination of the signal of the EGFR oncoprotein during brain tumorigenesis. Splicing of this exon is mediated by the ribonucleoprotein Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1), which is normally repressed during brain development but, we find, is excessively expressed in glioblastomas through either gene amplification or loss of a neuron-specific microRNA, miR-124. Silencing of PTBP1 attenuates both malignancy and angiogenesis in a stem cell-derived glioblastoma animal model characterized by a high native propensity to generate tumor endothelium or vascular pericytes to support tumor growth. We show that EGFR amplification and PTBP1 overexpression portend a similarly poor clinical outcome, further highlighting the importance of PTBP1-mediated activation of EGFR

  12. Regulation of Apoptosis by Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwerk, Christian; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    .... A large number of apoptotic factors are regulated via alternative splicing, a process that allows for the production of discrete protein isoforms with often distinct functions from a common mRNA precursor...

  13. Dynamic integration of splicing within gene regulatory pathways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braunschweig, Ulrich; Gueroussov, Serge; Plocik, Alex M; Graveley, Brenton R; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    .... In addition to generating vast repertoires of RNAs and proteins, splicing has a profound impact on other gene regulatory layers, including mRNA transcription, turnover, transport, and translation...

  14. Alternative splicing of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor pre-mRNA: cloning and characterization of two alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kraaij (Robert); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractGlycoprotein hormone receptors contain a large extracellular domain that is encoded by multiple exons, facilitating the possibility of expressing alternatively spliced transcripts. We have cloned two new splice variants of the rat follicle-stimulating

  15. Functional and splicing defect analysis of 23 ACVRL1 mutations in a cohort of patients affected by Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdos Alaa El Din

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia syndrome (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber (ROW syndrome is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Two most common forms of HHT, HHT1 and HHT2, have been linked to mutations in the endoglin (ENG and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1or ALK1 genes respectively. This work was designed to examine the pathogenicity of 23 nucleotide variations in ACVRL1 gene detected in more than 400 patients. Among them, 14 missense mutations and one intronic variant were novels, and 8 missense mutations were previously identified with questionable implication in HHT2. The functionality of missense mutations was analyzed in response to BMP9 (specific ligand of ALK1, the maturation of the protein products and their localization were analyzed by western blot and fluorescence microscopy. The splicing impairment of the intronic and of two missense mutations was examined by minigene assay. Functional analysis showed that 18 out of 22 missense mutations were defective. Splicing analysis revealed that one missense mutation (c.733A>G, p.Ile245Val affects the splicing of the harboring exon 6. Similarly, the intronic mutation outside the consensus splicing sites (c.1048+5G>A in intron 7 was seen pathogenic by splicing study. Both mutations induce a frame shift creating a premature stop codon likely resulting in mRNA degradation by NMD surveillance mechanism. Our results confirm the haploinsufficiency model proposed for HHT2. The affected allele of ACVRL1 induces mRNA degradation or the synthesis of a protein lacking the receptor activity. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that functional and splicing analyses together, represent two robust diagnostic tools to be used by geneticists confronted with novel or conflicted ACVRL1 mutations.

  16. Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Resistance to Taxane Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0480 TITLE: Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Resistance to Taxane Chemotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Splice Variants and Resistance to Taxane Chemotherapy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...During this reporting period, we have obtained approval for a no-cost extension of this award and change of research focus in the final year. This

  17. RNA splicing is responsive to MBNL1 dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali P Jog

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy (DM1 is a highly variable, multi-system disorder resulting from the expansion of an untranslated CTG tract in DMPK. In DM1 expanded CUG repeat RNAs form hairpin secondary structures that bind and aberrantly sequester the RNA splice regulator, MBNL1. RNA splice defects resulting as a consequence of MBNL1 depletion have been shown to play a key role in the development of DM1 pathology. In patient populations, both the number and severity of DM1 symptoms increase broadly as a function of CTG tract length. However significant variability in the DM1 phenotype is observed in patients encoding similar CTG repeat numbers. Here we demonstrate that a gradual decrease in MBNL1 levels results both in the expansion of the repertoire of splice defects and an increase in the severity of the splice alterations. Thus, MBNL1 loss does not have an all or none outcome but rather shows a graded effect on the number and severity of the ensuing splice defects. Our results suggest that once a critical threshold is reached, relatively small dose variations of free MBNL1 levels, which may reflect modest changes in the size of the CUG tract or the extent of hairpin secondary structure formation, can significantly alter the number and severity of splice abnormalities and thus contribute to the phenotype variability observed in DM1 patients.

  18. Splice site mutations in the ATP7A gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Skjørringe

    Full Text Available Menkes disease (MD is caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. We describe 33 novel splice site mutations detected in patients with MD or the milder phenotypic form, Occipital Horn Syndrome. We review these 33 mutations together with 28 previously published splice site mutations. We investigate 12 mutations for their effect on the mRNA transcript in vivo. Transcriptional data from another 16 mutations were collected from the literature. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutations, predicted with the bioinformatics tool Human Splice Finder, were investigated and evaluated in relation to in vivo results. Ninety-six percent of the mutations identified in 45 patients with classical MD were predicted to have a significant effect on splicing, which concurs with the absence of any detectable wild-type transcript in all 19 patients investigated in vivo. Sixty-seven percent of the mutations identified in 12 patients with milder phenotypes were predicted to have no significant effect on splicing, which concurs with the presence of wild-type transcript in 7 out of 9 patients investigated in vivo. Both the in silico predictions and the in vivo results support the hypothesis previously suggested by us and others, that the presence of some wild-type transcript is correlated to a milder phenotype.

  19. Width of gene expression profile drives alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wegmann

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing generates an enormous amount of functional and proteomic diversity in metazoan organisms. This process is probably central to the macromolecular and cellular complexity of higher eukaryotes. While most studies have focused on the molecular mechanism triggering and controlling alternative splicing, as well as on its incidence in different species, its maintenance and evolution within populations has been little investigated. Here, we propose to address these questions by comparing the structural characteristics as well as the functional and transcriptional profiles of genes with monomorphic or polymorphic splicing, referred to as MS and PS genes, respectively. We find that MS and PS genes differ particularly in the number of tissues and cell types where they are expressed.We find a striking deficit of PS genes on the sex chromosomes, particularly on the Y chromosome where it is shown not to be due to the observed lower breadth of expression of genes on that chromosome. The development of a simple model of evolution of cis-regulated alternative splicing leads to predictions in agreement with these observations. It further predicts the conditions for the emergence and the maintenance of cis-regulated alternative splicing, which are both favored by the tissue specific expression of splicing variants. We finally propose that the width of the gene expression profile is an essential factor for the acquisition of new transcript isoforms that could later be maintained by a new form of balancing selection.

  20. Digital holographic microtomography of fusion spliced optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yating; Xiao, Wen; Ma, Xichao; Pan, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we report three-dimensional(3D) measurement results of structural parameters of fusion spliced optical fibers using digital holographic microtomography. A holographic setup in microscopy configuration with the sample-fixed and setup-rotating scheme is established. A series of holograms is recorded from various incident angles. Then the filtered backprojection algorithm is applied to reconstruct the 3D refractive index (RI) distributions of the fusion spliced optical fibers inserted in the index-matching liquid. Experimental results exhibit the internal and external shapes of three kinds of fusion splices between different fibers, including a single-mode fiber(SMF) and a multimode fiber, an SMF and a panda polarization maintaining fiber (Panda PMF), and an SMF and a bow-tie polarization maintaining fiber (Bow-Tie PMF). With 3D maps of RI, it is intuitive to observe internal structural details of fused fibers and evaluate the splicing quality. This paper describes a powerful method for non-invasive microscopic measurement of fiber splicing. Furthermore, it provides the possibility of detecting fiber splicing loss by 3D structures.

  1. Faithful mRNA splicing depends on the Prp19 complex subunit faint sausage and is required for tracheal branching morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwald, Julia; Soneson, Charlotte; Robinson, Mark D; Luschnig, Stefan

    2017-02-15

    Morphogenesis requires the dynamic regulation of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA maturation and translation. Dysfunction of the general mRNA splicing machinery can cause surprisingly specific cellular phenotypes, but the basis for these effects is not clear. Here, we show that the Drosophila faint sausage (fas) locus, which is implicated in epithelial morphogenesis and has previously been reported to encode a secreted immunoglobulin domain protein, in fact encodes a subunit of the spliceosome-activating Prp19 complex, which is essential for efficient pre-mRNA splicing. Loss of zygotic fas function globally impairs the efficiency of splicing, and is associated with widespread retention of introns in mRNAs and dramatic changes in gene expression. Surprisingly, despite these general effects, zygotic fas mutants show specific defects in tracheal cell migration during mid-embryogenesis when maternally supplied splicing factors have declined. We propose that tracheal branching, which relies on dynamic changes in gene expression, is particularly sensitive for efficient spliceosome function. Our results reveal an entry point to study requirements of the splicing machinery during organogenesis and provide a better understanding of disease phenotypes associated with mutations in general splicing factors. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Expression of androgen receptor splice variants in clinical breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Theresa E; Irvine, Connie M; Dvinge, Heidi; Tarulli, Gerard A; Hanson, Adrienne R; Ryan, Natalie K; Pickering, Marie A; Birrell, Stephen N; Hu, Dong Gui; Mackenzie, Peter I; Russell, Roslin; Caldas, Carlos; Raj, Ganesh V; Dehm, Scott M; Plymate, Stephen R; Bradley, Robert K; Tilley, Wayne D; Selth, Luke A

    2015-12-29

    The importance of androgen receptor (AR) signaling is increasingly being recognized in breast cancer, which has elicited clinical trials aimed at assessing the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic disease. In prostate cancer, resistance to ADT is frequently associated with the emergence of androgen-independent splice variants of the AR (AR variants, AR-Vs) that lack the LBD and are constitutively active. Women with breast cancer may be prone to a similar phenomenon. Herein, we show that in addition to the prototypical transcript, the AR gene produces a diverse range of AR-V transcripts in primary breast tumors. The most frequently and highly expressed variant was AR-V7 (exons 1/2/3/CE3), which was detectable at the mRNA level in > 50% of all breast cancers and at the protein level in a subset of ERα-negative tumors. Functionally, AR-V7 is a constitutively active and ADT-resistant transcription factor that promotes growth and regulates a transcriptional program distinct from AR in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. Importantly, we provide ex vivo evidence that AR-V7 is upregulated by the AR antagonist enzalutamide in primary breast tumors. These findings have implications for treatment response in the ongoing clinical trials of ADT in breast cancer.

  3. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Spliced Leader Trans-Splicing in Cryptomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Scott William

    2017-03-01

    Spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS) is a poorly understood mechanism that is found in a diversity of eukaryotic lineages. In SLTS, a short RNA sequence is added near the 5' ends of the transcripts of protein-coding genes by a modified spliceosomal reaction. Available data suggest that SLTS has evolved many times, and might be more likely to evolve in animals. That SLTS might be more likely to evolve in the context of the generally complex transcriptomes characteristic of animals suggests the possibility that SLTS functions in gene regulation or transcriptome diversification, however no general novel function for SLTS is known. Here, I report SLTS in a lineage of cellularly complex unicellular eukaryotes. Cryptomonads are a group of eukaryotic algae that acquired photosynthetic capacity by secondary endosymbiosis of a red alga, and that retain a reduced copy of the nucleus of the engulfed alga. I estimate that at least one-fifth of genes in the model cryptomonad Guillardia theta and its relative Hanusia phi undergo SLTS. I show that hundreds of genes in G. theta generate alternative transcripts by SLTS at alternative sites, however I find little evidence for alternative protein production by alternative SLTS splicing. Interestingly, I find no evidence for substantial operon structure in the G. theta genome, in contrast to previous findings in other lineages with SLTS. These results extend SLTS to another major group of eukaryotes, and heighten the mystery of the evolution of SLTS and its association with cellular and transcriptomic complexity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Exploring the Impact of Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors on Pre-mRNA Splicing Across Eukaryotes

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    Gildas Lepennetier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In human, mouse, and Drosophila, the spliceosomal complex U1 snRNP (U1 protects transcripts from premature cleavage and polyadenylation at proximal intronic polyadenylation signals (PAS. These U1-mediated effects preserve transcription integrity, and are known as telescripting. The watchtower role of U1 throughout transcription is clear. What is less clear is whether cleavage and polyadenylation factors (CPFs are simply patrolled or if they might actively antagonize U1 recruitment. In addressing this question, we found that, in the introns of human, mouse, and Drosophila, and of 14 other eukaryotes, including multi- and single-celled species, the conserved AATAAA PAS—a major target for CPFs—is selected against. This selective pressure, approximated using DNA strand asymmetry, is detected for peripheral and internal introns alike. Surprisingly, it is more pronounced within—rather than outside—the action range of telescripting, and particularly intense in the vicinity of weak 5′ splice sites. Our study uncovers a novel feature of eukaryotic genes: that the AATAAA PAS is universally counter-selected in spliceosomal introns. This pattern implies that CPFs may attempt to access introns at any time during transcription. However, natural selection operates to minimize this access. By corroborating and extending previous work, our study further indicates that CPF access to intronic PASs might perturb the recruitment of U1 to the adjacent 5′ splice sites. These results open the possibility that CPFs may impact the splicing process across eukaryotes.

  5. Exploring the Impact of Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors on Pre-mRNA Splicing Across Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepennetier, Gildas; Catania, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In human, mouse, and Drosophila, the spliceosomal complex U1 snRNP (U1) protects transcripts from premature cleavage and polyadenylation at proximal intronic polyadenylation signals (PAS). These U1-mediated effects preserve transcription integrity, and are known as telescripting. The watchtower role of U1 throughout transcription is clear. What is less clear is whether cleavage and polyadenylation factors (CPFs) are simply patrolled or if they might actively antagonize U1 recruitment. In addressing this question, we found that, in the introns of human, mouse, and Drosophila, and of 14 other eukaryotes, including multi- and single-celled species, the conserved AATAAA PAS—a major target for CPFs—is selected against. This selective pressure, approximated using DNA strand asymmetry, is detected for peripheral and internal introns alike. Surprisingly, it is more pronounced within—rather than outside—the action range of telescripting, and particularly intense in the vicinity of weak 5′ splice sites. Our study uncovers a novel feature of eukaryotic genes: that the AATAAA PAS is universally counter-selected in spliceosomal introns. This pattern implies that CPFs may attempt to access introns at any time during transcription. However, natural selection operates to minimize this access. By corroborating and extending previous work, our study further indicates that CPF access to intronic PASs might perturb the recruitment of U1 to the adjacent 5′ splice sites. These results open the possibility that CPFs may impact the splicing process across eukaryotes. PMID:28500052

  6. Cancer-associated splicing variant of tumor suppressor AIMP2/p38: pathological implication in tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although ARS-interacting multifunctional protein 2 (AIMP2, also named as MSC p38 was first found as a component for a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex, it was recently discovered to dissociate from the complex and work as a potent tumor suppressor. Upon DNA damage, AIMP2 promotes apoptosis through the protective interaction with p53. However, it was not demonstrated whether AIMP2 was indeed pathologically linked to human cancer. In this work, we found that a splicing variant of AIMP2 lacking exon 2 (AIMP2-DX2 is highly expressed by alternative splicing in human lung cancer cells and patient's tissues. AIMP2-DX2 compromised pro-apoptotic activity of normal AIMP2 through the competitive binding to p53. The cells with higher level of AIMP2-DX2 showed higher propensity to form anchorage-independent colonies and increased resistance to cell death. Mice constitutively expressing this variant showed increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. The expression ratio of AIMP2-DX2 to normal AIMP2 was increased according to lung cancer stage and showed a positive correlation with the survival of patients. Thus, this work identified an oncogenic splicing variant of a tumor suppressor, AIMP2/p38, and suggests its potential for anti-cancer target.

  7. Arginine methylation controls the subcellular localization and functions of the oncoprotein splicing factor SF2/ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rahul; Allemand, Eric; Zhang, Zuo; Karni, Rotem; Myers, Michael P; Krainer, Adrian R

    2010-06-01

    Alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are major sources of protein diversity in eukaryotic proteomes. The SR protein SF2/ASF is an oncoprotein that functions in pre-mRNA splicing, with additional roles in other posttranscriptional and translational events. Functional studies of SR protein PTMs have focused exclusively on the reversible phosphorylation of Ser residues in the C-terminal RS domain. We confirmed that human SF2/ASF is methylated at residues R93, R97, and R109, which were identified in a global proteomic analysis of Arg methylation, and further investigated whether these methylated residues regulate the properties of SF2/ASF. We show that the three arginines additively control the subcellular localization of SF2/ASF and that both the positive charge and the methylation state are important. Mutations that block methylation and remove the positive charge result in the cytoplasmic accumulation of SF2/ASF. The consequent decrease in nuclear SF2/ASF levels prevents it from modulating the alternative splicing of target genes, results in higher translation stimulation, and abrogates the enhancement of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This study addresses the mechanisms by which Arg methylation and the associated positive charge regulate the activities of SF2/ASF and emphasizes the significance of localization control for an oncoprotein with multiple functions in different cellular compartments.

  8. α-MSH regulates intergenic splicing of MC1R and TUBB3 in human melanocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Martin; Kolesnichenko, Marina; das Neves, Ricardo Pires; Iborra, Francisco; Goding, Colin; Furger, André

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing enables higher eukaryotes to increase their repertoire of proteins derived from a restricted number of genes. However, the possibility that functional diversity may also be augmented by splicing between adjacent genes has been largely neglected. Here, we show that the human melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a critical component of the facultative skin pigmentation system, has a highly complex and inefficient poly(A) site which is instrumental in allowing intergenic splicing between this locus and its immediate downstream neighbour tubulin-β-III (TUBB3). These transcripts, which produce two distinct protein isoforms localizing to the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum, seem to be restricted to humans as no detectable chimeric mRNA could be found in MC1R expressing mouse melanocytes. Significantly, treatment with the MC1R agonist α-MSH or activation of the stress response kinase p38-MAPK, both key molecules associated with ultraviolet radiation dermal insult and subsequent skin tanning, result in a shift in expression from MC1R in favour of chimeric MC1R-TUBB3 isoforms in cultured melanocytes. We propose that these chimeric proteins serve to equip melanocytes with novel cellular phenotypes required as part of the pigmentation response. PMID:21071418

  9. Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Fic

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey. Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.

  10. Clinical Relevance of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Benjamin L; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2015-12-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) currently benefits from a wealth of treatment options, yet still remains lethal in the vast majority of patients. It is becoming increasingly understood that this disease entity continues to evolve over time, acquiring additional and diverse resistance mechanisms with each subsequent therapy used. This dynamic relationship between treatment pressure and disease resistance can be challenging for the managing clinician. The recent discovery of alternate splice variants of the androgen receptor (AR) is one potential mechanism of escape in mCRPC, and recognizing this resistance mechanism might be important for optimal treatment selection for our patients. AR-V7 appears to be the most relevant AR splice variant, and early clinical data suggest that it is a negative prognostic marker in mCRPC. Emerging evidence also suggests that detection of AR-V7 may be associated with resistance to novel hormonal therapy (abiraterone and enzalutamide) but may be compatible with sensitivity to taxane chemotherapy (docetaxel and cabazitaxel). Adding to this complexity is the observation that AR-V7 is a dynamic marker whose status may change across time and depending on selective pressures induced by different therapies. Finally, it is possible that AR-V7 may represent a therapeutic target in mCRPC if drugs can be designed that degrade or inhibit AR splice variants or block their transcriptional activity. Several such agents (including galeterone, EPI-506, and bromodomain/BET inhibitors) are now in clinical development.

  11. A functional screen reveals an extensive layer of transcriptional and splicing control underlying RAS/MAPK signaling in Drosophila.

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    Dariel Ashton-Beaucage

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The small GTPase RAS is among the most prevalent oncogenes. The evolutionarily conserved RAF-MEK-MAPK module that lies downstream of RAS is one of the main conduits through which RAS transmits proliferative signals in normal and cancer cells. Genetic and biochemical studies conducted over the last two decades uncovered a small set of factors regulating RAS/MAPK signaling. Interestingly, most of these were found to control RAF activation, thus suggesting a central regulatory role for this event. Whether additional factors are required at this level or further downstream remains an open question. To obtain a comprehensive view of the elements functionally linked to the RAS/MAPK cascade, we used a quantitative assay in Drosophila S2 cells to conduct a genome-wide RNAi screen for factors impacting RAS-mediated MAPK activation. The screen led to the identification of 101 validated hits, including most of the previously known factors associated to this pathway. Epistasis experiments were then carried out on individual candidates to determine their position relative to core pathway components. While this revealed several new factors acting at different steps along the pathway--including a new protein complex modulating RAF activation--we found that most hits unexpectedly work downstream of MEK and specifically influence MAPK expression. These hits mainly consist of constitutive splicing factors and thereby suggest that splicing plays a specific role in establishing MAPK levels. We further characterized two representative members of this group and surprisingly found that they act by regulating mapk alternative splicing. This study provides an unprecedented assessment of the factors modulating RAS/MAPK signaling in Drosophila. In addition, it suggests that pathway output does not solely rely on classical signaling events, such as those controlling RAF activation, but also on the regulation of MAPK levels. Finally, it indicates that core splicing

  12. Expression of alternatively spliced sodium channel alpha-subunit genes. Unique splicing patterns are observed in dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher K; Castle, John; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Armour, Christopher D; Kan, Zhengyan; Tsinoremas, Nicholas; Johnson, Jason M

    2004-10-29

    Molecular medicine requires the precise definition of drug targets, and tools are now in place to provide genome-wide information on the expression and alternative splicing patterns of any known gene. DNA microarrays were used to monitor transcript levels of the nine well-characterized alpha-subunit sodium channel genes across a broad range of tissues from cynomolgus monkey, a non-human primate model. Alternative splicing of human transcripts for a subset of the genes that are expressed in dorsal root ganglia, SCN8A (Na(v)1.6), SCN9A (Na(v)1.7), and SCN11A (Na(v)1.9) was characterized in detail. Genomic sequence analysis among gene family paralogs and between cross-species orthologs suggested specific alternative splicing events within transcripts of these genes, all of which were experimentally confirmed in human tissues. Quantitative PCR revealed that certain alternative splice events are uniquely expressed in dorsal root ganglia. In addition to characterization of human transcripts, alternatively spliced sodium channel transcripts were monitored in a rat model for neuropathic pain. Consistent down-regulation of all transcripts was observed, as well as significant changes in the splicing patterns of SCN8A and SCN9A.

  13. Biochemical identification of new proteins involved in splicing repression at the Drosophila P-element exonic splicing silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Lucas; Yasuhara, Jiro C.; Kohlstaedt, Lori A.; Rio, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Splicing of the Drosophila P-element third intron (IVS3) is repressed in somatic tissues due to the function of an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) complex present on the 5′ exon RNA. To comprehensively characterize the mechanisms of this alternative splicing regulation, we used biochemical fractionation and affinity purification to isolate the silencer complex assembled in vitro and identify the constituent proteins by mass spectrometry. Functional assays using splicing reporter minigenes identified the proteins hrp36 and hrp38 and the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein PABPC1 as novel functional components of the splicing silencer. hrp48, PSI, and PABPC1 have high-affinity RNA-binding sites on the P-element IVS3 5′ exon, whereas hrp36 and hrp38 proteins bind with low affinity to the P-element silencer RNA. RNA pull-down and immobilized protein assays showed that hrp48 protein binding to the silencer RNA can recruit hrp36 and hrp38. These studies identified additional components that function at the P-element ESS and indicated that proteins with low-affinity RNA-binding sites can be recruited in a functional manner through interactions with a protein bound to RNA at a high-affinity binding site. These studies have implications for the role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in the control of alternative splicing at cis-acting regulatory sites. PMID:26545814

  14. CCA1 alternative splicing as a way of linking the circadian clock to temperature response in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mi-Jeong; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Most living organisms on the earth have the circadian clock to synchronize their biochemical processes and physiological activities with environmental changes to optimize their propagation and survival. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) is one of the core clock components in Arabidopsis. Notably, it is also associated with cold acclimation. However, it is largely unknown how CCA1 activity is modulated by low temperatures. We found that the CCA1 activity is self-regulated by a splice variant ...

  15. Alternative splicing regulated by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells.

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    Sitao Wu

    Full Text Available As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs, butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for 11.28 and 12.32% of total mapped reads between the butyrate-treated (BT and control (CT groups. 201,326 potential splicing junctions detected were supported by ≥ 3 junction reads. Approximately 94% of these junctions conformed to the consensus sequence (GT/AG while ~3% were GC/AG junctions. No AT/AC junctions were observed. A total of 2,834 exon skipping events, supported by a minimum of 3 junction reads, were detected. At least 7 genes, their mRNA expression significantly affected by butyrate, also had exon skipping events differentially regulated by butyrate. Furthermore, COL5A3, which was induced 310-fold by butyrate (FDR <0.001 at the gene level, had a significantly higher number of junction reads mapped to Exon#8 (Donor and Exon#11 (Acceptor in BT. This event had the potential to result in the formation of a COL5A3 mRNA isoform with 2 of the 69 exons missing. In addition, 216 differentially expressed transcript isoforms regulated by butyrate were detected. For example, Isoform 1 of ORC1 was strongly repressed by butyrate while Isoform 2 remained unchanged. Butyrate physically binds to and inhibits all zinc-dependent HDACs except HDAC6 and HDAC10. Our results provided evidence that butyrate also regulated deacetylase activities of classical HDACs via its transcriptional control. Moreover, thirteen gene fusion events differentially affected by butyrate were identified. Our results provided a snapshot into complex transcriptome dynamics regulated by butyrate, which will facilitate our understanding of the biological effects of butyrate and other HDAC

  16. Regulation of plant developmental processes by a novel splicing factor.

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    Gul Shad Ali

    Full Text Available Serine/arginine-rich (SR proteins play important roles in constitutive and alternative splicing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism. We have previously isolated a unique plant SR protein (SR45 with atypical domain organization. However, the biological and molecular functions of this novel SR protein are not known. Here, we report biological and molecular functions of this protein. Using an in vitro splicing complementation assay, we showed that SR45 functions as an essential splicing factor. Furthermore, the alternative splicing pattern of transcripts of several other SR genes was altered in a mutant, sr45-1, suggesting that the observed phenotypic abnormalities in sr45-1 are likely due to altered levels of SR protein isoforms, which in turn modulate splicing of other pre-mRNAs. sr45-1 exhibited developmental abnormalities, including delayed flowering, narrow leaves and altered number of petals and stamens. The late flowering phenotype was observed under both long days and short days and was rescued by vernalization. FLC, a key flowering repressor, is up-regulated in sr45-1 demonstrating that SR45 influences the autonomous flowering pathway. Changes in the alternative splicing of SR genes and the phenotypic defects in the mutant were rescued by SR45 cDNA, further confirming that the observed defects in the mutant are due to the lack of SR45. These results indicate that SR45 is a novel plant-specific splicing factor that plays a crucial role in regulating developmental processes.

  17. Method of predicting Splice Sites based on signal interactions

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    Deogun Jitender S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting and proper ranking of canonical splice sites (SSs is a challenging problem in bioinformatics and machine learning communities. Any progress in SSs recognition will lead to better understanding of splicing mechanism. We introduce several new approaches of combining a priori knowledge for improved SS detection. First, we design our new Bayesian SS sensor based on oligonucleotide counting. To further enhance prediction quality, we applied our new de novo motif detection tool MHMMotif to intronic ends and exons. We combine elements found with sensor information using Naive Bayesian Network, as implemented in our new tool SpliceScan. Results According to our tests, the Bayesian sensor outperforms the contemporary Maximum Entropy sensor for 5' SS detection. We report a number of putative Exonic (ESE and Intronic (ISE Splicing Enhancers found by MHMMotif tool. T-test statistics on mouse/rat intronic alignments indicates, that detected elements are on average more conserved as compared to other oligos, which supports our assumption of their functional importance. The tool has been shown to outperform the SpliceView, GeneSplicer, NNSplice, Genio and NetUTR tools for the test set of human genes. SpliceScan outperforms all contemporary ab initio gene structural prediction tools on the set of 5' UTR gene fragments. Conclusion Designed methods have many attractive properties, compared to existing approaches. Bayesian sensor, MHMMotif program and SpliceScan tools are freely available on our web site. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Manyuan Long, Arcady Mushegian and Mikhail Gelfand.

  18. Liver myofibroblasts of murine origins express mesothelin: Identification of novel rat mesothelin splice variants.

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    Michel Fausther

    Full Text Available Liver myofibroblasts are specialized effector cells that drive hepatic fibrosis, a hallmark process of chronic liver diseases, leading to progressive scar formation and organ failure. Liver myofibroblasts are increasingly recognized as heterogeneous with regards to their origin, phenotype, and functions. For instance, liver myofibroblasts express cell markers that are universally represented such as, ItgαV and Pdgfrβ, or restricted to a given subpopulation such as, Lrat exclusively expressed in hepatic stellate cells, and Gpm6a in mesothelial cells. To study liver myofibroblasts in vitro, we have previously generated and characterized a SV40-immortalized polyclonal rat activated portal fibroblast cell line called RGF-N2 expressing multiple mesothelin mRNA transcripts. Mesothelin, a cell-surface molecule expressed in normal mesothelial cells and overexpressed in several cancers such as, mesothelioma and cholangiocarcinoma, was recently identified as a key regulator of portal myofibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis progression in the setting of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Here, we identify novel mesothelin splice variants expressed in rat activated portal fibroblasts. RGF-N2 portal fibroblast cDNA was used as template for insertion of hemagglutinin tag consensus sequence into the complete open reading frame of rat mesothelin variant coding sequences by extension PCR. Purified amplicons were subsequently cloned into an expression vector for in vitro translation and transfection in monkey COS7 fibroblasts, before characterization of fusion proteins by immunoblot and immunofluorescence. We show that rat activated portal fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, and cholangiocarcinoma cells express wild-type mesothelin and additional splice variants, while mouse activated hepatic stellate cells appear to only express wild-type mesothelin. Notably, rat mesothelin splice variants differ from the wild-type isoform by their protein properties and

  19. Phosphorylation status of the Kep1 protein alters its affinity for its protein binding partner alternative splicing factor ASF/SF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robard, Cécile; Daviau, Alex; Di Fruscio, Marco

    2006-11-15

    Mutations in the Drosophila kep1 gene, encoding a single maxi KH (K homology) domain-containing RNA-binding protein, result in a reduction of fertility in part due to the disruption of the apoptotic programme during oogenesis. This disruption is concomitant with the appearance of an alternatively spliced mRNA isoform encoding the inactive caspase dredd. We generated a Kep1 antibody and have found that the Kep1 protein is present in the nuclei of both the follicle and nurse cells during all stages of Drosophila oogenesis. We have shown that the Kep1 protein is phosphorylated in ovaries induced to undergo apoptosis following treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin. We have also found that the Kep1 protein interacts specifically with the SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein family member ASF/SF2 (alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2). This interaction is independent of the ability of Kep1 to bind RNA, but is dependent on the phosphorylation of the Kep1 protein, with the interaction between Kep1 and ASF/SF2 increasing in the presence of activated Src. Using a CD44v5 alternative splicing reporter construct, we observed 99% inclusion of the alternatively spliced exon 5 following kep1 transfection in a cell line that constitutively expresses activated Src. This modulation in splicing was not observed in the parental NIH 3T3 cell line in which we obtained 7.5% exon 5 inclusion following kep1 transfection. Our data suggest a mechanism of action in which the in vivo phosphorylation status of the Kep1 protein affects its affinity towards its protein binding partners and in turn may allow for the modulation of alternative splice site selection in Kep1-ASF/SF2-dependent target genes.

  20. Analysis of a splice array experiment elucidates roles of chromatin elongation factor Spt4-5 in splicing.

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    Yuanyuan Xiao

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Splicing is an important process for regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, and it has important functional links to other steps of gene expression. Two examples of these linkages include Ceg1, a component of the mRNA capping enzyme, and the chromatin elongation factors Spt4-5, both of which have recently been shown to play a role in the normal splicing of several genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a genomic approach to characterize the roles of Spt4-5 in splicing, we used splicing-sensitive DNA microarrays to identify specific sets of genes that are mis-spliced in ceg1, spt4, and spt5 mutants. In the context of a complex, nested, experimental design featuring 22 dye-swap array hybridizations, comprising both biological and technical replicates, we applied five appropriate statistical models for assessing differential expression between wild-type and the mutants. To refine selection of differential expression genes, we then used a robust model-synthesizing approach, Differential Expression via Distance Synthesis, to integrate all five models. The resultant list of differentially expressed genes was then further analyzed with regard to select attributes: we found that highly transcribed genes with long introns were most sensitive to spt mutations. QPCR confirmation of differential expression was established for the limited number of genes evaluated. In this paper, we showcase splicing array technology, as well as powerful, yet general, statistical methodology for assessing differential expression, in the context of a real, complex experimental design. Our results suggest that the Spt4-Spt5 complex may help coordinate splicing with transcription under conditions that present kinetic challenges to spliceosome assembly or function.

  1. Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derelle, Romain; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Manuel, Michael; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Houliston, Evelyn

    2010-04-01

    Replacement of mRNA 5' UTR sequences by short sequences trans-spliced from specialized, noncoding, spliced leader (SL) RNAs is an enigmatic phenomenon, occurring in a set of distantly related animal groups including urochordates, nematodes, flatworms, and hydra, as well as in Euglenozoa and dinoflagellates. Whether SL trans-splicing has a common evolutionary origin and biological function among different organisms remains unclear. We have undertaken a systematic identification of SL exons in cDNA sequence data sets from non-bilaterian metazoan species and their closest unicellular relatives. SL exons were identified in ctenophores and in hydrozoan cnidarians, but not in other cnidarians, placozoans, or sponges, or in animal unicellular relatives. Mapping of SL absence/presence obtained from this and previous studies onto current phylogenetic trees favors an evolutionary scenario involving multiple origins for SLs during eumetazoan evolution rather than loss from a common ancestor. In both ctenophore and hydrozoan species, multiple SL sequences were identified, showing high sequence diversity. Detailed analysis of a large data set generated for the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica revealed trans-splicing of given mRNAs by multiple alternative SLs. No evidence was found for a common identity of trans-spliced mRNAs between different hydrozoans. One feature found specifically to characterize SL-spliced mRNAs in hydrozoans, however, was a marked adenosine enrichment immediately 3' of the SL acceptor splice site. Our findings of high sequence divergence and apparently indiscriminate use of SLs in hydrozoans, along with recent findings in other taxa, indicate that SL genes have evolved rapidly in parallel in diverse animal groups, with constraint on SL exon sequence evolution being apparently rare.

  2. A frequent splicing mutation and novel missense mutations color the updated mutational spectrum of classic galactosemia in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ana I; Ramos, Ruben; Gaspar, Ana; Costa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Anabela; Diogo, Luísa; Garcia, Paula; Paiva, Sandra; Martins, Esmeralda; Teles, Elisa Leão; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Cardoso, M Teresa; Ferreira, Elena; Sequeira, Sílvia; Leite, Margarida; Silva, Maria João; de Almeida, Isabel Tavares; Vicente, João B; Rivera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) activity. Patients develop symptoms in the neonatal period, which can be ameliorated by dietary restriction of galactose. Many patients develop long-term complications, with a broad range of clinical symptoms whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. The high allelic heterogeneity of GALT gene that characterizes this disorder is thought to play a determinant role in biochemical and clinical phenotypes. We aimed to characterize the mutational spectrum of GALT deficiency in Portugal and to assess potential genotype-phenotype correlations. Direct sequencing of the GALT gene and in silico analyses were employed to evaluate the impact of uncharacterized mutations upon GALT functionality. Molecular characterization of 42 galactosemic Portuguese patients revealed a mutational spectrum comprising 14 nucleotide substitutions: ten missense, two nonsense and two putative splicing mutations. Sixteen different genotypic combinations were detected, half of the patients being p.Q188R homozygotes. Notably, the second most frequent variation is a splicing mutation. In silico predictions complemented by a close-up on the mutations in the protein structure suggest that uncharacterized missense mutations have cumulative point effects on protein stability, oligomeric state, or substrate binding. One splicing mutation is predicted to cause an alternative splicing event. This study reinforces the difficulty in establishing a genotype-phenotype correlation in classic galactosemia, a monogenic disease whose complex pathogenesis and clinical features emphasize the need to expand the knowledge on this "cloudy" disorder.

  3. LSM Proteins Provide Accurate Splicing and Decay of Selected Transcripts to Ensure Normal Arabidopsis Development[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Resa, Carlos; Hernández-Verdeja, Tamara; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Castellano, María del Mar; Salinas, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In yeast and animals, SM-like (LSM) proteins typically exist as heptameric complexes and are involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism. Eight LSM proteins, LSM1 to 8, are highly conserved and form two distinct heteroheptameric complexes, LSM1-7 and LSM2-8,that function in mRNA decay and splicing, respectively. A search of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome identifies 11 genes encoding proteins related to the eight conserved LSMs, the genes encoding the putative LSM1, LSM3, and LSM6 proteins being duplicated. Here, we report the molecular and functional characterization of the Arabidopsis LSM gene family. Our results show that the 11 LSM genes are active and encode proteins that are also organized in two different heptameric complexes. The LSM1-7 complex is cytoplasmic and is involved in P-body formation and mRNA decay by promoting decapping. The LSM2-8 complex is nuclear and is required for precursor mRNA splicing through U6 small nuclear RNA stabilization. More importantly, our results also reveal that these complexes are essential for the correct turnover and splicing of selected development-related mRNAs and for the normal development of Arabidopsis. We propose that LSMs play a critical role in Arabidopsis development by ensuring the appropriate development-related gene expression through the regulation of mRNA splicing and decay. PMID:23221597

  4. SNW1 enables sister chromatid cohesion by mediating the splicing of sororin and APC2 pre-mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Petra; Stocsits, Roman R; Ladurner, Rene; Petzold, Georg; Kreidl, Emanuel; Koch, Birgit; Schmitz, Julia; Neumann, Beate; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-11-18

    Although splicing is essential for the expression of most eukaryotic genes, inactivation of splicing factors causes specific defects in mitosis. The molecular cause of this defect is unknown. Here, we show that the spliceosome subunits SNW1 and PRPF8 are essential for sister chromatid cohesion in human cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that SNW1 or PRPF8 depletion affects the splicing of specific introns in a subset of pre-mRNAs, including pre-mRNAs encoding the cohesion protein sororin and the APC/C subunit APC2. SNW1 depletion causes cohesion defects predominantly by reducing sororin levels, which causes destabilisation of cohesin on DNA. SNW1 depletion also reduces APC/C activity and contributes to cohesion defects indirectly by delaying mitosis and causing "cohesion fatigue". Simultaneous expression of sororin and APC2 from intron-less cDNAs restores cohesion in SNW1-depleted cells. These results indicate that the spliceosome is required for mitosis because it enables expression of genes essential for cohesion. Our transcriptome-wide identification of retained introns in SNW1- and PRPF8-depleted cells may help to understand the aetiology of diseases associated with splicing defects, such as retinosa pigmentosum and cancer. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Small-molecule inhibition of HIV pre-mRNA splicing as a novel antiretroviral therapy to overcome drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bakkour

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises antiretroviral therapy efficacy and limits therapeutic options. Therefore, it is an ongoing task to identify new targets for antiretroviral therapy and to develop new drugs. Here, we show that an indole derivative (IDC16 that interferes with exonic splicing enhancer activity of the SR protein splicing factor SF2/ASF suppresses the production of key viral proteins, thereby compromising subsequent synthesis of full-length HIV-1 pre-mRNA and assembly of infectious particles. IDC16 inhibits replication of macrophage- and T cell-tropic laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and strains with high-level resistance to inhibitors of viral protease and reverse transcriptase. Importantly, drug treatment of primary blood cells did not alter splicing profiles of endogenous genes involved in cell cycle transition and apoptosis. Thus, human splicing factors represent novel and promising drug targets for the development of antiretroviral therapies, particularly for the inhibition of multidrug-resistant viruses.

  6. The sex-determining gene doublesex in the fly Megaselia scalaris: conserved structure and sex-specific splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, S; Sievert, V; Traut, W

    2000-12-01

    The well-known sex-determining cascade of Drosophila melanogaster serves as a paradigm for the pathway to sexual development in insects. But the primary sex-determining signal and the subsequent step, Sex-lethal (Sxl), have been shown not to be functionally conserved in non-Drosophila flies. We isolated doublesex (dsx), which is a downstream step in the cascade, from the phorid fly Megaselia scalaris, which is a distant relative of D. melanogaster. Conserved properties, e.g., sex-specific splicing, structure of the female-specific 3' splice site, a splicing enhancer region with binding motifs for the TRA2/RBP1/TRA complex that activates female-specific splicing in Drosophila, and conserved domains for DNA-binding and oligomerization in the putative DSX protein, indicate functional conservation of dsx in M. scalaris. Hence, the dsx step of the sex-determining pathway appears to be conserved among flies and probably in an even wider group of insects, as the analysis of a published cDNA from the silkmoth indicates.

  7. Alternative Splicing Regulates Targeting of Malate Dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3′-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

  8. Comparison of splice sites in mammals and chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Josep F; Castelo, Robert; Guigó, Roderic

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out an initial analysis of the dynamics of the recent evolution of the splice-sites sequences on a large collection of human, rodent (mouse and rat), and chicken introns. Our results indicate that the sequences of splice sites are largely homogeneous within tetrapoda. We have also found that orthologous splice signals between human and rodents and within rodents are more conserved than unrelated splice sites, but the additional conservation can be explained mostly by background intron conservation. In contrast, additional conservation over background is detectable in orthologous mammalian and chicken splice sites. Our results also indicate that the U2 and U12 intron classes seem to have evolved independently since the split of mammals and birds; we have not been able to find a convincing case of interconversion between these two classes in our collections of orthologous introns. Similarly, we have not found a single case of switching between AT-AC and GT-AG subtypes within U12 introns, suggesting that this event has been a rare occurrence in recent evolutionary times. Switching between GT-AG and the noncanonical GC-AG U2 subtypes, on the contrary, does not appear to be unusual; in particular, T to C mutations appear to be relatively well tolerated in GT-AG introns with very strong donor sites.

  9. A Challenging Pie to Splice: Drugging the Spliceosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Brian; Kashyap, Manoj K; Chan, Warren C; Krug, Kelsey A; Castro, Januario E; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2017-09-25

    Since its discovery in 1977, the study of alternative RNA splicing has revealed a plethora of mechanisms that had never before been documented in nature. Understanding these transitions and their outcome at the level of the cell and organism has become one of the great frontiers of modern chemical biology. Until 2007, this field remained in the hands of RNA biologists. However, the recent identification of natural product and synthetic modulators of RNA splicing has opened new access to this field, allowing for the first time a chemical-based interrogation of RNA splicing processes. Simultaneously, we have begun to understand the vital importance of splicing in disease, which offers a new platform for molecular discovery and therapy. As with many natural systems, gaining clear mechanistic detail at the molecular level is key towards understanding the operation of any biological machine. This minireview presents recent lessons learned in this emerging field of RNA splicing chemistry and chemical biology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Aberrant splicing in MLH1 and MSH2 due to exonic and intronic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenstecher, Constanze; Wehner, Maria; Friedl, Waltraut; Rahner, Nils; Aretz, Stefan; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Sengteller, Marlies; Henn, Wolfram; Buettner, Reinhard; Propping, Peter; Mangold, Elisabeth

    2006-03-01

    Single base substitutions in DNA mismatch repair genes which are predicted to lead either to missense or silent mutations, or to intronic variants outside the highly conserved splicing region are often found in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. In order to use the variants for predictive testing in persons at risk, their pathogenicity has to be evaluated. There is growing evidence that some substitutions have a detrimental influence on splicing. We examined 19 unclassified variants (UVs) detected in MSH2 or MLH1 genes in patients suspected of HNPCC for expression at RNA level. We demonstrate that 10 of the 19 UVs analyzed affect splicing. For example, the substitution MLH1,c.2103G > C in the last position of exon 18 does not result in a missense mutation as theoretically predicted (p.Gln701His), but leads to a complete loss of exon 18. The substitution MLH1,c.1038G > C (predicted effect p.Gln346His) leads to complete inactivation of the mutant allele by skipping of exons 10 and 11, and by activation of a cryptic intronic splice site. Similarly, the intronic variant MLH1,c.306+2dupT results in loss of exon 3 and a frameshift mutation due to a new splice donor site 5 bp upstream. Furthermore, we confirmed complete exon skipping for the mutations MLH1,c.1731G > A and MLH1,c.677G > A. Partial exon skipping was demonstrated for the mutations MSH2,c.1275A > G, MLH1,c.588+5G > A, MLH1,c.790+4A > G and MLH1,c.1984A > C. In contrast, five missense mutations (MSH2,c.4G > A, MSH2,c.2123T > A, MLH1,c.464T > G, MLH1,c.875T > C and MLH1,c.2210A > T) were found in similar proportions in the mRNA as in the genomic DNA. We conclude that the mRNA examination should precede functional tests at protein level.

  11. Widespread evolutionary conservation of alternatively spliced exons in caenorhabditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to increased transcriptome and proteome diversity in various eukaryotic lineages. Previous studies showed low levels of conservation of alternatively spliced (cassette) exons within mammals and within dipterans. We report a strikingly different pattern...... in Caenorhabditis nematodes-more than 92% of cassette exons from Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae and/or Caenorhabditis remanei. High levels of conservation extend to minor-form exons (present in a minority of transcripts) and are particularly pronounced for exons showing complex...... patterns of splicing. The functionality of the vast majority of cassette exons is underscored by various other features. We suggest that differences in conservation between lineages reflect differences in levels of functionality and further suggest that these differences are due to differences in intron...

  12. Minor class splicing shapes the zebrafish transcriptome during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markmiller, Sebastian; Cloonan, Nicole; Lardelli, Rea M

    2014-01-01

    as the U11/U12 di-snRNP 65-kDa protein, a unique component of the U12-type spliceosome. The biochemical impact of the mutation in clbn is the formation of aberrant U11- and U12-containing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that impair the efficiency of U12-type splicing. Using RNA sequencing and microarrays....... Analysis of its transcriptome reveals efficient mRNA processing as a critical process for the growth and proliferation of cells during vertebrate development.......Minor class or U12-type splicing is a highly conserved process required to remove a minute fraction of introns from human pre-mRNAs. Defects in this splicing pathway have recently been linked to human disease, including a severe developmental disorder encompassing brain and skeletal abnormalities...

  13. Identifying splicing regulatory elements with de Bruijn graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Eman; Heath, Lenwood S

    2014-12-01

    Splicing regulatory elements (SREs) are short, degenerate sequences on pre-mRNA molecules that enhance or inhibit the splicing process via the binding of splicing factors, proteins that regulate the functioning of the spliceosome. Existing methods for identifying SREs in a genome are either experimental or computational. Here, we propose a formalism based on de Bruijn graphs that combines genomic structure, word count enrichment analysis, and experimental evidence to identify SREs found in exons. In our approach, SREs are not restricted to a fixed length (i.e., k-mers, for a fixed k). As a result, we identify 2001 putative exonic enhancers and 3080 putative exonic silencers for human genes, with lengths varying from 6 to 15 nucleotides. Many of the predicted SREs overlap with experimentally verified binding sites. Our model provides a novel method to predict variable length putative regulatory elements computationally for further experimental investigation.

  14. Global Genetic Robustness of the Alternative Splicing Machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Snoek, L. Basten; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Swertz, Morris A.; Riksen, Joost; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Borevitz, J.

    Alternative splicing is considered a major mechanism for creating multicellular diversity from a limited repertoire of genes. Here, we performed the first study of genetic variation controlling alternative splicing patterns by comprehensively identifying quantitative trait loci affecting the

  15. Nascent-seq indicates widespread cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing in Drosophila

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khodor, Yevgenia L; Rodriguez, Joseph; Abruzzi, Katharine C; Tang, Chih-Hang Anthony; Marr, 2nd, Michael T; Rosbash, Michael

    2011-01-01

    ..., with ∼3% being almost completely retained in nascent pre-mRNA. Although individual introns showed slight but statistically significant differences in splicing efficiency, similar global levels of splicing were seen from both sources...

  16. Cloning, expression and alternative splicing of the novel isoform of hTCP11 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yong-xin; Zhang, Si-zhong; Wu, Qia-qing

    2003-01-01

    To identify a novel isoform of hTCP11 gene and investigate its expression and alternative splicing.......To identify a novel isoform of hTCP11 gene and investigate its expression and alternative splicing....

  17. Growth hormone deficiency and splicing fidelity: two serine/arginine-rich proteins, ASF/SF2 and SC35, act antagonistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Amanda S; Peng, Rui; Crawford, J Barrett; Phillips, John A; Patton, James G

    2008-08-29

    The majority of mutations that cause isolated growth hormone deficiency type II are the result of aberrant splicing of transcripts encoding human growth hormone. Such mutations increase skipping of exon 3 and encode a 17.5-kDa protein that acts as a dominant negative to block secretion of full-length protein produced from unaffected alleles. Previously, we identified a splicing regulatory element in exon 3 (exonic splicing enhancer 2 (ESE2)), but we had not determined the molecular mechanism by which this element prevents exon skipping. Here, we show that two members of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein superfamily (ASF/SF2 and SC35) act antagonistically to regulate exon 3 splicing. ASF/SF2 activates exon 3 inclusion, but SC35, acting through a region just downstream of ESE2, can block such activation. These findings explain the disease-causing mechanism of a patient mutation in ESE2 that creates a functional SC35-binding site that then acts synergistically with the downstream SC35 site to produce pathological levels of exon 3 skipping. Although the precedent for SR proteins acting as repressors is established, this is the first example of a patient mutation that creates a site through which an SR protein represses splicing.

  18. Temporal and tissue specific regulation of RP-associated splicing factor genes PRPF3, PRPF31 and PRPC8--implications in the pathogenesis of RP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibi Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations in several ubiquitously expressed RNA splicing genes such as PRPF3, PRP31 and PRPC8, have been found to cause retina-specific diseases in humans. To understand this intriguing phenomenon, most studies have been focused on testing two major hypotheses. One hypothesis assumes that these mutations interrupt retina-specific interactions that are important for RNA splicing, implying that there are specific components in the retina interacting with these splicing factors. The second hypothesis suggests that these mutations have only a mild effect on the protein function and thus affect only the metabolically highly active cells such as retinal photoreceptors.We examined the second hypothesis using the PRPF3 gene as an example. We analyzed the spatial and temporal expression of the PRPF3 gene in mice and found that it is highly expressed in retinal cells relative to other tissues and its expression is developmentally regulated. In addition, we also found that PRP31 and PRPC8 as well as snRNAs are highly expressed in retinal cells.Our data suggest that the retina requires a relatively high level of RNA splicing activity for optimal tissue-specific physiological function. Because the RP18 mutation has neither a debilitating nor acute effect on protein function, we suggest that retinal degeneration is the accumulative effect of decades of suboptimal RNA splicing due to the mildly impaired protein.

  19. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Konrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array

  20. Characterization of a new 5' splice site within the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genome: evidence for a novel auxiliary protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Cécile

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral genomes encode multiple structural and regulatory proteins. Expression of the full complement of viral proteins is accomplished in part by alternative splicing of the genomic RNA. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV and maedi-visna virus (MVV are two highly related small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs that infect goats and sheep. Their genome seems to be less complex than those of primate lentiviruses since SRLVs encode only three auxiliary proteins, namely, Tat, Rev, and Vif, in addition to the products of gag, pol, and env genes common to all retroviruses. Here, we investigated the central part of the SRLV genome to identify new splice elements and their relevance in viral mRNA and protein expression. Results We demonstrated the existence of a new 5' splice (SD site located within the central part of CAEV genome, 17 nucleotides downstream from the SD site used for the rev mRNA synthesis, and perfectly conserved among SRLV strains. This new SD site was found to be functional in both transfected and infected cells, leading to the production of a transcript containing an open reading frame generated by the splice junction with the 3' splice site used for the rev mRNA synthesis. This open reading frame encodes two major protein isoforms of 18- and 17-kDa, named Rtm, in which the N-terminal domain shared by the Env precursor and Rev proteins is fused to the entire cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane glycoprotein. Immunoprecipitations using monospecific antibodies provided evidence for the expression of the Rtm isoforms in infected cells. The Rtm protein interacts specifically with the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein in vitro, and its expression impairs the fusion activity of the Env protein. Conclusion The characterization of a novel CAEV protein, named Rtm, which is produced by an additional multiply-spliced mRNA, indicated that the splicing pattern of CAEV genome is more complex than

  1. The exon junction complex differentially marks spliced junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulière, Jérôme; Haque, Nazmul; Harms, Scot; Barbosa, Isabelle; Blanchette, Marco; Le Hir, Hervé

    2010-10-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC), which is deposited onto mRNAs as a consequence of splicing, is involved in multiple post-transcriptional events in metazoa. Here, using Drosophila melanogaster cells, we show that only some introns trigger EJC-dependent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and that EJC association with particular spliced junctions depends on RNA cis-acting sequences. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that EJC deposition is not constitutive but instead is a regulated process.

  2. Alternative Splicing of Rice WRKY62 and WRKY76 Transcription Factor Genes in Pathogen Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiqin; Chen, Xujun; Liang, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Xiangui; Yang, Fang; Liu, Jia; He, Sheng Yang; Guo, Zejian

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors (TFs) functions as transcriptional activators or repressors in various signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered that OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76, two genes of the WRKY IIa subfamily, undergo constitutive and inducible alternative splicing. The full-length OsWRKY62.1 and OsWRKY76.1 proteins formed homocomplexes and heterocomplexes, and the heterocomplex dominates in the nuclei when analyzed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic overexpression of OsWRKY62.1 and OsWRKY76.1 in rice (Oryza sativa) enhanced plant susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the leaf blight bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, whereas RNA interference and loss-of-function knockout plants exhibited elevated resistance. The dsOW62/76 and knockout lines of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76 also showed greatly increased expression of defense-related genes and the accumulation of phytoalexins. The ratio of full-length versus truncated transcripts changed in dsOW62/76 plants as well as in response to pathogen infection. The short alternative OsWRKY62.2 and OsWRKY76.2 isoforms could interact with each other and with full-length proteins. OsWRKY62.2 showed a reduced repressor activity in planta, and two sequence determinants required for the repressor activity were identified in the amino terminus of OsWRKY62.1. The amino termini of OsWRKY62 and OsWRKY76 splice variants also showed reduced binding to the canonical W box motif. These results not only enhance our understanding of the DNA-binding property, the repressor sequence motifs, and the negative feedback regulation of the IIa subfamily of WRKYs but also provide evidence for alternative splicing of WRKY TFs during the plant defense response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Chapter 1. Regulation of HIV-1 alternative RNA splicing and its role in virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, C Martin

    2009-01-01

    Over 40 different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNA species, both completely and incompletely spliced, are produced by alternative splicing of the primary viral RNA transcript. In addition, about half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is transported to the cytoplasm where it is used both as mRNA and as genomic RNA. In general, the identities of the completely and incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNA species are determined by the proximity of the open reading frames to the 5'-end of the mRNAs. The relative abundance of the mRNAs encoding the HIV-1 gene products is determined by the frequency of splicing at the different alternative 3'-splice sites. This chapter will highlight studies showing how HIV-1 uses exon definition to control the level of splicing at each of its 3'-splice sites through a combination of positively acting exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) elements, negatively acting exonic and intronic splicing silencer elements (ESS and ISS elements, respectively), and the 5'-splice sites of the regulated exons. Each of these splicing elements represent binding sites for cellular factors whose levels in the infected cell can determine the dominance of the positive or negative elements on HIV-1 alternative splicing. Both mutations of HIV-1 splicing elements and overexpression or inhibition of cellular splicing factors that bind to these elements have been used to show that disruption of regulated splicing inhibits HIV-1 replication. These studies have provided strong rationale for the investigation and development of antiviral drugs that specifically inhibit HIV-1 RNA splicing.

  4. Can the HIV-1 splicing machinery be targeted for drug discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Z

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zodwa Dlamini, Rodney Hull Research, Innovation & Engagements Portfolio, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, South Africa Abstract: HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being required to transport incompletely spliced and partially spliced mRNA from the nucleus where they are normally retained. This implies a close relationship between the control of alternate splicing and the nuclear export of mRNA in the control of HIV-1 viral proliferation. This review discusses both the processes. The specificity and regulation of splicing in HIV-1 is controlled by the use of specific splice sites as well as exonic splicing enhancer and exonic splicing silencer sequences. The use of these silencer and enhancer sequences is dependent on the serine arginine family of proteins as well as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family of proteins that bind to these sequences and increase or decrease splicing. Since alternative splicing is such a critical factor in viral development, it presents itself as a promising drug target. This review aims to discuss the inhibition of splicing, which would stall viral development, as an anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. In this review, the most recent knowledge of splicing in human immunodeficiency viral development and the latest therapeutic strategies targeting human immunodeficiency viral splicing are discussed. Keywords: alternative splicing, exonic splicing enhancer, exonic specific silencer, splicing based therapies, SR proteins, hnRNP, Rev, Tat, Vpr

  5. An erythroid differentiation-specific splicing switch in protein 4.1R mediated by the interaction of SF2/ASF with an exonic splicing enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Huang, Shu-Ching; Wu, Jane Y; Benz, Edward J

    2005-03-01

    Protein 4.1R is a vital component of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton. Promotion of cytoskeletal junctional complex stability requires an erythroid differentiation stage-specific splicing switch promoting inclusion of exon 16 within the spectrin/actin binding domain. We showed earlier that an intricate combination of positive and negative RNA elements controls exon 16 splicing. In this report, we further identified 3 putative exonic splicing enhancers within exon 16 and investigated the function of the sequence CAGACAT in the regulation of exon 16 splicing. Mutation of these sequences leads to increased exclusion of exon 16 in both in vivo and in vitro splicing assays, indicating that CAGACAT is a functional exonic splicing enhancer. UV cross-linking further detects an approximately 33-kDa protein that specifically binds to the CAGACAT-containing transcript. An anti-SF2/ASF antibody specifically immunoprecipitates the approximately 33-kDa protein. Furthermore, SF2/ASF stimulates exon 16 inclusion in both in vitro complementation assays and minigene-transfected mouse erythroleukemia cells (MELCs). Finally, SF2/ASF expression is up-regulated and correlates with exon 16 inclusion in differentiated MELCs. These results suggest that increased splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) expression in differentiated mouse erythroleukemia mediates a differentiation stage-specific exon 16 splicing switch through its interaction with the exonic splicing enhancer.

  6. Assembly of splicing complexes on exon 11 of the human insulin receptor gene does not correlate with splicing efficiency in-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caples Matt

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporation of exon 11 of the insulin receptor gene is both developmentally and hormonally-regulated. Previously, we have shown the presence of enhancer and silencer elements that modulate the incorporation of the small 36-nucleotide exon. In this study, we investigated the role of inherent splice site strength in the alternative splicing decision and whether recognition of the splice sites is the major determinant of exon incorporation. Results We found that mutation of the flanking sub-optimal splice sites to consensus sequences caused the exon to be constitutively spliced in-vivo. These findings are consistent with the exon-definition model for splicing. In-vitro splicing of RNA templates containing exon 11 and portions of the upstream intron recapitulated the regulation seen in-vivo. Unexpectedly, we found that the splice sites are occupied and spliceosomal complex A was assembled on all templates in-vitro irrespective of splicing efficiency. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the exon-definition model explains alternative splicing of exon 11 in the IR gene in-vivo but not in-vitro. The in-vitro results suggest that the regulation occurs at a later step in spliceosome assembly on this exon.

  7. Analysis of a botryllid enriched-full-length cDNA library: insight into the evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Fabio; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2011-03-01

    In some animals, mRNA may be modified after transcription by the addition of a 5' spliced leader sequence. This is known as spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing, and is of uncertain function and evolutionary origin. Here, we report the identification of SL trans-splicing in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Combining our own expressed sequence tag (EST) data with additional data from GenBank, we identify the dominant spliced leader sequence and show it to be similar to that of other ascidians and to that of Oikopleura dioica, a basally diverging tunicate. Gene Ontology analysis of B. schlosseri ESTs with and without a 5' spliced leader shows that genes encoding ribosomal proteins tend not to be trans-spliced, a character shared with the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We also examine individual cases of genes that produce mRNAs that are SL trans-spliced in B. schlosseri but not in C. intestinalis. We conclude that SL trans-splicing evolved early in the tunicate lineage and shows stability over considerable evolutionary time. However, SL trans-splicing may be gained or lost in individual genes.

  8. Identification of Coilin Mutants in a Screen for Enhanced Expression of an Alternatively Spliced GFP Reporter Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Lin, Wen-Dar; Fu, Jason L; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Yang, Ho-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2016-08-01

    Coilin is a marker protein for subnuclear organelles known as Cajal bodies, which are sites of various RNA metabolic processes including the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Through self-associations and interactions with other proteins and RNA, coilin provides a structural scaffold for Cajal body formation. However, despite a conspicuous presence in Cajal bodies, most coilin is dispersed in the nucleoplasm and expressed in cell types that lack these organelles. The molecular function of coilin, particularly of the substantial nucleoplasmic fraction, remains uncertain. We identified coilin loss-of-function mutations in a genetic screen for mutants showing either reduced or enhanced expression of an alternatively spliced GFP reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana The coilin mutants feature enhanced GFP fluorescence and diminished Cajal bodies compared with wild-type plants. The amount of GFP protein is several-fold higher in the coilin mutants owing to elevated GFP transcript levels and more efficient splicing to produce a translatable GFP mRNA. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing data from two distinct coilin mutants revealed a small, shared subset of differentially expressed genes, many encoding stress-related proteins, and, unexpectedly, a trend toward increased splicing efficiency. These results suggest that coilin attenuates splicing and modulates transcription of a select group of genes. The transcriptional and splicing changes observed in coilin mutants are not accompanied by gross phenotypic abnormalities or dramatically altered stress responses, supporting a role for coilin in fine tuning gene expression. Our GFP reporter gene provides a sensitive monitor of coilin activity that will facilitate further investigations into the functions of this enigmatic protein. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Dominant Negative Effects of a Non-conducting TREK1 Splice Variant Expressed in Brain*

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, Emma L; Rees, Kathryn A.; Mathie, Alistair; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels modulate neuronal excitability throughout the entire CNS. The stretch-activated channel TREK1 (K2P2.1) is expressed widely in brain and has been linked to depression, neuroprotection, pain perception, and epilepsy. Little, however, is known about the regulation of TREK1 expression on the transcriptional and translational level or about its trafficking to the plasma membrane. Here we have used PCR techniques to identify a splice variant of TREK1 express...

  10. ISVASE: identification of sequence variant associated with splicing event using RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2017-06-28

    Exon recognition and splicing precisely and efficiently by spliceosome is the key to generate mature mRNAs. About one third or a half of disease-related mutations affect RNA splicing. Software PVAAS has been developed to identify variants associated with aberrant splicing by directly using RNA-seq data. However, it bases on the assumption that annotated splicing site is normal splicing, which is not true in fact. We develop the ISVASE, a tool for specifically identifying sequence variants associated with splicing events (SVASE) by using RNA-seq data. Comparing with PVAAS, our tool has several advantages, such as multi-pass stringent rule-dependent filters and statistical filters, only using split-reads, independent sequence variant identification in each part of splicing (junction), sequence variant detection for both of known and novel splicing event, additional exon-exon junction shift event detection if known splicing events provided, splicing signal evaluation, known DNA mutation and/or RNA editing data supported, higher precision and consistency, and short running time. Using a realistic RNA-seq dataset, we performed a case study to illustrate the functionality and effectiveness of our method. Moreover, the output of SVASEs can be used for downstream analysis such as splicing regulatory element study and sequence variant functional analysis. ISVASE is useful for researchers interested in sequence variants (DNA mutation and/or RNA editing) associated with splicing events. The package is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/isvase/ .

  11. Rapid Genome-wide Recruitment of RNA Polymerase II Drives Transcription, Splicing, and Translation Events during T Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Davari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of immune cells results in rapid functional changes, but how such fast changes are accomplished remains enigmatic. By combining time courses of 4sU-seq, RNA-seq, ribosome profiling (RP, and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II ChIP-seq during T cell activation, we illustrate genome-wide temporal dynamics for ∼10,000 genes. This approach reveals not only immediate-early and posttranscriptionally regulated genes but also coupled changes in transcription and translation for >90% of genes. Recruitment, rather than release of paused RNA Pol II, primarily mediates transcriptional changes. This coincides with a genome-wide temporary slowdown in cotranscriptional splicing, even for polyadenylated mRNAs that are localized at the chromatin. Subsequent splicing optimization correlates with increasing Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD and activation of the positive transcription elongation factor (pTEFb. Thus, rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II dictates the course of events during T cell activation, particularly transcription, splicing, and consequently translation.

  12. Rules and tools to predict the splicing effects of exonic and intronic mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kinji; Takeda, Jun-Ichi; Masuda, Akio

    2017-09-26

    Development of next generation sequencing technologies has enabled detection of extensive arrays of germline and somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in human diseases. SNVs affecting intronic GT-AG dinucleotides invariably compromise pre-mRNA splicing. Most exonic SNVs introduce missense/nonsense codons, but some affect auxiliary splicing cis-elements or generate cryptic GT-AG dinucleotides. Similarly, most intronic SNVs are silent, but some affect canonical and auxiliary splicing cis-elements or generate cryptic GT-AG dinucleotides. However, prediction of the splicing effects of SNVs is challenging. The splicing effects of SNVs generating cryptic AG or disrupting canonical AG can be inferred from the AG-scanning model. Similarly, the splicing effects of SNVs affecting the first nucleotide G of an exon can be inferred from AG-dependence of the 3' splice site (ss). A variety of tools have been developed for predicting the splicing effects of SNVs affecting the 5' ss, as well as exonic and intronic splicing enhancers/silencers. In contrast, only two tools, the Human Splicing Finder and the SVM-BP finder, are available for predicting the position of the branch point sequence. Similarly, IntSplice and Splicing based Analysis of Variants (SPANR) are the only tools to predict the splicing effects of intronic SNVs. The rules and tools introduced in this review are mostly based on observations of a limited number of genes, and no rule or tool can ensure 100% accuracy. Experimental validation is always required before any clinically relevant conclusions are drawn. Development of efficient tools to predict aberrant splicing, however, will facilitate our understanding of splicing pathomechanisms in human diseases. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA–RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. PMID:26554032

  14. Splicing and local reinforcement of concrete filled FRP tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report includes fulfillment of Task 1 of a multi-task contract to further enhance concrete filled FRP tubes, or : the Bridge in a Backpack. Task 1 investigates and develops a feasible solution for splicing the concrete filled FRP : tubes. This w...

  15. Splicing regulator SLU7 is essential for maintaining liver homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, María; Urtasun, Raquel; Azkona, María; Latasa, María U; Goñi, Saioa; García-Irigoyen, Oihane; Uriarte, Iker; Segura, Victor; Collantes, María; Di Scala, Mariana; Lujambio, Amaia; Prieto, Jesús; Ávila, Matías A; Berasain, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    A precise equilibrium between cellular differentiation and proliferation is fundamental for tissue homeostasis. Maintaining this balance is particularly important for the liver, a highly differentiated organ with systemic metabolic functions that is endowed with unparalleled regenerative potential. Carcinogenesis in the liver develops as the result of hepatocellular de-differentiation and uncontrolled proliferation. Here, we identified SLU7, which encodes a pre-mRNA splicing regulator that is inhibited in hepatocarcinoma, as a pivotal gene for hepatocellular homeostasis. SLU7 knockdown in human liver cells and mouse liver resulted in profound changes in pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression, leading to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, refractoriness to key metabolic hormones, and reversion to a fetal-like gene expression pattern. Additionally, loss of SLU7 also increased hepatocellular proliferation and induced a switch to a tumor-like glycolytic phenotype. Slu7 governed the splicing and/or expression of multiple genes essential for hepatocellular differentiation, including serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (Srsf3) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (Hnf4α), and was critical for cAMP-regulated gene transcription. Together, out data indicate that SLU7 is central regulator of hepatocyte identity and quiescence.

  16. Splicing aberrations caused by constitutional RB1 gene mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of RB1 mRNA from blood leukocytes of patients with retinoblastoma identified the effects of mutations involving consensus splice site, exonic substitution and whole-exon deletions identified in genomic DNA of these patients. In addition, this study identified mutations in cases in which no mutations were detectable ...

  17. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA-RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. © 2015 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. Deep learning of the tissue-regulated splicing code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael K K; Xiong, Hui Yuan; Lee, Leo J; Frey, Brendan J

    2014-06-15

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a regulated process that directs the generation of different transcripts from single genes. A computational model that can accurately predict splicing patterns based on genomic features and cellular context is highly desirable, both in understanding this widespread phenomenon, and in exploring the effects of genetic variations on AS. Using a deep neural network, we developed a model inferred from mouse RNA-Seq data that can predict splicing patterns in individual tissues and differences in splicing patterns across tissues. Our architecture uses hidden variables that jointly represent features in genomic sequences and tissue types when making predictions. A graphics processing unit was used to greatly reduce the training time of our models with millions of parameters. We show that the deep architecture surpasses the performance of the previous Bayesian method for predicting AS patterns. With the proper optimization procedure and selection of hyperparameters, we demonstrate that deep architectures can be beneficial, even with a moderately sparse dataset. An analysis of what the model has learned in terms of the genomic features is presented. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Ire1 Has Distinct Catalytic Mechanisms for XBP1/HAC1 Splicing and RIDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin B. Tam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein response (UPR component, IRE1, cleaves XBP1/HAC1 introns in order to generate spliced mRNAs that are translated into potent transcription factors. IRE1 also cleaves endoplasmic-reticulum-associated RNAs leading to their decay, an activity termed regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD; however, the mechanism by which IRE1 differentiates intron cleavage from RIDD is not well understood. Using in vitro experiments, we found that IRE1 has two different modes of action: XBP1/HAC1 is cleaved by IRE1 subunits acting cooperatively within IRE1 oligomers, whereas a single subunit of IRE1 performs RIDD without cooperativity. Furthermore, these distinct activities can be separated by complementation of catalytically inactive IRE1 RNase and mutations at oligomerization interfaces. Using an IRE1 RNase inhibitor, STF-083010, selective inhibition of XBP1 splicing indicates that XBP1 promotes cell survival, whereas RIDD leads to cell death, revealing modulation of IRE1 activities as a drug-development strategy.

  20. Investigation of tissue-specific human orthologous alternative splice events in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Salicio, Susanna Cirera

    2010-01-01

    investigated alternative splice events detected in humans, in orthologous pig genes. A total of 17 genes with predicted exon skipping events were selected for further studies. The splice events for the selected genes were experimentally verified using real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) with splice......Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can contribute to differences between tissues or cells either by regulating gene expression or creating proteins with various functions encoded by one gene. The number of investigated alternative splice events in pig has so far been limited. In this study we have...

  1. Electromechanical behaviour of REBCO tape lap splices under transverse compressive loading

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, A; Ballarino, A.; Bottura, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of transverse compressive stress on the resistance and critical current (Ic) of soldered REBCO tape lap splices. Internal contact resistances dominate the overall REBCO lap splice resistances. Application of transverse compressive stress up to 250 MPa during the resistance measurements does not alter the resistance and Ic of the soldered REBCO splices that were studied. The resistance of unsoldered REBCO tape lap splices depends strongly on the contact pressure. At a transverse compressive stress of 100 MPa to which Roebel cables are typically exposed in high field magnets, the crossover splice contact resistance is comparable to the internal tape resistances.

  2. A founder synonymous COL7A1 mutation in three Danish families with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa identifies exonic regulatory sequences required for exon 87 splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaciu, C; Grosso, F; Pisaneschi, E

    2011-01-01

    shoulders. DEB-Pr is caused by either dominant (DDEB-Pr) or recessive mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen (COLVII). The full spectrum of COL7A1 mutations in DEB-Pr remains elusive and the genotype-phenotype correlation is largely incomplete. Here, we report and functionally characterize...... a previously unrecognized translationally silent exonic COL7A1 mutation that results in skipping of exon 87 and is associated with DDEB-Pr phenotypes in several members of three apparently unrelated Danish families. A haplotype segregation study suggested a common ancestor in these kindred. Functional splicing...... analysis of the mutant exon by a COL7A1 minigene construct and computational prediction for splicing regulatory cis-sequences prove that the mutation alters the activity of an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) critical for exon inclusion. These findings substantiate for the first time the involvement...

  3. The splicing fate of plant SPO11 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben eSprink

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards the global understanding of plant meiosis, it seems to be essential to decipher why all as yet sequenced plants need or at least encode for two different meiotic SPO11 genes. This is in contrast to mammals and fungi, where only one SPO11 is present. Both SPO11 in plants are essential for the initiation of double strand breaks (DSBs during the meiotic prophase. In nearly all eukaryotic organisms DSB induction by SPO11 leads to meiotic DSB repair, thereby ensuring the formation of a necessary number of crossovers (CO as physical connections between the allelic chromosomes. We aim to investigate the specific functions and evolution of both SPO11 genes in land plants. Therefore, we identified and cloned the respective orthologous genes from Brassica rapa, Carica papaya, Oryza sativa and Physcomitrella patens. In parallel we determined the full length cDNA sequences of SPO11-1 and -2 from all of these plants by RT-PCR. During these experiments we observed that the analyzed plants exhibit a pattern of aberrant splicing products of both SPO11 mRNAs. Such an aberrant splicing has previously been described for Arabidopsis and therefore seems to be conserved throughout evolution. Most of the splicing forms of SPO11-1 and -2 seem to be non functional as they either showed intron retention or shortened exons accompanied by a frameshift leading to premature termination codons (PTCs in most cases. Nevertheless, we could detect one putative functional alternatively spliced mRNA for SPO11-1 and -2 each, indicating that splicing of SPO11 does not depend only on the gene sequence but also on the plant species and that it might play a regulatory role.

  4. Development of hypomelanotic macules is associated with constitutive activated mTORC1 in tuberous sclerosis complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Rosengren, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    leads to the formation of an active donor splice site, resulting in three shorter alternatively spliced transcripts with premature stop codons. However a small amount of normal spliced transcript is apparently produced from the mutated allele, which might explain the milder phenotype. The gene products...

  5. Transcriptome-wide modulation of splicing by the exon junction complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Murigneux, Valentine; Le Hir, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is a dynamic multi-protein complex deposited onto nuclear spliced mRNAs upstream of exon-exon junctions. The four core proteins, eIF4A3, Magoh, Y14 and MLN51, are stably bound to mRNAs during their lifecycle, serving as a binding platform for other nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Recent evidence has shown that the EJC is involved in the splicing regulation of some specific events in both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Here, we show that knockdown of EJC core proteins causes widespread alternative splicing changes in mammalian cells. These splicing changes are specific to EJC core proteins, as knockdown of eIF4A3, Y14 and MLN51 shows similar splicing changes, and are different from knockdown of other splicing factors. The splicing changes can be rescued by a siRNA-resistant form of eIF4A3, indicating an involvement of EJC core proteins in regulating alternative splicing. Finally, we find that the splicing changes are linked with RNA polymerase II elongation rates. Taken together, this study reveals that the coupling between EJC proteins and splicing is broader than previously suspected, and that a possible link exists between mRNP assembly and splice site recognition.

  6. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    - their real behaviour is semi-rigid. The influence of splice joints on the distribution of member forces and rotations in the splice joints is investigated in this paper. A finite element program, TrussLab, where the splice joints are given semi-rigid properties is used to analyse the effect of splice joints...

  7. From Cryptic Toward Canonical Pre-mRNA Splicing in Pompe Disease: A Pipeline for the Development of Antisense Oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Bergsma (Atze); S.L.M. in 't Groen (Stijn); F.W. Verheijen (Frans); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); W.W.M.P. Pijnappel (Pim)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhile 9% of human pathogenic variants have an established effect on pre-mRNA splicing, it is suspected that an additional 20% of otherwise classified variants also affect splicing. Aberrant splicing includes disruption of splice sites or regulatory elements, or creation or strengthening

  8. A new view of transcriptome complexity and regulation through the lens of local splicing variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Garcia, Jorge; Barrera, Alejandro; Gazzara, Matthew R; González-Vallinas, Juan; Lahens, Nicholas F; Hogenesch, John B; Lynch, Kristen W; Barash, Yoseph

    2016-02-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) can critically affect gene function and disease, yet mapping splicing variations remains a challenge. Here, we propose a new approach to define and quantify mRNA splicing in units of local splicing variations (LSVs). LSVs capture previously defined types of alternative splicing as well as more complex transcript variations. Building the first genome wide map of LSVs from twelve mouse tissues, we find complex LSVs constitute over 30% of tissue dependent transcript variations and affect specific protein families. We show the prevalence of complex LSVs is conserved in humans and identify hundreds of LSVs that are specific to brain subregions or altered in Alzheimer's patients. Amongst those are novel isoforms in the Camk2 family and a novel poison exon in Ptbp1, a key splice factor in neurogenesis. We anticipate the approach presented here will advance the ability to relate tissue-specific splice variation to genetic variation, phenotype, and disease.

  9. Effect of fiber blending ratios of cotton/polyester yarns on retained splice diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H. İ.; Kaynak, H. K.

    2017-10-01

    The most important performance parameters of splicing are obtaining adequate strength and appearance at the splice point for all processing requirements. The diameter of spliced portion effects not only appearance of the splice joints but also physical characteristics such as packing density, strength, specific volume of the yarn. In this study, the effect of cotton/polyester fiber blend ratios on spliced portion diameter at different slicing air pressures was investigated. For this aim, three yarn samples 100% cotton, 80-20% CO-PES and 50- 50% CO-PES were produced with 40/1 Ne. Each yarn samples was spliced at three different pressures; 4 bar, 5 bar and 6 bar. The diameters of spliced portion and retained yarns were measured by using ImageJ program and the results were analyzed statistically.

  10. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a fundamental link between gene expression and the proteome, and deregulation of the splicing machinery is linked to several age-related chronic illnesses. However, the role of splicing homeostasis in healthy ageing remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...... via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...

  11. Global analysis of pre-mRNA subcellular localization following splicing inhibition by spliceostatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Rei; Kaida, Daisuke; Furuno, Masaaki; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Noma, Shohei; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawamura, Yumi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Mayeda, Akila; Yoshida, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Spliceostatin A (SSA) is a methyl ketal derivative of FR901464, a potent antitumor compound isolated from a culture broth of Pseudomonas sp no. 2663. These compounds selectively bind to the essential spliceosome component SF3b, a subcomplex of the U2 snRNP, to inhibit pre-mRNA splicing. However, the mechanism of SSA's antitumor activity is unknown. It is noteworthy that SSA causes accumulation of a truncated form of the CDK inhibitor protein p27 translated from CDKN1B pre-mRNA, which is involved in SSA-induced cell-cycle arrest. However, it is still unclear whether pre-mRNAs are uniformly exported from the nucleus following SSA treatment. We performed RNA-seq analysis on nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of SSA-treated cells. Our statistical analyses showed that intron retention is the major consequence of SSA treatment, and a small number of intron-containing pre-mRNAs leak into the cytoplasm. Using a series of reporter plasmids to investigate the roles of intronic sequences in the pre-mRNA leakage, we showed that the strength of the 5' splice site affects pre-mRNA leakage. Additionally, we found that the level of pre-mRNA leakage is related to transcript length. These results suggest that the strength of the 5' splice site and the length of the transcripts are determinants of the pre-mRNA leakage induced by SF3b inhibitors. © 2016 Yoshimoto et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. Aberrant Splicing Promotes Proteasomal Degradation of L-type Ca v 1.2 Calcium Channels by Competitive Binding for CaV β Subunits in Cardiac Hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Zhenyu; Wang, Jiong Wei; Yu, Dejie; Soon, Jia Lin; De Kleijn, Dominique P V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481489X; Foo, Roger; Liao, Ping; Colecraft, Henry M.; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2016-01-01

    Decreased expression and activity of Ca V1.2 calcium channels has been reported in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we identified in rodents a splice variant of Ca V1.2 channel, named Ca V1.2 e21+22, that

  13. A 38 nt region and its flanking sequences within gag of Friend murine leukemia virus are crucial for splicing at the correct 5' and 3' splice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machinaga, Akihito; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2014-01-01

    The genome of the Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV) contains a 5' splice site (5'ss) located at 205 nt and a 3'ss located at 5489 nt. In our previous studies, it was shown that if the HindIII-BglII (879-1904 bp) fragment within gag is deleted from the proA8m1 vector, which carries the entire Fr-MLV sequence, then cryptic splicing of env-mRNA occurs. Here, attempts were made to identify the genomic segment(s) in this region that is/are essential to correct splicing. First, vectors with a serially truncated HindIII-BglII fragment were constructed. The vector, in which a 38 bp fragment (1612-1649 bp) is deleted or reversed in proA8m1, only produced splice variants. It was found that a 38 nt region within gag contains important elements that positively regulate splicing at the correct splice sites. Further analyses of a series of vectors carrying the 38 bp fragment and its flanking sequences showed that a region (1183-1611 nt) upstream of the 38 nt fragment also contains sequences that positively or negatively influence splicing at the correct splice sites. The SphI-NdeI (5140-5400 bp) fragment just upstream of the 3'ss was deleted from vectors that carried the 38 bp fragment and its flanking sequences, which yielded correctly spliced mRNA; interestingly, these deleted vectors showed cryptic splicing. These findings suggest that the 5140-5400 nt region located just upstream of the 3'ss is required for the splicing function of the 38 nt fragment and its flanking sequences. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Cryomagnets, Interconnections, Superconducting Circuits: What to do in 2012/2013 if you are not consolidating Splices?

    CERN Document Server

    Tock, J

    2011-01-01

    The interventions affecting the cryomagnets, the interconnections and/or the superconducting circuits, excluding main splices consolidation and QPS interventions will be presented. All the tasks not covered in other talks of this session will be detailed, especially: - the repair of existing leaks, - the intervention on Plug-In-Modules, - the replacement of cryomagnets, - the consolidation of the connection cryostats, - the repair of interrupted Y-lines, - the installation of safety pressure relief devices (DN200 & 160), - the consolidation of some SAM helium level gauges, - the use and possible addition of radioprotection samples - the investigations of open issues like high resistance splices and superconducting circuits non-conformities. Finally, the present plan, work organization and workload for these activities including DS collimators installation, interventions on the beam lines and leaks localization and repair, will be summarized.

  15. Splicing stimulates siRNA formation at Drosophila DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Karin; Breinig, Marco; Böttcher, Romy; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Boutros, Michael; Förstemann, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation. We validated this observation through site-specific DNA cleavage with CRISPR-cas9 followed by deep sequencing of small RNAs. DNA breaks in intron-less genes or upstream of a gene's first intron did not efficiently trigger siRNA production. When DNA double-strand breaks were induced downstream of an intron, however, this led to robust siRNA generation. Furthermore, a downstream break slowed down splicing of the upstream intron and a detailed analysis of siRNA coverage at the targeted locus revealed that unspliced pre-mRNA contributes the sense strand to the siRNA precursor. Since splicing factors are stimulating the response but unspliced transcripts are entering the siRNA biogenesis, the spliceosome is apparently stalled in a pre-catalytic state and serves as a signaling hub. We conclude that convergent transcription at DNA breaks is stimulated by a splicing dependent control process. The resulting double-stranded RNA is converted into siRNAs that instruct the degradation of cognate mRNAs. In addition to a potential role in DNA repair, the break-induced transcription may thus be a means to cull improper RNAs from the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster. Since the splicing factors identified in our screen also stimulated siRNA production from high copy transgenes, it is possible that this surveillance mechanism serves in genome defense beyond DNA double-strand breaks.

  16. SmD1 Modulates the miRNA Pathway Independently of Its Pre-mRNA Splicing Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous regulatory RNAs that play a key role in myriad biological processes. Upon transcription, primary miRNA transcripts are sequentially processed by Drosha and Dicer ribonucleases into ~22-24 nt miRNAs. Subsequently, miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs that contain Argonaute (AGO family proteins and guide RISC to target RNAs via complementary base pairing, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing by a combination of translation inhibition and mRNA destabilization. Select pre-mRNA splicing factors have been implicated in small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways in fission yeast, worms, flies and mammals, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that SmD1, a core component of the Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP implicated in splicing, is required for miRNA biogenesis and function. SmD1 interacts with both the microprocessor component Pasha and pri-miRNAs, and is indispensable for optimal miRNA biogenesis. Depletion of SmD1 impairs the assembly and function of the miRISC without significantly affecting the expression of major canonical miRNA pathway components. Moreover, SmD1 physically and functionally associates with components of the miRISC, including AGO1 and GW182. Notably, miRNA defects resulting from SmD1 silencing can be uncoupled from defects in pre-mRNA splicing, and the miRNA and splicing machineries are physically and functionally distinct entities. Finally, photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP analysis identifies numerous SmD1-binding events across the transcriptome and reveals direct SmD1-miRNA interactions. Our study suggests that SmD1 plays a direct role in miRNA-mediated gene silencing independently of its pre-mRNA splicing activity and indicates that the dual roles of splicing factors in post-transcriptional gene regulation may be

  17. Functional Characterization of MC1R-TUBB3 Intergenic Splice Variants of the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Cecilia; Olivares, Conchi; Castejón-Griñán, Maria; Abrisqueta, Marta; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) expressed in melanocytes is a major determinant of skin pigmentation. It encodes a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH). Human MC1R has an inefficient poly(A) site allowing intergenic splicing with its downstream neighbour Tubulin-β-III (TUBB3). Intergenic splicing produces two MC1R isoforms, designated Iso1 and Iso2, bearing the complete seven transmembrane helices from MC1R fused to TUBB3-derived C-terminal extensions, in-frame for Iso1 and out-of-frame for Iso2. It has been reported that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) might promote an isoform switch from canonical MC1R (MC1R-001) to the MC1R-TUBB3 chimeras, which might lead to novel phenotypes required for tanning. We expressed the Flag epitope-tagged intergenic isoforms in heterologous HEK293T cells and human melanoma cells, for functional characterization. Iso1 was expressed with the expected size. Iso2 yielded a doublet of Mr significantly lower than predicted, and impaired intracellular stability. Although Iso1- and Iso2 bound radiolabelled agonist with the same affinity as MC1R-001, their plasma membrane expression was strongly reduced. Decreased surface expression mostly resulted from aberrant forward trafficking, rather than high rates of endocytosis. Functional coupling of both isoforms to cAMP was lower than wild-type, but ERK activation upon binding of αMSH was unimpaired, suggesting imbalanced signaling from the splice variants. Heterodimerization of differentially labelled MC1R-001 with the splicing isoforms analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation was efficient and caused decreased surface expression of binding sites. Thus, UVR-induced MC1R isoforms might contribute to fine-tune the tanning response by modulating MC1R-001 availability and functional parameters.

  18. Functional Characterization of MC1R-TUBB3 Intergenic Splice Variants of the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Herraiz

    Full Text Available The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R expressed in melanocytes is a major determinant of skin pigmentation. It encodes a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. Human MC1R has an inefficient poly(A site allowing intergenic splicing with its downstream neighbour Tubulin-β-III (TUBB3. Intergenic splicing produces two MC1R isoforms, designated Iso1 and Iso2, bearing the complete seven transmembrane helices from MC1R fused to TUBB3-derived C-terminal extensions, in-frame for Iso1 and out-of-frame for Iso2. It has been reported that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR might promote an isoform switch from canonical MC1R (MC1R-001 to the MC1R-TUBB3 chimeras, which might lead to novel phenotypes required for tanning. We expressed the Flag epitope-tagged intergenic isoforms in heterologous HEK293T cells and human melanoma cells, for functional characterization. Iso1 was expressed with the expected size. Iso2 yielded a doublet of Mr significantly lower than predicted, and impaired intracellular stability. Although Iso1- and Iso2 bound radiolabelled agonist with the same affinity as MC1R-001, their plasma membrane expression was strongly reduced. Decreased surface expression mostly resulted from aberrant forward trafficking, rather than high rates of endocytosis. Functional coupling of both isoforms to cAMP was lower than wild-type, but ERK activation upon binding of αMSH was unimpaired, suggesting imbalanced signaling from the splice variants. Heterodimerization of differentially labelled MC1R-001 with the splicing isoforms analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation was efficient and caused decreased surface expression of binding sites. Thus, UVR-induced MC1R isoforms might contribute to fine-tune the tanning response by modulating MC1R-001 availability and functional parameters.

  19. Footprints of a trypanosomatid RNA world: pre-small subunit rRNA processing by spliced leader addition trans-splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gustavo Mayer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a capped mini-exon [spliced leader (SL] through trans-splicing is essential for the maturation of RNA polymerase (pol II-transcribed polycistronic pre-mRNAs in all members of the Trypanosomatidae family. This process is an inter-molecular splicing reaction that follows the same basic rules of cis-splicing reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that mini-exons were added to precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA are transcribed by RNA pol I, including the 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS region. Additionally, we detected the SL-5'ETS molecule using three distinct methods and located the acceptor site between two known 5'ETS rRNA processing sites (A' and A1 in four different trypanosomatids. Moreover, we detected a polyadenylated 5'ETS upstream of the trans-splicing acceptor site, which also occurs in pre-mRNA trans-splicing. After treatment with an indirect trans-splicing inhibitor (sinefungin, we observed SL-5'ETS decay. However, treatment with 5-fluorouracil (a precursor of RNA synthesis that inhibits the degradation of pre-rRNA led to the accumulation of SL-5'ETS, suggesting that the molecule may play a role in rRNA degradation. The detection of trans-splicing in these molecules may indicate broad RNA-joining properties, regardless of the polymerase used for transcription.

  20. RRM domain of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 is important for pre-mRNA splicing of a specific set of genes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Keh Chien

    2017-04-11

    The RNA recognition motif of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 affects the alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M pre-mRNA and a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 1 (SF1) plays a crucial role in 3\\' splice site recognition by binding directly to the intron branch point. Although plant SF1 proteins possess an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain that is absent in its fungal and metazoan counterparts, the role of the RRM domain in SF1 function has not been characterized. Here, we show that the RRM domain differentially affects the full function of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSF1 protein under different experimental conditions. For example, the deletion of RRM domain influences AtSF1-mediated control of flowering time, but not the abscisic acid sensitivity response during seed germination. The alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) pre-mRNA is involved in flowering time control. We found that the RRM domain of AtSF1 protein alters the production of alternatively spliced FLM-β transcripts. We also found that the RRM domain affects the alternative splicing of a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA, thereby mediating the heat stress response. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of RRM domain for AtSF1-mediated alternative splicing of a subset of genes involved in the regulation of flowering and adaptation to heat stress.

  1. Pre-mRNA splicing in cancer: the relevance in oncogenesis, treatment and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuszkiewicz, Anna; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Maas, Marielle J P; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Jansen, Gerrit; Cloos, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    Aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in cancer is emerging as an important determinant of oncogenesis, response to treatment and anticancer drug resistance. At the same time, the spliceosome has become a target for a novel class of pre-clinical chemotherapeutics with a potential future application in cancer treatment. Taken together, these findings offer novel opportunities for the enhancement of the efficacy of cancer therapy. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in splicing and current developments regarding splicing aberrations in relation to several aspects of cancer formation and therapy. Identified mutations in the various components of the spliceosome and their implications for cancer prognosis are delineated. Moreover, the contribution of abnormal splicing patterns as well as deregulated splicing factors to chemoresistance is discussed, along with novel splicing-based therapeutic approaches. Significant progress has been made in deciphering the role of splicing factors in cancer including carcinogenesis and drug resistance. Splicing-based prognostic tools as well as therapeutic options hold great potential towards improvements in cancer therapy. However, gaining more in-depth molecular insight into the consequences of mutations in various components of the splicing machinery as well as of cellular effects of spliceosome inhibition is a prerequisite to establish the role of splicing in tumor progression and treatment options, respectively.

  2. Nonlinear Analysis of Spliced Continuous RC Girders Strengthened with (CFRP Laminates using ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Yasir Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the details of the finite element analysis of spliced continuous reinforced concrete girders. Five spliced continuous girders and one non-spliced continuous girder were analyzed using the ANSYS program. Each spliced girder consisted of three precast segments spliced at two cast-in-place joints at the inflection points, using splices of hooked dowels. Three spliced girders were strengthened using different schemes of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates. The concrete was modeled using (SOLID65 eight-node brick element and the steel reinforcement was modeled discretely using (LINK8 spar element. The straight parts of the spliced bars were modeled using discrete representation with interface elements using (COMBIN39 elements to represent the bond-slip behavior while the hooked part of each spliced bar was replaced by a single spring element. The CFRP laminates were modeled using (SHELL41 shell element. The interfaces between the precast concrete segments and the joints were modeled using CONTAC52 interface elements in conjunction with vertical spring elements to represent the dowel action of the steel bars that crossing the interfaces. The ANSYS model succeeded to an acceptable degree in predicting the structural behavior of the analyzed spliced girders with average of differences of about 6% between the predicted and experimental ultimate load.

  3. Detecting splicing patterns in genes involved in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Grégoire; Rousselin, Antoine; Goardon, Nicolas; Castéra, Laurent; Harter, Valentin; Legros, Angelina; Muller, Etienne; Fouillet, Robin; Brault, Baptiste; Smirnova, Anna S; Lemoine, Fréderic; de la Grange, Pierre; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Houdayer, Claude; Bonnet, Françoise; Blanc-Fournier, Cécile; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Frebourg, Thierry; Martins, Alexandra; Vaur, Dominique; Krieger, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Interpretation of variants of unknown significance (VUS) is a major challenge for laboratories performing molecular diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), especially considering that many genes are now known to be involved in this syndrome. One important way these VUS can have a functional impact is through their effects on RNA splicing. Here we present a custom RNA-Seq assay plus bioinformatics and biostatistics pipeline to analyse specifically alternative and abnormal splicing junctions in 11 targeted HBOC genes. Our pipeline identified 14 new alternative splices in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in addition to detecting the majority of known alternative spliced transcripts therein. We provide here the first global splicing pattern analysis for the other nine genes, which will enable a comprehensive interpretation of splicing defects caused by VUS in HBOC. Previously known splicing alterations were consistently detected, occasionally with a more complex splicing pattern than expected. We also found that splicing in the 11 genes is similar in blood and breast tissue, supporting the utility and simplicity of blood splicing assays. Our pipeline is ready to be integrated into standard molecular diagnosis for HBOC, but it could equally be adapted for an integrative analysis of any multigene disorder.

  4. Loss of splicing factor ASF/SF2 induces G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but inhibits internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xialu; Wang, Jin; Manley, James L

    2005-11-15

    ASF/SF2 is an SR protein splicing factor that participates in constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing and is essential for cell viability. Using a genetically modified chicken B-cell line, DT40-ASF, we now show that ASF/SF2 inactivation results in a G2-phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent programmed cell death. However, although several hallmarks of apoptosis are apparent, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was not detected. Furthermore, inactivation of ASF/SF2 also blocks DNA fragmentation normally induced by a variety of apoptotic stimuli. Notably, mRNA encoding the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase-L (ICAD-L), which acts as an inhibitor as well as a chaperone of caspase-activated DNase (CAD), decreased in abundance, whereas the level of mRNA encoding ICAD-S, which has only inhibitory activity, increased upon ASF/SF2 depletion. Strikingly, expression of appropriate levels of exogenous human ICAD-L restored apoptotic DNA laddering in ASF/SF2-depleted cells. These results not only indicate that loss of an SR protein splicing factor can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but also illustrate the important role of ICAD and its regulation by alternative splicing in the process of apoptotic DNA fragmentation.

  5. Splicing factor ASF/SF2 and transcription factor PPAR-gamma cooperate to directly regulate transcription of uncoupling protein-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joon; Oh, Bermseok; Kim, Young-Youl

    2009-01-23

    The different isoforms of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) are expressed in skeletal muscle and are up-regulated by splicing factors. Here, we report that UCP3 alternative splicing (alternative polyadenylation) is regulated by cooperation between the splicing factor ASF/SF2 and the transcription factor PPAR-gamma. We found that ASF/SF2 activates formation of long-form UCP3 (UCP3(L)) by inhibiting a cleavage and polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) located in its final intron that prematurely terminates message elongation. PPAR-gamma activates this process by directly interacting with ASF/SF2, providing the first example of a direct link between a transcription factor and alternative splicing. Activation of ASF/SF2 promotes formation of UCP3(L), whereas loss of ASF/SF2 decreases production of both UCP3(L) and short-form UCP3 (UCP3(S)). We suggest that the relative abundance of ASF/SF2 and PPAR-gamma determines the ratio of UCP3 isoforms.

  6. A Feature-Based Forensic Procedure for Splicing Forgeries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Amerini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, determining if an image appeared somewhere on the web or in a magazine or is authentic or not has become crucial. Image forensics methods based on features have demonstrated so far to be very effective in detecting forgeries in which a portion of an image is cloned somewhere else onto the same image. Anyway such techniques cannot be adopted to deal with splicing attack, that is, when the image portion comes from another picture that then, usually, is not available anymore for an operation of feature match. In this paper, a procedure in which these techniques could also be employed will be shown to get rid of splicing attack by resorting to the use of some repositories of images available on the Internet like Google Images or TinEye Reverse Image Search. Experimental results are presented on some real case images retrieved on the Internet to demonstrate the capacity of the proposed procedure.

  7. Splice variants of porcine PPHLN1 encoding periphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2017-01-01

    of the periphilin-1 protein. Thus, variants Sp1 and Sp1 are the result of alternative splicing. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was mapped to chromosome 5. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was found to be differentially expressed in various porcine organs and tissues. The sequence of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA, encoding the periphilin......The periphilin-1 protein is encoded by the PPHLN1 gene. Periphilin-1 is found in the cornified cell envelope during the terminal differentiation of keratinocyte at the outer layer of epidermis. In the current study we report on the cloning and characterization of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA and two...... splice variants hereof. RT-PCR cloning using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences resulted in three PPHLN1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and two transcript variant resulting in shorter proteins. The longest encoded periphilin-1, consisting of 373 amino acids, displays a high...

  8. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels

    2000-01-01

    of the gene in both the affected male (hemizygous) and his mother (heterozygous). This mutation is likely to cause aberrant splicing of the terminal intron of the gene, leading to a non-functional AVP receptor. The clinical studies were consistent with such a hypothesis, as the affected subject had a severe......In order to elucidate the molecular basis and the clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) in a kindred of Danish descent, we performed direct sequencing of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene in five members of the family, as well...... as clinical investigations comprising a fluid deprivation test and a 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP) infusion test in the study subject and his mother. We found a highly unusual, novel, de novo 1447A-->C point mutation (gDNA), involving the invariable splice acceptor of the second intron...

  9. Distinct Types of Disorder in the Human Proteome: Functional Implications for Alternative Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Magali; Sun, Mark; Irimia, Manuel; Bellay, Jeremy; Myers, Chad L.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Kim, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions have been associated with various cellular processes and are implicated in several human diseases, but their exact roles remain unclear. We previously defined two classes of conserved disordered regions in budding yeast, referred to as “flexible” and “constrained” conserved disorder. In flexible disorder, the property of disorder has been positionally conserved during evolution, whereas in constrained disorder, both the amino acid sequence and the property of disorder have been conserved. Here, we show that flexible and constrained disorder are widespread in the human proteome, and are particularly common in proteins with regulatory functions. Both classes of disordered sequences are highly enriched in regions of proteins that undergo tissue-specific (TS) alternative splicing (AS), but not in regions of proteins that undergo general (i.e., not tissue-regulated) AS. Flexible disorder is more highly enriched in TS alternative exons, whereas constrained disorder is more highly enriched in exons that flank TS alternative exons. These latter regions are also significantly more enriched in potential phosphosites and other short linear motifs associated with cell signaling. We further show that cancer driver mutations are significantly enriched in regions of proteins associated with TS and general AS. Collectively, our results point to distinct roles for TS alternative exons and flanking exons in the dynamic regulation of protein interaction networks in response to signaling activity, and they further suggest that alternatively spliced regions of proteins are often functionally altered by mutations responsible for cancer. PMID:23633940

  10. DNA methylation dynamics, metabolic fluxes, gene splicing, and alternative phenotypes in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Sylvain; Kucharski, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Feng, Suhua; Jacobsen, Steven E; Robinson, Gene E; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2012-03-27

    In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the development of a larva into either a queen or worker depends on differential feeding with royal jelly and involves epigenomic modifications by DNA methyltransferases. To understand the role of DNA methylation in this process we sequenced the larval methylomes in both queens and workers. We show that the number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in larval head is significantly increased relative to adult brain (2,399 vs. 560) with more than 80% of DMGs up-methylated in worker larvae. Several highly conserved metabolic and signaling pathways are enriched in methylated genes, underscoring the connection between dietary intake and metabolic flux. This includes genes related to juvenile hormone and insulin, two hormones shown previously to regulate caste determination. We also tie methylation data to expressional profiling and describe a distinct role for one of the DMGs encoding anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an important regulator of metabolism. We show that alk is not only differentially methylated and alternatively spliced in Apis, but also seems to be regulated by a cis-acting, anti-sense non-protein-coding transcript. The unusually complex regulation of ALK in Apis suggests that this protein could represent a previously unknown node in a process that activates downstream signaling according to a nutritional context. The correlation between methylation and alternative splicing of alk is consistent with the recently described mechanism involving RNA polymerase II pausing. Our study offers insights into diet-controlled development in Apis.

  11. MET exon 14 juxtamembrane splicing mutations: clinical and therapeutical perspectives for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Sara; Gkountakos, Anastasios; Carbognin, Luisa; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    The MET proto-oncogene plays crucial roles in cell growth and proliferation, survival and apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion, potentially conditioning the development and progression of the carcinogenesis process. The MET-associated aberrant signaling could be triggered by a variety of mechanisms, such as mutations, gene amplification, increased gene copy number and Met/HGF protein expression. Among the various MET alterations, MET exon 14 splicing abnormalities, causing the loss of the Met juxtamembrane (JM) domain, recently emerged as a new potential oncogenic driver and have been identified and validated across different cancer and histology subtypes. Moreover, this aberration was found to be mutually exclusive with other recognized drivers, thus strongly nominating its potential oncogenic role. Recently, the clinical activity of anti-Met-targeted therapy was demonstrated particularly in patients harboring MET exon 14 skipping lung cancer, resulting in a renewed enthusiasm to further test MET precision therapy in prospective trials. In this review, the key preclinical and clinical data regarding MET exon 14 skipping splicing variants as an actionable genomic aberration in cancer are described, and the perspectives deriving from the validation of such alteration as a potential target, which may further allow driving the therapeutic approach in this molecularly selected patients’ subgroup, are explored. PMID:28164087

  12. Survivin 2α: a novel Survivin splice variant expressed in human malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honsey Laura E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin and its alternative splice forms are involved in critical cellular processes, including cell division and programmed cell death. Survivin is expressed in the majority of human cancers, but minimally in differentiated normal tissues. Expression levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness and resistance to therapy. Results In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel survivin isoform that we designate survivin 2α. Structurally, the transcript consists of 2 exons: exon 1 and exon 2, as well as a 3' 197 bp region of intron 2. Acquisition of a new in-frame stop codon within intron 2 results in an open reading frame of 225 nucleotides, predicting a truncated 74 amino acid protein. Survivin 2α is expressed at high levels in several malignant cell lines and primary tumors. Functional assays show that survivin 2α attenuates the anti-apoptotic activity of survivin. Subcellular localization and immunoprecipitation of survivin 2α suggests a physical interaction with survivin. Conclusion We characterized a novel survivin splice variant that we designated survivin 2α. We hypothesize that survivin 2α can alter the anti-apoptotic functions of survivin in malignant cells. Thus survivin 2α may be useful as a therapeutic tool in sensitizing chemoresistant tumor cells to chemotherapy.

  13. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a glucagon receptor splice mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Larger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 μM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells.

  14. A dual-specificity isoform of the protein kinase inhibitor PKI produced by alternate gene splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Walsh, Donal A

    2002-03-15

    We have previously shown that the protein kinase inhibitor beta (PKIbeta) form of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor exists in multiple isoforms, some of which are specific inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas others also inhibit the cGMP-dependent enzyme [Kumar, Van Patten and Walsh (1997), J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20011-20020]. We have now demonstrated that the switch from a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-specific inhibitor to one with dual specificity arises as a consequence of alternate gene splicing. We have confirmed using bacterially produced pure protein that a single inhibitor species has dual specificity for both PKA and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibiting each with very high and closely similar inhibitory potencies. The gene splicing converted a protein with 70 amino acids into one of 109 amino acids, and did not change the inhibitory potency to PKA, but changed it from a protein that had no detectable PKG inhibitory activity to one that now inhibited PKG in the nanomolar range.

  15. Transportin-SR is required for proper splicing of resistance genes and plant immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportin-SR (TRN-SR is a member of the importin-β super-family that functions as the nuclear import receptor for serine-arginine rich (SR proteins, which play diverse roles in RNA metabolism. Here we report the identification and cloning of mos14 (modifier of snc1-1, 14, a mutation that suppresses the immune responses conditioned by the auto-activated Resistance (R protein snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1. MOS14 encodes a nuclear protein with high similarity to previously characterized TRN-SR proteins in animals. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MOS14 interacts with AtRAN1 via its N-terminus and SR proteins via its C-terminus. In mos14-1, localization of several SR proteins to the nucleus was impaired, confirming that MOS14 functions as a TRN-SR. The mos14-1 mutation results in altered splicing patterns of SNC1 and another R gene RPS4 and compromised resistance mediated by snc1 and RPS4, suggesting that nuclear import of SR proteins by MOS14 is required for proper splicing of these two R genes and is important for their functions in plant immunity.

  16. Characterization and alternative splicing of the complex I 19-kD subunit in Dunaliella salina: expression and mutual correlation of splice variants under diverse stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Jin, Nan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Wei Hua; Li, Xin Ran; Qiao, Dai Rong; Cao, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Complex I is the first enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It extracts energy from NADH, which is produced by the oxidation of sugars and fats, and traps the energy by virtue of a potential difference or voltage across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, the genomic sequence and four splice variants encoding the complex I 19-kD subunit were isolated from Dunaliella salina. There were four transcripts coding for the complex I 19-kD subunit due to alternative splicing in algae, and the four transcripts were translated to two protein isoforms with varying C-terminals. We report the splicing pattern in the 3'-region of the D. salina 19-kD subunit, in which three of the exons (5, 6, and 7) could be alternatively spliced. Moreover, we found that four alternatively spliced variants were subject to coordinated transcription in response to different stresses by real-time quantitative PCR.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing events in Hordeum vulgare: Highlighting retention of intron-based splicing and its possible function through network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Bahman; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Ebrahimi Khaksefidi, Reyhaneh; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-11-30

    In this study, using homology mapping of assembled expressed sequence tags against the genomic data, we identified alternative splicing events in barley. Results demonstrated that intron retention is frequently associated with specific abiotic stresses. Network analysis resulted in discovery of some specific sub-networks between miRNAs and transcription factors in genes with high number of alternative splicing, such as cross talk between SPL2, SPL10 and SPL11 regulated by miR156 and miR157 families. To confirm the alternative splicing events, elongation factor protein (MLOC_3412) was selected followed by experimental verification of the predicted splice variants by Semi quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Our novel integrative approach opens a new avenue for functional annotation of alternative splicing through regulatory-based network discovery. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tsix defective in splicing is competent to establish Xist silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Takashi; Hoki, Yuko; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2006-12-01

    Dosage differences of X-linked genes between male and female mammals are compensated for by a mechanism known as X-inactivation, and the noncoding Xist gene plays a crucial role in this process. The expression of Xist is regulated in cis by its noncoding antisense gene, Tsix, whose transcripts (though a fraction of them stay unspliced), are processed like common proteincoding RNAs. It has been suggested that certain classes of sense-antisense pairs of RNA are causally involved in not only gene regulation but also higher order chromatin structure in various organisms. In fact, recent studies demonstrated that Tsix modulates Xist expression through modification of the chromatin structure. It is still unknown, however, whether the RNA product is important for the function of Tsix or whether the antisense transcription is sufficient. To obtain insight into this issue, we eliminated the splicing products of Tsix in the mouse and explored the effects of this elimination on Tsix-mediated Xist silencing. To our surprise, the Xist locus was stably repressed on the X carrying the splicing-defective Tsix allele. Moreover, the repressive chromatin configuration was properly established at the Xist locus. These unexpected results indicate that the splicing products are dispensable for Tsix-mediated Xist silencing.

  19. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  20. RNA Helicases DDX5 and DDX17 Dynamically Orchestrate Transcription, miRNA, and Splicing Programs in Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dardenne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The RNA helicases DDX5 and DDX17 are members of a large family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in gene-expression regulation; however, their in vivo targets and activities in biological processes such as cell differentiation, which requires reprogramming of gene-expression programs at multiple levels, are not well characterized. Here, we uncovered a mechanism by which DDX5 and DDX17 cooperate with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP H/F splicing factors to define epithelial- and myoblast-specific splicing subprograms. We then observed that downregulation of DDX5 and DDX17 protein expression during myogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation contributes to the switching of splicing programs during these processes. Remarkably, this downregulation is mediated by the production of miRNAs induced upon differentiation in a DDX5/DDX17-dependent manner. Since DDX5 and DDX17 also function as coregulators of master transcriptional regulators of differentiation, we propose to name these proteins “master orchestrators” of differentiation that dynamically orchestrate several layers of gene expression.

  1. Arginine Methylation Controls the Subcellular Localization and Functions of the Oncoprotein Splicing Factor SF2/ASF▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rahul; Allemand, Eric; Zhang, Zuo; Karni, Rotem; Myers, Michael P.; Krainer, Adrian R.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are major sources of protein diversity in eukaryotic proteomes. The SR protein SF2/ASF is an oncoprotein that functions in pre-mRNA splicing, with additional roles in other posttranscriptional and translational events. Functional studies of SR protein PTMs have focused exclusively on the reversible phosphorylation of Ser residues in the C-terminal RS domain. We confirmed that human SF2/ASF is methylated at residues R93, R97, and R109, which were identified in a global proteomic analysis of Arg methylation, and further investigated whether these methylated residues regulate the properties of SF2/ASF. We show that the three arginines additively control the subcellular localization of SF2/ASF and that both the positive charge and the methylation state are important. Mutations that block methylation and remove the positive charge result in the cytoplasmic accumulation of SF2/ASF. The consequent decrease in nuclear SF2/ASF levels prevents it from modulating the alternative splicing of target genes, results in higher translation stimulation, and abrogates the enhancement of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This study addresses the mechanisms by which Arg methylation and the associated positive charge regulate the activities of SF2/ASF and emphasizes the significance of localization control for an oncoprotein with multiple functions in different cellular compartments. PMID:20308322

  2. A single RNA recognition motif in splicing factor ASF/SF2 directs it to nuclear sites of adenovirus transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anette; Gama-Carvalho, Margarida; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Kreivi, Jan-Peter

    2004-03-01

    SR protein ASF/SF2 is a general pre-mRNA splicing factor as well as a regulator of alternative splicing. Data presented here show that ASF/SF2 is efficiently recruited to sites in the nucleus where adenovirus genes are transcribed and the resulting pre-mRNAs are processed. At the intermediate stages of a productive infection, ASF/SF2 colocalizes with small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), splicing factors in ring-like structures surrounding viral replication centres and, at late stages of the infection, in enlarged speckles. Results presented here demonstrate that ASF/SF2 requires only one of the two RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) present in the protein for its efficient recruitment to the ring-like structures, where viral pre-mRNAs are transcribed and processed, and that the arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain in ASF/SF2 is both redundant and insufficient for the translocation of the protein to active viral RNA polymerase II genes in adenovirus-infected cells.

  3. Levels of estrogen receptor B splice variant (ERBΔ5 mRNA correlates with progesterone receptor in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandušić Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that breast tumors which are estrogen positive ER(+ are more likely to respond to hormone therapy. However, a certain percentage of ER(+/PR(+ tumors do not respond to this therapy. Identification of the second estrogen receptor, named estrogen receptor beta (ERβ, as well as the existence of numerous isoforms/splice variants of both ERα and ERβ, suggests that a complex regulation of estrogen action exists. In this study, we analyzed the expression ratio of ERβ1 isoform and ERβΔ5 splice variant mRNAs, and its correlation with ER/PR status by quantitative RT-PCR and clinical and histopathological parameters. We found that the relative proportion of ERβΔ5 in the total ERβ1 transcript 'pool' inversely correlates with the PR level (p = -0,359, p< 0,003, Spearman. It may be that the ERβΔ5 variant modulates the ERα activity of downstream targets. In addition, we suggest that the determination of the expression profiles of ERα and ERβ isoforms and splice variants in the defined groups of patients are necessary for elucidating their involvement in endocrine resistance.

  4. Targeting a Single Alternative Polyadenylation Site Coordinately Blocks Expression of Androgen Receptor mRNA Splice Variants in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Jamie L; Nyquist, Michael; Li, Yingming; Yang, Rendong; Ho, Yeung; Johnson, Rachel; Ondigi, Olivia; Voytas, Daniel F; Henzler, Christine; Dehm, Scott M

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of male cancer deaths due to disease progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants including AR-V7 function as constitutively active transcription factors in CRPC cells, thereby promoting resistance to AR-targeted therapies. To date, there are no AR variant-specific treatments for CRPC. Here we report that the splicing of AR variants AR-V7 as well as AR-V1 and AR-V9 is regulated coordinately by a single polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3. Blocking this signal with morpholino technology or silencing of the polyadenylation factor CPSF1 caused a splice switch that inhibited expression of AR variants and blocked androgen-independent growth of CRPC cells. Our findings support the development of new therapies targeting the polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3 as a strategy to prevent expression of a broad array of AR variants in CRPC. Cancer Res; 77(19); 5228-35. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinshang, E-mail: sanmaosound@163.com; Zhao, Heng, E-mail: hengzhao2000@gmail.com; Chen, Yeyu, E-mail: cyyleaf@126.com; Luo, Huiying, E-mail: luohuiying@caas.cn; Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@caas.cn

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  6. A key role for stress-induced satellite III transcripts in the relocalization of splicing factors into nuclear stress granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Alexandra; Soret, Johann; Vourc'h, Claire; Tazi, Jamal; Jolly, Caroline

    2004-09-01

    Exposure of cells to stressful conditions results in the rapid synthesis of a subset of specialized proteins termed heat shock proteins (HSPs) which function in protecting the cell against damage. The stress-induced activation of hsp genes is controlled by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). At the cellular level, one of the most striking effects of stress is the rapid and reversible redistribution of HSF1 into a few nuclear structures termed nuclear stress granules which form primarily on the 9q12 locus in humans. Within these structures, HSF1 binds to satellite III repeated elements and drives the RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of these sequences into stable RNAs which remain associated with the 9q12 locus for a certain time after synthesis. Other proteins, in particular splicing factors, were also shown to relocalize to the granules upon stress. Here, we investigated the role of stress-induced satellite III transcripts in the relocalization of splicing factors to the granules. We show that the recruitment of the two serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins SF2/ASF and SRp30c requires the presence of stress-induced satellite III transcripts. In agreement with these findings, we identified the second RNA-recognition motif (RRM2) of hSF2/ASF as the motif required for the targeting to the granules, and we showed by immunoprecipitation that the endogenous hSF2/ASF protein is present in a complex with satellite III transcripts in stressed cells in vivo. Interestingly, satellite III transcripts also immunoprecipitate together with small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) in vivo whereas the intronless hsp70 transcripts do not, supporting the proposal that these transcripts are subject to splicing. Altogether, these data highlight the central role for satellite III transcripts in the targeting and/or retention of splicing factors into the granules upon stress.

  7. The study of the effect of splicing mutations in von Willebrand factor using RNA isolated from patients' platelets and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, I; Ramírez, L; Altisent, C; Parra, R; Vidal, F

    2011-04-01

    In von Willebrand factor (VWF) the effect of mutations potentially affecting mRNA processing or splicing is less predictable than that of other mutations (e.g. nonsense or missense substitutions). Bioinformatic tools can provide a valuable means to determine the consequences of potential splice site mutations (PSSM), but functional studies are mandatory to elucidate the true effect of the variation detected. After identification of PSSM in VWD patients, we began a systematic study of their in vivo effect in RNA extracted from the patients' platelets and leukocytes. Thirteen pairs of primers were designed for full amplification of VWF mRNA by RT-PCR that, after sequencing of aberrant products, enabled elucidation of the PSSM consequences for mRNA processing. This procedure was used to study seven different PSSM identified in four patients demonstrating diverse molecular mechanisms such as exon skipping (c.533-2A>G and c.8155+3G>C) and the activation of a cryptic splice site (c.7730-1G>C). No visible effect was evident for c.1533+15G>A and c.5170+10C>T and the consequence of c.[546G>A;7082-2A>G] was hidden by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Results were compared with in silico predictions of four splice-site analysis tools. We demonstrate selective degradation of VWF mRNA bearing PSSM by NMD for several mutations, which suggests that NMD represents a general mechanism for truncating mutations in VWF. Furthermore, because NMD efficiency varies between cell types, use of RNA from both platelets and leukocytes for in vivo study of VWF PSSM offers complementary results, particularly in cases in which NMD occurs in the allele carrying the mutation. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. The hnRNP 2H9 gene, which is involved in the splicing reaction, is a multiply spliced gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    2000-01-01

    transcripts: hnRNPs 2H9, 2H9A, 2H9B, 2H9C, 2H9D and 2H9E predicting proteins containing 346, 331, 297, 215, 145 and 139 amino acids, respectively. The hnRNP 2H9A cDNA sequence was used to obtain a genomic BAC clone and the structure of the hnRNP 2H9 gene was revealed by sequencing two subclones together...... indicates that the alternatively spliced transcripts give rise to different sets and levels of proteins expressed among various human cells and tissues. Due to their great structural variations the different proteins may thus possess different functions in the splicing reaction. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jun-21...

  9. Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce): Design and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Tori N.; Lee, Anthony K.; Boone, Travis D.; Tan, Ming X.; Chin, Matthew M.; McCutcheon, Griffin C.; Horne, Mera F.; Padgen, Michael R.; Blaich, Justin T.; Forgione, Joshua B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report the design, development, and testing of the Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce) system, a microfluidic sample processor to enable autonomous detection of signatures of life and measurements of habitability parameters in Ocean Worlds. This monolithic fluid processing-and-handling system (Figure 1; mass 0.5 kg) retrieves a 50-L-volume sample and prepares it to supply a suite of detection instruments, each with unique preparation needs. SPLIce has potential applications in orbiter missions that sample ocean plumes, such as found in Saturns icy moon Enceladus, or landed missions on the surface of icy satellites, such as Jupiters moon Europa. Answering the question Are we alone in the universe? is captivating and exceptionally challenging. Even general criteria that define life very broadly include a significant role for water [1,2]. Searches for extinct or extant life therefore prioritize locations of abundant water whether in ancient (Mars), or present (Europa and Enceladus) times. Only two previous planetary missions had onboard fluid processing: the Viking Biology Experiments [3] and Phoenixs Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [4]. SPLIce differs crucially from those systems, including its capability to process and distribute L-volume samples and the integration autonomous control of a wide range of fluidic functions, including: 1) retrieval of fluid samples from an evacuated sample chamber; 2) onboard multi-year storage of dehydrated reagents; 3) integrated pressure, pH, and conductivity measurement; 4) filtration and retention of insoluble particles for microscopy; 5) dilution or vacuum-driven concentration of samples to accommodate instrument working ranges; 6) removal of gas bubbles from sample aliquots; 7) unidirectional flow (check valves); 8) active flow-path selection (solenoid-actuated valves); 9) metered pumping in 100 nL volume increments. The SPLIce manifold, made of three thermally fused layers of precision-machined cyclo

  10. Alternative splicing in colon, bladder, and prostate cancer identified by exon-array analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Kasper; Sørensen, Karina D.; Brems-Eskildsen, Anne Sofie

    2008-01-01

    from colon, urinary bladder, and prostate. We identified 2069 candidate alternative splicing events between normal tissue samples from colon, bladder, and prostate and selected 15 splicing events for RT-PCR validation, 10 of which were successfully validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Furthermore 23, 19......, and 18 candidate tumor-specific splicing alterations in colon, bladder, and prostate, respectively, were selected for RT-PCR validation on an independent set of 81 normal and tumor tissue samples. In total, seven genes with tumor-specific splice variants were identified (ACTN1, CALD1, COL6A3, LRRFIP2....... In conclusion, we identified and validated alternative splicing between normal tissue samples from colon, bladder, and prostate in addition to cancer-specific splicing events in colon, bladder, and prostate cancer that may have diagnostic and prognostic implications....

  11. Seemingly neutral polymorphic variants may confer immunity to splicing-inactivating mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Bork; Sørensen, Suzette; Cartegni, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The idea that point mutations in exons may affect splicing is intriguing and adds an additional layer of complexity when evaluating their possible effects. Even in the best-studied examples, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we use patient cells, model minigenes, and in vitro...... assays to show that a missense mutation in exon 5 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene primarily causes exon skipping by inactivating a crucial exonic splicing enhancer (ESE), thus leading to loss of a functional protein and to MCAD deficiency. This ESE functions by antagonizing...... a juxtaposed exonic splicing silencer (ESS) and is necessary to define a suboptimal 3' splice site. Remarkably, a synonymous polymorphic variation in MCAD exon 5 inactivates the ESS, and, although this has no effect on splicing by itself, it makes splicing immune to deleterious mutations in the ESE...

  12. Identification of recurrent regulated alternative splicing events across human solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Eisenberg, Eli; Meir, Keren; Karni, Rotem; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that involves aberrant gene expression regulation. Discriminating the modified expression patterns driving tumor biology from the many that have no or little contribution is important for understanding cancer molecular basis. Recurrent deregulation patterns observed in multiple cancer types are enriched for such driver events. Here, we studied splicing alterations in hundreds of matched tumor and normal RNA-seq samples of eight solid cancer types. We found hundreds of cassette exons for which splicing was altered in multiple cancer types and identified a set of highly frequent altered splicing events. Specific splicing regulators, including RBFOX2, MBNL1/2 and QKI, appear to account for many splicing alteration events in multiple cancer types. Together, our results provide a first global analysis of regulated splicing alterations in cancer and identify common events with a potential causative role in solid tumor development. PMID:25908786

  13. Mammalian tissues defective in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay display highly aberrant splicing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Waage, Johannes Eichler; Tian, Geng

    2012-01-01

    a bioinformatic pipeline that maps RNA-seq data to a combinatorial exon database, predicts NMD-susceptibility for mRNA isoforms and calculates the distribution of major splice isoform classes. We present a catalog of NMD-regulated alternative splicing events, showing that isoforms of 30% of all expressed genes......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) affects the outcome of alternative splicing by degrading mRNA isoforms with premature termination codons. Splicing regulators constitute important NMD targets; however, the extent to which loss of NMD causes extensive deregulation...... of alternative splicing has not previously been assayed in a global, unbiased manner. Here, we combine mouse genetics and RNA-seq to provide the first in vivo analysis of the global impact of NMD on splicing patterns in two primary mouse tissues ablated for the NMD factor UPF2. RESULTS: We developed...

  14. Characterization of TTN Novex Splicing Variants across Species and the Role of RBM20 in Novex-Specific Exon Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Titin (TTN is a major disease-causing gene in cardiac muscle. Titin (TTN contains 363 exons in human encoding various sizes of TTN protein due to alternative splicing regulated mainly by RNA binding motif 20 (RBM20. Three isoforms of TTN protein are produced by mutually exclusive exons 45 (Novex 1, 46 (Novex 2, and 48 (Novex 3. Alternatively splicing in Novex isoforms across species and whether Novex isoforms are associated with heart disease remains completely unknown. Cross-species exon comparison with the mVISTA online tool revealed that exon 45 is more highly conserved across all species than exons 46 and 48. Importantly, a conserved region between exons 47 and 48 across species was revealed for the first time. Reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed a new exon named as 48′ in Novex 3. In addition, with primer pairs for Novex 1, a new truncated form preserving introns 44 and 45 was discovered. We discovered that Novex 2 is not expressed in the pig, mouse, and rat with Novex 2 primer pairs. Unexpectedly, three truncated forms were identified. One TTN variant with intron 46 retention is mainly expressed in the human and frog heart, another variant with co-expression of exons 45 and 46 exists predominantly in chicken and frog heart, and a third with retention of introns 45 and 46 is mainly expressed in pig, mouse, rat, and chicken. Using Rbm20 knockout rat heart, we revealed that RBM20 is not a splicing regulator of Novex variants. Furthermore, the expression levels of Novex variants in human hearts with cardiomyopathies suggested that Novexes 2 and 3 could be associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM and/or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC. Taken together, our study reveals that splicing diversity of Novex exons across species and Novex variants might play a role in cardiomyopathy.

  15. Sequence Analysis of In Vivo-Expressed HIV-1 Spliced RNAs Reveals the Usage of New and Unusual Splice Sites by Viruses of Different Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Yolanda; Delgado, Elena; de la Barrera, Jorge; Carrera, Cristina; Zaballos, Ángel; Cuesta, Isabel; Mariño, Ana; Ocampo, Antonio; Miralles, Celia; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Álvarez, Hortensia; López-Miragaya, Isabel; García-Bodas, Elena; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Thomson, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 RNAs are generated through a complex splicing mechanism, resulting in a great diversity of transcripts, which are classified in three major categories: unspliced, singly spliced (SS), and doubly spliced (DS). Knowledge on HIV-1 RNA splicing in vivo and by non-subtype B viruses is scarce. Here we analyze HIV-1 RNA splice site usage in CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals through pyrosequencing. HIV-1 DS and SS RNAs were amplified by RT-PCR in 19 and 12 samples, respectively. 13,108 sequences from HIV-1 spliced RNAs, derived from viruses of five subtypes (A, B, C, F, G), were identified. In four samples, three of non-B subtypes, five 3’ splice sites (3’ss) mapping to unreported positions in the HIV-1 genome were identified. Two, designated A4i and A4j, were used in 22% and 25% of rev RNAs in two viruses of subtypes B and A, respectively. Given their close proximity (one or two nucleotides) to A4c and A4d, respectively, they could be viewed as variants of these sites. Three 3’ss, designated A7g, A7h, and A7i, located 20, 32, and 18 nucleotides downstream of A7, respectively, were identified in a subtype C (A7g, A7h) and a subtype G (A7i) viruses, each in around 2% of nef RNAs. The new splice sites or variants of splice sites were associated with the usual sequence features of 3’ss. Usage of unusual 3’ss A4d, A4e, A5a, A7a, and A7b was also detected. A4f, previously identified in two subtype C viruses, was preferentially used by rev RNAs of a subtype C virus. These results highlight the great diversity of in vivo splice site usage by HIV-1 RNAs. The fact that four of five newly identified splice sites or variants of splice sites were detected in non-subtype B viruses allows anticipating an even greater diversity of HIV-1 splice site usage than currently known. PMID:27355361

  16. Sequence Analysis of In Vivo-Expressed HIV-1 Spliced RNAs Reveals the Usage of New and Unusual Splice Sites by Viruses of Different Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vega

    Full Text Available HIV-1 RNAs are generated through a complex splicing mechanism, resulting in a great diversity of transcripts, which are classified in three major categories: unspliced, singly spliced (SS, and doubly spliced (DS. Knowledge on HIV-1 RNA splicing in vivo and by non-subtype B viruses is scarce. Here we analyze HIV-1 RNA splice site usage in CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals through pyrosequencing. HIV-1 DS and SS RNAs were amplified by RT-PCR in 19 and 12 samples, respectively. 13,108 sequences from HIV-1 spliced RNAs, derived from viruses of five subtypes (A, B, C, F, G, were identified. In four samples, three of non-B subtypes, five 3' splice sites (3'ss mapping to unreported positions in the HIV-1 genome were identified. Two, designated A4i and A4j, were used in 22% and 25% of rev RNAs in two viruses of subtypes B and A, respectively. Given their close proximity (one or two nucleotides to A4c and A4d, respectively, they could be viewed as variants of these sites. Three 3'ss, designated A7g, A7h, and A7i, located 20, 32, and 18 nucleotides downstream of A7, respectively, were identified in a subtype C (A7g, A7h and a subtype G (A7i viruses, each in around 2% of nef RNAs. The new splice sites or variants of splice sites were associated with the usual sequence features of 3'ss. Usage of unusual 3'ss A4d, A4e, A5a, A7a, and A7b was also detected. A4f, previously identified in two subtype C viruses, was preferentially used by rev RNAs of a subtype C virus. These results highlight the great diversity of in vivo splice site usage by HIV-1 RNAs. The fact that four of five newly identified splice sites or variants of splice sites were detected in non-subtype B viruses allows anticipating an even greater diversity of HIV-1 splice site usage than currently known.

  17. An EMT-driven alternative splicing program occurs in human breast cancer and modulates cellular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M Shapiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA-Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT-dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell-cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT-associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression.

  18. An EMT-driven alternative splicing program occurs in human breast cancer and modulates cellular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irina M; Cheng, Albert W; Flytzanis, Nicholas C; Balsamo, Michele; Condeelis, John S; Oktay, Maja H; Burge, Christopher B; Gertler, Frank B

    2011-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA-Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT-dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell-cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT-associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression.

  19. cAMP-dependent reorganization of the Cajal bodies and splicing machinery in cultured Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rosario; Pena, Emma; Navascues, Joaquin; Casafont, Iñigo; Lafarga, Miguel; Berciano, Maria T

    2002-12-01

    It is well established that forskolin-induced elevation of cAMP results in activation of DNA synthesis in Schwann cell cultures. This promitotic response is partially mediated by the Cdk2, which is required for the transition from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. In the present study, we analyze the effects of cAMP elevation in cultured Schwann cells on the transcriptional activity and on the organization of two nuclear compartments involved in pre-mRNA processing: Cajal bodies (CBs) and splicing factor compartments. Our immunofluorescence and quantitative studies show that forskolin treatment induces a 5.6-fold increase in the proportion of S phase Schwann cells, detected by a short pulse (20 min) of BrdU incorporation. This increase in DNA synthesis correlates with an activation of global transcription, as is indicated by the higher nuclear incorporation of BrU in nascent RNA. Forskolin treatment significantly increases the percentage of Schwann cells containing typical CBs, which concentrate spliceosomal snRNPs and the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. This increase in the number of CBs closely correlates with the activation of transcription. Moreover, the occurrence of CBs is significantly higher in BrdU (+) cells than in BrdU (-) cells, indicating that entry in the S phase promotes the formation of CBs. During the S phase, Schwann cell nuclei display higher Cdk2 nuclear staining and concentrate this kinase in CBs. Forskolin also induces a redistribution of the pre-mRNA splicing factors in Schwann cells. Primary cultures of Schwann cells provide an excellent physiological model to demonstrate that the assembly of CBs is a transcription- and replication-dependent cellular event. Moreover, the S phase accumulation of Cdk2 observed in Schwann cells supports a functional link between CBs and DNA replication, which is mediated by the possible participation of CBs in the regulatory control of histone gene expression. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Drosophila muscleblind is involved in troponin T alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vicente-Crespo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL have been involved in a developmental switch in the use of defined cassette exons. Such transition fails in the CTG repeat expansion disease myotonic dystrophy due, in part, to sequestration of MBNL proteins by CUG repeat RNA. Four protein isoforms (MblA-D are coded by the unique Drosophila muscleblind gene.We used evolutionary, genetic and cell culture approaches to study muscleblind (mbl function in flies. The evolutionary study showed that the MblC protein isoform was readily conserved from nematods to Drosophila, which suggests that it performs the most ancestral muscleblind functions. Overexpression of MblC in the fly eye precursors led to an externally rough eye morphology. This phenotype was used in a genetic screen to identify five dominant suppressors and 13 dominant enhancers including Drosophila CUG-BP1 homolog aret, exon junction complex components tsunagi and Aly, and pro-apoptotic genes Traf1 and reaper. We further investigated Muscleblind implication in apoptosis and splicing regulation. We found missplicing of troponin T in muscleblind mutant pupae and confirmed Muscleblind ability to regulate mouse fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TnnT3 minigene splicing in human HEK cells. MblC overexpression in the wing imaginal disc activated apoptosis in a spatially restricted manner. Bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved FKRP motif, weakly resembling a sumoylation target site, in the MblC-specific sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the motif revealed no change in activity of mutant MblC on TnnT3 minigene splicing or aberrant binding to CUG repeat RNA, but altered the ability of the protein to form perinuclear aggregates and enhanced cell death-inducing activity of MblC overexpression.Taken together our genetic approach identify cellular processes influenced by Muscleblind function, whereas in vivo and cell culture experiments define Drosophila troponin T as a new Muscleblind target, reveal a

  1. Fluorescence Reporter-Based Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screening to Identify Alternative Splicing Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ashish; Green, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a regulated process that leads to inclusion or exclusion of particular exons in a pre-mRNA transcript, resulting in multiple protein isoforms being encoded by a single gene. With more than 90 % of human genes known to undergo alternative splicing, it represents a major source for biological diversity inside cells. Although in vitro splicing assays have revealed insights into the mechanisms regulating individual alternative splicing events, our global understanding of alternative splicing regulation is still evolving. In recent years, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening has transformed biological research by enabling genome-scale loss-of-function screens in cultured cells and model organisms. In addition to resulting in the identification of new cellular pathways and potential drug targets, these screens have also uncovered many previously unknown mechanisms regulating alternative splicing. Here, we describe a method for the identification of alternative splicing regulators using genome-wide RNAi screening, as well as assays for further validation of the identified candidates. With modifications, this method can also be adapted to study the splicing regulation of pre-mRNAs that contain two or more splice isoforms.

  2. Analysis and recognition of 5 ' UTR intron splice sites in human pre-mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, E.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of splice sites in non-coding regions of genes is one of the most challenging aspects of gene structure recognition. We perform a rigorous analysis of such splice sites embedded in human 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), and investigate correlations between this class of splice sites...... in the synaptic weights of the neural networks trained to identify UTR donor sites. Conventional splice site prediction methods perform poorly in UTRs because the reading frame pattern is absent. The NetUTR method presented here performs 2-.3-fold better compared with NetGene2 and GenScan in 5' UTRs. We also...

  3. Trans-Splicing Improvement by the Combined Application of Antisense Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Koller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing has become an emergent tool for the repair of mutated pre-mRNAs in the treatment of genetic diseases. RNA trans-splicing molecules (RTMs are designed to induce a specific trans-splicing reaction via a binding domain for a respective target pre-mRNA region. A previously established reporter-based screening system allows us to analyze the impact of various factors on the RTM trans-splicing efficiency in vitro. Using this system, we are further able to investigate the potential of antisense RNAs (AS RNAs, presuming to improve the trans-splicing efficiency of a selected RTM, specific for intron 102 of COL7A1. Mutations in the COL7A1 gene underlie the dystrophic subtype of the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (DEB. We have shown that co-transfections of the RTM and a selected AS RNA, interfering with competitive splicing elements on a COL7A1-minigene (COL7A1-MG, lead to a significant increase of the RNA trans-splicing efficiency. Thereby, accurate trans-splicing between the RTM and the COL7A1-MG is represented by the restoration of full-length green fluorescent protein GFP on mRNA and protein level. This mechanism can be crucial for the improvement of an RTM-mediated correction, especially in cases where a high trans-splicing efficiency is required.

  4. Operon Conservation and the Evolution of trans-Splicing in the Phylum Nematoda

    OpenAIRE

    Guiliano, David B.; Blaxter, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique among model animals in that many of its genes are cotranscribed as polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. The mechanism by which these operonic transcripts are resolved into mature mRNAs includes trans-splicing to a family of SL2-like spliced leader exons. SL2-like spliced leaders are distinct from SL1, the major spliced leader in C. elegans and other nematode species. We surveyed five additional nematode species, representing three of the five maj...

  5. Cephalopod eye evolution was modulated by the acquisition of Pax-6 splicing variants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Yura, Kei; Ogura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that the developmental processes of vertebrate eyes are controlled by four Pax-6 splicing variants, each modulating different downstream genes, whereas those of insect...

  6. Cotranscriptional recruitment of yeast TRAMP complex to intronic sequences promotes optimal pre-mRNA splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Ka-Yiu Edwin; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Pan, Kewu; Huang, Zhe; Lee, Tsz-Hang Jimmy; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Jin, Dong-Yan; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Most unwanted RNA transcripts in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, such as splicing-defective pre-mRNAs and spliced-out introns, are rapidly degraded by the nuclear exosome. In budding yeast, a number of these unwanted RNA transcripts, including spliced-out introns, are first recognized by the nuclear exosome cofactor Trf4/5p-Air1/2p-Mtr4p polyadenylation (TRAMP) complex before subsequent nuclear-exosome-mediated degradation. However, it remains unclear when spliced-out introns are recognized ...

  7. Spatio-temporal and dynamic regulation of neurofascin alternative splicing in mouse cerebellar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Ayukawa, Noriko; Okada, Chisa; Tanaka, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Iijima, Yoko; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2017-09-12

    Alternative splicing is crucial for molecular diversification, which greatly contributes to the complexity and specificity of neural functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurofascin (NF) is a polymorphic cell surface protein that has a number of splicing isoforms. As the alternative splicing of the neurofascin gene (Nfasc) is developmentally regulated, NF isoforms have distinct functions in immature and mature brains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative splicing of Nfasc in neurons are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that, alongside developmental regulation, Nfasc alternative splicing is spatially controlled in the mouse brain. We then identified distinct Nfasc splicing patterns at the cell-type level in the cerebellum, with Nfasc186 being expressed in Purkinje cells and absent from granule cells (GCs). Furthermore, we show that high K+-induced depolarization triggers a shift in splicing from Nfasc140 to Nfasc186 in cerebellar GCs. Finally, we identified a neural RNA-binding protein, Rbfox, as a key player in neural NF isoform selection, specifically controlling splicing at exons 26-29. Together, our results show that Nfasc alternative splicing is spatio-temporally and dynamically regulated in cerebellar neurons. Our findings provide profound insight into the mechanisms underlying the functional diversity of neuronal cell-adhesive proteins in the mammalian CNS.

  8. Ancient antagonism between CELF and RBFOX families tunes mRNA splicing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzara, Matthew R; Mallory, Michael J; Roytenberg, Renat; Lindberg, John P; Jha, Anupama; Lynch, Kristen W; Barash, Yoseph

    2017-08-01

    Over 95% of human multi-exon genes undergo alternative splicing, a process important in normal development and often dysregulated in disease. We sought to analyze the global splicing regulatory network of CELF2 in human T cells, a well-studied splicing regulator critical to T cell development and function. By integrating high-throughput sequencing data for binding and splicing quantification with sequence features and probabilistic splicing code models, we find evidence of splicing antagonism between CELF2 and the RBFOX family of splicing factors. We validate this functional antagonism through knockdown and overexpression experiments in human cells and find CELF2 represses RBFOX2 mRNA and protein levels. Because both families of proteins have been implicated in the development and maintenance of neuronal, muscle, and heart tissues, we analyzed publicly available data in these systems. Our analysis suggests global, antagonistic coregulation of splicing by the CELF and RBFOX proteins in mouse muscle and heart in several physiologically relevant targets, including proteins involved in calcium signaling and members of the MEF2 family of transcription factors. Importantly, a number of these coregulated events are aberrantly spliced in mouse models and human patients with diseases that affect these tissues, including heart failure, diabetes, or myotonic dystrophy. Finally, analysis of exons regulated by ancient CELF family homologs in chicken, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans suggests this antagonism is conserved throughout evolution. © 2017 Gazzara et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. CD82 suppresses CD44 alternative splicing-dependent melanoma metastasis by mediating U2AF2 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Feng, Shan; Liu, Gentao; Wang, Heyong; Fu, Ailing; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Wang, Bochu; Xu, Xingran; Bai, Huiyuan; Dong, Cheng

    2016-09-22

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer because of its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression level of CD44 in a large set of melanocytic lesions at different stages. We found that the expression of CD44v8-10 and a splicing factor, U2AF2, is significantly increased during melanoma progression, whereas CD82/KAI1, a tetraspanin family of tumor suppressor, is reduced in metastatic melanoma. CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels, which are negatively correlated with CD82 levels, are markedly elevated in primary melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi and further increased in metastatic melanoma. We also showed that patients with higher CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels tended to have shorter survival. By using both in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrated that CD82 inhibits the production of CD44v8-10 on melanoma. Mechanistically, U2AF2 is a downstream target of CD82 and in malignant melanoma facilitates CD44v8-10 alternative splicing. U2AF2-mediated CD44 isoform switch is required for melanoma migration in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo. Notably, overexpression of CD82 suppresses U2AF2 activity by inducing U2AF2 ubiquitination. In addition, our data suggested that enhancement of melanoma migration by U2AF2-dependent CD44v8-10 splicing is mediated by Src/focal adhesion kinase/RhoA activation and formation of stress fibers, as well as CD44-E-selectin binding reinforcement. These findings uncovered a hitherto unappreciated function of CD82 in severing the linkage between U2AF2-mediated CD44 alternative splicing and cancer aggressiveness, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in melanoma.

  10. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CTD), which harbors the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) and transcrip- tional activation function 2 (AF2) co-regulator binding interface ( Matias et al...doi:10.1002/ humu.21138) Matias PM, Donner P, Coelho R, Thomaz M, Peixoto C, Macedo S, Otto N, Joschko S, Scholz P, Wegg A et al. 2000 Structural...before clustering on a single lane of a flowcell. The flowcell was loaded on a Genome Analyzer IIx (GAIIx, Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) for paired

  11. Targeted RNA-Seq profiling of splicing pattern in the DMD gene: exons are mostly constitutively spliced in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougé, Anne-Laure; Murauer, Eva; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Miro, Julie; Varilh, Jessica; Taulan, Magali; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2017-01-03

    We have analysed the splicing pattern of the human Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) NB transcript in normal skeletal muscle. To achieve depth of coverage required for the analysis of this lowly expressed gene in muscle, we designed a targeted RNA-Seq procedure that combines amplification of the full-length 11.3 kb DMD cDNA sequence and 454 sequencing technology. A high and uniform coverage of the cDNA sequence was obtained that allowed to draw up a reliable inventory of the physiological alternative splicing events in the muscular DMD transcript. In contrast to previous assumptions, we evidenced that most of the 79 DMD exons are constitutively spliced in skeletal muscle. Only a limited number of 12 alternative splicing events were identified, all present at a very low level. These include previously known exon skipping events but also newly described pseudoexon inclusions and alternative 3' splice sites, of which one is the first functional NAGNAG splice site reported in the DMD gene. This study provides the first RNA-Seq-based reference of DMD splicing pattern in skeletal muscle and reports on an experimental procedure well suited to detect condition-specific differences in this low abundance transcript that may prove useful for diagnostic, research or RNA-based therapeutic applications.

  12. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, pMDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, pMDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (pMDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  13. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Chad L; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D; Lee, Michael T; Burkin, Heather R; Buxton, Iain L O

    2015-11-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (TREK-1 variants could interfere with TREK-1 function or expression. To investigate a potential role for these variants, immunofluorescence, cell surface assays, Western blots, and patch clamp were employed to study TREK-1 and TREK-1 variants expressed in HEK293T cells. The results of this study demonstrate that coexpression of TREK-1 with TREK-1 variants alters TREK-1 expression and suppresses channel function. Each variant affected TREK-1 in a disparate manner. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-1 and each variant, TREK-1 membrane expression was diminished with compartmentalization inside the cell. When expressed alone, individual variants displayed channel properties that were significantly decreased compared to full-length TREK-1. In coexpression studies using patch clamp, basal TREK-1 currents were reduced by ∼64% (4.3 vs. 12.0 pA/pF) on average at 0 mV when coexpressed with each variant. TREK-1 currents that were activated by intracellular acidosis were reduced an average of ∼77% (21.4 vs. 94.5 pA/pF) at 0 mV when cells were transfected with TREK-1 and any one of the splice variants. These data correlate the presence of TREK-1 variants to reduced TREK-1 activity, suggesting a pathological role for TREK-1 variants in preterm labor. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Alternatively Spliced Human TREK-1 Variants Alter TREK-1 Channel Function and Localization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Chad L.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Barnett, Scott D.; Lee, Michael T.; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L.O.

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1, an outward-rectifying potassium channel activated by stretch, is found in the myometrium of pregnant women. Decreased expression of TREK-1 near term suggests that TREK-1 may contribute to uterine quiescence during gestation. Five alternatively spliced TREK-1 variants were identified in the myometrium of mothers who delivered spontaneously preterm (TREK-1 variants could interfere with TREK-1 function or expression. To investigate a potential role for these variants, immunofluorescence, cell surface assays, Western blots, and patch clamp were employed to study TREK-1 and TREK-1 variants expressed in HEK293T cells. The results of this study demonstrate that coexpression of TREK-1 with TREK-1 variants alters TREK-1 expression and suppresses channel function. Each variant affected TREK-1 in a disparate manner. In HEK293T cells coexpressing TREK-1 and each variant, TREK-1 membrane expression was diminished with compartmentalization inside the cell. When expressed alone, individual variants displayed channel properties that were significantly decreased compared to full-length TREK-1. In coexpression studies using patch clamp, basal TREK-1 currents were reduced by ∼64% (4.3 vs. 12.0 pA/pF) on average at 0 mV when coexpressed with each variant. TREK-1 currents that were activated by intracellular acidosis were reduced an average of ∼77% (21.4 vs. 94.5 pA/pF) at 0 mV when cells were transfected with TREK-1 and any one of the splice variants. These data correlate the presence of TREK-1 variants to reduced TREK-1 activity, suggesting a pathological role for TREK-1 variants in preterm labor. PMID:26400398

  15. Splicing defects in ABCD1 gene leading to both exon skipping and partial intron retention in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy Tunisian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallabi, Fakhri; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Ben Chehida, Amel; Ben Salah, Ghada; Ben Turkia, Hadhami; Tebib, Neji; Keskes, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen

    2015-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and adrenal cortex secondary to mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein: the adrenoleukodystrophy protein. The disease is characterized by high concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma, adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues. Various types of mutations have been identified in the ABCD1 gene: point mutations, insertions, and deletions. To date, more than 40 point mutations have been reported at the splice junctions of the ABCD1 gene; only few functional studies have been performed to explore these types of mutations. In this study, we have identified de novo splice site mutation c.1780+2T>G in ABCD1 gene in an X-ALD Tunisian patient. Sequencing analysis of cDNA showed a minor transcript lacking exon 7 and a major transcript with a partial intron 7 retention due to activation of a new intronic cryptic splice site. Both outcomes lead to frameshifts with premature stop codon generation in exon 8 and intron 7 respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the current study demonstrates that a single splicing mutation affects the ABCD1 transcripts and the ALDP protein function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-option of the piRNA Pathway for Germline-Specific Alternative Splicing of C. elegans TOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barberán-Soler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many eukaryotic genes contain embedded antisense transcripts and repetitive sequences of unknown function. We report that male germline-specific expression of an antisense transcript contained in an intron of C. elegans Target of Rapamycin (TOR, let-363 is associated with (1 accumulation of endo-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against an embedded Helitron transposon and (2 activation of an alternative 3′ splice site of TOR. The germline-specific Argonaute proteins PRG-1 and CSR-1, which participate in self/nonself RNA recognition, antagonistically regulate the generation of these endo-siRNAs, TOR mRNA levels, and 3′ splice-site selection. Supply of exogenous double-stranded RNA against the region of sense/antisense overlap reverses changes in TOR expression and splicing and suppresses the progressive multigenerational sterility phenotype of prg-1 mutants. We propose that recognition of a “nonself” intronic transposon by endo-siRNAs/the piRNA system provides physiological regulation of expression and alternative splicing of a host gene that, in turn, contributes to the maintenance of germline function across generations.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in rice and comparative analyses with Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mount Stephen M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, genomic sequencing efforts were finished for Oryza sativa (cultivated rice and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. Additionally, these two plant species have extensive cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. We employed the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA to identify and analyze alternatively spliced isoforms in both species. Results A comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing was performed in rice that started with >1.1 million publicly available spliced ESTs and over 30,000 full length cDNAs in conjunction with the newly enhanced PASA software. A parallel analysis was performed with Arabidopsis to compare and ascertain potential differences between monocots and dicots. Alternative splicing is a widespread phenomenon (observed in greater than 30% of the loci with transcript support and we have described nine alternative splicing variations. While alternative splicing has the potential to create many RNA isoforms from a single locus, the majority of loci generate only two or three isoforms and transcript support indicates that these isoforms are generally not rare events. For the alternate donor (AD and acceptor (AA classes, the distance between the splice sites for the majority of events was found to be less than 50 basepairs (bp. In both species, the most frequent distance between AA is 3 bp, consistent with reports in mammalian systems. Conversely, the most frequent distance between AD is 4 bp in both plant species, as previously observed in mouse. Most alternative splicing variations are localized to the protein coding sequence and are predicted to significantly alter the coding sequence. Conclusion Alternative splicing is widespread in both rice and Arabidopsis and these species share many common features. Interestingly, alternative splicing may play a role beyond creating novel combinations of transcripts that expand the proteome. Many isoforms will presumably have negative

  18. Dynamic changes in neurexins' alternative splicing: role of Rho-associated protein kinases and relevance to memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rozic

    Full Text Available The three neurexins genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode polymorphic synaptic membrane proteins that are involved in cognitive functioning. Neurexins' selectivity of function is presumably conferred through differential use of 2 promoters and 5 alternative splicing sites (SS#1/2/3/4/5. In day-old rat brain neurons grown in culture, activation (depolarization induces reversible, calcium dependent, repression of NRXN2α SS#3 insert. The effects of depolarization on NRXN1/2/3α splicing and biochemical pathways mediating them were further studied in these neurons. NRXN1/2/3α splicing in the course of memory formation in vivo was also explored, using fear conditioning paradigm in rats in which the animals were trained to associate an aversive stimulus (electrical shock with a neutral context (a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the neutral context.In the cultured neurons depolarization induced, beside NRXN2α SS#3, repression of SS#3 and SS#4 exons in NRXN3α but not NRXN1α. The repressions were mediated by the calcium/protein kinase C/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway. Fear conditioning induced significant and transient repressions of the NRXN1/2/3α SS#4 exons in the rat hippocampus. ROCK inhibition prior to training attenuated the behavioral fear response, the NRXN1/2/3α splicing repressions and subsequent recovery and the levels of excitatory (PSD95 and inhibitory (gephyrin synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. No such effects were observed in the prefrontal cortex. Significant correlations existed between the fear response and hippocampal NRXN3α and NRXN2α SS#4 inserts as well as PSD95 protein levels. Hippocampal NRXN1α SS#4 insert and gephyrin levels did not correlate with the behavioral response but were negatively correlated with each other.These results show for the first time dynamic, experience related changes in NRXN1/2/3α alternative splicing in the rat brain and a role for ROCK in them. Specific neurexins

  19. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  20. Altered splicing in prelamin A-associated premature aging phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Lévy, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGPS), a rare and severe developmental disorder characterized by features recalling premature aging, and restrictive dermopathy (RD), a neonatal lethal genodermatosis, have recently been identified as being primary or secondary "laminopathies." These are heterogeneous disorders due to altered function of lamins A/C or related proteins. In physiological conditions, mature lamin A is obtained through a series of post-translational processing steps performed on a protein precursor, prelamin A. The major pathophysiological mechanism involved in progeria is an aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs issued from the LMNA gene, due to a de novo heterozygous point mutation, leading to the production and accumulation of truncated lamin A precursors. Aberrant splicing of prelamin A pre-mRNAs causing the production of more extensively truncated precursors is involved in the allelic disease restrictive dermopathy. Other restrictive dermopathy cases are due to the inactivation of a key enzyme involved in the maturation of lamin A precursors (ZMPSTE24). In functional terms, all these conditions share the same pathophysiological basis: intranuclear accumulation of lamin A precursors, which cannot be fully processed (due to primary or secondary events) and exert toxic, dominant negative effects on nuclear homeostasis. Most other laminopathies are due to autosomal dominant LMNA point mutations inferred to cause single amino acid substitutions. In any case, the impact of these mutations on pre-mRNA splicing has rarely been assessed. These disorders affect different tissues and organs, mainly including bone, skin, striated muscles, adipose tissue, vessels, and peripheral nerves in isolated or combined fashions, giving rise to syndromes whose severity ranges from mild to perinatally lethal. In this chapter we review the structure and functions of lamins A/C in physiological and pathological conditions, describe their known or putative roles, namely, in the

  1. Periostin shows increased evolutionary plasticity in its alternatively spliced region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoersch Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periostin (POSTN is a secreted extracellular matrix protein of poorly defined function that has been related to bone and heart development as well as to cancer. In human and mouse, it is known to undergo alternative splicing in its C-terminal region, which is devoid of known protein domains. Differential expression of periostin, sometimes of specific splicing isoforms, is observed in a broad range of human cancers, including breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer. Here, we combine genomic and transcriptomic sequence data from vertebrate organisms to study the evolution of periostin and particularly of its C-terminal region. Results We found that the C-terminal part of periostin is markedly more variable among vertebrates than the rest of periostin in terms of exon count, length, and splicing pattern, which we interpret as a consequence of neofunctionalization after the split between periostin and its paralog transforming growth factor, beta-induced (TGFBI. We also defined periostin's sequential 13-amino acid repeat units - well conserved in teleost fish, but more obscure in higher vertebrates - whose secondary structure is predicted to be consecutive beta strands. We suggest that these beta strands may mediate binding interactions with other proteins through an extended beta-zipper in a manner similar to the way repeat units in bacterial cell wall proteins have been reported to bind human fibronectin. Conclusions Our results, obtained with the help of the increasingly large collection of complete vertebrate genomes, document the evolutionary plasticity of periostin's C-terminal region, and for the first time suggest a basis for its functional role.

  2. Genomic organization and splicing variants of a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Hauser, F; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    of primitive nervous systems. In mammals, peptide amidation is catalyzed by two enzymes, peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL) that act sequentially. These two activities are contained within one bifunctional enzyme......, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), which is coded for by a single gene. In a previous paper (F. Hauser et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 241, 509-512, 1997) we have cloned the first known cnidarian PHM from the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. In the present paper we have determined...... the structure of its gene (CP1). CP1 is >12 kb in size and contains 15 exons and 14 introns. The last coding exon (exon 15) contains a stop codon, leaving no room for PAL and, thereby, for a bifunctional PAM enzyme as in mammals. Furthermore, we found a CP1 splicing variant (CP1-B) that contains exon-9 instead...

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated target validation of the Splicing Inhibitor Pladienolide B

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2016-02-24

    CRISPR/Cas9 system confers molecular immunity in archeal and bacterial species against invading foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR/Cas9 system is used for genome engineering applications across diverse eukaryotic species. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system for drug target validation in human cells. Pladienolide B is a natural macrolide with antitumor activities mediated through the inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing. To validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B, we employed the CRSIPR/Cas9 system to introduce targeted mutations in the subunits of the SF3B complex in the HEK293T cells. Our data reveal that targeted mutagenesis of the SF3b1 subunit exhibited higher levels of resistance to Pladienolide B. Therefore, our data validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B and provide a proof of concept on using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for drug target identification and validation.

  4. Underwater Splicing of SD Coaxial Cable--FY78 Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    u i d s , casto r oil and Marcol 70 minera l oil were chosen for testing because of their low water absorption characteristics and good dielectric...the gelled castor oil was tested in the splice configuration. Al so Marcol 70 minera l oil was gel led and tested on the spl ice. Experiments...determined that approximately 9.4% by weight of Cab-0-Sil added to castor oil produced a gel which had the consistency of soft grease. For Marcol 70 minera l

  5. Dominant negative effects of a non-conducting TREK1 splice variant expressed in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Emma L; Rees, Kathryn A; Mathie, Alistair; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-09-17

    Two-pore domain potassium (K(2P)) channels modulate neuronal excitability throughout the entire CNS. The stretch-activated channel TREK1 (K(2P)2.1) is expressed widely in brain and has been linked to depression, neuroprotection, pain perception, and epilepsy. Little, however, is known about the regulation of TREK1 expression on the transcriptional and translational level or about its trafficking to the plasma membrane. Here we have used PCR techniques to identify a splice variant of TREK1 expressed in the brain, which encodes a heavily truncated TREK1 protein retaining a single transmembrane domain. Functional expression of this splice variant TREK1ΔEx4 in tsA201 cells in the presence or absence of wild type TREK1 revealed that TREK1ΔEx4 has no channel activity itself but reduced TREK1 whole cell current amplitude. Confocal analysis of the expression of fluorescently tagged TREK1 variants revealed that TREK1ΔEx4 is translated, but it is retained in the intracellular compartment. Additionally, TREK1ΔEx4 reduced the level of TREK1 expression in the plasma membrane. Long and short forms of TREK1 derived from alternative translation initiation are differentially affected by TREK1ΔEx4, with the short form (lacking the first 41 amino acids at its N terminus) unaffected. This differential regulatory role of TREK1ΔEx4 will alter the functional profile of TREK1 current in neurons where they are expressed. These results indicate that the N-terminal domain and first transmembrane domain of TREK1 are likely to be important for channel dimerization and trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  6. SIRT1 Undergoes Alternative Splicing in a Novel Auto-Regulatory Loop with p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cian J.; Ahmed, Shafiq U.; Ford, Jack; Warnock, Lorna J.; Li, Han; Serrano, Manuel; Milner, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Background The NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a nutrient-sensitive coordinator of stress-tolerance, multiple homeostatic processes and healthspan, while p53 is a stress-responsive transcription factor and our paramount tumour suppressor. Thus, SIRT1-mediated inhibition of p53 has been identified as a key node in the common biology of cancer, metabolism, development and ageing. However, precisely how SIRT1 integrates such diverse processes remains to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that SIRT1 is alternatively spliced in mammals, generating a novel SIRT1 isoform: SIRT1-ΔExon8. We show that SIRT1-ΔExon8 is expressed widely throughout normal human and mouse tissues, suggesting evolutionary conservation and critical function. Further studies demonstrate that the SIRT1-ΔExon8 isoform retains minimal deacetylase activity and exhibits distinct stress sensitivity, RNA/protein stability, and protein-protein interactions compared to classical SIRT1-Full-Length (SIRT1-FL). We also identify an auto-regulatory loop whereby SIRT1-ΔExon8 can regulate p53, while in reciprocal p53 can influence SIRT1 splice variation. Conclusions/Significance We characterize the first alternative isoform of SIRT1 and demonstrate its evolutionary conservation in mammalian tissues. The results also reveal a new level of inter-dependency between p53 and SIRT1, two master regulators of multiple phenomena. Thus, previously-attributed SIRT1 functions may in fact be distributed between SIRT1 isoforms, with important implications for SIRT1 functional studies and the current search for SIRT1-activating therapeutics to combat age-related decline. PMID:20975832

  7. Uncovering the role of p53 splice variants in human malignancy: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surget S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sylvanie Surget,1,2 Marie P Khoury,1,2 Jean-Christophe Bourdon1,21Dundee Cancer Centre, 2Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Ninewells Hospital, University of Dundee, Dundee, UKAbstract: Thirty-five years of research on p53 gave rise to more than 68,000 articles and reviews, but did not allow the uncovering of all the mysteries that this major tumor suppressor holds. How p53 handles the different signals to decide the appropriate cell fate in response to a stress and its implication in tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear. Nevertheless, the uncovering of p53 isoforms has opened new perspectives in the cancer research field. Indeed, the human TP53 gene encodes not only one but at least twelve p53 protein isoforms, which are produced in normal tissues through alternative initiation of translation, usage of alternative promoters, and alternative splicing. In recent years, it became obvious that the different p53 isoforms play an important role in regulating cell fate in response to different stresses in normal cells by differentially regulating gene expression. In cancer cells, abnormal expression of p53 isoforms contributes actively to cancer formation and progression, regardless of TP53 mutation status. They can also be associated with response to treatment, depending on the cell context. The determination of p53 isoform expression and p53 mutation status helps to define different subtypes within a particular cancer type, which would have different responses to treatment. Thus, the understanding of the regulation of p53 isoform expression and their biological activities in relation to the cellular context would constitute an important step toward the improvement of the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive values of p53 in cancer treatment. This review aims to summarize the involvement of p53 isoforms in cancer and to highlight novel potential therapeutic targets.Keywords: p53, isoforms, p63, p73, alternative splicing, cancer

  8. Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V. [North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, František; Chylíková, Blanka; Janků, Michaela; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Zdeňka; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-09-01

    In the inbred SHR/OlaIpcv rat colony, we identified males with small testicles and inability to reproduce. By selectively breeding their parents, we revealed the infertility to segregate as an autosomal recessive Mendelian character. No other phenotype was observed in males, and females were completely normal. By linkage using a backcross with Brown Norway strain, we mapped the locus to a 1.2Mbp segment on chromosome 7, harboring 35 genes. Sequencing of candidate genes revealed a G to A substitution in a canonical 'AG' splice site of intron 37 in Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1, alias myotubularin-related protein 5). This leads to either skipping exon 38 or shifting splicing one base downstream, invariantly resulting in frameshift, premature stop codon and truncation of the protein. Western blotting using two anti-Sbf1 antibodies revealed absence of the full-length protein in the mutant testis. Testicles of the mutant males were significantly smaller compared with SHR from 4weeks, peaked at 84% wild-type weight at 6weeks and declined afterward to 28%, reflecting massive germ cell loss. Histological examination revealed lower germ cell number; latest observed germ cell stage were round spermatids, resulting in the absence of sperm in the epididymis (azoospermia). SBF1 is a member of a phosphatase family lacking the catalytical activity. It probably modulates the activity of a phosphoinositol phosphatase MTMR2. Human homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for missense SBF1 mutations exhibit Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (manifested mainly as progressive neuropathy), while a single mouse knockout reported in the literature identified male infertility as the only phenotype manifestation. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Local regulation of gene expression by lncRNA promoters, transcription and splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engreitz, Jesse M; Haines, Jenna E; Perez, Elizabeth M; Munson, Glen; Chen, Jenny; Kane, Michael; McDonel, Patrick E; Guttman, Mitchell; Lander, Eric S

    2016-11-17

    Mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed to produce thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). A few of these lncRNAs have been shown to recruit regulatory complexes through RNA-protein interactions to influence the expression of nearby genes, and it has been suggested that many other lncRNAs can also act as local regulators. Such local functions could explain the observation that lncRNA expression is often correlated with the expression of nearby genes. However, these correlations have been challenging to dissect and could alternatively result from processes that are not mediated by the lncRNA transcripts themselves. For example, some gene promoters have been proposed to have dual functions as enhancers, and the process of transcription itself may contribute to gene regulation by recruiting activating factors or remodelling nucleosomes. Here we use genetic manipulation in mouse cell lines to dissect 12 genomic loci that produce lncRNAs and find that 5 of these loci influence the expression of a neighbouring gene in cis. Notably, none of these effects requires the specific lncRNA transcripts themselves and instead involves general processes associated with their production, including enhancer-like activity of gene promoters, the process of transcription, and the splicing of the transcript. Furthermore, such effects are not limited to lncRNA loci: we find that four out of six protein-coding loci also influence the expression of a neighbour. These results demonstrate that cross-talk among neighbouring genes is a prevalent phenomenon that can involve multiple mechanisms and cis-regulatory signals, including a role for RNA splice sites. These mechanisms may explain the function and evolution of some genomic loci that produce lncRNAs and broadly contribute to the regulation of both coding and non-coding genes.

  11. Alternative splicing events are a late feature of pathology in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bäumer, Dirk; Lee, Sheena; Nicholson, George; Davies, Joanna L; Parkinson, Nicholas J; Murray, Lyndsay M; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Ansorge, Olaf; Davies, Kay E; Talbot, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    .... Widespread splicing abnormalities have recently been reported at end-stage in a mouse model of SMA, leading to the proposition that disruption of efficient splicing is the primary mechanism of motor neuron death...

  12. HnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF regulate alternative splicing of interferon regulatory factor-3 and affect immunomodulatory functions in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Li, Yong; Ning, Jinying; Sun, Dan; Lin, Lianjun; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticule A1/A2 (hnRNP A1/A2) and splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) are pivotal for precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) plays critical roles in host defense against viral and microbial infection. Truncated IRF-3 proteins resulting from alternative splicing have been identified and characterized as functional antagonists to full-length IRF-3. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for splicing regulation of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and first reported the regulatory effect of hnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF on IRF-3 splicing and activation. RNA interference-mediated depletion of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 gene and reduced expression levels of IRF-3 protein and IRF-3 downstream effector molecules interferon-beta and CXCL10/IP-10. In addition, direct binding of hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF to specific binding motifs in IRF-3 intron 1 was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Subsequent minigene splicing assay showed that IRF-3 minigenes with mutated hnRNPA 1/A2 or SF2/ASF binding motifs increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in NSCLC cells reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but suppressed that of interleukin-10 in NSCLC/PBMC co-cultures. Taken together, our results suggest that specific knockdown for hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF increase exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and influence immunomodulatory functions of human NSCLC cells.

  13. Moringa oleifera Gold Nanoparticles Modulate Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Caspase-9 Splice Variants in A549 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Anand, Krishnan; Gengan, Robert M; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP's) facilitate cancer cell recognition and can be manufactured by green synthesis using nutrient rich medicinal plants such as Moringa oleifera (MO). Targeting dysregulated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is crucial for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the antiproliferative effects of AuNP synthesized from MO aqueous leaf extracts (MLAuNP ) in A549 lung and SNO oesophageal cancer cells. A one-pot green synthesis technique was used to synthesise MLAuNP . A549, SNO cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to MLAuNP and CAuNP to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay); apoptosis was measured by phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, mitochondrial depolarization (ΔΨm) (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7, -9 activity, and ATP levels (luminometry). The mRNA expression of c-myc, p53, Skp2, Fbw7α, and caspase-9 splice variants was determined using qPCR, while relative protein expression of c-myc, p53, SRp30a, Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Hsp70, and PARP-1 were determined by Western blotting. MLAuNP and CAuNP were not cytotoxic to PBMCs, whilst its pro-apoptotic properties were confirmed in A549 and SNO cells. MLAuNP significantly increased caspase activity in SNO cells while MLAuNP significantly increased PS externalization, ΔΨm, caspase-9, caspase-3/7 activities, and decreased ATP levels in A549 cells. Also, p53 mRNA and protein levels, SRp30a (P = 0.428), Bax, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 24 kDa fragment levels were significantly increased. Conversely, MLAuNP significantly decreased Bcl-2, Hsp70, Skp2, Fbw7α, c-myc mRNA, and protein levels and activated alternate splicing with caspase-9a splice variant being significantly increased. MLAuNP possesses antiproliferative properties and induced apoptosis in A549 cells by activating alternate splicing of caspase-9. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2302-2314, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Functional diversity of human protein kinase splice variants marks significant expansion of human kinome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Krishanpal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are involved in diverse spectrum of cellular processes. Availability of draft version of the human genomic data in the year 2001 enabled recognition of repertoire of protein kinases. However, over the years the human genomic data is being refined and the current release of human genomic data has helped us to recognize a larger repertoire of over 900 human protein kinases represented mainly by splice variants. Results Many of these identified protein kinases are alternatively spliced products. Interestingly, some of the human kinase splice variants appear to be significantly diverged in terms of their functional properties as represented by incorporation or absence of one or more domains. Many sets of protein kinase splice variants have substantially different domain organization and in a few sets of splice variants kinase domains belong to different subfamilies of kinases suggesting potential participation in different signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Addition or deletion of a domain between splice variants of multi-domain kinases appears to be a means of generating differences in the functional features of otherwise similar kinases. It is intriguing that marked sequence diversity within the catalytic regions of some of the splice variant kinases result in kinases belonging to different subfamilies. These human kinase splice variants with different functions might contribute to diversity of eukaryotic cellular signaling.

  15. Decreased alternative splicing of estrogen receptor-α mRNA in the Alzheimer's disease brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, Tatjana A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we identified 62 estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) mRNA splice variants in different human brain areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control cases and classified them into 12 groups. Forty-eight of these splice forms were identified for the first time. The distribution of alternatively

  16. Reprogramming the Dynamin 2 mRNA by Spliceosome-mediated RNA Trans-splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Trochet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamin 2 (DNM2 is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3′-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5′-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development.

  17. Unusual intron conservation near tissue-regulated exons found by splicing microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Sugnet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing contributes to both gene regulation and protein diversity. To discover broad relationships between regulation of alternative splicing and sequence conservation, we applied a systems approach, using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to capture splicing information across the mouse genome. In a set of 22 adult tissues, we observe differential expression of RNA containing at least two alternative splice junctions for about 40% of the 6,216 alternative events we could detect. Statistical comparisons identify 171 cassette exons whose inclusion or skipping is different in brain relative to other tissues and another 28 exons whose splicing is different in muscle. A subset of these exons is associated with unusual blocks of intron sequence whose conservation in vertebrates rivals that of protein-coding exons. By focusing on sets of exons with similar regulatory patterns, we have identified new sequence motifs implicated in brain and muscle splicing regulation. Of note is a motif that is strikingly similar to the branchpoint consensus but is located downstream of the 5' splice site of exons included in muscle. Analysis of three paralogous membrane-associated guanylate kinase genes reveals that each contains a paralogous tissue-regulated exon with a similar tissue inclusion pattern. While the intron sequences flanking these exons remain highly conserved among mammalian orthologs, the paralogous flanking intron sequences have diverged considerably, suggesting unusually complex evolution of the regulation of alternative splicing in multigene families.

  18. Operon conservation and the evolution of trans-splicing in the phylum Nematoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiliano, David B; Blaxter, Mark L

    2006-11-24

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique among model animals in that many of its genes are cotranscribed as polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. The mechanism by which these operonic transcripts are resolved into mature mRNAs includes trans-splicing to a family of SL2-like spliced leader exons. SL2-like spliced leaders are distinct from SL1, the major spliced leader in C. elegans and other nematode species. We surveyed five additional nematode species, representing three of the five major clades of the phylum Nematoda, for the presence of operons and the use of trans-spliced leaders in resolution of polycistronic pre-mRNAs. Conserved operons were found in Pristionchus pacificus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum. In nematodes closely related to the rhabditine C. elegans, a related family of SL2-like spliced leaders is used for operonic transcript resolution. However, in the tylenchine S. ratti operonic transcripts are resolved using a family of spliced leaders related to SL1. Non-operonic genes in S. ratti may also receive these SL1 variants. In the spirurine nematodes B. malayi and A. suum operonic transcripts are resolved using SL1. Mapping these phenotypes onto the robust molecular phylogeny for the Nematoda suggests that operons evolved before SL2-like spliced leaders, which are an evolutionary invention of the rhabditine lineage.

  19. Operon conservation and the evolution of trans-splicing in the phylum Nematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Guiliano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unique among model animals in that many of its genes are cotranscribed as polycistronic pre-mRNAs from operons. The mechanism by which these operonic transcripts are resolved into mature mRNAs includes trans-splicing to a family of SL2-like spliced leader exons. SL2-like spliced leaders are distinct from SL1, the major spliced leader in C. elegans and other nematode species. We surveyed five additional nematode species, representing three of the five major clades of the phylum Nematoda, for the presence of operons and the use of trans-spliced leaders in resolution of polycistronic pre-mRNAs. Conserved operons were found in Pristionchus pacificus, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum. In nematodes closely related to the rhabditine C. elegans, a related family of SL2-like spliced leaders is used for operonic transcript resolution. However, in the tylenchine S. ratti operonic transcripts are resolved using a family of spliced leaders related to SL1. Non-operonic genes in S. ratti may also receive these SL1 variants. In the spirurine nematodes B. malayi and A. suum operonic transcripts are resolved using SL1. Mapping these phenotypes onto the robust molecular phylogeny for the Nematoda suggests that operons evolved before SL2-like spliced leaders, which are an evolutionary invention of the rhabditine lineage.

  20. Features of 5'-splice-site efficiency derived from disease-causing mutations and comparative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Xavier; Olson, Andrew J; Rao, Atmakuri R

    2007-01-01

    Many human diseases, including Fanconi anemia, hemophilia B, neurofibromatosis, and phenylketonuria, can be caused by 5'-splice-site (5'ss) mutations that are not predicted to disrupt splicing, according to position weight matrices. By using comparative genomics, we identify pairwise dependencies...

  1. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  2. Conservation and sex-specific splicing of the doublesex gene in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic control of sex determination in insects has been best characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, where the master gene Sxl codes for RNA that is sex specifically spliced to produce a functional protein only in females. SXL regulates the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) RNA which, in turn, regulates the ...

  3. A new view of transcriptome complexity and regulation through the lens of local splicing variations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaquero-Garcia, Jorge; Barrera, Alejandro; Gazzara, Matthew R; González-Vallinas, Juan; Lahens, Nicholas F; Hogenesch, John B; Lynch, Kristen W; Barash, Yoseph

    2016-01-01

    .... Amongst those are novel isoforms in the Camk2 family and a novel poison exon in Ptbp1, a key splice factor in neurogenesis. We anticipate the approach presented here will advance the ability to relate tissue-specific splice variation to genetic variation, phenotype, and disease.

  4. Effect of splice-site polymorphisms of the TMPRSS4, NPHP4 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Next, the effect of these polymorphisms on the mode of pre-mRNA splicing was investigated by ... [Yamada H., Shinmura K., Tsuneyoshi T. and Sugimura H. 2005 Effect of splice-site polymorphisms of the TMPRSS4, NPHP4 and. ORCTL4 genes on their ..... 2A>C polymorphism lack major parts of the sugar trans- porter and ...

  5. The role of CD44 splice variants in human metastatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleeman, J.; Moll, J.; Sherman, L.; Dall, P.; Pals, S. T.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P.

    1995-01-01

    The large family of CD44 splice variants are likely to serve multiple functions in the embryo and in the adult organism. This is reflected in their complex patterns of expression. In molecular terms these functions are largely unknown. Certain splice variants (CD44v) can promote the metastatic

  6. Effect of tension lap splice on the behavior of high strength concrete (HSC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Azab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many research efforts have been carried out on the bond strength between normal strength concrete (NSC and reinforcing bars spliced in tension zones in beams. Many codes gave a minimum splice length for tension and compression reinforcement as a factor of the bar diameter depending on many parameters such as concrete strength, steel yield stress, shape of bar end, shape of bar surface and also bar location. Also, codes gave another restriction about the percentage of total reinforcement to be spliced at the same time. Comparatively limited attention has been directed toward the bond between high strength concrete (HSC and reinforcing bars spliced in tension zones in beams. HSC has high modulus of elasticity, high density and long-term durability. This research presents an experimental study on the bond between high strength concrete (HSC and reinforcing bars spliced in tension zones in beams. It reports the influence of several parameters on bond in splices. The parameters covered are casting position, splice length as a factor of bar diameter, bar diameter and reinforcement ratio. The research involved tests on sixteen simply-supported beams of 1800 mm span, 200 mm width and 400 mm thickness made of HSC. In each beam, the total tensile steel bars were spliced in the constant moment zone. Crack pattern, crack propagation, cracking load, failure load and mi span deflection were recorded and analyzed to study the mentioned parameters effect.

  7. Global analysis of aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in glioblastoma using exon expression arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Tamara J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-predominant splice isoforms were identified during comparative in silico sequence analysis of EST clones, suggesting that global aberrant alternative pre-mRNA splicing may be an epigenetic phenomenon in cancer. We used an exon expression array to perform an objective, genome-wide survey of glioma-specific splicing in 24 GBM and 12 nontumor brain samples. Validation studies were performed using RT-PCR on glioma cell lines, patient tumor and nontumor brain samples. Results In total, we confirmed 14 genes with glioma-specific splicing; seven were novel events identified by the exon expression array (A2BP1, BCAS1, CACNA1G, CLTA, KCNC2, SNCB, and TPD52L2. Our data indicate that large changes (> 5-fold in alternative splicing are infrequent in gliomagenesis ( Conclusion While we observed some tumor-specific alternative splicing, the number of genes showing exclusive tumor-specific isoforms was on the order of tens, rather than the hundreds suggested previously by in silico mining. Given the important role of alternative splicing in neural differentiation, there may be selective pressure to maintain a majority of splicing events in order to retain glial-like characteristics of the tumor cells.

  8. Suppression of an atypically spliced rice CACTA transposon transcript in transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.; Pereira, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    OsES1, a rice homolog of the maize En/Spm transposon, is transcribed to produce TnpA-like and TnpD-like transcripts. However, an alternatively spliced form of the TnpA-like transcript., which was found to be suppressed in transgenic plants, was revealed to be clue to atypical splicing of a Hipa-like

  9. Measurement of Resistance and Strength of Conductor Splices in the MICE Coupling Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng Yu; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Lui, X. K.; Li, E.; Dietderich, Dan; Higley, Hugh; Tam, D. G.; Trillaud, Fredric; Wang, Li; Green, M.A.

    2009-08-19

    The superconducting magnets for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment [1] (MICE) use a copper based Nb-Ti conductor with un-insulated dimensions of 0.95 by 1.60 mm. There may be as many as twelve splices in one MICE superconducting coupling coil. These splices are to be wound in the coil. The conductor splices produce Joule heating, which may cause the magnet to quench. A technique of making conductor splices was developed by ICST. Two types of 1-meter long of soldered lap-joints have been tested. Side-by-side splices and up-down one splices were studied theoretically and experimentally using two types of soft solder made of eutectic tin-lead solder and tin-silver solder. The resistances of the splices made by ICST were tested at LBNL at liquid helium temperatures over a range of magnetic fields up to 5 T. The breaking strength of 250 mm long splices was also measured at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature.

  10. 30 CFR 75.810 - High-voltage trailing cables; splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; splices. 75.810... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.810 High-voltage trailing cables; splices. In the case of high-voltage cables used as trailing...

  11. Differential dynamics of splicing factor SC35 during the cell cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing ...

  12. Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique, E-mail: ealvarez@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M. [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 1 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

  13. Spliceman2: a computational web server that predicts defects in pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygan, Kamil Jan; Sanford, Clayton Hendrick; Fairbrother, William Guy

    2017-09-15

    Most pre-mRNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells must undergo splicing to remove introns and join exons, and splicing elements present a large mutational target for disease-causing mutations. Splicing elements are strongly position dependent with